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Bending Capacity of Steel Beams to BS 5400 Pt.

Beams in bending develop tension and compression in their flanges. The bending capacity of the

beam is limited by how much force can be carried by each flange.

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The tension flange acts like the string in an archer's bow and the maximum force that can be

developed is limited only by the yield stress of the flange material.

The compression flange acts like a strut and is susceptible to buckling before yield stress can be

developed. Unless the compression flange is fully restrained then the beam may fail by lateral

torsional buckling.

Lateral torsional buckling.

Clause 9.6.1 says if the second moment of area of a cross-section about the axis of bending (axis

Y-Y in diagram below) is smaller than that about an axis perpendicular to it (axis X-X), the cross-

section as a whole is stable against overall lateral torsional buckling and its effective length e may

be taken as zero.
Clause 9.6.1 requires all beams to be restrained at their supports. The strength and stiffness of

the restraints are checked using clause 9.12.5.

The restraint is required to hold the compression flange in place and is usually provided at the

support by use of the bearing stiffeners and a suitable bearing and/or a bracing system.

Clause 9.12.5 Restraint at support.

The restraining system is designed to resist the force FS (or FS + FL in the case of U-frames

subjected to vertical loading on cross-beams) together with any coexistent forces such as wind or

frictional forces.

The strength of the end restraint to resist FS is considered in isolation to the main beam(s) and

any distribution effects along the length of the beam(s) are ignored.
Where only the bearing stiffener provides the torsional restraint {case (a)} then the stiffener has

to be designed in accordance with Clause 9.14 as a load bearing support stiffener as well as

satisfying the stiffness criteria of Clause 9.12.5.3. In cases (b) and (c) a bearing stiffener may be

provided independently or incorporated into the restraining system.

The design procedure for checking a beam section is :

i. From Clause 9.6

Determine the effective length ( e) based on the support condition of the compression

flange. The Code requires the compression flange to be supported laterally at the beams

supports in accordance with Clause 9.12.5. This ensures that the compression flange can

be assumed to have at least a pinned end support so the maximum k1 (Clause 9.6.2) that

may be assumed is 1.0 for non-cantilever beams. If end diaphragms are provided to

prevent the compression flange from rotating in plan then a smaller value of k1can be

used.

Rotational end restraint.

1. Intermediate restraints to the compression flange can be provided to further reduce the

effective length of the beam.

2. These can take the form of:

a. Plan bracing

b. Torsional bracing

c. U-Frames

3. a) Plan Bracing

4. This is only generally used as temporary bracing as it obstructs the deck construction on

top of the beams. If the bracing is located on the underside of the compression flange then

it is difficult to paint, for maintenance purposes, once the deck is in place.


5. Clause 9.12.2a requires plan bracing to be able to resist force FR + any wind and other

laterally applied forces.

3
1. If the plan bracing is fully effective {i.e. R R / (40 EIc) in accordance with Clause

9.6.4.1.1.1} then e = R

otherwise e has to be calculated using Clause 9.6.4.1.1.2.

2.

b) Torsional Bracing (Clause 9.12.2b)

Intermediate torsional bracing does not prevent the compression flange from moving

laterally, but provides additional stiffness to resist the torsional displacement.

Some of the common types of bracing in use are shown below.


1. Beams are often braced together in pairs before lifting on to their supports; this makes

them stable during contruction.

If the deck slab is designed to restrain the compression flange, as in composite decks with

shear connectors, then the intermediate bracing will be redundant when the deck is

complete. The cost of removing the bracing and repairing the steelwork protection system

is usually more expensive than the reclaim value of the steelwork and is therefore usually

left in place. If the bracing is left in place then it will pick up load when the beams deflect

under traffic loading and will therefore need to be checked for this loading condition.

Torsional restraints need to be checked in accordance with Clause 9.12.2b to be capable of

resisting two transverse forces FR applied to the flanges.

The effective length e is then calculated using Clause 9.6.4.1.2.

2.

c) U-Frames

U-frames are a characteristic of the 'Half Through' deck construction. The 'U' shape of the

U-frame is formed by two vertical web stiffeners and the deck cross beam. The web

stiffeners are attached to the compression flanges of the main edge girders and are able to

resist the lateral buckling movement of the flange (see Clause 9.12.3.1).

The stiffness of the U-frame is evaluated by adding the stiffness of its components due to a

unit force acting at the level of the compression flange and is determined using Clause

9.6.4.1.3:

R = d13 / 3EI1 + uBd22 / EI2 + fd22

i. The deflection of the web stiffener acting as a cantilever (i = d13 / 3EI1).

ii. The effect from the cross beam bending (ii = uBd22 / EI2).
iii. The flexibility of the joint between the cross beam and the vertical stiffeners (iii =

fd22).

R = i + ii + iii

For end U-frames: e = i + ii + iii

1. The effective length e is then calculated using Clause 9.6.4.1.1.2 with R equal to the

intermediate U-frame spacing.

An example of determining the effective length for beams with U-frame restraint is given

in the workshop section for BD 56/10 (The Assessment of Steel Highway Bridges).

ii. From Clause 9.7

Determine the slenderness (LT) using the geometrical parameters of the beam.

iii. From Clause 9.8

Determine the limiting moment of resistance (MR).

iv. From Clause 9.9

Determine the bending capacity (MD)

v. From Clause 9.12.5

Determine the strength of the end restraint to provide adequate support to the

compression flange.
Steel Beam Design Example to British Standards

Beam Design to BS 5400 Part 3 : 2000


This example will illustrate the procedures to design a steel beam to BS 5400 Part 3.
The concrete deck and live loading are included to demonstrate the use of load factors
only, they do not represent a solution for a deck design.

Problem:
Design a simply supported beam which carries a 150mm thick concrete slab together
with a nominal live load of 10.0 kN/m2 . The span of the beam is 9.0m centre to centre
of bearings and the beams are spaced at 3.0m intervals. The slab will be assumed to be
laid on top of the beams with no positive connection to the compression flange.

conc. = 24kN/mm3

Loading per beam (at 3.0m c/c)


Nominal Dead Loads :
slab = 24 0.15 3.0 = 10.8 kN/m
beam = say 2.0 kN/m
Nominal Live Load : = 10 3.0 = 30 kN/m

Load factors for ultimate limit state from BS 5400 Part 2 Table 1:
Dead Load:
fL steel = 1.05
fL concrete = 1.15
Live Load:
fL HA = 1.50

Total load for ultimate limit state:


= (1.15 10.8)+(1.05 2.0)+ (1.5 30) = 60 kN/m
Design ultimate moment = 60 9.02 / 8 = 608 kNm
Design ultimate shear = 60 9.0 / 2 = 270 kN

BS 5400 Pt. 3
1) Design for Bending
Use BS EN 10 025 steel grade S275, then nominal yield stress y = 265 N/mm2
Approximate modulus required:
= M m f3 / y
= 608 1.2 1.1 106 / 265 = 3.03 106 mm3
Try a 610 229 125kg/m UB (Z = 3.222 106, Zp = 3.677 106)
cl.9.3.7
Check for compact section:
cl.9.3.7.2
web:
web depth = 547; and m = 0.5
34tw(355/yw)0.5/m = 34 11.9 (355/265)0.5/0.5 = 937
547 < 937 web OK
cl.9.3.7.3.1
compression flange:
bfo = (229 - 11.9 - 2*12.7)/2 = 96
7tfo(355/yf)0.5 = 7 19.6 (355/265)0.5 = 159
96 < 159 flange OK
Hence section is compact.

cl.9.6
Determine Effective Length:
cl.9.6.2

le = k1 k2 ke
k1 L = 1.0 (flange is free to rotate in plan)
k2 = 1.0 (load is not free to move laterally)
ke = 1.0 (check later for initial value)
L= 9000mm
le = 1.0 1.0 1.0 9000 = 9000mm

cl.9.7
Slenderness:
cl.9.7.1
Half wavelength of buckling = lw = L = 9000mm
Mpe = Zpe yc
Mpe = 3.677 106 265 10-6 = 974kNm
cl.9.7.2
LT = le k4 / ry
k4 = 0.9
= 0.94 (From Fig. 9(b): MA/MM = MB/MA = 0)
F = le/ry(tf/D)
F = 9000/49.6 (19.6/611.9) = 5.81
i = Ic/(Ic+It)
i = 0.5
= 0.78 (from Table 9)
LT = 9000 0.9 0.94 0.78 / 49.6 = 120
cl.9.8.
Limiting moment of resistance: LT ((yc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5
Section is compact, hence Mult = Mpe = 974kNm
LT ((yc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5 = 120 ((265/355)(974/974))0.5 = 104
le/ lw = 1.0
From Fig.11(b) : MR/Mult = 0.42
MR = 0.42 Mult = 0.42 974 = 409 kN/m

cl.9.9.1.2
MD = MR /m f3
MD = 409 / (1.2 1.1) = 310 kNm < 608 kNm
hence section too small.
{Note: If the compression flange is cast into the deck slab then le = 0 (cl.9.6.4.2.1)
which results in
MR = Mult = 974 kNm giving MD = 974 / (1.2 1.1) = 738 kNm > 608 kNm}
Approx. Zpe required = 608/310 3.677106 = 7.21 106 mm4
Use a 762 267 197kg/m UB
Zpe = 7.167 106 mm3
Mpe = 7.167 106 265 10-6
Mpe = Mult = 1899kNm
Repeating the procedure above will show :
Section is compact
F = 5.2
= 0.81
LT = 108
MR/Mult = 0.51
MD = 733 kNm > 608 hence OK
Check effect of assuming ke = 1 (cl.9.6.4.2.1)
MD / Mult = 733 / 1899 = 0.39
From fig. 11(b) : LT((yc/355)(Mult/Mpe))0.5 = 110
giving LT = 127
LT = le k4 / ry
approx le = (11057.1) / (0.90.940.81) = 9166
Hence ke maximum = 9166 / 9000 = 1.018
cl.9.6.2(a)
2 3 4
ke = 1/[1-(60EtftRv/(W[L/ry] ))]
Rv/W = 0.5 (load causing max moment in beam)
E = 205 000 (cl.6.6)
tf = 25.4
= 1.0
= 0.81
L/ry = 9000 / 57.1
Hence max t = 0.000378 mm
cl.9.14.2.1
Effective section for bearing stiffener :
The ends of bearing stiffeners should be closely fitted or adequately connected to
both flanges (cl.9.14.1). Hence the compressive edge of the bearing stiffener is fully
restrained at the point of maximum bending. Therefore yield stress can be developed in
both tension and compression edges of the bearing stiffener (LT = 0).
cl.9.14.2.1

Deflection of cantilever :
t = F a3 / 3 E I
0.000378 = 1(744.2)3 / (320500 I )
I = 1.773 106 mm4
I of end stiffener :
I = 25015.63/12 + t2503/12
t min = 1.3 mm
Use at least 10mm plate hence OK
Try 10mm end plate and check bearing stiffener :
I = 25015.63/12 + 102503/12 = 13.1106 mm4
t = 1(744.2)3 / (320500013.1106) = 5110-6 mm/N
cl.9.12.5
End stiffeners have to be provided to support the compression flange for a pinned end
condition (k1 = 1.0 in cl.9.6.2).
cl.9.12.5.2.2
2
Fs1 = 0.005(M/(df{1-(fc/ci) }))
df = 769.6 - 25.4 = 744mm
fc = M / Zxc = 608106 / 6.234106 = 97.5 N/mm2
ci = 2ES/LT2
S = Zpe/Zxc = 7.167 / 6.234 = 1.15
ci = 2 205000 1.15 / 1082 = 199 N/mm2
Fs1 = 0.005(608106/(744{1-(97.5/199)2}))10-3
Fs1 = 5.4 kN
cl.9.12.5.2.3
Fs2 = (e1 + e2)fc / ((ci - fc))
e1 = e2 = D/200 = 769.6 / 200 = 3.848
=1
= 2t = 2 5110-6 = 0.102 10-3
ci is to be determined using le from 9.6.4.1.1.2b).
le = k2(EIc(e1+e2)/L)0.5
Ic = 25.4 2683 / 12 = 40.7 106
le = 1.0(205000 40.7 106 2 51 10-6 / 9000)0.5 = 967mm
F = (le/ry)(tf/D) = (967/57.1)(25.4/769.6) = 0.559
= 0.993 (From Table 9)
LT = lek4/ry = 967 0.9 1.0 0.993 / 57.1 = 15.1
ci = 2ES/LT2
ci = 2 205000 1.15 / 15.12 = 10205 N/mm2
Fs2 = 3.848 97.5 / ((10205 - 97.5) 0.102 10-3) 10-3
Fs2 = 0.4 kN
cl.9.12.5.2.4
Assume no camber is provided to the beams and the bearings are aligned square to the
longitudinal axis of the beam, then :
Fs3 = RdL(/D+Ltan)/D
=0
R = 60 9 / 2 = 270 kN
dL = 810 say (allow 40mm for depth of bearing)
Fs3 = 270 0.81 ( 1/200 ) / 0.77 = 1.4 kN
cl.9.12.5.2.5
Bearings are aligned square to the longitudinal axis of the beam :
Hence Fs4 = 0
cl.9.12.5.2.1
Fs = 5.4 + 0.4 + 1.4 + 0 = 7.2 kN
Allowing additional effect for wind load ( which is generally small compared to Fs ) then
say Fs = 9 kN
Moment at base of stiffener = 9 ( D - 1.5 tf )
M = 9 ( 769.6 - 1.5 25.4 ) 10-3 = 6.6 kNm
Bending capacity of stiffener = Zxc yc / (m f3)
MD = 6.6 106 = Zxc 265 / ( 1.2 1.1 )
Zxc = 32.9 103 mm3
cl.9.14.2.1(c)
Portion of web plate = 16tw= 16 15.6 = 250mm
Zxc = tstiffener 2502/6 + 250 15.62/6
Hence tstiffener = 2.2mm < 10mm therefore 10mm plate is satisfactory.
Use 762 267 197 kg/m UB with 10mm thick end bearing stiffener.

2) Design for Shear


cl.9.9.2.2
web thickness = 15.6mm
dwe = 685.8mm
= (dwe/tw)*(yw/355)0.5
= (685.8/15.6)*(265/355)0.5 = 38
From Figures 11 to 17 l/y = 1
Note: if < 56 then l/y = 1
Transverse web stiffeners will not improve the shear strength of the web.
l = y = yw/1.732 = 153 N/mm2
VD = (tw(dw - hh)/(m f3))l
dw = D = 769.6
hh = 0
f3 = 1.1 (Clause 4.3.3)
m = 1.05 (Table 2)
VD = ((15.6 * 769.6)/(1.05 * 1.1)) * 153 * 10-3 kN
VD = 1590 kN 270 kN Hence Section OK

Shear Capacity of Steel Beams to BS 5400

The Code allows beams to be designed to fail at Ultimate Limit State.

Shear failure of a beam, with transverse web stiffeners, develops in three stages :

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Stage 1 Initially pure shear is developed within the unbuckled web.

Stage 2 A diagonal tension field is developed when the web has buckled.

Stage 3 Plastic hinges develop in the flanges which produce a mechanism for collapse to occur.
When the web buckles, at the limit of stage 1, the diagonal compressive stress in the web is

assumed to be at at its maximum. The diagonal tensile stress is usually far from its maximum at

this stage. If transverse web stiffeners are provided then the beam can carry additional load by

truss action (stage 2).

The web forms the tie members of the truss (with its spare tensile capacity), whilst the transverse

stiffeners form the strut members. The formation of this truss action is referred to in the Code as

"tension field action".

The top and bottom flanges act as the top and bottom chords of the truss. Bending of these

members is increased as the tension in the web increases. Failure occurs when plastic hinges form

in the flanges to produce a mechanism (stage 3).

Figures 11 to 17 in the Code enable the web to be designed to achieve an ultimate capacity

utilising this mechaism failure. The term mfw in the graphs represents the plastic moment of

resistance of the flanges. If Figure 11 (mfw = 0) is used for design then this will ensure that the

plastic hinges are not developed in the flanges.

The design rules for determining the initial web section are :

From Clause 9.9.2.2

Use Figure 11 (mfw = 0); this ensures that the flanges are prevented from buckling by

tension field action.

Use a transverse stiffener spacing to web depth ratio of 1.

Use a web thickness with reserve capacity.


BD 56/10

ASSESSMENT OF STEEL HIGHWAY BRIDGE STRUCTURES

Live Load rating of a plate girder with U-frame restraint.

Clause 9.6.4.1.3 Beams with U-frame restraints

Problem:

Based on the moment capacity, what is the live load rating of a riveted plate girder with U-frame

restraint. ?

Example:

Carriageway = 6m wide

Verges = 1m and 0.64m wide

Construction Depth at Verges = 0.9m

Construction Depth at Carriageway = 0.8m

Main Girders - Mid Span Section:

Top and Bottom Flanges: 508 38mm plate

Web: 2286 9 mm plate

Main Girders - End Section:

Top and Bottom Flanges: 508 25mm plate

Web: 2286 11 mm plate

Flange Angles: 102 102 14mm


Cross Girders :

Top Flange: 254 19mm plate

Flange: 356 12 mm plate

Web: 508 9mm plate

Flange Angles: 89 89 12mm

Web stiffeners are positioned at each cross girder and consist of 12mm gusset plates with 89 89

12mm angles alternating with 127 76 11mm T's.

The main girders are bedded on 508 1118 12mm thick plates on large masonry pad stones.

Records show that the bridge was built in 1925 so, from BD 21/01 Clause 4.3, the matal shall be

assumed to be of steel with a characteristic yield strength of 230 N/mm2.

BD 21/01

Dead Load :
Cl. 4.1. Table 4.1.

Main Girder self weight :

Cross sectional area of plates and angles (from spreadsheet Sectionprop5610.xls) =

69822mm2/m

Allowing 10% for web stiffeners and gusset plates then:

Self weight = 69822 1.1 7850 9.81 10-9 = 5.91kN/m


Cross Girder self weight :

Cross sectional area of plates and angles (from spreadsheet Sectionprop5610.xls) =

21638mm2/m

Allowing 10% for fittings then:

Self weight = 21638 1.1 7850 9.81 10-9 = 1.83kN/m

Infill concrete :

Radius of jack arch = (6352 + 4052)/(2 405) = 700mm

= 2Sin-1(635/700) = 130

Area of arch = 0.5 r2( / 180 - Sin) = 0.368m2

Area of infill concrete = (1.626 - 0.009)(0.508 + 0.019) - 0.368 = 0.484m2

Weight of infill concrete = 0.484 2300 9.81 10-3 = 10.92kN/m

Depth of Road construction above jack arch = (800 - 12 - 508 - 19) = say 260mm

From Note to Table 3.1: surfacing depth = 100mm

Therefore fill depth = 260 - 100 = 160mm

Weight of fill = 0.16 2200(miscellaneous fill) 9.81 10-3 = 3.45kN/m2

Weight of surfacing = 0.1 2300(Asphalt) 9.81 10-3 = 2.26 kN/m2

Weight of verges (above fill) = 0.2 2300(Asphalt) 9.81 10-3 = 4.51 kN/m2

Cl. 3.7. Table 3.1

Applying Partial Load Factors fL we get:

Main girder self weight = 1.05 5.91 = 6.21 kN/m

Cross girder self weight = 1.05 1.83 = 1.92 kN/m

Concrete = 1.15 10.92 = 12.56 kN/m

Fill = 1.2 3.45 = 4.14 kN/m2

Surfacing = 1.75 2.26 = 3.96 kN/m2


Verges = 1.2 4.51 = 5.41 kN/m2

The load path for distributed loads on the deck to the main girders is via the cross girders. These

loads could be represented more accurately by point load reactions at the end of the cross girders,

however it will be sufficiently accurate to represent them as uniformly distributed loads to simplify

the calculation.

Reactions from the loads applied as a unifomly distributed load to each main girder:

Self Weight = 6.21 kN/m

Cross Girders = 1.92 8.148 / (2 1.626) = 4.81 kN/m

Concrete = 12.56 8.148 / (2 1.626) = 31.47 kN/m

Fill = 4.14 8.148 / 2 = 16.85 kN/m

Sub-Total = 59.34 kN/m

Uniformly distributed reactions from the surfacing and verge loads to each main girder:

North Main Girder:

Surfacing = 3.96 6.0 3.894 / 8.148 = 11.36 kN/m

North Verge = 5.41 1.0 7.394 / 8.148 = 4.91 kN/m

South Verge = 5.41 0.64 0.574 / 8.148 = 0.24 kN/m

Sub-Total = 16.51 kN/m

South Main Girder:

Surfacing = 3.96 6.0 4.254 / 8.148 = 12.40 kN/m

North Verge = 5.41 1.0 0.754 / 8.148 = 0.50 kN/m

South Verge = 5.41 0.64 7.574 / 8.148 = 3.22 kN/m

Sub-Total = 16.12 kN/m

Total Assessment Dead Load on each girder:

North Main Girder = 59.34 + 16.51 = 75.85 kN/m

South Main Girder = 59.34 + 16.12 = 75.46 kN/m

BD 56/10
Cl. 16A Fig. 16.1A

The Effective Span (not to be confused with the effective length e) of the main girders, for

calculating the load effects only , may be determined by calculating the position of the 'Centroid of

Pressure' in accordance with the pressure diagram shown in Fig. 16.1A of BD 56/10.

Effective Span (from spreadsheet EffectiveSpan.xls) = 17.725m


Maximum Mid span Dead Load Moment = 75.85 17.7252 / 8 = 2980 kNm

Cl. 9.6.4.1.3

Restraint to the compression flange is only provided by U-frames.

Assume only web stiffeners with gusset plates, at 3.251m centres, are effective in restraining the

compression flange.
Note: The 'T' stiffeners will act as web stiffeners but are unlikely to be strong enough to resist U-frame
forces FR and Fc (calculated below).

Effective width of web plate in stiffener = 16t = 16 9 = 144mm

I1 = IXX:

Gusset = 12 5083 / 12 = 131.097106mm4

Angles = 2(12 1873 + 77 333) / 12 = 13.540106mm4

Remaining web = 2 49 93 / 12 = 0.006106mm4

I1 = (131.097 + 13.540 + 0.006)106 = 144.643106mm4

I2 = second moment of area of cross girder (from spreadsheet EffectiveSpan.xls) = Ixxnet =

1.056109mm4

d1 = 38/2 + 2286 - (12 + 508 + 19) = 1766mm

d2 = 1766mm + depth to centroid of cross girder (ycnet)(from spreadsheet EffectiveSpan.xls) =

1766 + 251 = 2017mm

u = 0.5 for an outer girder

B = 8148mm

f = 0.510-10 for riveted cleat joint

E = 205000 N/mm2 (BD 21/01 Table 4.2)

R = (d13/3EI1) + (uBd22/EI2) + fd22

R = [17663 / (3 205000 144.643 106)] + [0.5 8148 20172 / (205000 1.056 109)]

+ 0.5 10-10 20172

R = 6.19210-5 + 7.65610-5 + 20.34110-5 = 34.18910-5


Cl. 9.6.4.1.1.2
From Clause 9.6.4.1.3:

R = 3251mm

e = e, max = R = 34.18910-5 (all U-frame stiffeners are the same)

a)

e = k2k3k5 1 but not less than k3 R nor greater than L

L = Distance between end U-frames = 19304 - (2 1118) = 17068mm

k2 = 1.0 (load applied via cross girder to bottom flange)

k3 = 1.0 (initial conservative assumption)

Ic = 38 5083 / 12 = 415 106mm4

1 = (EIc RR)0.25

1 = (205000 415 106 3251 34.18910-5)0.25 = 3118mm


3
= 1 / (2EIce, max)

= 31183 / (2 205000 415 106 34.18910-5) = 0.737

k5 = 2.22 + 0.69 / ( + 0.5) = 2.22 + 0.69 / (0.737 + 0.5) = 2.78

e = k2k3k5 1

e = 1.0 1.0 2.78 3118 = 8668mm

Minimum e = k3 R = 1.0 3251mm < 8668mm e = 8668mm (<17068)

b)

e = k2(EIc (e1 + e2) / L)1/2

e = 1.0 (205000 415 106 2 34.18910-5 / 17725)1/2 = 5691mm

e = The greater of (a) and (b) = 8668mm


Cl. 9.7.1c)

Where intermediate restraints are not fully effective then, in accordance with Cl. 9.6.4.1.1.2 the

definition for w (the half-wavelength of buckling) is:

L/ w = next integer below L / e but not less than 1.

L = Distance between end U-frames = 19304 - (2 1118) = 17068mm

L/ e = 17068 / 8668 = 1.97

Hence L / w = Integer(1.97) = 1

w = L = 17068mm
Cl. 9.7.2

LT = e k4 / ry

Section properties (from spreadsheet EffectiveSpan.xls)

Zpe (net) = 58.815106 mm3


Ix (gross) = 74.270109 mm4

Iy (gross) = 0.854109 mm4

A (gross) = 69822 mm2

ry (gross) = 111 mm

h = 2286 + 38 = 2324 mm

k4 = [{4Z2pe(1-Iy/Ix)}/(A2h2)]1/4

k4 = [{4 (58.815106)2 (1-0.854/74.270)} / (698222 23242)]1/4 = 0.85


Figure 10

A value of < 1.0 can be obtained from Figure 10b) using Example 4 then:

MB / MA = 0

MA / MM = 0

From Figure 10b) = 0.94

Ic = It i = Ic / (Ic + It) = 0.5 & i = 0.8(2i-1) = 0

F = ( w / ry)( tf / D) = (17068 / 111)(38 / {2286 + 238}) = 2.474


Table 9 Note 3

= [{4i(1-i)+0.05F2+ i2}0.5+i]-0.5

= [{4 0.5 (1 - 0.5) + 0.05 2.4742}0.5]-0.5 = 0.935

LT = 8668 0.85 0.94 0.935 / 111 = 58.34


Cl. 9.8

The section is Non-Compact (from spreadsheet EffectiveSpan.xls)

Hence Mult = the least of Zxc yc or Zxt yt (Web and flanges assumed to be of same steel grade

Zxw yw will not be critical)

Zxc (net) yc = 59.922106 230 10-6 = 13782 kNm

Zxt (net) yt = 50.671106 230 10-6 = 11654 kNm

Mult = 11654 kNm

Mpe = Zpe (net) yc = 58.815106 230 10-6 = 13527 kNm

LT[(yc/355)(Mult/ Mpe)]0.5= 58.34[(230/355)(11654/13527)]0.5 = 43.59


Annex G G.8

= LT[(yc/355)(Mult/ Mpe)]0.5 = 43.59

For Figure 11b): = 0.0035( - 30) = 0.0035(43.59 - 30) = 0.048

MR/Mult = 0.5[{1+(1+)5700/2}- ({1+(1+)5700/2}2-22800/2)0.5]

MR/Mult = 0.5[{1+(1+0.048)(5700/43.592)}-({1+(1+0.048)(5700/43.592)}2 - 22800/43.592)0.5]

= 0.935

MR = 0.933Mult = 0.935 11654 = 10896 kNm


9.9.1.2

MD = MR / mf3
4.3.3
m = 1.05

f3 = 1.1

MD = 10896 / (1.05 1.1) = 9434 kNm


Cl. 9.6.4.1.3

NOTE: The effective length e has been calculated assuming that the U-frames comply with Clause

9.12.3, this will need to be confirmed later.

BD 21/01

The live load capacity of the main girder for bending at mid span = MD - Dead Load Moment

Live Load Capacity = 9434 - 2980 = 6454 kNm


Cl. 5.6

Notional Lane Width bL = 6.0 / 2 = 3.0 m (2 Notional Lanes)


Cl. 5.18

HA UDL and KEL:

W = 336(1/L)0.67 = 336(1/17.725)0.67 = 49 kN/m (of 3.65m lane width)

KEL = 120 kN
Cl. 5.22

Assume worst conditions for reduction factor:

High Traffic Flows and Poor Road Surfacing (Hp Traffic Condition)

From Figure 5.2 K Factor = 0.91 for 40 tonne level.


Cl. 5.23

Adjustment Factor (AF) = aL / 2.5 = 3.65 / 2.5 = 1.46


Cl. 5.25

Adjusted HA UDL and KEL for a 2.5 metre width of lane:

UDL W = 0.91 49 / 1.46 = 30.54 kN/m

KEL = 0.91 120 / 1.46 = 74.8 kN


Cl. 5.36(a)

Footway Live Load = 5.0 kN/m2


Cl. 5.37

Footway Live Load for elements supporting footways and carriageway = 0.8 5 = 4.0 kN/m2
Cl. 5.26

Adjusted HA UDL and KEL shall be applied to a 2.5m width within the lane for the worst effect:
Proportion the live load UDL's to each main girder as uniformly distributed reactions.

W1 = 4.0 1.0 = 4 kN/m

W2 = 30.54 kN/m

W3 = 4.0 0.64 = 2.56 kN/m


Cl. 3.7. Table 3.1

Applying Partial Load Factor fL we get:

W1 = 1.5 4.0 = 6.0 kN/m

W2 = 1.5 30.54 = 45.81 kN/m

W3 = 1.5 2.56 = 3.84 kN/m

KEL = 1.5 74.8 = 112.2 kN

HA UDL and KEL positioned in the notional lane as shown above will produce the worst load effects

in the South Girder.

Hence total live load UDL on South Girder:

W1 = 6.0 0.754 / 8.148 = 0.56 kN/m

North Lane W2 = 45.81 3.004 / 8.148 = 16.89 kN/m

South Lane W2 = 45.81 6.004 / 8.148 = 33.76 kN/m

W3 = 3.84 7.574 / 8.148 = 3.57 kN/m

Total Live Load UDL = 54.78 kN/m

Similarly total point load from KEL's on South Girder:

KEL = 112.2 (3.004 + 6.004) / 8.148 = 124.04 kN

Maximum Mid span Live Load Moment:

M = 54.78 17.7252 / 8 + 124.04 17.725 / 4 = 2701 kNm

Live Load Capacity of Main Girder = 6454 kNm > 2701 kNm Hence mid span section OK for

bending effects providing that the U-frames comply with Clause 9.12.3.

Note: If the moment capacity of the girder is insufficient for the dead + live load moment then a suitable
K factor (Clause 5.25) will need to be applied to the live live moment. The live load moment of 2701
kNm already includes a K factor of 0.91 so the revised K factor needs to be applied to the full moment of
2701 / 0.91 = 2968 kNm.

BD 56/10
Cl. 9.12.3.1

The cross members of each U frame may be assumed to be restrained by the concrete infill against

movement in a direction normal to their compression flange.


Cl. 9.12.3.2
Strength: U-frames need to be checked for force FR (plus wind load if critical) calculated from

Clause 9.12.2. Also a force Fc, from Clause 9.12.3.3, resulting from loads on the cross member,

needs to be added to FR.


Cl. 9.12.2

FR = [ fc / ( ci - fc )] w / (667R) but not greater than


2
[ fc / ( ci - fc )] (n + 1)EIc / (16.7n R )

w = 17068 mm

R = 34.189 10-5

Ic = 415 106 mm4

R = 3251 mm

Zpe net = 58.815 106 mm3

Zxc net = 59.922 106 mm3

LT = 58.34

n = 5 (number of restraints in the half wavelength of buckling)

M = MDead + MLive = 2980 + 2701 = 5681 kNm

S = Zpe / Zxc = 58.815 / 59.922 = 0.982


2ES
ci = / LT2 = 2
205000 0.982 / 58.342 = 584 N/mm2

fc = M / Zxc = 5681 / 59.922 = 94.8 N/mm2

FR = [ fc / ( ci - fc )] w / (667R) = [ 94.8 / (584 - 94.8)] 17068 10-3 / (667 34.189

10-5) = 14.5 kN
2)
[ fc / ( ci - fc )] (n + 1)EIc / (16.7n R = [ 94.8 / (584 - 94.8)] (5 + 1) 205000 415

106 10-3 / (16.7 5 32512) = 112 kN

FR = 14.5 kN (< 112 kN)


Cl. 9.12.3.3

Fc = d2 / [ 1.5R + { 3 / (12EIc)} ]
R

is the difference in rotation between a cross member and the mean rotations of the cross

members on either side of it.

As the dead load and HA UDL will have a similar effect on the rotaion for all cross members then

for these loads = 0.

The KEL however will be applied to only one cross member so we need to determine for the KEL

only (average of adjacent members = 0).

To calculate we can use the Moment Area theorem which states: The change in slope of the

deflected shape of a beam between points A and B (A at end and B at mid-span) is equal to the
area under the M/EI diagram between those two points.

The bending moment M at the centre of the cross girder with the two KEL in the lanes at W2

shown above:

Reactionnorth = 112.2(5.144 + 2.144) / 8.148 = 100.4 kN

Mid-span moment M = [100.4 4.074] - [112.2 {1.25 + (4.074 - 3.004)}2 / (2.5 2)] = 288

kNm

It will be sufficiently accurate to assume a parabolic moment diagram as produced by a UDL.

= Area of M/EI diagram between mid-span and end = 2 4074 288 6 / (3 205000

1.056 109) = 3.613 10-3

d2 = 2017 mm

R = 34.189 10-5

Ic = 415 106 mm4

R = 3251 mm

Fc = 3.613 10-3 2017 10-3 / [ 1.5 34.189 10-5 + { 32513 / (12 205000 415 106)}

] = 13.3 kN
Cl. 9.12.3.2

FR + Fc = 14.5 + 13.3 = 27.8 kN

Wind loading should be calculated in accordance with Clause 5.3 of BD 37/01 however a value of

6 kN/m2 may be used for general cases (see Clause 5.3.1 of BD 37/01).

Wind load on face of girder (per U-frame) = 6 2.362 3.251 = 46.1 kN


Note: Wind loading is Combination 2 loading which has a fL = 1.25 for HA loading instead of 1.5 as used
above, so FR and Fc may be reduced when combined with wind load. However continue with the
calculated values for the example.

Moment in stiffener at top of cross girder = (27.8 1.766) + (46.1 0.604) = 77 kNm

Check bending capacity of stiffener:


IXX = 144.643106mm4

IYY = 9 2883/12 + 24 1903/12 + 154 363/12 + 321 123/12 = 32.279 106 mm4

Area = 288 9 + 499 12 + 4(89 + 77) 12 = 16548 mm2


Cl. 9.7.3.2

34tw /m (355/yw) = [34 12 / 0.5] [(355/230)] = 1014 > 508 hence section is compact
Cl. 9.6.4 Table 8

e = 1.4L = 1.4 1766 = 2472mm


Cl. 9.7.2

LT = e k4 / ry

t f = 0 F = 0 and = 1.0

k4 = 1.0
Figure 10b)

MA = -M and MM = MB = 0:

MA / MM = - and MB / MA = 0 then = 0.76

ry = (Iy/A) = ( 32.279 106 / 16548) = 44 mm

LT = 2472 0.76 / 44 = 43
Cl. 9.8

e / w =1

Mult = Mpe (section compact)

Zpe = 2 [ (12 2542 / 2) + (24 93.52 / 2) + (154 16.52 / 2) + (98 16.52 / 2) = 1.053

106 mm3

Mpe = Zpeyc = 1.053 106 230 10-6 = 242 kNm

LT = 2472 0.76 / 44 = 43

LT[(yc/355)(Mult/Mpe)] = 43 (230 / 355) = 35


Figure 11

MR / Mult = 0.94
Cl. 9.9.1.2

MD = MR / (mf3 = 0.94 242 / (1.05 1.1) = 197 kNm

197 > 77 the intermediate stiffeners are strong enough to restrain the main girder compression

flange by U-frame action.

Cl. 9.12.5.1
The main girders also need to be restrained at their supports.
Note: Where the restraint provided is less than required to resist force FS then the slenderness
parameter LT must be modified as described in the addition to Clause 6.1 in BD 56/10.
Cl. 9.12.5.2.1

Restraining force FS = FS1 + FS2 + FS3 + FS4


Cl. 9.12.5.2.2

FS1 = 0.005 M / [df {1 - ( fc / ci )2 } ]

M = 5681 kNm

df = 2286 + 25 = 2311 mm (25mm thick flanges at support)

fc = 94.8 N/mm2

ci = 584 N/mm2

FS1 = 0.005 5681 103 / [2311 {1 - ( 94.8 / 584 )2 }] = 12.7 kN


Cl. 9.12.5.2.3

FS2 = ( e1 + e2 ) fc /({ci - fc} )

= 1.0

e1 = e2 = D / 200 = (2286 + 50) / 200 = 11.7 mm

= t1 + t2

t = d13 / 3EI1 = 17663 / (3 205000 144.643106) = 6.2 10-5

= 2 6.2 10-5 = 12.4 10-5

FS2 = 1.0 2 11.7 94.8 10-3/ ({584 - 94.8} 12.4 10-5) = 36.6 kN
Cl. 9.12.5.2.4

FS3 = 0 as the load is applied directly through the bottom flange and bearing plate
Cl. 9.12.5.2.5

FS4 = 0 as there is no skew.


Cl. 9.12.5.2.6

FL = d2 / [2.5R + (e / 2) + { 3 / (3EIc)}]
R

d2 = 2017 mm

= 3.613 10-3 radians

R = e = 34.189 10-5 mm

R = 3251mm

Ic = 415 106 mm4

FL = 2017 3.613 10-3 10-3 / [(2.5 34.189 10-5) + (34.189 10-5 / 2) + {32513 / (3

205000 415 106)}] = 6.3 kN

FS + FL = 12.7 + 36.6 + 0 + 0 + 6.3 = 55.6 kN

Add in wind effects as for the internal U-frame, this is over-estimated as the end U-frames are

closer together.

Moment in stiffener at top of cross girder = (55.6 1.766) + (46.1 0.604) = 126 kNm

Capacity of end stiffener is the same as the internal stiffener = 197 kNm > 126 end U-frame is
adequate.

Having established that the U-frames are adequate then the main girder mid span section is able

carry the full range of vehicles up to 40/44 tonnes gross weight as described in BD 21/01.

Note: All sections of the girder where plate sizes change (flange curtailment for example) or where

corrosion has reduced the plate thickness, need to be checked for adequacy. Web plates also need

to checked for shear effects; joints need to considered to ensure they can transfer loads to the

relevant elements.

The live load capacity is determined by the weakest element in the bridge and a comprehensive

check of every element needs to be caried out.