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ModelingofCarBrakingwithandwithoutABS

byFrankOwen,PhD,P.E.,MechanicalEngineering/Fakultt03,
CalPoly/HochschuleMnchen
(revised13July2012)

Inthissegmentofthecourseweshalllookatmodelingacommonmechatronicsysteminan
automobile,theantilockbrakingsystemorABS.Youhavealreadyseenthisinaprevious
developmentinthiscourse.Inthatsegmentyoumodeledthecarundergoingbrakingandthe
ABSsysteminMatlab.HerewewilldosomethingsimilarexceptwewilluseSimulinktodoit.

ThemainproblemaddressedbyanABSsystemisthereducedbrakingforcethatoccurswhena
carswheelssliponthepavement.Thebrakingforceduringslipreducestoabouthalftheirnon
slipvalue.ThepurposeoftheABSistodetectslip,thenmomentarilyreducethebrakingforce
topreventtheslip.DriversofcarswithoutABSincold,icyclimateswerealwaystrainedto
brakebypumpingthebrakes.Thismeantnevertopushhardandsteadilyonthebrakepedal
butrathertotapthebrakes,toapplyahighfrequency,drumbeatsortofforcetothebrake
pedal.

ThisisessentiallywhattheABSsystemdoes.Whenslipisdetectedthroughsensors,valvesare
actuatedtoreleasethepressureonthebrakepads,thusmomentarilyallowthewheeltoroll
outofslip.Onceoutofslip,thevalvesacttoallowthebuildupofpressureonceagainonthe
brakepads.

Inthissegmentwewilllookonceagainatautomobilebrakingandmodelthissituationinan
automobilewithandwithoutABS.

TheAnalysis

InouranalysisthecarismovingtotherightwithavelocityvC.Thebrakingforcesonthewheels
acttothelefttoslowthecardown.

vC

F BR F BF
F NR F NF

Wewillsimplifytheanalysisbylookingatonlyonewheel,usingwhatisoftencalledthequarter
carmodelofthecar.Hereweconcentratetheentiremassofthequartercaratthehubofthe
wheel.

1
vC

FBD = MAD

m QC g
..
JW .
O
F C-W rW =
M B-Q mQC a C

F B-Q

F N-Q


Fromadynamicequilibriumanalysisofthiswheel,summingmomentsaboutpointO,thecenter
ofthewheel,takingclockwisetobepositive:

M O : FB Q rW M B Q J W (1)

Themaximumpossiblebrakingforcedependsontheslip,specificallyontheslipparameters.s
isameasurementoftheactualvelocityofthecarcomparedwiththekinematicallycalculated
velocityiftherewerenoslip ( vC W rR ).


v C-
rW

s is the slip. It is defined by

vC vC vC rW
s (2)
vC vC

s varies between 0 (no slip) and 1 (full slip). From the slip can be calculated the slip
parameter f(s). A suggested relationship for f(s) is

f ( s ) c1 (1 e c2 s ) c3 s (3)

Thethreeparametersc1,c2,andc3canbeadjustedtomatchtestdatatakenontheactual
automobile.Forthesituationpresentedearlierinthecourse,wecanusethefollowingvalues:

2
Braking parameter vs. slip
1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
c1 = 1.3
f(s)

0.5 c2 = 10
c3 = 0.8
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
s

f(s)isthenusedtofindthebrakingforce:

FB Q f ( s) FN Q (4)

Wenowexpandthequartercarmodelandjustsaythatwhathappenswiththeentirecarisjust
4xbywhathappensoneachwheel.Ifwelookattheentirecar,weseethatwehaveinthex
direction:

FBD MAD
m C . aC
X
FA

FB

whereFBisthetotalbrakingforceandFAiswindresistance.Wecansimplifytheanalysisto
assumethatFBisjust4*FBQ.Thisisnotreallycorrectbecausethefrontwheelscarrymoreof
thebrakingloadduetothepitchingmovementofthecarduringbraking.Thisloadsthefront
wheelsandunloadsthebackwheels,butforthissimpleanalysis,wecanproceedwiththisasan
initialapproach.So

3
FB FA mC aC
(5)
aC xC
1
FB FA
mC

UsuallyFAvariesasthesquareofthevelocity:


FA c A A vC2 (6)
2
So
1 2
xC f ( s ) FN c A x C (7)
mC 2

Aspreviouslymentioned,whenthebrakesareapplied,thecarpitchesforward,loadingupthe
frontwheels.Thusthefrontwheelscarrymoreverticalforcethanthenormalweightofthecar.
Thisallowsforagreaterbrakingforcethanwouldbepossibleifthefrontwheelssawonlytheir
shareoftheweightofthecar.Wecanaccountforthisextraforcebyusingamultiplier,say1.5,
multipliedbyFN.So

FN 1.5 * mg (8)

Building the Model

Usethefollowingvaluesforthesimulation:

Variable Value/Units Description


vC0 100kph initialspeed
m 1500kg automobilemass
rW 0.3m wheelradius
JW 0.8kg*m2 massmomentofinertiaofwheel
A 2m2 frontalarea
cA 0.3 airresistancecoefficient
1.2kg/m3 airdensity
g 9.81m/sec2 gravitationalconstant
c1 1.3 empiricalcoefficient
c2 10 empiricalcoefficient
c3 0.8 empiricalcoefficient
1.0 tire/pavementfrictioncoefficient

Youmightwanttoloadthesevariablesuponcefromanmfilenamed initialize.m.
Therearetwodifferentialequationsherethatrepresentequationsofmotion,oneforthewheel
(1)andoneforthecar(7).Ifyoulookthroughtheequationsyouwillseethatthereappearsin
themonlyvCand i.e.xCanddonotappear.Nevertheless,wemightbeinterestedinhow
longthecarbrakes/skidsduringthebrakingprocess.SowewillalsoextractxCfromthe
Simulinkmodel.

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Westart,asnormalwiththeintegrationbackbones,thelineofintegralsthatproducevelocity
anddisplacementfromacceleration.Producethemodelsforequations1and7.

ThesepartialmodelsgiveusvCand ,fromwhichwecanfindvC andsusingequation(2).


Thenwithswecanfindf(s)usingequation(3).Addthesepartialmodelstothediagram.

Withf(s)youcancalculateFB,usingequations(4)and(8).FBwillbethetotalbrakingforce.To
getFBQyousimplydividethisby4foruseinthepartialmodeldevelopedforequation(1).

Additionallywewanttostopthesimulationwhenthespeedgetsverylow.Butwewanttostop
itbeforethecarspeedgetsto0toavoidadivisionby0inequation(2).Youcandothisby
checkingthevalueofthevelocityandstoppingthesimulationifitdropsbelow0.01m/sec.

Setthemodeluptoviewthetwovelocities,vCandvC ononescope.Alsolookattheslip.Look
atthebrakingforceonascope.Lookatthedistancetraveledonascopetoo.

ChecktheModel

AsthemodelissetuponanonABScar,weapplyasteadypedalpressuretoproduceMB(MB=
4MBQ)Letstrythedonothingcasefirst,wherethedriversdoesnotpushonthebrakes.What
happens?Whatshouldthevelocitydo?Whatshouldtheslipbe?

Nowapplyalightbrakingload,say2000Nm.Thecarshouldslowsteadilydownwithout
slipping.

Nowapplyaheavybrakingload,say8000.Youshouldseesomeslip.

Whatisthedifferencebetweenthedistancetostopwithandwithoutslipintheabovetwo
cases?

CanyoufindtheoptimalMB,sothatthecarhasmaximumstoppingpowerwithoutexcessive
slip?Thisshouldcorrespondtotheshortestdistancetostop.Forwhatslipvalueisthestopping
powergreatest?Throughtrialanderror,findthecorrectbrakingtogivetheshorteststopping
distance.

CarwithABS

Fromthediagramonpage3wecanseethatthemaximumbrakingcoefficientoccurswithaslip
ofabout0.28.Notethatthisparameterisavailabletousasmodelers,sincewecalculatesas
partofthesimulation.Thuswecansetupacontrollertoreactifsdeviatesfromadesiredvalue
of0.28.Wewilluseasimpleoff/oncontrollerforthis.Iftheslipisbelow0.28,wewantto
applythebrakingmoment.Iftheslipisabove0.28,wewanttoreleasethebrakes.

Toimplementthis,formacomparisonbetweentheactualsandthedesireds,sd=0.28.Ifsds
<0,removethebrakingmoment.Ifsds>0,applythefullbrakingmoment.Youcan
implementthiswithasignblock.Lookatthisblockandseehowitworks.Followthesignblock
withagainblocktoprovidetheproperchangeinbrakingmoment,saydMB/dt=20,000N
m/sec.Thenuseanintegrator,limitedtopositivevaluestogetMB.

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Itisinterestingnowtoplotvcandvc together.Plotalsotheslipasafunctionoftimeandthen
thecarspositionasafunctionoftime.Trythisoutwithvariouscoefficientsoffrictions ( =1
fordrypavement, =0.6 forwetpavement, =0.3foricypavement,etc.).