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Ollove (2016).

People sent to prison are generally less healthy than the general

population, having abused drugs and alcohol or neglected their health for many years.

Prisoners have much higher rates of cardiac disease, high blood pressure, hepatitis C,

diabetes and other chronic diseases than the general population. That is why corrections

officials consider that old age comes much sooner for prisoners. Furthermore, Prison is

a particularly treacherous place to get old. Getting to a top bunk is difficult for many aging

prisoners, as is climbing stairs. Hearing loss, dementia and general frailty can make it

difficult to comprehend or obey rules. And being infirm in an institution full of young

predators can make older prisoners vulnerable. States have had to install ramps and

shower handles and make other physical modifications. Many prisons have had to create

assisted living centers with full-time nursing staffs.

Michael Ollove(2016)

Zoukis (2013) Most inmates favor the cell configuration for a number of reasons.

In this setting, the housing unit consists of a large room or a hall with cells leading off of

it. Typically, the cells have doors on them. Thus, there is some sense of security and

personal dwelling. Depending on the local institution, the cell can house a single person

(this is very rare) or a number of people (via bunk beds). At most medium institutions

cells house 2, 3 or 4 inmates, though at some there are 10 and 16-man cells. Thus, it is

a mixed bag. Generally speaking, the less occupants, the more desirable the housing

and the more challenging it is to obtain. Unlike dorms, cells tend to have their own toilets

and sinks, but this is not a rule. When they contain a sink and a toilet, the occupants

enjoy a certain amount of personal privacy and security. The concept of being able to

shave and use the restroom in privacy cant be understated. While a cell can never feel

like being at home, it is the closest a federal inmate can come to it.

Christopher Zoukis 2013

Gates (2015) studies have suggested that the social and structural environment of

prisons contribute to obesity, exacerbate chronic diseases, and are an obstacle for

offenders to either maintain or improve their health These studies and the state of

correctional health around the globe are the reasons why public health professionals,

researchers, and educators should have an interest in corrections and offenders. The

health risks for individuals who are overweight or obese are clear, in that, these individuals

are at much greater risk of developing conditions, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes,

coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke, as well as mental health problems, such as

depression, compared to their normal weight peers. Furthermore, Studies have proposed

that the design of correctional facilities themselves, which control offenders freedom of

movement and options for caloric intake, is a contributor to weight gain. For example,

caloric intake in corrections seldom includes fresh fruits, vegetables, or low fat and low

sodium options; security concerns regarding offender and staff safety necessitate

restricting and controlling movement.

Madison L. Gates and Robert K. Bradford 2015

The Impact of Incarceration on Obesity: Are Prisoners with Chronic Diseases Becoming

Overweight and Obese during Their Confinement?