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 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

QUESTION BANK WITH


SOLUTION
HEAT TRANSFER

B.E. V Semester
Mechanical Engineering

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q.1Explaindifferentmodesofheattransferwiththeirgoverninglaw

1)Conduction:Itisaprocessofheattransferfromaregionofhighertemperaturetoaregionoflower
temperatureofasamemediumorbetweendifferentmediumwhichareindirectphysicalcontact.In
solidthermalenergytransferredbymeansofelectronswhicharefreetomovethroughlatticestructure
ofmaterial.

Forexample,whenarodofmetalisheatedatoneend,theheatenergywillbetransferalongthelength
andotherendalsogetheated.Thistransferofheatissaidtobyconduction.

 Forthiscaserateofheatflowbetweentwoendsofmetalroddependupontemperature
differencebetweentwoends,lengthofrodandphysicalandchemicalcompositionofbarmaterial.

ItisgovernedbyFouriersLaw

Statement:Theratethroughasolidisdirectlyproportionaltotheareaofthesectioninadirection
perpendiculartothedirectionofheatflow,andtochangeoftemp.withrespecttothelength.

Overwhichtheheattransfertakesplace.

dt
Thevesignisusedbecausetemperaturegradient . isnegativealongpositivexdirection. 
dx 

dt dt
Q v A. =K.A. 
dx dx

WhereKiscalledthermalconductivityofthematerial..

dt
Thenegativesignisusedbecausetemperaturegradient isnegativealongpositivexdirection
dx

2]Convection:

 Itisthetransferofheatbyactualphysicalmovementoffluid.Convectionispossibleonlyinfluid
mediumandisdirectlylinkedwithtransportofmediumitself.

e.g.supposeairgettingcontactwithhotplate.Theairincontactwithplatewilltaketheheatfromplate
andgetheatedthistransferofheatisbyconvection.Forconvectionheattransfertooccurfluidmedium
isessential.

Naturalconvectionisoneinwhichfluidcirculatesbyvirtueofnaturaldifferenceindensitiesofhotand
coldfluids.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Thehotfluidhavelessdensitysobecomelighteranditisdisplacedbycoldfluidhavingmoredensity
duringtheprocessofheattransferconvection.

e.g.Heatflowfromhotplatetoatmosphere.

Forcedconvection;Flowoffluidcausedbyapumporfanthenconvectioniscalledforcedconvection.
Themechanicaldevicesusedforcirculatingthefluid,increasestheheattransferratebyspeedingup
themovementoffluid.

GoverningLaw;

ItisgovernedbyNewtonsLaw

Newtonslawofcooling,Q=h.A.(tsurfacetfluid)

Thisequationgivestherateofheattransferinconvection,wherehisheattransfercoefficient,ts
Surfacetemperature,tffluidtemperatureandAsurfacearea.

3]Radiation:Itistransmissionofheatintheformofradientenergyorwavemotionfromonebodyto
anotheracrossaninterveningspace.Transportofthermalradiationdoesnotnecessarilyaffectmaterial
mediumbetweenheatsourceandreceiver.

 Energyreleasedfrombodyinformofsuccessiveandseparatepacketsorquantaofenergy
calledphotons.Thesephotonsarepropagatedthroughspaceasrayswhichcarriesenergy.

Theheattransferbyradiationisgivenby,thetransferofheatQ=.A.(T14T24)inradiationisgoverned
bytheequation.

Q.2Explainthetermthermalconductivityandthermaldiffusivity:

Thermalconductivityistheabilityofmaterialtotransferheatbyconduction.Thermalconductivity
providesanindicationofrateatwhichheatenergyistransferredthroughamediumbyconduction
process.Thermalconductivitydependsuponthematerialstructure,moisturecontentanddensityof
materialandoperatingconditionofpressureandtemperature.

 ItsunitisW/moKorW/moC

 Thermalconductivityofamaterialisduetothemigrationoffreeelectronsandlattice
vibrationalwaves.Inmetalmoleculesarecloselypackedandthermalconductivityisduetoflowoffree
electrons.Influid,freeelectronmovementisnegligiblysmallandthereforethermalconductionresults
primarilyfrominteractionbetweenlatticeatoms.Thermalconductivityisalwayshigherinpurestform
ofmetal.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

 Nonmetallicsoliddonotconductheatasefficientlyasmetals.Formanyofbuildingand
insulatingmaterial(concrete,stone,brick,glasswooletc)thermalconductivitymayvaryfromsample
tosampleduetovariationinstructure,composition,densityandporosity.

 Thermalconductivityofporousmaterialdependsontypeofgasorliquidexistinginvoids.
Presenceofairfilledporesandcavitiesreducesthermalconductivity.

Thermaldiffusivity( D ):

 Itistheratioofthermalconductivityofmaterialtoitsthermalstoragecapacity(.C)Theheat
storagecapacityessentiallyrepresentsthermalcapacitanceorthermalinertiaofthemateriali.e.its
sluggishnesstoconductheat.Ahighvalueofthermalconductivitycouldresulteitherfromhighvalueof
thermalconductivityorfromlowvalueofthermalcapacity.

Thermaldiffusivityindicatetherateatwhichheatisdistributedinamaterialandthisratedependsnot
onlyonkbutalsoonrateatwhichheatenergycanbestored.

 Liquidhavelowthermalconductivity,highthermalcapacityandhencesmallthermaldiffusivity.
Metalposseshighthermalconductivity,lowthermalinertiaandhencealargethermaldiffusivity.

Thermal Contact Resistance




Theresistancethataninterfaceofferstoheattransferperunitinterfaceareaiscalledthermal
contact resistance, Rc . The inverse of thermal contact resistance is called the thermal contact
conductance.

The thermal contact resistance will be greater for rough surfaces because an interface with rough
surfaceswillcontainmoreairgapswhosethermalconductivityislow.

Aninterfaceactslikeaverythinlayerofinsulation,andthusthethermalcontactresistanceissignificant
for highly conducting materials like metals. Therefore, the thermal contact resistance must be
consideredfortwolayersofmetalspressedagainsteachother.

Heattransferthroughthevoidsataninterfaceisbyconductionandradiation.Evacuatingtheinterface
eliminatesheattransferbyconduction,andthusincreasesthethermalcontactresistance.

Thermalcontactresistancecanbeminimizedby(1)applyingathermallyconductingliquidonthe
surfacesbeforetheyarepressedagainsteachother,(2)byreplacingtheairattheinterfacebyabetter
conductinggassuchasheliumorhydrogen,(3)byincreasingtheinterfacepressure,and(4)byinserting
asoftmetallicfoilsuchastin,silver,copper,nickel,oraluminumbetweenthetwosurfaces.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q.3DerivetheGeneralHeatConditionEquationinCartesiancoordinates.

Consider flow of heat through an infinite small rectangular parallelepiped volume element
oriented in a three dimensional coordinate system sides dx, dy, & dz parallel to x, y & z   axis
respectively.

.Thenchangeoftempthroughdistancedxwillbedx0

kx thermal conductivity at left face. Quantity of heat flowing into control volume through left face
duringtimeintervald W isgivenby,

HeatinfluxQx= ____a)

Duringsametimeintervalfeatflowoutofrightfaceofparallelepipedis

Heatefflux,Qx+dx= ____b)

Accumulationofheatinparallelepipedduetoheatflownxdirectionisgivenbydifferencebetweenheat
influx&heatefflux.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

ThereforeHeataccumulationduetoheatflowinxdirection

--------c

Similarlywecancalculateheataccumulationincontrolvolumeduetoheatflowalongy&zdirection.

Forheatflowalongy&zdirection

d,e

Totalaccumulationofheatisgivenby

f

supposedgisheatgeneratedperunitvolume&perunittime.Thereforetotalheatgeneratedincontrol
volmequalto=qgdxdydzd W g

Totalheatwhichisstoredinbodywillbeutilizedforincreasingtempofbody&isgiven

=massofbodysp.heatofbodyxriseintempintimed W .

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

h

?FromenergyBalanceEqn

dividingbothsidesbydxdydzdW

generalheatconductionequationusingvectoroperator

ForHomogenous&isotropicmaterialthermalconductivityissameateverypoint&inalldirections

?kx=ky=kz=k

Where calledthermaldiffusivity

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)




Differentcases:

1) Heatflowissteadystatecondition


2) Absenceofinternalheatgeneration

LaplaceEqn.


3) Unsteadyheatflowwithnointernalheatgeneration

FourierEqn.

Q.4Acertainbuildingwallconsistsof0.15mofconcrete(k=1.2W/m0C),0.05moffiberglass
insulationand10mmofgypsumboard(k=0.05W/m0C).Theinsideandoutsideconvectioncoefficient
is10and40W/m2oC,respectively.Theoutsideairtemperatureis60Candtheinsidetemperatureis
220C.Calculatetheoverallheattransfercoefficientforthewall,theRvalue,andtheheatlossper
area.

Ans:

Theoverallheattransfercoefficientforthewall,

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

1 1 L L L 1
 Rtotal = =  X  Y  Z  
U hhf K X K Y K Z hcf

1 1 0.15 0.05 0.01 1


Rtotal = =     
U 10 1.2 0.7 0.05 40

1
Rtotal = =0.52
U

U=1.91W/m20C

Heatlossperunitarea

Q/A=UA 'T 

Q/A=1.91*[22(6)]

Q/A=53.48W/m2

Q.5DiscussthesignificanceofBinumber&fonumber

ThenondimensionalfactorhLc/KiscalledBiotnumberBi=hLc/k

Itgivesanindicationoftheratioofinternalresistancei.e.conductionresistancetothesurface
resistancei.e.convectionresistance.WhenthevalueofBino.issmall,itindicatesthatsystemhasa
smallinternalresistanceandsmallinternalresistancemeansrelativelysmalltemperaturegradient

Theconvectiveresistancethenpredominatesandheattransferiscontrolledbyconvectiveheat
exchange.

IfBi 0.1thelumpedheatcapacityapproachcanbeusedtoadvantagewithsimpleshapelikeplates,
cylinderssphere&cubes.

Thenondimensionalfactor D T/Lc iscalledFouriernumber,representedbyfo


2

fo= D /Lc
2

Lcischaracteristiclengthandthisno.Signifiesthedegreeofpenetrationofheatingorcoolingeffect
throughasolid.

Q. 6 Explain Critical Thickness of Insulation and Write down the equation for critical radius for
cylinder.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Insulationisamaterialwithreasonableeffectivenesstoretardstheflowofheat.
 Conductive thermals resistance increases with addition of insulation. But in cases where fluid
flowsthroughcylinder&sphere,totalthermalresistanceismadeofconductivethermalresistance(Rth.
cond)&convectionthermalresistance(Rth.cov),theadditionofinsulationwillincreasethesurfacearea
whichreducetheconvectivethermalresistance.Dependingontheinsulationthicknesstheheatflow
canbeincreasedbyreducingtotalthermalsresistance.
 The thickness up to which heat flow increases and after which heat flow decrease is called as
criticalthicknessofinsulationorcriticalradiusincaseofsphere&cylinder.


Thisisrelationforcriticalradiusforcylinder;itshowsconditionforminimumresistanceandmaxmheat
flowrate.Theinsulationradiusatwhichresistancetoheatflowisminimumiscalledcriticalradius(rc)

 The critical radius rc, is depend on thermal conductivity & heat transfer coefficient and is
independentofcylinderradius

Q.7Whatismeanbyfin.Discussfinefficiencyandfineffectiveness.

Fins are nothing but extended surfaces that are used for Increasing the rate of heat transfer
fromasurfacebyincreasingtheheattransfersurfacearea.

The fin efficiency is defined as the ratio of actual heat transfer rate from the fin to the ideal heat
transferratefromthefiniftheentirefinwereatbasetemperature,anditsvalueisbetween0and1.Fin
effectivenessisdefinedastheratioofheattransferratefromafinnedsurfacetotheheattransferrate
fromthesamesurfaceiftherewerenofins,anditsvalueisexpectedtobegreaterthan1.

Heat transfer rate will decrease since a fin effectiveness smaller than 1 indicates that the fin acts as
insulation.

Finsenhanceheattransferfromasurfacebyincreasingheattransfersurfaceareaforconvectionheat
transfer.However,addingtoomanyfinsonasurfacecansuffocatethefluidandretardconvection,and
thusitmaycausetheoverallheattransfercoefficientandheattransfertodecrease.

Effectivenessofasinglefinistheratiooftheheattransferratefromtheentireexposedsurfaceofthe
fin to the heat transfer rate from the fin base area. The overall effectiveness of a finned surface is
definedastheratioofthetotalheattransferfromthefinnedsurfacetotheheattransferfromthesame
surfaceiftherewerenofins.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Finsshouldbeattachedontheairsidesincetheconvectionheattransfercoefficientislowerontheair
sidethanitisonthewaterside.

Finsshouldbeattachedtotheoutsidesincetheheattransfercoefficientinsidethetubewillbehigher
due to forced convection. Fins should be added to both sides of the tubes when the convection
coefficientsattheinnerandoutersurfacesarecomparableinmagnitude.

Q.8Athermometerwell22mindiameterand0.5mmthickismadeofsteel(k=27W/m2 0K)anditis
to be used to measure the temperature of steam flowing through a pipe. Calculate the minimum
lengthofthewellsothattheerrorislessthan0.5%ofthedifferencebetweenthepipewallandfluid
temperature.Takesteamtemperatureas2500Candheattransfercoefficientas98W/m2oK.

Ans:

hP h
m= = 
KA GK

98
m= =85.20
27 * 0.5
1000

Tx  tf 0.5 1

T 0  tf 100 e mL
 e  mL
2

2
0.005
e mL
 e mL

e mL =0.0025or399.997

L=7.03cm

Q.9Awireof6.5mmdiameteratatemperature of60 oCistobeinsulatedbyamaterialhavingk =


0.174W/m0C,convectionheattransfercoefficient=8.722W/m2 0C.Theambienttemperatureis20oC.
formaximumheatloss,whatistheminimumthicknessofinsulationandtheheatlosspermeterlength
?Alsofindpercentageincreaseinheatdissipation.

Ans:

D=6.5mm,thereforer=3.25mm,k=0.174W/m0C,h=8.722W/m20C

1]Minimumthicknessofinsulation

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

rc=k/h=0.174/8.722=0.01995m=19.95mm

Thereforeminimumthicknessofinsulation=rcr=19.953.25=16.7mm

2]Percentageincreaseinheatdissipationrate

Heattransferwithoutinsulation

2 L(ts  tair )
Q1= 
1
hr

2 *1 * (60  20)
Q1= 
1
8.722 * 0.00325

Q1=7.124W/m

Withinsulation

2 L(ts  tair )
Q2= 
1 log(rc / r )

hrc k

2 *1 * (60  20)
Q2= 
1 log(0.01995 / 0.00325)

8.722 * 0.01995 0.174

Q2=15.537W/m

ThereforePercentageincreaseinheatdissipationrate=(Q2Q1)/Q1*100

      =118.09% 

Q.10Writeshortnotesonfollowing

1]HeislerCharts(forunsteadystateproblem)

Thetemperaturedistributionchartscanbeconstructedbyplottingdimensionlesstemp.againstoneof
parameterkeepingtheothertwoparameterconstant(parameterlike,fi,bi,&x/lorr/R),suchchartsare
constructedbyHeisler&Grober.

Heislerchartsarecommonlyusedinpracticeforplates,cylinderandspheres.

firstchartdrawnbyHeisler, T 0/ T 1=T0Ta/TiTa

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

plottedagainstfi=fouriernumber= D t/Lc2usingconstantparameter1/Bi

Insecondchart T 0/ T 1Isplottedagainst1/Bitakingx/Lasaparameter

ThirdtypeofgraphsarebetweenQ/Q0againstBiandtakingfiasaparameter

Q0totalheatcontentperunitareaofslab.

Qtotalchangeininternalenergyperunitarea,Heislerhasalsogiventheseparatechartsforproblem
when1/Bi 100andfo 0.2.Thismeanstheinternalresistanceissmallascomparedtosurface
resistance.Thisstatesthattemp.throughoutsolidsatanytimediffersnegligiblyfromtemp.atx=0and
itbecomesafunctionoftimeonly.

2]Lumpedparameteranalysis

 Allsolidshavefinitethermalconductivityandthereexistsatemperaturegradientinsidesolid
wheneverthereisaheatisadditionorremovalfromsolid.

 Howeverforsolidsoflargethermalconductivitywithproportionatelylargesurfacearearelative
G
totheirvolume,internalresistance( )canbeassumedtobesmallincomparisonwithconvective
K. A
1
resistance( )atthesurface.
h. A

 Theprocessinwhichinternalresistanceisassumednegligibleincomparisonwithitssurface
resistanceiscalledNewtonianheatingorcoolingprocess.

 Theprocessinwhichtemperatureisconsideredtobeuniformatagiventime,suchananalysis
iscalledlumpedparameteranalysis.Inthisanalysisthewholesolidwhoseenergyatanytimeisa
functionofitstemperatureandtotalheatcapacityistreatedasonelump.

Q.11DefinefollowingDimensionlessnumberandgivetheirphysicalsignificance

1]Reynoldsnumber:Itisdefinedastheratioofinertiaforcetoviscousforce.ItisdenotedbyRe.

inertiaforce UV 2 L 2 UVL UV
Re= = = = 
Viscousforce PVL P Q
 U densityoffluid,Vfreestreamvelocity,Llengthofplate
Ddiameterofpipe,Q kinematicviscosity, P dynamicviscosity

G.d
Reisalsowrittenas= 
P

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Wheregisthemassvelocity=m/A

(1)Reistakenasanimportantcriterionofdynamiticsimilaritiesinforcedconvectionheattransfer.

(2)Reisusedtodecideswhethertheflowislaminarorturbulent.

2]Nusseltnumber:

Itisdefinedastheratioofheatflowratebyconvectionprocessunderaunittemperaturegradientto
theheatflowratebyconductionprocessunderaunittemperaturegradientthroughastationary
thicknessofLmeters.

Qconvection h hl
Nu= = = 
Qconduction k k
L

Itistheratioofcharacteristiclengthtothethicknessofastationaryfluidlayerconductingtheheatat
thesamerateasinthecaseofconvectionprocessunderthesametemp.difference.

't
Q=K =ht
'x

x=h/k

TheNusseltnumberisameasureoftheconvectiveheattransfercoefficient.Foragivenvalueofthe
Nusseltno.theconvectiveheattransfercoefficientisdirectlyproportionaltothermalconductivityof
thefluidandinverselyproportionaltothelength.

3]Prandtlnumber(Pr):itistheratioofkinematicviscositytothethermaldiffusivity.

P .Cp U .Q .Cp Q
Pr= = = 
K K D
Significance(1)Prandtlno.providesameasuresoftherelativeeffectivenessoftheenergyand
momentumtransportbydiffusion.

(2)Prandtlno.isalinkbetweenthetemperaturefieldandvelocityfield,anditsvalueaffectsrelative
growthofvelocityboundarylayerandthermalboundarylayers.

4]Grashoffnumber(Gr):.Itisdefinedastheratiooftheproductofinertiaforceandbuoyancyforceto
thesquareofviscousforce.Itisrelatedwithnaturalconvectionheattransfer.

Inertiaforce * Buoyancyforce U 2.E .g.'t.L3


Gr= = 
Viscous. force * Viscous. force P2

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Significance:(1)ItplaysthesameroleasthatofReynoldno.

(2)FreeconvectionisusuallysuppressedatsufficientlysmallGr,beginsatsomecriticalvalueofGr
dependinguponthearrangementamdthenbecomesmoreandmoreeffectivewithincreasingGr.

5]Stantonnumber(St):

 ItistheratioofNussseltno.andproductofReynoldno.andPrandtlno.

Italsoindicatestheratioofheattransfercoefficienttotheflowofheatperunittemperaturerisedue
tothevelocityofthefluid.

h hL / K Nu
St= = = 
U.V .Cp UVL P .Cp Re* Pr
*
P K

Itisusedonlyincorrelatingforcedconvectiondata.

6]Pecletno.(Pe):Itistheratioofmassheatflowratebyconvectiontotheflowratebyconduction
underaunittemperaturegradientandthroughathicknessL.

Qconvection U .Cp.L..V L.V


Pe= = = =Re.Pr
Qconduction K D

ItisaproductofReynoldno.&Prandtlno.andaconstant.

7]Graetznumber(G):

 Itisdefinedastheratioofheatcapacityoffluidflowingthroughthepipeperunitlengthofthe
pipetotheconductivityofthepipe.

m.Cp SD
G= =Pe. 
Lk 4

ThusitisaproductofPecletno.andaconstant.

Itisrelatedonlyfortheheatflowtothefluidflowingthroughacircularpipe.

Q.12Discussthermal&Hydrodynamicboundarylayer.

Thermalboundarylayer

Wheneveraflowoffluidtakesplacepastaheatedorcoldsurface,atempfieldissetupinthefield
nexttothesurface.Itthesurfaceofplateishotterthanfluid,thereisatempthereisatemp
distribution.theoneorlayerwhereinthetemperaturefieldexistsiscalledthethermalboundarylayer

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

.thethermalboundarylayerthicknessdefinedasthedistanceoffromtheplatesurfaceatwhichtst/ts
t f =0.99

Temperatureprofileofthethermalboundarylayerdependsupontheviscosity,velocityofflow,specific
heat,andthermalconductivityofthefluid.

Therelativemagnitudeof G & G thareaffectedbythethermophysicalpropertiesofthefluid.

Thegoverningparameterisaprandtlno,iePr= P cp/k

G th= G whenPr=1

G th G whenPr 1

G th G whenPr 1

Hydrodynamicboundarylayer.

WhenairwithfreestreamvelocityUflowsoveraflatplate,thelayerofairgettingcontactwithplate
getretardedduetoviscouseffect.Theairadjacenttothislayerisalsoslowsdown.Sothereisavelocity
gradientdevelopedinaperpendiculardirectiontoplateortothedirectionofairstream.Thicknessof

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

boundarylayerisarbitrarydefinedasthatdistancefromtheboundaryinwhichthevelocityreaches
99%ofthevelocityoffreestream( P =0.99U).Itisalsocallednormalthicknessoftheboundarylayer.

Displacementthickness:

Itisthedistance,measuredperpendiculartotheboundarybywhichthemainfreestreamisdisplaced
onaccountofformationofboundarylayer.or

Itisanadditionalwallthicknessthatwouldhavetobeaddedtocompensateforthereducedflowrate
anaccountofboundarylayerformation.

Momentumthickness:

Itmayalsobedefinedasthedistance,measuredperpendiculartotheboundaryofthesolidbody,by
whichtheboundaryshouldbedisplacedtocompensateforreductionin,momentumoftheflowingfluid
anaccountofboundarylayerformation.

Q.13Inacertainprocess,asquareglassplateisheateduniformlyto80 0Candiscooledbyairat300C
flowingoverbothsidesparalleltotheplateat2m/s.theplateishavingtheareaof1m2andthickness
of 4 mm. Calculate the initial rate of cooling the plate. Heats lost by plate instantaneously. Neglect
temperaturegradientinglassplateandconsideronlyforcedconvection.

TakeforglassU=2500kg/m3 ,Cp=0.07KJ/kgK

ForairU=1.076kg/m3,Cp=1008J/kgk,K=0.0286W/m0C,=19.8x106Ns/m2.

Ans:

hL
Nu= =0.664*(Re)1/2*(Pr)1/3
K

U .V .L 1.076 * 2 * 1
Rel= = =1.0868*105
P 19.8 * 10 6

19.8 *10 6 *1008


P .Cp
Pr= = =0.0698
K 0.0286

hL/K=0.664*(1.63*105)1/2*(0.0698)1/3

=194.19

h=0.0286*194.19=5.55W/m2oC

Qforbothsideofplate

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q=2hAs(tst f )

=2*5.55*1*(9020)

=777W

Heatlostbyplateinstantaneously

Q=m.Cp ' t

m=area*thickness*

1*4*2500/1000=10kg

? 777=10*0.67*103* ' t

' t=0.116oC/s

Q.14Inacertainprocess,castoroilat300Cflowspastaflatplate.Thevelocityofoilis0.08m/s.The
lengthoftheplateis5m.Theplateisheateduniformlyandmaintainedat900C.Calculate
1)Hydrodynamicandthermalboundarylayerthicknessatthetrailingedgeofplate.2)Totaldragforce
perunitwidthononesideoftheplate.

Usefollowingcorrelation

Nu=0.332(Re)1/2(Pr)1/3

Takepropertiesas

U=956.8kg/m3,k=0.2132W/mK,=7.2*108m2/s,=0.65*104m2/s

Ans:

U.L 0.08 * 5
Re= = =6153
Q 0.65 * 10  4

Thereforeflowislaminar

5*5
G 0.32 m
6153

G
Gth = 
(Pr)1 / 3

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

G
 Gth = 
(Pr)1 / 3

Pr=/=902.78

0.32
Therefore Gth = 0.033m
(902.78)1 / 3

Cf=1.328/ 6153=0.0169

FD=Cf*1/2**Areaofplate*U2

=0.2587Npermwidth

Q.15Explaintheregimesofboilingonnucleatecurvewithneatsketch.

1.InterfaceEvaporation:

Thefirstregionisofinterfaceevaporation,whereevaporationtakesplaceatliquidvaporinterface
withoutformationofbubbles.Ininterfaceevaporationtheliquidlayerincontactwithheatsurfaceget
evaporated,theconvectioncurrentisdevelopedwhichmovestheflowitandevaporationtakesplaceat
liquidsurface.Inthisregiontheexcesstemperatureisupto5oC

2.NucleateBoiling:

NucleateboilingexistinregionsIIandIIIwithincreaseinexcesstemperature,inregionIIthe
nucleateboilingstart.Thebubblesstartsformingatcertainlocalizedspot,travelsthroughtheliquidand

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

condenseintheliquidwithoutreachingtheliquidsurface.Withfurtherincreaseinexcesstemperature
thebubblesareformedmorerapidlyandrisetothesurfaceoftheliquidresultinginrapidevaporation
in region III. Thus the nucleate boiling consist of  formation of bubbles at specific location and that
results in  liquid agitation. The bubble agitation causes fluid mixing and that promotes substantial
increaseinheattransfercoefficientandheatflux.

Nucleateboilingexistuptote | 50oC
Themaximumheatfluxknownascriticalheatflux,occursatpointX.

3.Filmboiling:

FilmboilingcomprisesofregionsIV,VandVI.InregionIVthebubbleformationisveryrapidand
the bubbles covers the heating surface and prevent liquid from taking their place. The bubble break
down,formsfilmofvaporcoveringtheheatinge.Duetothisheatfluxdrops.

Withinthetemperaturerangeof50oC<te<150oCconditionoscillatesbetweennucleateboilingfilm
boilingandthephaseisrefusedastransitionboiling,unstableboilingorpartialboiling. 

Withfurtherincreaseintethevapourfilmisestablishedandtheheatingsurfaceiscompletely
coveredbyavapourfilmandtheheatfluxisminimuminregionV.

 Tomaintainastablefilmatsurface,thesurfacetemperaturerequiredtomaintainishighand
duetothis,considerableamountofheatislostbythesurfaceduetoradiationasinregionVI.

Q.16Whatismeanbycriticalheatfluxorburnoutpoint

The critical heat flux or burn out point is the point of maximum heat flux at which transition
from nucleate boiling to film boiling takes place. The boiling process beyond critical heat flux point is
unstable so it is called as boiling crisis .the boiling equipment design to operate close to this point ,
because beyond this point the surface temp. reached may be above the melting point of equipment
material.

Q.17DiscusstheFactorsaffectingnucleateboiling:

1.Liquidproperties

The dynamic viscosity of fluid affect the size of bubbles . with increase in dynamic viscosity size of
bubblesincreases.asthesizeofbubbleincreases,thefrequencyofbubbleformationdecreases.which
resultsinreducedheattransfer.

2.Materialshapeandconditionoftheheatingsurface

Theheattransferrateorboilingheattransfercoefficientgreatlydependsonthematerialoftheheating
surface.Theconditionofheatingsurfacealsoinfluencetheheattransfer.Theroughsurfacegivesa

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

betterheattransmissionthanwhenthesurfaceiseithersmoothorhasbeencoated.Theshapeof
heatingsurfacealsoaffectstransmissionofheat.

3.Pressure

The pressure affect the rate of bubble growth and in turn also affects the temperature difference
causing heat flow. For a boiling liquid up to the critical pressure, the maximum allowable heat flux
increasesandafterthatitdeclines.

4.Mechanicalagitation

Theheattransferrateincreaseswiththeincreaseindegreeofagitation.

Q.18Influenceofpresenceofnoncondensablegasesoncondensation

 The presence of non condensable gas such as air in a condensing vapour produces a
detrimental effect on the heat transfer coefficient. Even few percent by volume of air in steam, the
condensationheattransfercoefficientisreduced bymorethan50%.Thisisbecauseofdeposition of
noncondensablegasatthesurfaceduringthecondensationofvapour.Thislayerofdepositionofnon
condensablegasoverthesurfaceactsasthermalresistance.thisadditionalthermalresistancetensto
reduce the heat transfer rate which results in reduced condensation rate. The rate of condensation
decreases remarkably even with presence of small amount of non condensable gas in condensing
vapour.  . Any further condensation at the surface will occur only after incoming vapour has diffused
through this non condensable gas collected in the vicinity of the surface. The non condensable gas
adjacent to the surface acts as a thermal resistance to the condensation process. The rate of
condensation decreases greatly when the condensable vapour is contaminated with even very small
amountofnoncondensablegases.

Q.19DifferentiatebetweenFilmwiseandDropwiseCondensation

If the condensate tends to wet the surface and thereby forms a liquid film then the
condensation process is known as film condensation.  In film condensation, condensate film exists
betweenthehotvapourandcoolingsurface.Thiscondensatefilmtemperatureishighercomparedto
coolingsurfacetemperatureduetowhichavailabletemperaturedifferenceforheattransferdecreases.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

So in case of film condensation heat transfer rate are smaller. As the film thickness increases
furthertheheattransferratedecreases.

In dropwise condensation the vapour condenses as small liquid droplets of various sizes. The
drop of condensate forms in pits and cracks in the surface, grow there and leave the surface without
formingacontinuousfilmofcondensateonthecoolingsurface.

 

Indropwisecondensationhigherratesofheattransferandthushigherrateofcondensationae
achieved because large surface area is directly exposed to vapour without any intermediate film of
condensate between them The coefficient of heat transfer in this condensation is upto 5 to 10 times
than that in film condensation. For dropwise condensation to occur either highly polished surfaces or
surfaces contaminated with impurities are required. Use of additives or painting of surface may be
employedtoachievedropwisecondensation.

Q.20Acondenserisdesignedtocondense500kg/hrofdryandsaturatedsteamat0.1bar.Asquare
array of 400 tubes, 6 mm in diameter is used. The tubes surface is maintained at 24  0C by flowing
water.Calculatetheheattransfercoefficientandlengthofeachtube.

Ans:

D=6mm=0.006m,ts=24oC,m=500kg/hr

Fromsteamtable

Propertiesofvapourare

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

tsat=45.7oCv=0.0677kg/m3,hfg=2393kJ/kg

45.7  24
meanfilmtemperaturetf= =34.85oC
2

Propertiesofwaterattf

l=993.95kg/m3, P =728.15*106Ns/m2,K=0.6253W/moC

theno.ofhorizontaltubesinverticalcolumnis

N= 400 =20

1/ 4
U l ( Ul  Uv)k 3 .g.h fg
h=0.725 
NP l (t sat  t s ) D
1/ 4
993 .95(993 .95  0.0677 )(0.6253) 3 .9.81. * 2393 * 10 3
h=0.725 
20 * 728 .15 * 10  6 ( 45.7  24) * 0.006

h=5355.124W/m2oC

Now

Q=h.A.(tsatts)

500/3600*2393*1000=5355.124*3.14*400*0.006*L*(45724)

? L=0.38m

Q.21Averticaltubeof60mmoutsidediameterand2mlongisexposedtosteamatatmospheric
pressure.Theoutersurfaceofthetubeismaintainedatatemperatureof84oCbycirculatingcoolwater
throughthetube.Calculaterateofheattransfertocoolantandrateofcondensation.Takethefollowing
propertiesofwater.

U=963.4kg/m3,K=67.7x102W/m0K,=306X106kg/ms,hfg=2257KJ/Kg.Ts=100oC

Uv=0.598kg/m3

L=500mm=0.5m,B=1m,ts=30oC

(1)RateofHeatTransfer

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)


h=1.13 

]
1/4

afterputtingvalues

9.81 * 963.4 * (963.4  0.598) * 0.677 3 * 2257 *1000


h= 1.13[ 
306 *10 6 * (100  84) * 2

h=5707.21W/m2oK

Q=hA(tsatts)

=5707.21*0.06*2*3.14*(10084)

=34425.072W

m=34425.072/2257*1000

=0.01525kg/s

Q.22DeriveanexpressionforLMTDforcounterflowheatexchanger:

Consideringasinglepasscounterflowheatexchangerarrangement
ConsideringtherateflowofheatthroughanelementaryareadAoftheheatexchanger.

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

IntegratingfromA=otoA=A

1 1
Loge( T 2/ T 1)= U . A.  
cn cc




 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

LMTDforacounterflowunitisalwaysgreaterthanthatforaparallelflowunit.Hencecounter
flowheatexchangefortransferringsameamountofheatcounterflowneedssmallerheattransferarea
ascompoundtoparallelflow.

AMTD:

When temperature variations of the fluids are relatively small, then temp variation lines are
approximatelystraightlinesthenAMTDcanbetakenforadequalityaccurateresult.



LMTDisusedwhen
T1
t 1.7 
T2

Q.23Whatismeanbyfoulingofheatexchanger.Writedowntheequationofoverallheattransfer
coefficientconsideringfoulingofheatexchanger

Itmaypossiblethatfluidsflowingthroughheatexchangercontainsimpuritiesandduringflow
ofthisfluidcontainingimpuritiesthroughheatexchanger,theimpuritiesgetdepositedonthesurface
oftubes.

 Thisphenomenonofformationanddepositionoffluidimpuritiesonthetubesurfacesiscalled
asfouling.Duetothisdepositionofscaleonthesurfaceofheatexchangertubes,thethermalresistance
increaseswhichtendtoreducetheefficiencyofheatexchanger.

 Theeffectofscaleonheattransferisconsideredbyspecifyinganequivalentscaleheattransfer
coefficient,hs

Consideringscaleformationonbothsidesofheatexchangertubes

Let

hsiheattransfercoefficientforthescaleformedontheinside

hsoheattransfercoefficientforthescaleformedontheoutsidesurface

Aiinsidesurfacearea

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Aooutsidesurfacearea

1
ThereforeRsi= =Thermalresistanceoninsidesurface
Ai.hsi

1
AndRso= =Thermalresistanceonoutsidesurface
Ao.hso

Then

1
UA=
1 1 1 1 1
  log(ro / ri)  
Aihi Ai.hsi 2 KL Ao.ho Ao.hso 

Kthermalconductivityoftubematerial

Fortheinnersurface

1
Ui= 
1 1 1 1 1
  ri log(ro / ri)  ri / ro  ri / ro
hi hsi K ho hso

Fortheoutersurface

1
Uo= 
1 1 1 1 1
(ro / ri)  (ro / ri )  ro log(ro / ri)  
hi hsi K ho hso

Neglectingscaleresistanceandresistanceduetomaterialweget

1
Uo= 
1 1
(ro / ri) 
hi ho

Ifro=ri

1
Uo= 
1 1

hi ho

ho.hi
Uo=
ho  hi 

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q.24Discussthedesignaspectsofheatexchanger

Depending on the use of the heat exchanger there are various criterion for selection of a
particular  type of heat exchanger. But in general following  points to be considered while selecting a
heatexchanger

1)heattransferrequirement:Theheattransferrequirementmustbemetintheselectionordesignof
anyheatexchanger.

2)Fluidtemperatures: The fluid temperature are also important while selecting a type of heat
exchanger,sodueconsiderationmustbegiventoinletandoutlettemperaturesflowingfluids..

2)Physicalsize:Tubesize,tubethickness,numberoftubesallinfluencetheheattransferinexchanger,
somustbeselectedwithcare.Withincreasingthephysicalsizeofheatexchanger,thesurfaceareaof
the exchanger can be  increased. But while selecting the dimensions of heat exchanger consideration
mustbegiventospaceavailableandcost.

3)Pressuredropcharacteristics:Whileaimingtoincreaseheattransferbyincreasingfluidvelocity,the
pressuredropshouldbetakenintoconsideration.

scaleformation,scalethicknessandresultingpressuredropmustbeconsideredwhiledesigning.

4)Typeoffluid:foulingcharacteristicsoffluiddependsontypeoffluid.Itcanbeoneofthefactorsfor
selectingatypeofheatexchanger.

5)Tubelayouts:Intubelayoutsshouldbeconsidered.Becauseinsufficienttubepitchwillcreatehurdle
incleaningwhichreducestheheattransfer.

Q.25Writeshortnoteson

1]EffectivenessNTUmethodorDiscusseffectivenessofheatexchanger

When inlet and outlet temperatures of fluids flowing through the heat exchanger are known,
theLMTDapproachcanbeeasilyutilizedtoanalyzetheheatexchanger.Butincaseswherefluidsinlet
and outlet temperature are unknown, the method based on effectiveness of heat exchanger gives an
easywayforanalysisofheatexchanger.Thismethodisalsoadvantageousforcomparingvariousheat
exchangersforselectingatypebestsuitedforaparticularheattransferobjective.

 The heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as the ratio of heat transfer to the maximum
possibleheattransfer.Itisdenotedby.

Effectiveness==Actualheattransfer/maximumpossibleheattransfer

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Qactual
= 
Q max imum

Theactualheattransfer=theheatlostbyhotfluid=byheatgainbycoldfluid.

Qact=mhCph(th1th2)=mcCpc(tc2tc1)

 Since mass flow rate and specific heat of fluids remains constant, the maximum heat transfer
related to maximum temperature difference available in heat exchanger. The fluid for which capacity
rateisminimumwillundergothismaximumtemperaturedifference.

Therefore Q max is the product of minimum heat capacity rate and maximum temperature difference
availableinheatexchanger

Qmax=(m.c)min(thinlettcinlet)

 =(m.c)min(th1tc1)

ThefluidhavingminimumcapacityrateI.e(m.c)min=Cminiscalledminimumfluid

mc.CpccoldfluidcapacityrateCc

mh.CphhotfluidcapacityrateCh

Theminimumheatcapacityfluidmaybehotfluidorcoldcluid

ifmh.Cph<mc.CpcorCh<CcthenCmin=ChandCmax=Cc

ifmc.Cpc<mh.CphorCc<ChthenCmin=CcandCmax=Ch

Ifhotfluidisminimumfluid

C h (t h1  t h 2 ) t t
H = = h1 h 2 
C min (t h1  t c1 ) t h1  t c1

Ifcoldfluidisminimumfluid

t c 2  t c1
H = 
t h1  t c1

Ingeneral

't (min fluid )


H = .
max temperature.diff c in.heat.exchanger
m

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Theminimumfluidisalwaystheoneexperiencingthelargertempdifferenceintheheatexchangerand
themaximumtemperaturedifferenceintheheatexchangerisalwaysthedifferenceintheinlet
temperaturesofthehotandcoldfluids.

Q.26Acounterflowheatexchangerisemployedtocool0.55kg/s(Cp=2.45KJ/kgoC)ofoilfrom115oC
to40oCbytheuseofwater.Theinletandoutlettemperaturesofcoolingwaterare15oCand75oC
respectively.Theoverallheattransfercoefficientisexpectedtobe1450W/m2oC.UsingNTUmethod,
calculatetheFollowing

(i)themassflowrateofwater

(ii)theeffectivenessoftheheatexchanger

(iii)thesurfacearearequired.

moil=0.55kg/s,Cph=2.45KJ/kgoC,th1=115oC,th2=40oC

tc1=15oCtc2=75oCU=1450W/m2oC

mw=

mhCph(th1th2)=mwCpw(tc2tc1)

.55*2.45*(11540)=mw*4.18*(7515)

mw=0.4kg/s

(ii)Theeffectiveness

Cc=mw*Cpw

=0.4*4.18=1.672KW

Ch=mh*Cph

=0.55*2.45=1.347KW

AsCh<Ccthereforehotfluidisaminimumfluid

Therefore

th1  th 2
= 
th1  tc1

=0.75

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

(iii)Surfacearearequired

Cmax=1.672KW

Cmin=1.347KW

R=1.347/1.672=0.806

1  exp[ NTU (1  R)]


H 
1 Re xp[ NTU (1  R)]

H 1
exp[  NTU (1  R )] 
HR  1

0.75  1
exp[  NTU (1  0.806)] 
0.750 * 806.  1

NTU=2.365

2.365=1450*A/1.347*1000

A=2.197m2

Q.27Aparallelflowofheattransferuse1500kg/hrofcoldwaterenteringat25 oCtocool600kg/hrof
hotwaterat70 oC.Theexittemperatureonhotsideisrequiredtobe50 oC.Neglectingtheeffectsof
thefollowingfactor,calculatetheareaoftheheatexchange.Itmaybeassumedthattheindividualheat
transfercoefficientonbothsideare1600W/m2K.UsemeantemperaturedifferenceandNTUapproach
separately. Also calculate the exit temperature of hot and cold stream if the flow of hot water is
doubled. i.e. 1200 kg/hr. it has been state that individual heat transfer coefficient proportional to .8th
powerofflowrate.TakeCp=4180J/kgK. 

mh=600kg/hrmc=1500kg/hr

th1=70oCth2=50oCtc1=25oCtc2=?U=2270W/m2oKC=4180J/KgK

Q=mhCph(th1th2)=mcCpc(tc2tc1)

600/3600*4.187*(7050)=1500/3600*4.187*(tc225)

tc2=33oC

1=7025=45oC

2=5033=17oC

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

LMTD=(12)/In(1/2)=28.76oC

1 1 1
 
U hi ho

1 1 1
 
U 1600 1600

U=800W/m2K

Q=U.A.LMTD

ThereforeA=.6m2

ByNTUapproach

th1  th 2 70  50
H 0.54 
th1  Tc1 70  33

1  e 2 NTU
H 
2

NTU=1.25

NTU=UA/m*Cph

A=1m2Q

Q.28Stateandexplainfollowinglawsofradiation

1]Wiensdisplacementlaw

 Apeakvalueofmonochromaticemissivepoweroccursataparticularwavelength.Thislawgives
arelationshipbetweentemperatureofbodyandthewavelengthatwhichthemaximumvalueof
monochromaticemissivepoweroccurs.

A/ctoWienslaw

  max.T=constant

  max.T=2898mk

Itisusedtopredictveryhightemperaturethroughmeasurementofwavelength.

2]Lambertscosinelaw

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

 ThislawstatesthattotalemissivepowerEfromadiffuseradiatingsurfaceinanyparticular
directionisdirectlyproportionaltothecosineoftheanglebetweenthedirectionunderconsideration
andnormaltothesurface()

LetEnbetotalemissivepowerofthesurfaceinthedirectionnormaltoitssurfacethen,

E=EnCos

3]Kirchoffslaw

TheKirchoffslawstatesthatatthermalequilibrium,theratiooftotalemissivepowerEtothetotal
absorptivityisaconstantforallsubstances.

Thusatequilibrium

A1E1=1A1Ebforbody1Ebemissivepowerofblackbody

Ifbody1isreplacedbybody2then

A1E1=2A2Eb

Thereforewecanwrite

Eb=E1/1=E2/2=E/

But=E/Eb

Eb=E/

? =

 Kirchoffslawalsostatesthattheemissivityofablackbodyisequaltoitsabsorptivitywhenthe
bodyremainsinthermalequilibriumwithitssurrounding.

Q.29Shapefactor

Theshapefactorisusefulinanalysisofheatexchangebyradiationbetweentwosurfaces.



 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

ConsidertwosurfaceswithareaAi&Ajexchangingheat.Rdistancebetweenthesetwoarea.

T i& T jaretheanglesmadebynormaltotheAi&Aj

RateofenergyradiatedbyAi

Qi

RateofradiantenergyemittedbyAiandthatfallsonAj

Q ij

Fij(Shapefactorforbodyiwrtoj)

Fijiscalledconfigurationfactor,viewfactororshapefactor.

DefinitionItdefinedasthefractionofradiativeenergythatisdiffusedfromonesurfaceandstrikes
theothersurfacedirectlywithnointerveningreflections.

SimilarFjiistheshapefactorforbodyjwithrespecttoi

AiFij=AjFji

Thisisknownasreciprocitytherom.

Q.30DiscussRadiationshield

Certainapplicationrequirestoreducetheoverallthattransferbetweentworadiatingsurfaces.Thiscan
beachievedeitherbyusingmaterialswhicharehighlyreflectiveorbyusingradiationshieldsbetween
theheatexchangingsurfaces.Theradiationshieldsdoesnotactuallyremovesanyheatfromthe
overallsystembutiteffectivelyincreasesthesurfaceresistancetoreducetheradiationheattransfer.
thinshieldsofplasticcoatedwithhighlyreflectingmetallicfilmsonbothsidesservesasveryeffective
radiationshield.

Theshieldsareusedinthetemperaturemeasurementofafluidbyathermometerorathermocouple
whichisshieldtoreducetheeffectofradiation.

Q31Twoverylargeparallelplates,aremaintainedatuniformtemperature800Kand500Kandhave
emissivities1=0.2,and2=0.7respectively.Determineheattransferbetweenthetwosurfacesper
unitsurfaceareaoftheplates.

Ans:

heattransferbetweenthetwosurfacesperunitsurfacearea

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q
q12 = 1 2
> @
V T14  T24 5.67 800 4  500 4 x108
 1 1 1 1 
A  1  1
H1 H 2 0.2 0.7

 q12 =3625W/m2

Q.32Twoparallelsquareplates,each4m2areaarelargecomparedtoagapof5mmseparatingthem.
Oneplatehasatemperatureof800oKandsurfaceemissivityof0.6,whiletheotherhasatemperature
of300oKandasurfaceemissivityof0.9.Findthenetenergyexchangebyradiationbetweentheplates.
Ifathinpolishedmetalchipofsurfaceemissivity0.1onbothsidesisnowlocatedcentrallybetweenthe
twoplates,whatwillbeitssteadystatetemperature?Howtheheattransferwouldbealtered?Neglect
theconvectionandedgeeffects,ifany.Commentuponthesignificanceofthisexercise.

Ans:

1=0.6,T1=800 2=0.9,T2=300oK


Heattransferwhenthereisnoshield

Q
V * A* T14  T24 5.67* 4 * 4 * 800 4  300 4 x108> @
1 1 1 1
 1  1
H1 H 2 0.6 0.9 

91060.2
Q 51211.76watts
1.667  1.111 1 

Heattransferwithshield

Q V T14  T24
A 1 1 1 1
(  1)  (  1)
H1 H 2 H 31 H 32 

Q 5.67*108 8004  3004


1095.6watts/ m2 

A 1 1 1 1
(  1)  (  1)
0.6 0.9 0.1 0.1
Fortemperatureofshield

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

Q V T14  T34 V (T34  T2 4 )


1 1 1 1 
A
(  1)  1
H1 H 31 H 32 H 2


Q V 8004  T34 V (T3 4  3004 )

A (10.66) 10.11

T3=671.67oK

Q.33Discussthefollowing

1)Heatpipe:

 Adevicewhichmakesuseofphaseheattransferistheheatpipe.Acircularpipehasalayerof
wickingmaterialcoveringtheinsidesurfacewithahollowcoreinthecenter.Acondensablefluidisalso
containedinthepipeandtheliquidpermeatesthewickingmaterialbycapillaryaction.Whentheheatis
addedtooneendofpipe,liquidisvaporizedinthewickandthepipeheatisremovedandthevapour
condensesbackintothewick.Liquidisreplenishedintheevaporatorsectionbythecapillaryaction.

 Thebasicconceptofheatpipewillworkintheabsenceofgravity,theheatpipemaybetiltedso
thatthecondenserisatahigherelevationthantheevaporator.Inthiscaseactionofgravityservesto
speedtheflowofliquiddownthroughthewickingmaterial.Thisiscalledasfavorabletilt.Incontrast,
whenthecondenserisplacedatalowerelevationthantheevaporatortheactionofgravitywillimpede
theflowofliquidinthewickandtheheatpipeissaidtohaveadversetilt.

 Heatpipeisparticularlyusefulinenergyconservationequipmentwhereitisdesiredtorecover
heatfromhotgasesforairpreheaterorsupplementalheatingapplication.

2)thermalresistance

When two physical  systems are described by similar equation and have similar boundary conditions,
thesearesaidtobeanalogous.Theheattransferprocessesmaybecomparedbyanalogywithflowof
electricityinanelectricalresistance.

potential .differance (dV )


AsperOhmslaw,current(I)= 
Electrical .resis tan ce

Byanalogy,fromFourierequationforheatflow

Temperature.differance(dt )
HeatflowrateQ= 
G
K .A

 
 
 Subject Heat Transfer (v th semester Mech.Engg.)

HereIisanaloguestoQ

 dVisanaloguestodt

G
 Risanaloguesto andthisquantityiscalledthermalresistance
K .A

G
? Rth= 
K .A

UnitwillbeoC/WoroK/W

Reciprocalofthermalresistanceiscalledthermalconductance.