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Archaeo 2 Midyear 2017 [Notes]

Midterms Part 1 Intro to Archaeology

ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCPLINE 1. Recognize achievements of our ancestors
o Stone tools absence of these = absence of knives
ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE: o Kung hindi sila bumaba sa puno , hindi bipedal
the past is not a foreign land ang mga tao ngayon
Archaeological Heritage viewing the heritage in the 2. Understand dynamics of change throughout time and
perspective of Archaeology across space
The past is not a foreign land - studying the past is not o What changes occurred and how we reacted to
only for the researchers. Its a part of who we are. those changes. Are those changes happening now
also happened in the past?
World Archaeology = study of the disconnect that
3. Get to know ourselves better as a community, as a
happened a long time ago [Lucy, Ice Age, etc.]
nation, as a species
Burial jars - can be found in Catanauan 4. Provide bases for political arguments (?)
Trenches = squares that can be found in o West Philippine Sea Issue
archaeological sites
Hukay ng dinosaurs? NO. Paleontology yun.
Study of human past from material remains? YES! 1.Prospection and Survey
o Deduction of formation process done by a
Lithic Artifacts = stone tools geoarchaeologist
Microarchaeology = study of invisible remains [pollen 2.Document and Excavate
grains] o Examples of open site excavation:
Geoarchaeology = study of the chemical and Jar burials in Catanauan
geological processes na pinagdaanan ng isang site Shell midden
<Pwede kasi matunaw yung remains depende sa 3.Cleaning up Session and Accessioning
chemical composition ng sediments> o Inventory
PREHISTORY VS HISTORY 4.Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
PREHISTORY = no printed/written documentation EVOLUTION OF ARCHAEOLOGY
HISTORY = past based on documented records
discoveries, methods, ideas
Anthropology = study of humans in general PRE-SPECULATIVE PHASE <around 6000 years ago>
- Ideas based from the bible
Archaeology studies prehistory and a part of history
- What it was before = what it is now
The existence of human-like ancestor = start of
prehistory SPECULATIVE PHASE <ca. 14th to early 19th Century>
- Nabonidus = last ruler of Kingdom of Babylon
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCES > He was looking for evidences of the empire of
Pottery Features Structures Babylon but Persia took over the capital of his
Human Remains Animal Remains Other Artifacts kingdom because he was not there
Plant Remains Stone Tools - During Renaissance (revival of learning in Europe;
Cutmarks = evidence of human intervention 14th to 17th centuries), many people and princes
Lingling-O = an artifact made up of jade, clay, or began forming Cabinets of Curiosities where curios
stone that is used as ornaments in South East Asia and ancient artifacts were displayed with
Chevron beads = high status exotic minerals and all manner of specimens
Spindle whorls = used to make rope and fabrics > practice = antiquarianism; people =
Postholes antiquarians
= example of a feature or collective - Thomas Jefferson (1784)
artifact > adopted a scientific approach for excavation
= occurs after a post gets cut off then the > dug a trench or a section across a burial
remaining part decays mound among hundreds of unexplained mounds
Archaeo 2 Midyear 2017 [Notes]
Midterms Part 1 Intro to Archaeology
near the Mississippi River built by the race of The Three Age Classification
Moundbuilders 1. Stone Age
> applied the concept of Stratigraphy 2. Bronze Age
3. Iron Age
19th Century> Ethnography
- People are now more open to scientific ideas - Edward Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan (1870s)
- Significant Achievements in Geology > human societies had evolved from a state of
> James Hutton savagery (primitive hunting) through barbarism
>> Theory of Earth (1785) The Principle of (simple farming) to civilization (the highest form
Uniformitarianism states that stratification of of society)
rocks was due to the processes still ongoing CLASSIFICATION AND CONSOLIDATION
> Charles Lyell [Classificatory Historical Period] <ca. Late 19th
>> Principles of Geology (1833) Century to early 20th Century>
geologically ancient conditions are similar to - Gordon Childe (1892 - 1957)
those of our time > Assemblage [constantly recurring collection]
- Three Important Concepts or Culture or Aspect
1.Antiquity of Humankind >> artifacts that belong to a certain group of
a. Jacques Boucher de Perthes (1841) people in a certain period of time
- fossils of extinct animals and stone tools >> certain set of materials, clothing, etc.
- world that existed before we know > Man Makes Himself (1936)
how >> went on to try and answer the much more
- French archaeologist working on difficult question: Why had civilization arisen in
gravel quarries of Somme River the Near East?
b. John Lubbock Ecological Approach
- Prehistoric Times (1865) - Julian Steward
> where the word prehistory came > anthropologist who christened cultural
f r om ecology
2.Concept of Evolution > highlighted the fact that cultures do not
a. Charles Darwin interact simply with one another but with the
- On The Origin of Species (1859) environment as well
> Natural Selection or survival of the - Grahame Clark
fittest > collaboration with new kinds of specialists was
> established the concept of essential
evolution as the best explanation for > need for the alliances with other sciences
the origin and development of all THE NEW ARCHAEOLOGY (Post World War II
plants and animals Development)
- The Descent of Man (1871) - Carbon Dating
> human species had emerged as > resulted to setting aside of the Three Age
part of this same process (evolution) Classification
3.The Three Age System - Attempts to answer the Why did things change
a. Colt Hoare (1808) Processual Archaeology [Scientific Method in
- started recognizing a sequence of Archaeology]
stone, brass, and iron artifacts within the - Lewis Binford (Father of Modern Archaeology)
barrows he excavated > sought to explain rather than
b. C. J. Thomsen simply to describe
- A Guide to Northern Archaeology > sought to avoid the rather vague talk
(1859) of the influences of 0one culture upon another,
> collections can be divided into but rather to analyze a culture as a system which
those coming from a Stone Age, a could be broken down into subsystems.
Bronze Age, and an Iron Age - Functional-Processual Archaeology
> asking for the function of a certain artifact
Archaeo 2 Midyear 2017 [Notes]
Midterms Part 1 Intro to Archaeology
- Cognitive-Processual Archaeology > Geoarchaeology climates, isotopes
> uses processual approach
> seeks more actively to include the SUBSISTENCE AND DIET
consideration of symbolic and cognitive aspects - What did they eat and how did they acquire what
of early societies into the program of research they are eating
Post-Processual Archaeology - Anything goes - Meals = What people are eating at a particular
time (ex. Longsilog for breakfast)
III - Diet = pattern of consumption over a long period of
ARCHAEOLOGY TODAY time (ex. how often a person eats Longsilog)
- Subsistence Strategy = acquisition of food
Archaeoastronomy - Boat burials => nakapoint 1. Hunting and Gathering
somewhere (examples: Sea or Milky Way) tapos o Practiced by nomadic people
interpretation o Use of stone tools for butchering
o Group effort
2. Foraging
- People, connections among people, exercise of
o Getting whats already there
power, nature and organization
o Di ikaw yung nagcultivate or nagtanim
- Importance: Relationships within and outside the
o Pag naubos na, hintaying magreplenish or lipat
community will be known
3. Farming
- Top-Down Approach (General to Particular)
o Planting tapos harvest
1. Scale (Society)
> Subsistence strategies do not exist on their own
2. Dominance
> Scavenging (animals) = na-hunt na ng
o Civilization of 6000? How was it related to
ibang animals tas abang na lang
other groups around it? Was it autonomous?
Was it a periphery? Was it a core (central TECHNOLOGY
area)? Was it a semi periphery (ex. Cebu [not - How did they make and use stone tools and other
main core of the Philippines but center of artifacts? Ano yung technology nila para magkaroon
Visayas])? ng pottery, jewelry?
3. Internal Organization - Approaches in Studying Technology
- Bottom-Up Approach > Purely archaeological
> Archaeology of Individual Identity > Classify where it belonged. Look at it by itself
> Focus on a particular individual (Based sa burial: > Scientific analysis of objects
Hari ba siya? Pesante ba siya? Working Class? >> applications
Slave?; Isang taong may fracture, pwedeng >> use of methods from other sciences
namatay siyang hindi napagaling yun o kaya >> more technical study
napagaling kasi pwedeng may katungkulan siya) > ethnographic
>> current practices to determine what
happened to the artifacts
- What was the environment like? Is it possible to
>> e.g. sa Cordillera, may pottery na may marks
reconstruct the environment?
tapos in-observe nila yung activities ng mga tao
- kind of materials (stone tools), sources of raw
roon na possible magpaggawa ng markings sa
materials (pottery, di pwedeng random na lupa lang
> experimental
- Importance:
>> i-reproduce kung ano yung nakita
>How early humans used to interact with the
>> knap way para makagawa ng stone tool
environment will be known
> Environment plays a crucial part in the Obsidian
development of species = formed from rapid cooling of lava; black and has a
- Subfields glass-like property
> Archaeobotany study of plant remains in = rare (due to specialized condition of formation)
archaeological context kaya ginagamit lang for ritual purposes
> Archaeozoology study of animal remains in
archaeological context
Archaeo 2 Midyear 2017 [Notes]
Midterms Part 1 Intro to Archaeology

TRADE AND CONNECTIONS 4. Population and Demographics

- cultural influences na meron ang isang community o Average age kung kalian namatay
- Indicators of Contact
1. Technology We have to ask the right questions and derive the right
2. Design means in answering them
o Originated from them or influenced (ex. Golden
Tiara [Agusan] Buddhist cultural influence in
Mindanao; Porcelain ng Europe na di naman sa
kanila originally; Blue and (in?) White design
hindi lang Chinese pero pwede ring Islamic)
3. Material
4. Genetic Makeup
o Ethnolinguistic Groups or races came in
contact with the Philippines
= found in Polynesia and Australia
> more or less traded kasi wala raw volcanoes
sa regions na yon
- How did they think? What was their cosmology?
(How the world works, Mythology)
- Subfields
> from written source to cognitive map
> symbols of organization and power
> layout of structures
> Archaeology of Religion: symbols for the other
> Depiction: Art and Representation
Venus of Willendorf (Austria)
= fertility symbol , aliens => hypotheses
Manunggul Jar
= burial jar found in Manunggul Cave in Palawan
> boat sa cover na may 2 taong nakasakay
(analogous sa Greek myth tungkol sa River Styx
at kay Charon)
- studies who they were and what were they like
- Aspects of Bioarchaeology
1. Physical Attributes
2. Assessing human abilities and activities
o Makapal ba yung Tibia nila = lots of walking /
o Squatting facets = squat a lot
3. Disease, Deformity, and Death
o Scurvy, tuberculosis (may markings sa bone),
King Richard III
= kuba na hari tapos hindi alam kung san siya inilibing
pero nahanap (daw) dahil sa deformity niya