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Mechanical Engineering 370

Thermodynamics

Fall 2010 Course Number: 14319

Instructor: Larry Caretto

1 Complete the following table for H2O

description

1 50 4.16

2 200 Saturated vapor

3 250 400

4 110 600

Use the Tables A-4 through A-8 for water starting on page 914. For the first row data,

we first try to see if the given specific volume of 4.16 m 3/kg lies in the liquid, gas, or

mixed region. We do this by looking at the values of vf and vg at the given

temperature of 50oC. On page 914, we find that vf(50oC) = 0.001012 m3/kg and

vg(50oC) = 12.026 m3/kg. Since the given volume of 4.16 m3/kg lies between the

saturated liquid volume, vf, and the saturated vapor volume, vg, at the given

temperature of 50oC, we conclude that the state is in the mixed region. Since we are

in the mixed region, the pressure is the saturation pressure at the given temperature

of 50oC. From the same location in Table A-4 we find Psat(50oC) = 12.352 kPa. The

quality at this point can be found as follows.

m3 m3

4.16 0.001012

vvf kg kg

x 0.346

vg v f m3 m3

12.026 0.001012

kg kg

The point in row two is defined as saturated vapor. This means that the temperature

is the saturation pressure at 200 kPa and the volume is the volume of the saturated

vapor at this pressure. From Table A-5 on page 916 we find Tsat(200 kPa) = 120.21oC

and vg(200 kPa) = 0.88578 m3/kg.

The data in row three are found in the superheat table, A-6, on page 918; the volume

at this point is 0.59520 m3/kg. Note that we the pressures in this table are in MPa so

we have to recognize that 400 kPa = 0.4 MPa.

In searching for the state in row four, we find that the temperature of 110 oC is less

than the saturation temperature at 600 kPa, which is found in Table A-5 on page 916

to be 158.83oC.

This can also be found if we guessed that this was a gas and tired to locate this

pressure and temperature in the superheat region: Table A-6 on page 918. We see

that that the minimum temperature in the section of this table for 600 kPa (stated as

0.6 MPa) is 200oC. To see if this is a liquid we can find the saturation temperature at

the top of the table section, next to the 0.6 MPa value. Because the given

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu 8348 Fax: 818.677.7062

temperature of 110oC is less than the saturation temperature of 158.83oC, the state is

a compressed liquid. The simplest approach is to approximate the specific volume at

this state as the volume of the saturated liquid at the given temperature of

110oC. This volume is found to be 0.001052 m3/kg (Table A-4, page 914).

table on page 924. Because this table does not have a temperature of 110 oC, we

have to interpolate data between the table temperatures of 100oC and 120oC.

Because the minimum pressure in this table is 5 MPa, we have to interpolate between

the saturation pressure and the pressure of 5 MPa to get the values at the desired

pressure of 600 kPa.

v1005000

C ,5000 kPa v 100 C

600 kPa P 100 C

o o

v 100 o C ,600 kPa v f 100 o C

kPa P 100 C

f

o sat

o

sat

0.0010410 m 3 0.001052 m 3

0.001052 m 3 3

kg kg

600 kPa 101.42 kPa 0.0010509 m

kg 5000 kPa 101.42 kPa kg

o

v 120 C ,600 kPa v f 120 C o

v 120 o C ,5000 kPa v f 120 o C

600 kPa P 120 C

o

C

o sat

5000 kPa Psat 120

3

0.0010576 m 0.001060 m 3

0.001060 m 3 3

kg kg

600 kPa 198.67 kPa 0.0010598 m

kg 5000 kPa 198.67 kPa kg

Finally we can interpolate between the 100oC and 120oC at the pressure of 600 kPa.

v120 110

o

C ,600 kPa v 100 o C ,600 kPa

v 110 o C ,600 kPa v 100 o C ,600 kPa o

o

C 100 o C

o

120 C 100 C

0.0010598 m 3 0.0010509 m 3

0.0010509 m 3

kg kg o o

110 C 100 C

0.0010553 m 3

kg 120 o C 100 o C kg

We see that this answer is close to the value of 0.001052 m3/kg for the saturated

liquid volume at the given temperature of 1100C.

The answers for this row and the previous rows are shown in the table below.

1 50 12.352 4.16 Mixed region with x =

0.346

2 120.23 200 0.88578 Saturated vapor

3 250 400 0.59520 Superheated vapor

4 110 600 0.001052 Compressed liquid

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu 8348 Fax: 818.677.7062

Jacaranda (Engineering) 3519 Mail Code Phone: 818.677.6448

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu 8348 Fax: 818.677.7062

Unit one homework solutions Page 4

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

description

1 80 78

2 15 0.6

3 10 70

4 180 129.467

5 110 1.0

Use the Tables A-11E through A-13E for refrigerant 134a starting on page 976. For

the first row data, we find that the specific enthalpy of 78 Btu/lb m lies between the

saturated liquid and saturated vapor enthalpies at the given pressure of 80 psia. (On

page 9777, Table A12E , we find that hf(80 psia) = 33.394 Btu/lbm and hg(80 psia) =

112.20 Btu/lbm; the difference between these two, hfg(80 psia) = 78.804 Btu/lbm is

given in the table.) Thus, the state is in the mixed region and the temperature is the

saturation temperature at the given pressure of 80 psia. From the same location in

Table A12E we find Tsat(80 psia) = 65.89oF. The quality at this point can be found as

follows.

Btu Btu

78 33.394

h hf lbm lbm

x 0.566

h fg Btu

78.804

lbm

The point in row two has a quality of 0.6. Thus, it must be in the mixed region. We use Table A-

11E on page 976 to get the saturation data. The pressure is the saturation pressure at the given

temperature, Psat(15oF) = 29.759 psia, and we compute the enthalpy from the given quality and

the tabulated values of enthalpy of the saturated liquid, hf(15oF) = 16.889 Btu/lbm, and the

enthalpy change between saturated liquid and saturated vapor, h fg(15oF) = 88.377 Btu/lbm.

lbm lbm lbm

If we look for the data in row three (T = 10oF, P = 70 psia) in the superheat table on

page 978, we find that the saturation temperature at 70 psia is 58.30 oF. Since the

given temperature is less than this we know that we have a compressed liquid. We

can approximate the compressed liquid properties as those of the saturated liquid

state at the given temperature of 10oF. From Table A-11E on page 976, we find

that hf(10oF) = 15.318 Btu/lbm.

The data in row four are found in the superheat table on page 979. We look for an enthalpy of

129.46 Btu/lbm in the small table for a pressure of 180 psia and find that this occurs at a

temperature of 160oF. (Normally we would not be so lucky and would have to interpolate.)

The data in the last row specify a quality of one. This means that we have a

saturated vapor. We use the saturation table on page 976 to find P = Psat(110oF) =

161.16 kPa and hg(110oF) = 117.23 Btu/lbm. The results for all rows are summarized

in the table below.

Unit one homework solutions Page 5

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

1 65.89 80 78 0.566 Mixed region

2 15 29.759 69.915 0.6 Mixed region

3 10 70 15.318 N/A Compressed

liquid

4 160 180 129.46 N/A Superheated

vapor

5 110 161.16 117.23 1.0 Saturated vapor

300 kPa. Heat is added to the water at constant pressure until the entire

liquid is vaporized. (a) What is the mass of the water? (b) What is the final

temperature? (c) Determine the total enthalpy change. (d) Show the

process on a T-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.

and 300 kPa is a compressed liquid,

because the temperature of 25oC is

less than the saturation temperature

at 300 kPa. (See Table A-5 on page

916 that gives Tsat(300 300 kPa =

133.52oC. Alternatively we could find

that the pressure of 300 kPa is

greater than the saturation pressure

at 25oC, which is found as 3.1598 kPa

in Table A-4 on page 915.) We

approximate this compressed liquid

state as the saturated liquid at the

given temperature of 25oC, from

Table A-4. This gives an initial

volume, v1 vf(25oC) =

0.001003 m3/kg and an initial

enthalpy, h1 hf(25oC) = 104.89 kJ/kg.

50L = 0.05 m3 and the initial specific

volume, v1 = 0.001003 m3/kg, we can

find the mass in the system as the

ratio of these two quantities.

V1 0.05 m 3

m

v1 m3

0.001003

kg

m = 49.85 kg

We are told that the entire liquid is vaporized at the final state. If we assume that

there is no superheat, the final state must be that of saturated vapor. Since we are

also told that the process occurs at constant pressure, the final pressure, P 2 = P1 =

300 kPa. The final temperature is the saturation temperature at 300 kPa from Table

A-5; i.e., T2 = Tsat(300 kPa) = 133.55C .

Unit one homework solutions Page 6

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

The total enthalpy change is the difference between the initial and final enthalpy,

multiplied by the system mass. We found the initial enthalpy above; we know that

the final state is a saturated vapor at 300 kPa; thus h2 = hg(300 kPa) = 2724.9 kJ/kg,

and the total enthalpy change is given by the following equation.

The T-v diagram with the process indicated is shown above. On this diagram the

process is a solid line (blue if you view this in color) and the saturation curve is the

dotted line (purple in color). The temperature of the compressed liquid increases, at

constant pressure, until the saturation temperature at the constant pressure of 300

kPa (133.55oC) is reached. This initial part of the process is so close to the saturation

line that we cannot distinguish the two on the plot. Once the saturation temperature

is reached, the additional heat vaporizes the liquid water. This part of the process

takes place at constant temperature. (In the mixed region a constant pressure

process is a constant temperature pressure process and vice versa.)

the tire. When the air temperature is 25oC, the pressure gage reads 210

kPa. If the volume of the tire is 0.025 m3, determine the pressure rise in

the tire when the temperature in the tire rises to 50 oC. Also, determine the

amount of air that must be bled off to restore pressure to its original value

at this temperature. Assume the atmospheric pressure to be 100 kPa.

For this problem we can use the ideal gas equation. The gas constant for air is found

from Table A-1 on page 908 to be 0.2870 kJ/kg. At the initial state with an

atmospheric pressure of 100 kPa and a gage pressure of 210 kPa, the absolute

pressure is 210 kPa + 100 kPa = 310 kPa. The absolute temperature initially is 25 +

273.15 = 298.15 K. The absolute temperature at the final state is 50 + 273.15 =

323.15 K.

In the first part of this problem, the mass is constant. We are not told anything about

how the tire expands as the temperature increases. Lets make the simple

assumption that the volume remains constant.

According to the ideal gas equation, PV = mRT. If we compare two states for which

mass and volume are the same we have the following result.

V T T T2

const 1 2 P2 P1

mR P1 P2 T1

Substituting the given data into the final equation gives the pressure at the

temperature of 50oC.

T2 323.15 K

P2 P1 (310 kPa ) 336 kPa

T1 298.15 K

The pressure rise is simply the difference P2 P1 = (336 310) kPa = 26 kPa .

We contemplate a third state, after we bleed off the air. In this final state the

pressure equals the initial pressure (P3 = P1 = 310 kPa), while the final temperature

Unit one homework solutions Page 7

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

remains at 50oC. (T3 = T2 = 50oC.) The mass difference between these two states is

computed from the ideal gas equation as follows.

m m1 m3 3 1

RT1 RT3 R T1 T3 0.2870 kJ 298.15 K 323.15 K

kg K

m = 0.0070 kg

Unit one homework solutions Page 8

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

5 A rigid tank contains 20 lbm of air at 20 psia and 70oF. More air is added to the tank until

the pressure and temperature rise to 35 psia and 90 oF, respectively. Determine the

amount of air added to the tank.

We can solve this problem by assuming that air is an ideal gas. The gas constant for air is given

as 0.06855 Btu/(lbmR) = 0.3704 psiaft3/(lbmR) in Table A-1E on page 958 of the text. The latter

value and units are used here because they are consistent with the units specified for other

variables.

If we denote the initial state as state 1 and the final state as state 2, we can apply the ideal-gas

equation of state to both the initial and final state as shown below.

P1 V1 P2 V2

m1 m2

RT1 RT 2

90oF = 549.67 R. We are also told that the contained is rigid so that we can assume that V 2 = V1.

Use the symbol, V = V1 = V2, to denote this constant volume. If we solve the ideal-gas equation

at state 1 for this constant volume, V, and substitute the result into the equation at state 2 we get

the following equation for the mass added.

m1 RT1

P2

P2 V2 P1 PT P T

m m 2 m1 m1 m1 m1 2 1 m1 m1 2 1 1

RT 2 RT 2 P1T2 P1T2

Substituting the known values of P1, T1, P2, T2, and m1 into this equation gives the final result.

m m1 2 1 1 (20 lb m ) 1 = 13.73 lbm

P1T2 (20 psia )(549.67 R )

Unit one homework solutions Page 9

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

6 Determine the specific volume of superheated water vapor at 10 MPa and 400 oC using (a)

the ideal gas equations, (b) the generalized compressibility charts and (c) the steam

tables. Also, determine the error involved in the first two cases.

We can solve part (c) first. The steam-table specific volume is found from Table A-6 on page 908

for the given pressure and temperature.

To use the ideal-gas equation of state, we first obtain the gas constant for H 2O from table A-1 on

page 884: R = 0.4615 kJ/(kgK) for water. Applying this to the pressure of 10 MPa = 10,000 kPa

and a temperature of 400oC = 673.15 K gives the following specific volume.

0.4615 kJ

(673.15 K )

RT kg K

v ideal gas = 0.03106 m3/kg

P 1 kJ

(10,000 kPa )

kPa m 3

The error in the ideal gas calculation is found by comparing the result to the specific volume

obtained from the steam tables.

3 3

0.03106 m 0.026416 m

kg kg

Error 3

= 17.6%

0.026416 m

kg

In order to use the generalized compressibility chart, we first have to compute the reduced

pressure and temperature. These are simply the ratio of the given pressure and temperature to

the critical pressure and temperature, respectively. We find the critical values for water from

Table A-1 on page 908: Tc = 647.1 K and Pc = 22.06 MPa. The error in the ideal gas calculation is

found by comparing the result to the specific volume obtained from the steam tables.

P 10 MPa T 673.15 K

Pr 0.453 Tr 1.04

Pc 22.06 MPa Tc 647.1 K

With these values of reduced pressure and temperature, we can find the compressibility factor

from the chart in Figure A-15 on page 932. This gives Z = 0.84. With this value of Z, we can find

the desired specific volume as follows.

ZRT

Zvideal gas (0.84) 0.03106 m = 0.026 m3/kg

3

v Z chart

P kg

As with the ideal-gas calculation, the error is found by comparing the result to the specific volume

obtained from the steam tables.

3 3

0.026 m 0.026416 m

kg kg

Error 3

= 1.2%

0.026416 m

kg

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