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Experiment 1

Aim
To study different types of Network devices.

Network Devices
Networking equipment typically refers to devices facilitating the use of a computer network.
Computer networking devices are the units that allow data transfer in a computer network.
Hub
A hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect
segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to
the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.
Hubs and switches serve as a central connection for all of your network equipment and handle a data
type known as frames. Frames carry your data. When a frame is received, it is amplified and then
transmitted on to the port of the destination PC.

As shown in figure, the hub is a hardware device that contains multiple independent ports that match
the cable type of the network. Most common hubs interconnect category 3 or 5 twisted pair cable with
RJ-45 ends, although Coax BNC and Fibre Optics BNC hubs also exist.Hubs can be active or passive.
An active hubs strengthens and regenerates the incoming signals before sending the data on to its
destination, and Passive hubs do nothing with the signal.
Ethernet Hubs/ Repeater
An Ethernet hub is also called a multiport repeater. A repeater operates at the physical layer. It is a
device which is used to regenerate the signal over the same network before the signal becomes too
weak or corrupted so as to extend the length to which the signal can be transmitted over the same
network. An important point to be noted about repeaters is that they do no amplify the signal. When
the signal becomes weak, they copy the signal bit by bit and regenerate it at the original strength. It is
a 2 port device.
The hubs used on UTP Ethernet networks are repeaters as well, but they can have many RJ45 ports
instead of just two BNC connectors. When data enters in the hub through any of its ports, the hub
amplifies the signal and transmits it out through all of the other ports.
The maximum segment length for a UTP cable on an Ethernet network is 100 meters. A segment
length is defined as the distance between two communication computers. However, because the hubs
also function as a repeater, each of the cable connecting a computer to a hub port can be up to 100
meters long, allowing a segment length of up to 200 meters when one hub is inserted in the network.
Switches
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer
networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to
receive, process, and forward data to the destination device. Unlike less advanced network hubs, a
network switch forwards data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive it, rather than
broadcasting the same data out of each of its ports.

A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward
data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at the
network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality that most commonly uses
IP addresses to perform packet forwarding; such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or
multilayer switches.

Switch in the context of networking is a high-speed device that receives incoming data packets and
redirects them to their destination on a local area network (LAN). A LAN switch operates at the data
link layer (Layer 2) or the network layer of the OSI Model and, as such it can support all types of
packet protocol.

Bridges
A bridge is a type of computer network device that provides interconnection with other bridge
networks that use the same protocol. Bridges are also known as Layer 2 switches.
Bridge devices work at the data link layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model, connecting
two different networks together and providing communication between them. Bridges are similar to
repeaters and hubs in that they broadcast data to every node. However, bridges maintain the media
access control (MAC) address table as soon as they discover new segments, so subsequent
transmissions are sent to only to the desired recipient.
Router
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers
perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one
router to another router through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its
destination node.

A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in
on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine the ultimate
destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the
next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork.

The most familiar type of routers is at home and small office routers that simply pass IP packets
between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or
DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an Internet service provider (ISP). More
sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the
powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet
backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, software-based routers also exist.

B-Router

A brouter is a device that functions as both a bridge and a router. It can forward data between
networks (serving as a bridge), but can also route data to individual systems within a network (serving
as a router).The bridge router operates at the network and data link layer of the OSI Model.
The main purpose of a bridge is to connect two separate networks. It simply forwards the incoming
packets from one network to the next. A router, on the other hand, is more advanced since it can route
packets to specific systems connected to the router. A brouter combines these two functions by
routing some incoming data to the correct systems, while forwarding other data to another network. In
other words, a brouter functions as a filter that lets some data into the local network, while redirecting
unrecognized data to another network.

While the term "brouter" is used to describe bridge/router device, actual brouters are pretty rare.
Instead, most brouters are simply routers that have been configured to also function as a bridge. This
functionality can often be implemented using the router's software interface. For example, you may
configure a router to only accept data from specific protocols and data sources, while forwarding
other data to another network.

Since routers are more complex than bridges, it is more likely for router than a bridge to function as a
brouter. Therefore, brouters are also called bridging routers.

Gateways

A gateway is a data communication device that provides a remote network with connectivity to a host
network. A gateway device provides communication to a remote network or an autonomous system
that is out of bounds for the host network nodes. Gateways serve as the entry and exit point of a
network; all data routed inward or outward must first pass through and communicate with the gateway
in order to use routing paths. Generally, a router is configured to work as a gateway device in
computer networks.

Gateways operate at the network layer of the OSI model. It is used to connect networks using
different protocols.
Examples
E-mail gateways- a gateway that receives simple Mail transfer protocol (SMTP) e-mail,
translates it into a standard X.4000 format, and forwards it to its destination.
Gateways Service for NetWare (GSNW), which enables a machine running Microsoft
Windows NT Server or Windows Server to be a gateway for windows client so that they can
access file and print resources on NetWare server.
Gateways between a System Network Architecture (SNA) host and computers on a TCP/IP
network, such as the one provided by Microsoft SNA Server.
A packet assembler/disassemble (PAD) that provides connectivity between a local area
network (LAN) and an X.25 packet switching network.
EXPERIMENT 2

AIM
To Study IP address and its Classes.

SOFTWARE USED
CISCO Packet Tracer

THEORY

An IP address (abbreviation of Internet Protocol address) is an identifier assigned to each computer


and other device (e.g., printer, router, mobile device, etc.) connected to a TCP/IP network that is used
to locate and identify the node in communications with other nodes on the network.
An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each machine on an IP network. It Designates the
specific location of a device on the network.
An IP addressing was designed to allow host on one network to communicate with host on a different
regardless of the type pf LANs the host are participating in.

IP Terminology

There are Several important term vital to your understanding of the Protocol. Here are a few to get
you started:
Bit A bit in one digit. either a 1 or a 0.
Byte A byte is 7 or 8 bits, depending on whether parity is used. For the rest of this chapter, always
assume a byte is 8 bits.
octet An octet made up of 8 bits, is just an ordinary 8 bit binary number.
Network address This is the designation used in routing to send packet to a remote network. For
example, 10.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0 and 192.168.10.0.
Broadcast address This address used by application and hosts to send information to all nodes on a
network is called broadcast address. Examples include 255.255.255.255, which is any network, all
node;172.16.255.255, which is all subnets and hosts on an network 172.16.0.0 and 10.255.255.255,
which broadcast to all subnets and hosts on network 10.0.0.0.

The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme

An IP Address consists of 32 bits of information. These bits are divided into four sections referred to
as octets or bytes, each containing 1 byte(8 bits) you can get depict an IP address using one of three
method.
Dotted- decimal, as in 172.16.30.56
Binary, as in 101011000.000010000.000011110.00111000
Hexadecimal, as in AC.101E.38
The advantage of this scheme is that it can handle a large number of addresses, namely 4.3 billions (a
32-bits address space with two possible values of each position- either 0 or 1- gives you 232 , or
4.294.967.296).
The Designer of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32 bit no and this system, known as
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4).
Two Versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use ;IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. IP Address of
version 4 as a 32 bit no and IP version 6 using 128 bits for the address.
IP v6 Address : Generation of the internet Protocol, intended to replace IPv4 on the internet, was
eventually named Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in !995.
The address size was increased from 32 to 128 bits or 16 octets.
IPv6 has facilities that automatically change the routing prefix of entire networks.

Class Type

Net ID

Host ID

An IP Address has five different field length pattern each defining a class of address.
The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) manges the IP address space allocations globally to
allocate Ip address block to local Internet registries (Internet service Providers) and other entities.

Class Type | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||


Network ID Host ID

IP Address

Classes in IP Addressing
There are five different classes each executing a specific need.
Class A : Use one byte for Net Id and three byte for Host Id.
Class B : Use two byte for Net Id and two byte for Host Id.
Class C : Use three byte for Net Id and One byte for Host Id.
Class D : Reserved for multicasting.
Class E : Reserved for Future Use
Types Of IP Address

Dynamics address : Assigned on LANs and broadband networks by Dynamics Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) server.

It also allows many devices to share limited address space on a network if only some of them will be
online at a particular time. It is derived automatically from a range of address.

Static address : Manually input by network administration manageable for small networks requires
careful checks to avoid duplication convenient to servers inside an enterprise.

Concept Of Subnetting

Subnetting is the technique that allows network administration to dive one large network into smaller
logical networks and this control flow of traffic.

The world is running out of available IP addresses. There just isn't an unlimited of IP address
available and subnetting helps extend the existing addresses.

Subnet mask (255.0.0.0) is AND'd with the IP address(123.123.123.001) using Boolean Algebra,
which results in the Network ID (123.0.0.0) being revealed.
Experiment 3
Aim
To study different types of cables used for establishing a computer network

Theory
In order for the communication to take place, cables play important role. Cable is the medium through
which information usually moves from one network device to another. There are several types of
cable which are commonly used with LANs. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the
network's topology, protocol, and size.
There are various types of cables used in networks as follows.

Twisted Pair Cable


Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted
together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources;
for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk
between neighboring pairs.
In balanced pair operation, the two wires carry equal and opposite signals and the destination detects
the difference between the two. This is known as differential mode transmission. Noise sources
introduce signals into the wires by coupling of electric or magnetic fields and tend to couple to both
wires equally. The noise thus produces a common-mode signal which is cancelled at the receiver
when the difference signal is taken.

Coaxial Cables
Coaxial cable is a type of cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer,
surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cable used for
carrying lower-frequency signals, in that the dimensions of the cable are controlled to give a precise,
constant conductor spacing, which is needed for it to function efficiently as a transmission line.
Twin-lead transmission lines have the property that the electromagnetic wave propagating down the
line extends into the space surrounding the parallel wires. These lines have low loss, but also have
undesirable characteristics. They cannot be bent, tightly twisted, or otherwise shaped without
changing their characteristic impedance, causing reflection of the signal back toward the source
Optical Fiber
Optical fibers are used most often as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and
find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances
and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because
signals travel along them with lesser amounts of loss.
Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking because it is
flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance
communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to
electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters.

Copper Cross Over


A crossover cable connects two devices of the same type, for example DTE-DTE or DCE-DCE,
usually connected asymmetrically (DTE-DCE), by a modified cable called a crosslink. Such
distinction of devices was introduced by IBM.
The crossing wires in a cable or in a connector adaptor allows:

connecting two devices directly, output of one to input of the other,


letting two terminal (DTE) devices communicate without an interconnecting hub knot, i.e. PCs,
linking two or more hubs, switches or routers (DCE) together, possibly to work as one wider
device.
Crossover cable is generally used for hub-to-hub connections. The send and receive pairs are
crossed between Connector A to Connector B on either end of the cable.

Copper Straight Through


Straight-through cable is a type of twisted pair copper wire cable for local area network (LAN) use
forwhich the RJ-45 connectors at each end have the same pin-out .It is identical to crossover cable,
except that in the latter the wires on the cable are crossed over so that the receive signal pins on
the connector on one end are connected to the transmit signal pins on the connector on the other
end.
Straight-through cable is also commonly referred to as patch cable. However, this might be
confusing in some situations because patch cable also has a broader definition that emphasizes the
fact that there is a connector on each end rather than the equality (or lack thereof) of the pin-outs.
Straight-through cable is used to connect computers and other end-user devices (e.g., printers) to
networking devices such as hubs and switches.

Result

Different types of cables used for establishing computer network have been studied.
Experiment 4
Aim:
To implement file sharing from pc to another pc

Software Used
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.2

Procedure
Step 1: In the first pc ,right click on Local Disk D and open proprties.
Step 2: In properties go to the sharing option available on top right hand side and select Advanced
Setting.
Step 3: Then in permission select the options which you require i.e. for full sharing and control of file
select the options as shown below and select ok.
Step 4: On the second pc open command prompt and type ipconfig and enter username and password
if required. The file will be shared.
Step 5: The shared folder will appear. The files can be changed (created or deleted) according to the
permission given by the first pc.
Experiment 5
Aim
To implement remote desktop connection.

Software used
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.2 sv.

Procedure:
Step 1:Open to Control Panel go to System and Security then in system properties select the following
as shown in the screenshort.
Step 2: Go to start then to all programs and then in accessories select remote desktop connection and
enter the IP address.
Step 3: The computer may ask for password.
Step 4: The connection of the other desktop will be obtained in a few seconds.
Step 5: The desktop are shared .
Experiment 6
Aim
Study of Cisco Packet Tracer.

Theory
Packet Tracer is a cross-platform visual simulation tool designed by Cisco Systems that allows users
to create network topologies and imitate modern computer networks. The software allows users to
simulate the configuration of Cisco routers and switches using a simulated command line interface.
Packet Tracer makes use of a drag and drop user interface, allowing users to add and remove
simulated network devices as they see fit. The software is mainly focused towards Certified Cisco
Network Associate Academy students as an educational tool for helping them learn fundamental
CCNA concepts. Students enrolled in a CCNA Academy program can freely download and use the
tool free of charge for educational use.
In addition to simulating certain aspects of computer networks, Packet Tracer can also be used for
collaboration. As of Packet Tracer 5.0, Packet Tracer supports a multi-user system that enables
multiple users to connect multiple topologies together over a computer network. Packet Tracer also
allows instructors to create activities that students have to complete.Packet Tracer is often used in
educational settings as a learning aid. Cisco Systems claims that Packet Tracer is useful for network
experimentation.[5]
Interface Overview

When you open Packet Tracer, by default you will be presented with the following
interface:
This initial interface contains ten components. If you are unsure of what a
particular interface item does, move your mouse over the item and a help balloon
will explain the item.
Workspaces and Modes
Packet Tracer has two workspaces (Logical and Physical) and two modes (Realtime and Simulation).
Upon startup, you are in the Logical Workspace in Realtime Mode. You can build your network and
see it run in real time in this configuration. You can switch to Simulation Mode to run controlled
networking scenarios. You can also switch to the Physical Workspace to arrange the physical aspects
(such as the location) of your devices.
Experiment 7
Aim
To perform pc to pc communication using Cisco Packet Tracer.

Software used:
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.2 sv.

Procedure:
Step 1: Select two pcs from end devices.
Step 2 : Connect them through copper cross over wire (for similar devices) present in
connections and wait for green dot which means connection has been established between the
two pcs.
Step 3: Assign IP address to both the pc by double clicking the pc then selecting desktop and
then assign the IP address to first pc.
Step 4: Assign IP address to the other computer by following the steps mentioned above.
Step 5: Select the message icon present on the right side of screen and select both the pc one
by one .If success message is displayed below as shown in screenshot both the pc are
connected.
Step 6: click on simulation on bottom right side and then Auto Capture /Play to see the
message being shared between both the pc.
Step 7: Check status of the system by double clicking on pc and selecting command prompt.
In command prompt type ping IP address and press enter to see status.
Experiment 8(a)
Aim:
To create Network Topology using hub.

Software used:
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.2 sv.

Procedure:
Step 1 :Select a hub and four pc and connect them using copper straight through wire.The
green dots signify that the pc are connected to hub and then assign IP address to each pc.
Step 2: Select messege icon from right hand side and send messege from pc 3 to pc 1.The hub
first sends the message to all the pc from the source.
Step 3: The message will only be received by the desired destination that is pc 1 and other pc
reject it.
Step 4: The reply from the destination i.e. pc 1 will be send to all the other pc by the hub.
Step 5: The reply will only be received by pc 3 and other pc will reject it as shown.
Experiment 8(b)
Aim
To establish a mesh topology and verify it

Software Required
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.2

Procedure
1. Take 4 switch & 4 pc to establish the following network
2. Pass message from PC2 to PC3

3. Message is received at switch of PC2.

4. Message is received at switch of PC3


5. Message is received at PC5

Result
Mesh Topology has been verified.
Experiment 8(c)
Aim
To implement tree topology and pass message.

Software Used
Cisco Packet Tracer 6.2 sv.

Procedure
Step 1 : Select three switches and five pc connect the pc and switch using copper straight through wire
and the switches using copper cross over wire and assign IP addresses .
Step 2: The message is sent from pc 1 to pc 4.First the message travels from the source pc to its
switch which forwards the message.
Step 3: The switch receives the message from pc 1 and then checks whether the destination is in the
same network .
Step 4: The switch sends the message to the other switch of the another network.
Step 5 :The message is received by the switch.
Step 6: The switch delivers the message to the desired pc on other network.
Experiment 9
Aim
To establish a router configuration and verify it.

Software Required
Cisco Packet Tracer

Procedure
1. Select three routers from network devices of type 2811 for fast Ethernet transmission.
2. Provide ip addresses to all the ports of all the routers using the CLI.

Route>enable
Router>config terminal
Router(config)#int fastethernet 0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0
Router(config-if)#no shut
3. Establish connection between all devices using copper cross over cable .

4. Now send a message from. If all steps are followed correctly, message will be transferred
successfully.

Result
A router configuration has been established.