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Bridge Design

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Beams in bending develop tension and compression in their flanges. The bending capacity of the

[Hold the mouse pointer over the diagrams for animation effects. (Scripts must be allowed to run

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The tension flange acts like the string in an archer's bow and the maximum force that can be

The compression flange acts like a strut and is susceptible to buckling before yield stress can be

developed. Unless the compression flange is fully restrained then the beam may fail by lateral

torsional buckling.

Clause 9.6.1 says if the second moment of area of a cross-section about the axis of bending (axis

Y-Y in diagram below) is smaller than that about an axis perpendicular to it (axis X-X), the cross-

section as a whole is stable against overall lateral torsional buckling and its effective length e may

be taken as zero.

Clause 9.6.1 requires all beams to be restrained at their supports. The strength and stiffness of

The restraint is required to hold the compression flange in place and is usually provided at the

support by use of the bearing stiffeners and a suitable bearing and/or a bracing system.

The restraining system is designed to resist the force FS (or FS + FL in the case of U-frames

subjected to vertical loading on cross-beams) together with any coexistent forces such as wind or

frictional forces.

The strength of the end restraint to resist FS is considered in isolation to the main beam(s) and

any distribution effects along the length of the beam(s) are ignored.

Where only the bearing stiffener provides the torsional restraint {case (a)} then the stiffener has

to be designed in accordance with Clause 9.14 as a load bearing support stiffener as well as

satisfying the stiffness criteria of Clause 9.12.5.3. In cases (b) and (c) a bearing stiffener may be

Determine the effective length ( e) based on the support condition of the compression

flange. The Code requires the compression flange to be supported laterally at the beams

supports in accordance with Clause 9.12.5. This ensures that the compression flange can

be assumed to have at least a pinned end support so the maximum k1 (Clause 9.6.2) that

may be assumed is 1.0 for non-cantilever beams. If end diaphragms are provided to

prevent the compression flange from rotating in plan then a smaller value of k1can be

used.

1. Intermediate restraints to the compression flange can be provided to further reduce the

a. Plan bracing

b. Torsional bracing

c. U-Frames

3. a) Plan Bracing

4. This is only generally used as temporary bracing as it obstructs the deck construction on

top of the beams. If the bracing is located on the underside of the compression flange then

5. Clause 9.12.2a requires plan bracing to be able to resist force FR + any wind and other

3

1. If the plan bracing is fully effective {i.e. R R / (40 EIc) in accordance with Clause

9.6.4.1.1.1} then e = R

2.

Intermediate torsional bracing does not prevent the compression flange from moving

1. Beams are often braced together in pairs before lifting on to their supports; this makes

If the deck slab is designed to restrain the compression flange, as in composite decks with

shear connectors, then the intermediate bracing will be redundant when the deck is

complete. The cost of removing the bracing and repairing the steelwork protection system

is usually more expensive than the reclaim value of the steelwork and is therefore usually

left in place. If the bracing is left in place then it will pick up load when the beams deflect

under traffic loading and will therefore need to be checked for this loading condition.

2.

c) U-Frames

U-frames are a characteristic of the 'Half Through' deck construction. The 'U' shape of the

U-frame is formed by two vertical web stiffeners and the deck cross beam. The web

stiffeners are attached to the compression flanges of the main edge girders and are able to

resist the lateral buckling movement of the flange (see Clause 9.12.3.1).

The stiffness of the U-frame is evaluated by adding the stiffness of its components due to a

unit force acting at the level of the compression flange and is determined using Clause

9.6.4.1.3:

ii. The effect from the cross beam bending (ii = uBd22 / EI2).

iii. The flexibility of the joint between the cross beam and the vertical stiffeners (iii =

fd22).

R = i + ii + iii

1. The effective length e is then calculated using Clause 9.6.4.1.1.2 with R equal to the

An example of determining the effective length for beams with U-frame restraint is given

in the workshop section for BD 56/10 (The Assessment of Steel Highway Bridges).

Determine the slenderness (LT) using the geometrical parameters of the beam.

Determine the strength of the end restraint to provide adequate support to the

compression flange.

Steel Beam Design Example to British Standards

This example will illustrate the procedures to design a steel beam to BS 5400 Part 3.

The concrete deck and live loading are included to demonstrate the use of load factors

only, they do not represent a solution for a deck design.

Problem:

Design a simply supported beam which carries a 150mm thick concrete slab together

with a nominal live load of 10.0 kN/m2 . The span of the beam is 9.0m centre to centre

of bearings and the beams are spaced at 3.0m intervals. The slab will be assumed to be

laid on top of the beams with no positive connection to the compression flange.

conc. = 24kN/mm3

Nominal Dead Loads :

slab = 24 0.15 3.0 = 10.8 kN/m

beam = say 2.0 kN/m

Nominal Live Load : = 10 3.0 = 30 kN/m

Load factors for ultimate limit state from BS 5400 Part 2 Table 1:

Dead Load:

fL steel = 1.05

fL concrete = 1.15

Live Load:

fL HA = 1.50

= (1.15 10.8)+(1.05 2.0)+ (1.5 30) = 60 kN/m

Design ultimate moment = 60 9.02 / 8 = 608 kNm

Design ultimate shear = 60 9.0 / 2 = 270 kN

BS 5400 Pt. 3

1) Design for Bending

Use BS EN 10 025 steel grade S275, then nominal yield stress y = 265 N/mm2

Approximate modulus required:

= M m f3 / y

= 608 1.2 1.1 106 / 265 = 3.03 106 mm3

Try a 610 229 125kg/m UB (Z = 3.222 106, Zp = 3.677 106)

cl.9.3.7

Check for compact section:

cl.9.3.7.2

web:

web depth = 547; and m = 0.5

34tw(355/yw)0.5/m = 34 11.9 (355/265)0.5/0.5 = 937

547 < 937 web OK

cl.9.3.7.3.1

compression flange:

bfo = (229 - 11.9 - 2*12.7)/2 = 96

7tfo(355/yf)0.5 = 7 19.6 (355/265)0.5 = 159

96 < 159 flange OK

Hence section is compact.

cl.9.6

Determine Effective Length:

cl.9.6.2

le = k1 k2 ke

k1 L = 1.0 (flange is free to rotate in plan)

k2 = 1.0 (load is not free to move laterally)

ke = 1.0 (check later for initial value)

L= 9000mm

le = 1.0 1.0 1.0 9000 = 9000mm

cl.9.7

Slenderness:

cl.9.7.1

Half wavelength of buckling = lw = L = 9000mm

Mpe = Zpe yc

Mpe = 3.677 106 265 10-6 = 974kNm

cl.9.7.2

LT = le k4 / ry

k4 = 0.9

= 0.94 (From Fig. 9(b): MA/MM = MB/MA = 0)

F = le/ry(tf/D)

F = 9000/49.6 (19.6/611.9) = 5.81

i = Ic/(Ic+It)

i = 0.5

= 0.78 (from Table 9)

LT = 9000 0.9 0.94 0.78 / 49.6 = 120

cl.9.8.

Limiting moment of resistance: LT ((yc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5

Section is compact, hence Mult = Mpe = 974kNm

LT ((yc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5 = 120 ((265/355)(974/974))0.5 = 104

le/ lw = 1.0

From Fig.11(b) : MR/Mult = 0.42

MR = 0.42 Mult = 0.42 974 = 409 kN/m

cl.9.9.1.2

MD = MR /m f3

MD = 409 / (1.2 1.1) = 310 kNm < 608 kNm

hence section too small.

{Note: If the compression flange is cast into the deck slab then le = 0 (cl.9.6.4.2.1)

which results in

MR = Mult = 974 kNm giving MD = 974 / (1.2 1.1) = 738 kNm > 608 kNm}

Approx. Zpe required = 608/310 3.677106 = 7.21 106 mm4

Use a 762 267 197kg/m UB

Zpe = 7.167 106 mm3

Mpe = 7.167 106 265 10-6

Mpe = Mult = 1899kNm

Repeating the procedure above will show :

Section is compact

F = 5.2

= 0.81

LT = 108

MR/Mult = 0.51

MD = 733 kNm > 608 hence OK

Check effect of assuming ke = 1 (cl.9.6.4.2.1)

MD / Mult = 733 / 1899 = 0.39

From fig. 11(b) : LT((yc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5 = 110

giving LT = 127

LT = le k4 / ry

approx le = (11057.1) / (0.90.940.81) = 9166

Hence ke maximum = 9166 / 9000 = 1.018

cl.9.6.2(a)

2 3 4

ke = 1/[1-(60EtftRv/(W[L/ry] ))]

Rv/W = 0.5 (load causing max moment in beam)

E = 205 000 (cl.6.6)

tf = 25.4

= 1.0

= 0.81

L/ry = 9000 / 57.1

Hence max t = 0.000378 mm

cl.9.14.2.1

Effective section for bearing stiffener :

The ends of bearing stiffeners should be closely fitted or adequately connected to

both flanges (cl.9.14.1). Hence the compressive edge of the bearing stiffener is fully

restrained at the point of maximum bending. Therefore yield stress can be developed in

both tension and compression edges of the bearing stiffener (LT = 0).

cl.9.14.2.1

Deflection of cantilever :

t = F a3 / 3 E I

0.000378 = 1(744.2)3 / (320500 I )

I = 1.773 106 mm4

I of end stiffener :

I = 25015.63/12 + t2503/12

t min = 1.3 mm

Use at least 10mm plate hence OK

Try 10mm end plate and check bearing stiffener :

I = 25015.63/12 + 102503/12 = 13.1106 mm4

t = 1(744.2)3 / (320500013.1106) = 5110-6 mm/N

cl.9.12.5

End stiffeners have to be provided to support the compression flange for a pinned end

condition (k1 = 1.0 in cl.9.6.2).

cl.9.12.5.2.2

2

Fs1 = 0.005(M/(df{1-(fc/ci) }))

df = 769.6 - 25.4 = 744mm

fc = M / Zxc = 608106 / 6.234106 = 97.5 N/mm2

ci = 2ES/LT2

S = Zpe/Zxc = 7.167 / 6.234 = 1.15

ci = 2 205000 1.15 / 1082 = 199 N/mm2

Fs1 = 0.005(608106/(744{1-(97.5/199)2}))10-3

Fs1 = 5.4 kN

cl.9.12.5.2.3

Fs2 = (e1 + e2)fc / ((ci - fc))

e1 = e2 = D/200 = 769.6 / 200 = 3.848

=1

= 2t = 2 5110-6 = 0.102 10-3

ci is to be determined using le from 9.6.4.1.1.2b).

le = k2(EIc(e1+e2)/L)0.5

Ic = 25.4 2683 / 12 = 40.7 106

le = 1.0(205000 40.7 106 2 51 10-6 / 9000)0.5 = 967mm

F = (le/ry)(tf/D) = (967/57.1)(25.4/769.6) = 0.559

= 0.993 (From Table 9)

LT = lek4/ry = 967 0.9 1.0 0.993 / 57.1 = 15.1

ci = 2ES/LT2

ci = 2 205000 1.15 / 15.12 = 10205 N/mm2

Fs2 = 3.848 97.5 / ((10205 - 97.5) 0.102 10-3) 10-3

Fs2 = 0.4 kN

cl.9.12.5.2.4

Assume no camber is provided to the beams and the bearings are aligned square to the

longitudinal axis of the beam, then :

Fs3 = RdL(/D+Ltan)/D

=0

R = 60 9 / 2 = 270 kN

dL = 810 say (allow 40mm for depth of bearing)

Fs3 = 270 0.81 ( 1/200 ) / 0.77 = 1.4 kN

cl.9.12.5.2.5

Bearings are aligned square to the longitudinal axis of the beam :

Hence Fs4 = 0

cl.9.12.5.2.1

Fs = 5.4 + 0.4 + 1.4 + 0 = 7.2 kN

Allowing additional effect for wind load ( which is generally small compared to Fs ) then

say Fs = 9 kN

Moment at base of stiffener = 9 ( D - 1.5 tf )

M = 9 ( 769.6 - 1.5 25.4 ) 10-3 = 6.6 kNm

Bending capacity of stiffener = Zxc yc / (m f3)

MD = 6.6 106 = Zxc 265 / ( 1.2 1.1 )

Zxc = 32.9 103 mm3

cl.9.14.2.1(c)

Portion of web plate = 16tw= 16 15.6 = 250mm

Zxc = tstiffener 2502/6 + 250 15.62/6

Hence tstiffener = 2.2mm < 10mm therefore 10mm plate is satisfactory.

Use 762 267 197 kg/m UB with 10mm thick end bearing stiffener.

cl.9.9.2.2

web thickness = 15.6mm

dwe = 685.8mm

= (dwe/tw)*(yw/355)0.5

= (685.8/15.6)*(265/355)0.5 = 38

From Figures 11 to 17 l/y = 1

Note: if < 56 then l/y = 1

Transverse web stiffeners will not improve the shear strength of the web.

l = y = yw/1.732 = 153 N/mm2

VD = (tw(dw - hh)/(m f3))l

dw = D = 769.6

hh = 0

f3 = 1.1 (Clause 4.3.3)

m = 1.05 (Table 2)

VD = ((15.6 * 769.6)/(1.05 * 1.1)) * 153 * 10-3 kN

VD = 1590 kN 270 kN Hence Section OK

Shear failure of a beam, with transverse web stiffeners, develops in three stages :

[Hold the mouse pointer over the diagrams for animation effects. (Scripts must be allowed to run

in Internet Explorer)]

Stage 2 A diagonal tension field is developed when the web has buckled.

Stage 3 Plastic hinges develop in the flanges which produce a mechanism for collapse to occur.

When the web buckles, at the limit of stage 1, the diagonal compressive stress in the web is

assumed to be at at its maximum. The diagonal tensile stress is usually far from its maximum at

this stage. If transverse web stiffeners are provided then the beam can carry additional load by

The web forms the tie members of the truss (with its spare tensile capacity), whilst the transverse

stiffeners form the strut members. The formation of this truss action is referred to in the Code as

The top and bottom flanges act as the top and bottom chords of the truss. Bending of these

members is increased as the tension in the web increases. Failure occurs when plastic hinges form

Figures 11 to 17 in the Code enable the web to be designed to achieve an ultimate capacity

utilising this mechaism failure. The term mfw in the graphs represents the plastic moment of

resistance of the flanges. If Figure 11 (mfw = 0) is used for design then this will ensure that the

The design rules for determining the initial web section are :

Use Figure 11 (mfw = 0); this ensures that the flanges are prevented from buckling by

BD 56/10

Problem:

Based on the moment capacity, what is the live load rating of a riveted plate girder with U-frame

restraint. ?

Example:

Carriageway = 6m wide

Cross Girders :

Web stiffeners are positioned at each cross girder and consist of 12mm gusset plates with 89 89

The main girders are bedded on 508 1118 12mm thick plates on large masonry pad stones.

Records show that the bridge was built in 1925 so, from BD 21/01 Clause 4.3, the matal shall be

BD 21/01

Dead Load :

Cl. 4.1. Table 4.1.

69822mm2/m

Cross Girder self weight :

21638mm2/m

Infill concrete :

= 2Sin-1(635/700) = 130

Depth of Road construction above jack arch = (800 - 12 - 508 - 19) = say 260mm

Weight of verges (above fill) = 0.2 2300(Asphalt) 9.81 10-3 = 4.51 kN/m2

Verges = 1.2 4.51 = 5.41 kN/m2

The load path for distributed loads on the deck to the main girders is via the cross girders. These

loads could be represented more accurately by point load reactions at the end of the cross girders,

however it will be sufficiently accurate to represent them as uniformly distributed loads to simplify

the calculation.

Reactions from the loads applied as a unifomly distributed load to each main girder:

Uniformly distributed reactions from the surfacing and verge loads to each main girder:

BD 56/10

Cl. 16A Fig. 16.1A

The Effective Span (not to be confused with the effective length e) of the main girders, for

calculating the load effects only , may be determined by calculating the position of the 'Centroid of

Pressure' in accordance with the pressure diagram shown in Fig. 16.1A of BD 56/10.

Maximum Mid span Dead Load Moment = 75.85 17.7252 / 8 = 2980 kNm

Cl. 9.6.4.1.3

Assume only web stiffeners with gusset plates, at 3.251m centres, are effective in restraining the

compression flange.

Note: The 'T' stiffeners will act as web stiffeners but are unlikely to be strong enough to resist U-frame

forces FR and Fc (calculated below).

I1 = IXX:

1.056109mm4

B = 8148mm

R = [17663 / (3 205000 144.643 106)] + [0.5 8148 20172 / (205000 1.056 109)]

Cl. 9.6.4.1.1.2

From Clause 9.6.4.1.3:

R = 3251mm

a)

1 = (EIc RR)0.25

3

= 1 / (2EIce, max)

e = k2k3k5 1

b)

Cl. 9.7.1c)

Where intermediate restraints are not fully effective then, in accordance with Cl. 9.6.4.1.1.2 the

Hence L / w = Integer(1.97) = 1

w = L = 17068mm

Cl. 9.7.2

LT = e k4 / ry

Ix (gross) = 74.270109 mm4

ry (gross) = 111 mm

h = 2286 + 38 = 2324 mm

k4 = [{4Z2pe(1-Iy/Ix)}/(A2h2)]1/4

Figure 10

A value of < 1.0 can be obtained from Figure 10b) using Example 4 then:

MB / MA = 0

MA / MM = 0

Table 9 Note 3

= [{4i(1-i)+0.05F2+ i2}0.5+i]-0.5

Cl. 9.8

Hence Mult = the least of Zxc yc or Zxt yt (Web and flanges assumed to be of same steel grade

Annex G G.8

= 0.935

9.9.1.2

MD = MR / mf3

4.3.3

m = 1.05

f3 = 1.1

Cl. 9.6.4.1.3

NOTE: The effective length e has been calculated assuming that the U-frames comply with Clause

BD 21/01

The live load capacity of the main girder for bending at mid span = MD - Dead Load Moment

Cl. 5.6

Cl. 5.18

KEL = 120 kN

Cl. 5.22

High Traffic Flows and Poor Road Surfacing (Hp Traffic Condition)

Cl. 5.23

Cl. 5.25

Cl. 5.36(a)

Cl. 5.37

Footway Live Load for elements supporting footways and carriageway = 0.8 5 = 4.0 kN/m2

Cl. 5.26

Adjusted HA UDL and KEL shall be applied to a 2.5m width within the lane for the worst effect:

Proportion the live load UDL's to each main girder as uniformly distributed reactions.

W2 = 30.54 kN/m

Cl. 3.7. Table 3.1

HA UDL and KEL positioned in the notional lane as shown above will produce the worst load effects

Live Load Capacity of Main Girder = 6454 kNm > 2701 kNm Hence mid span section OK for

bending effects providing that the U-frames comply with Clause 9.12.3.

Note: If the moment capacity of the girder is insufficient for the dead + live load moment then a suitable

K factor (Clause 5.25) will need to be applied to the live live moment. The live load moment of 2701

kNm already includes a K factor of 0.91 so the revised K factor needs to be applied to the full moment of

2701 / 0.91 = 2968 kNm.

BD 56/10

Cl. 9.12.3.1

The cross members of each U frame may be assumed to be restrained by the concrete infill against

Cl. 9.12.3.2

Strength: U-frames need to be checked for force FR (plus wind load if critical) calculated from

Clause 9.12.2. Also a force Fc, from Clause 9.12.3.3, resulting from loads on the cross member,

Cl. 9.12.2

2

[ fc / ( ci - fc )] (n + 1)EIc / (16.7n R )

w = 17068 mm

R = 34.189 10-5

R = 3251 mm

LT = 58.34

2ES

ci = / LT2 = 2

205000 0.982 / 58.342 = 584 N/mm2

10-5) = 14.5 kN

2)

[ fc / ( ci - fc )] (n + 1)EIc / (16.7n R = [ 94.8 / (584 - 94.8)] (5 + 1) 205000 415

Cl. 9.12.3.3

Fc = d2 / [ 1.5R + { 3 / (12EIc)} ]

R

is the difference in rotation between a cross member and the mean rotations of the cross

As the dead load and HA UDL will have a similar effect on the rotaion for all cross members then

The KEL however will be applied to only one cross member so we need to determine for the KEL

To calculate we can use the Moment Area theorem which states: The change in slope of the

deflected shape of a beam between points A and B (A at end and B at mid-span) is equal to the

area under the M/EI diagram between those two points.

The bending moment M at the centre of the cross girder with the two KEL in the lanes at W2

shown above:

Mid-span moment M = [100.4 4.074] - [112.2 {1.25 + (4.074 - 3.004)}2 / (2.5 2)] = 288

kNm

= Area of M/EI diagram between mid-span and end = 2 4074 288 6 / (3 205000

d2 = 2017 mm

R = 34.189 10-5

R = 3251 mm

Fc = 3.613 10-3 2017 10-3 / [ 1.5 34.189 10-5 + { 32513 / (12 205000 415 106)}

] = 13.3 kN

Cl. 9.12.3.2

Wind loading should be calculated in accordance with Clause 5.3 of BD 37/01 however a value of

6 kN/m2 may be used for general cases (see Clause 5.3.1 of BD 37/01).

Note: Wind loading is Combination 2 loading which has a fL = 1.25 for HA loading instead of 1.5 as used

above, so FR and Fc may be reduced when combined with wind load. However continue with the

calculated values for the example.

Moment in stiffener at top of cross girder = (27.8 1.766) + (46.1 0.604) = 77 kNm

IXX = 144.643106mm4

IYY = 9 2883/12 + 24 1903/12 + 154 363/12 + 321 123/12 = 32.279 106 mm4

Cl. 9.7.3.2

34tw /m (355/yw) = [34 12 / 0.5] [(355/230)] = 1014 > 508 hence section is compact

Cl. 9.6.4 Table 8

Cl. 9.7.2

LT = e k4 / ry

t f = 0 F = 0 and = 1.0

k4 = 1.0

Figure 10b)

MA = -M and MM = MB = 0:

LT = 2472 0.76 / 44 = 43

Cl. 9.8

e / w =1

Zpe = 2 [ (12 2542 / 2) + (24 93.52 / 2) + (154 16.52 / 2) + (98 16.52 / 2) = 1.053

106 mm3

LT = 2472 0.76 / 44 = 43

Figure 11

MR / Mult = 0.94

Cl. 9.9.1.2

197 > 77 the intermediate stiffeners are strong enough to restrain the main girder compression

Cl. 9.12.5.1

The main girders also need to be restrained at their supports.

Note: Where the restraint provided is less than required to resist force FS then the slenderness

parameter LT must be modified as described in the addition to Clause 6.1 in BD 56/10.

Cl. 9.12.5.2.1

Cl. 9.12.5.2.2

M = 5681 kNm

fc = 94.8 N/mm2

ci = 584 N/mm2

Cl. 9.12.5.2.3

= 1.0

= t1 + t2

FS2 = 1.0 2 11.7 94.8 10-3/ ({584 - 94.8} 12.4 10-5) = 36.6 kN

Cl. 9.12.5.2.4

FS3 = 0 as the load is applied directly through the bottom flange and bearing plate

Cl. 9.12.5.2.5

Cl. 9.12.5.2.6

FL = d2 / [2.5R + (e / 2) + { 3 / (3EIc)}]

R

d2 = 2017 mm

R = e = 34.189 10-5 mm

R = 3251mm

FL = 2017 3.613 10-3 10-3 / [(2.5 34.189 10-5) + (34.189 10-5 / 2) + {32513 / (3

Add in wind effects as for the internal U-frame, this is over-estimated as the end U-frames are

closer together.

Moment in stiffener at top of cross girder = (55.6 1.766) + (46.1 0.604) = 126 kNm

Capacity of end stiffener is the same as the internal stiffener = 197 kNm > 126 end U-frame is

adequate.

Having established that the U-frames are adequate then the main girder mid span section is able

carry the full range of vehicles up to 40/44 tonnes gross weight as described in BD 21/01.

Note: All sections of the girder where plate sizes change (flange curtailment for example) or where

corrosion has reduced the plate thickness, need to be checked for adequacy. Web plates also need

to checked for shear effects; joints need to considered to ensure they can transfer loads to the

relevant elements.

The live load capacity is determined by the weakest element in the bridge and a comprehensive

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