lapse of the Langmuir waves, can be regarded as a Here CfJe is the highfrequency part of the electrostatic
nonlinear stage of the development of the instability, potential,
discovered by Vedenov and RudakovPl, of a cold Lang Equations (1.1) do not take into account the electronic
muir gas (see alsof 2 l). nonlinearities, which begin to play a role if the charac
Unlike the linear dissipation mechanisms, the col teristic time of the nonlinear process is 1/ T
lapse of Langmuir waves has an amplitude threshold :s wp(kro) 2W/nT (seer 3 l). We consider henceforth only
that depends on the spectral distribution of the oscilla the fast processes.
tions. The collapse is accompanied by the development We introduced a slowly varying quantity ljJ defined by
of a strong plasma turbulence. Stronglynonlinear
processes such as collapse cannot be investigated by
the randomphase approximation and by the kinetic Assuming that On is independent of the time and
equations for the waves. On the other hand, the dynamic neglecting the second derivative of ljJ with respect to t,
description of the plasma by means of a system of we obtain from (1.1):
kinetic equations is too complicated.
A simplified dynamic description of a plasma, based ll(i aa"'+~wprn'll)=~div/lnV.
t 2 2n,
(1.2)
on averaging over the "fast time," is proposed here.
The corresponding equations are derived in Sec. 1. The Equation (1.2) describes the Langmuir oscillations
after averaging over the "fast time" 1/wp, but does
problem of instability of a monochromatic Langmuir
not presuppose averaging over the phase shift or over
wave of finite amplitude is solved in Sec. 2 within the
the wavelength. This equation has an integral of motion
framework of these equations, and the sufficient condi
ditions for the instability of the turbulent spectra are 1 , =1
8n
JIVI'dr, (1.3)
obtained. The collapse proper (the development of the
caverns and their collapse) is investigated in Sec. 3. which equals, accurate to terms (kro)2 , the energy W
Section 4 deals with the nonlinear stage of development of the Langmuir oscillations. More accurately speak
of the instability of a monochromatic Langmuir wave, ing, 11 = 2W 0 , where W0 is the averaged energy of the
and Sec. 5 with the kinetics of fourplasmon processes electrostatic field. We can treat the quantity N = l1/ wp
908
COLLAPSE OF LANGMUIR WAVES 909
instability is completely realigned. At w IJ.112 krn in its absence we have n ~ K and the maximum insta
we have a modified decay instability with an increment bility increment turns out to be infinite (as K co). At
(at K ~ 2ko) ll Ti/Te < w < ll the instability is again described by
(2.8). For large amplitude waves (w IJ.), Eq. (2.9)
(2.5) takes the form
It develops near the surface wkoK = Wk
We note that formula (2.5) does not contain the
Q'(Q' + '/.w)rD'x') + '/,(l),'(xrD)\LWcos' a =.0; (2.10)
plasma temperature and is valid also at higher energy at small K we have
density of the Langmuir oscillations ( w ~ 1 ).
At krn > IJ.l/ 4 the modified decay instability retains
its character up to amplitudes w ~ IJ.l/ 2 (krnt 2 , above The maximum increment
which it becomes necessary to take into account the 'I'm~= 3'hwp(J.tw) 'I
electronic nonlinearity. If IJ. 11 4 > krn > IJ.l/ 2 , then the
modified decay instability takes place u~ to intensities is reached when KrD ~ (1J.w) 112 Equations (2.9) and
w~ (krn) 4/IJ.. When (krn) 4/iJ.<W<iJ. 12 (krnt 2 we get (2.10) are valid when w 1. In the opposite case, the
an instability with an increment whose order of magni electronic nonlinearities must be taken into account.
tude is given by (2.5). This instability, however, is not We consider now an arbitrary distribution of the
localized near the surface Wk 0  K = Wk 0 ; its increment Langmuir waves. Assume that the characteristic wave
is approximately constant in a wide region near K ~ Ko. number for this distribution is k. This means that
In an isothermal plasma, waves of low amplitude there exist spatial regions with dimension L $ 1/k,
( w < IJ.) experience an instability connected with in inside which the electron oscillations relative to the
duced scattering by the ions. The maximum increment ions can be regarded as homogeneous. Let the intensity
r ~ wpw of this instability occurs at K ~ 2k0 When of this oscillation equal W, and let us examine its in
w > IJ., at small wave numbers of the perturbation, stability. If the dimension over which this instability
KrD ~ WIJ. 112 , a modified decay instability sets in with develops is smaller than L, then the spectral distribu
a maximum increment r ~ wpw. For these waves, tion in question is unstable. It is easy to estimate the
therefore, the instability increment has two maxima of instability conditions. Using the results of the present
the same order of magnitude, at K ~ 2k 0 and at KrD section, we find that the distribution is unstable if
~ WIJ.l/ 2 , With increasing amplitude, the second maxi
(krD)' < w for w < J.t,
mum comes closer to the first, and the two coalescence (2.11)
(krD)' < (J.tw)"' for w > J.t.
w ~ IJ. 112/k 0 rn. Starting with these amplitudes, the ion
temperature has no qualitative effect on the character In some cases (seer 8 l) the kinetics of the Langmuir
of the instability. turbulence proceeds in such a way that it is possible
The instability of long Langmuir waves ((krn) 2 to separate in the spectrum two components, namely
< IJ./3) depends little on the electron and ion tempera an intense longwave "core" and an extensive short
ture ratio. At low amplitudes (w < (krn) 2 ) an insta wave "halo." In this case we must assume that the
bility of the automodulation type raJ sets in, with an parameters to be substituted in (3 .9) are those of the
increment "core," since the "halo" leads only to a negligible
change of the effective thermal velocity of the electrons.
(2.6)
3. CAVERNS AND THEIR COLLAPSE
Formula (2.6) is valid in the static w ll Ti/Te,
q = Te/(Te + Ti) and in the hydrodynamic (k 2 r 0 Let us examine the nonlinear stage of instability
wTi/Te, q ~ 1) approximations and is not valid development of a monochromatic wave. For short
when w ~ ll Ti/Te. waves ((krn)2 > iJ./3) the instability leads primarily
If w (korn) 2 , then we can put k 0 = 0. In this im to the appearance of Langmuir waves with k ~ k 0 and
portant case the dispersion equation reduces to to a gradual filling of the vicinity of the sphere Wk
= Wko The instability of long ((krn) 2 < IJ./3) mono
Q' w.' = 'f,w.Wn,(l).G(Q,x) cos'a. (2.7) chromatic waves of low amplitude (w < (krn) 2 ) will be
Here a is the angle between K and the direction of the considered in Sec. 4. In the present section we consider
electric vector in the initial oscillation. In the static the development of the instability of a homogeneous
approximation we have Langmuir oscillation. In fact, with an aim at applica
'I' = w.('f,qx'rD'w cos' a  'f,x'rD'J "' (2 .8) tions to the stability of turbulent spectra, we should
examine the development of the instability of a localized
The maximum increment Langmuir oscillation of sufficiently high intensity. We
examine this question under the assumption that the
oscillation is spherically symmetrical.
is reached at cos 2 a = 1, (Krn) 2 = 7'sw.
Introducing the quantity E = 81f;/ar, we obtain from
In the hydrodynamic limit (w ll Ti/Te), Eq. (2.7)
(1.2) the equation
takes the simpler form
8E 3 , 8 1 8 (l)p
(Q' c,'x') ( Q' + 'f,w.'rD'x') + 'f,(l)'(xrD)'J.tW cos' a= 0. (2.9) i+(l)prD    r ' E =  l l n E (3.1)
{)t 2 or r' or 2n,
Equation (2.9) without the term ( %) WpK 4r was ob
tained earlier by Rudakov and VedenovPl, The term
0 with the obvious boundary condition E(O) = 0. In the
hydrodynamic limit, (3.1) is completed with the equa
disregarded by them, however, is quite important, for tion
COLLAPSE OF LANGMUIR WAVES 911
a 1 ~ . 6'
~{jnc.'fl,{Jn= 16nM ll,IEI', F(s)+c,""+c,fexpf~ }ds. (3.10)
1 a , a
fl.,= 7 a,:r a;: (3.2) We see from (3.9) that the integral 11 for the self
similar solution is infinite for all c 1 and c 2. The inte
In the static limit we have gral 12 is finite if c2 = 0. In this case 12 0, since it =
DE 3 a 1 a e'
i+w,rn'r'E +qIEI'E = o. (3.3)
follows from the selfsimilar substitution that 12( t)
at 2 Dr r' Dr 4mw.T, = f(t)Iz(O) = I2(0). The requirement c 2 = 0 is equiva
lent to the requirement d( ~R)/ d~  0 as ~  oo. This
Making the change of variables condition together with the condition R( 0) = 0 specifies
r=3 Vq rnp,
2~t
3 ,;
t=q,
f.t Wp
the boundaryvalue problem that determines the eigen
values a for (3 .9 ). The quantity 1 c 1 1 can be expressed
2 [ 2nn0 T. ] 'I in terms of a. As t  t 0 we get ~ ; oo and '{J(p)
6n=3qn0 f.tV, E=4 qf.t <p,
tends to its limiting value, '{J c 1p 1; 0  2, in the entire
region of p. From the condition l2 = 0 we get
we reduce (3.1)(3.3) to the form
%I c 112 = a2 + 3.
. D<p a 1 a , Thus, the development of the instability can be
z  +    p <p= V<p (3.4) represented as the formation of a region in which the
Dt Dp p' Dp '
ii' . plasma has a reduced densifya cavern. The electrons
hwll ) v = ll,, 1<p 1', (3.5) inside the cavern execute inlense radial oscillations
. D<p a 1 a , , and are expelled from the cavern by the highfrequency
z  +    p < p + 1<p 1 <p=O. (3.6) pressure. After a finite time, the cavern collapses.
at Dp p' Dp
When the instant of collapse is approached, the density
Let us investigate (3.6). It has the integrals of distribution established everywhere in the cavern, with
motion the exception of the central region, is
~
I,= Jp'I<Jll'dp,
0 {jn = 3nolc,l'rn' I r'.
I,= J[I (p<p).l' + 2l<pl' 'l,p'I<Jli'Jdp.
0 This formula is valid for r ~ r 0 (t), and the cavern
We introduce the quantity radius r 0 ( t) tends to zero like ..rt;=t". The density at
the center of the cavern remains unperturbed.
A= Jp'I<Jll'dp.
0
Actually, however, Eq. (3 .6 ), together with the self
similar solution, is valid only for not too large varia
We can easily obtain directly from (3.6) the relation tion of the density (on/no< tJ.). In addition, if Ti Te,
d'A ~ ~
then the solution obtained does not hold for on/n"" w
d, = 6I, 2
t
J (p<pl,l'dp 4J p'I<Jll' dp < 6I,,
0
1
0
~ tJ.Ti/Te, since it is necessary to take into account
the Landau damping by the ions. Since the invariant
which leads to the inequality (1.3) (the total number of the Langmuir quanta) is
conserved, we can state that these regions of the
A< 3I,t' + C,t + C,, (3.7)
parameters are "traversed" without an appreciable
where C 1 and C 2 are constants. If l2 < 0 then, by energy loss.
virtue of the positiveness of A, the inequality (3.7) When w ~ tJ. we can describe the collapse by using
can be satisfied only for not too high values of t. This the hydrodynamic approximation. We can then simplify
means that the solution of the initial problem with (3 .4) and (3 .5) by putting
1z < 0 exists only for a finite time and should lead to
a singularity at a certain t = t 0 (cf.r 9 ' 10 l). The condi J
<p ~ exp{i E(t)dt }<D(r, t),
tion 12 < 0 means 1'{J l 2 l 3 2: l 2 , which agrees in order
where <I> is real, and neg~ecting the term A pp V. The
of magnitude with the instability condition (w > (krn)2).
To determine the character of the singularity that re resultant system
2 a
sults from the instability, we note that Eq. (3. 6) admits ll.,<D <D V<D = E<D, ,v = ll,.l <D I' (3 .11)
of the selfsimilar substitution
p' at
describes the quasistationary eigenvalue problem for
cp = exp{ if' J f~tt)} 1:(t) R ( 1/~t))' a Schrodinger equation with a potential 2/p 2  V that
depends in selfconsistent fashion on the wave function
/(t) = ~i't, t, pI l.f(t) = . (3.8) W. The system (3 .11) admits of the selfsimilar sub
stitution
1A'1 ( 1p ) 1
V ='J.. V(o'J..p )
for R( 0 we have <D=R
f' I ' p' I
2 a (3.12)
ll 11RR+IR'IR = iaR.
r a E = i'lf'(t), /(t) =A (to t)' 1.
The substitution R = F / ~ reduces this equation to For R and V we have
2
F"2FIS'+ IFI'FF=iasF.', a=~l!'. (3.9) llnR 1:'R V,R = R,
well as the term  2F/ ~ 2 The asymptotic form ofF(~) is I,= Jp'l<l'l'dp.
912 V. E. ZAKHAROV
It follows from the selfsimilar substitution (3.12) ~ wpw. Assuming that at a given instant of time one
that the integral cavern is located on the average in a region having a
. volume on the order of kS, and that an energy .:H
J
I,= P"lcpl"dp. 0
~ nTr fJ. 112 is dissipated in the cavern, we obtain the
I effective damping decrement
is finite and is conserved. This means that the cavern 'Veff ~ oo.!''iow'1 for w < I'
is a resonator in which a Langmuir oscillation is
"trapped." However, the connection between the wave Let now w ~ fJ. The characteristic cavern develop
function of the oscillations and the density variation is ment time is then given by 1/T ~ c.vp( fJ. w)112 At in
now different and the course of the density variation tensities of this order, the entire energy entering the
remains qualitatively the same as before. We can cavern is dissipated, so that we can assume that the
state that once the density variation reaches a value energy dissipated in a time T is of the order of the
on~ nofJ. the oscillation contained in the central zone total energy of the Langmuir waves. This yields the
of the cavern "breaks anay" and collapses independ estimate
ently of anything else. The behavior of the density out
side the central zone of the cavern is determined by
the solution of (3.13), in which we substitute R 2 = 0.
4. AUTOMODULATION OF A MONOCHROMATIC
From this we get On ~ r 2 The dimension of the central
LANGMUIR WAVE
region decreases like (to t) 213 This process begins
when the wave amplitude in the cavern reaches the A monochromatic Langmuir wave of small ampli
value w ~ fJ. The characteristic dimension of the tude ( w : (krn)2 : fJ.) is unstable (see Sec. 2)
central zone is in this case L ~ rnfJ. 112 This allows against the excitation of a growing modulation with
us to estimate the amount of energy entering in the characteristic dimension L ~ rnw 112 We shall show
collapse: that the nonlinear evolution of this instability leads to
the development of caverns and to absorption of the
(3.14) wave energy as a result of Langmuir collapse. We
When the intensity of the oscillations at the center start from Eq. (1.8). Assuming
of the cavern increases to a value w ~ 1 (in which
'IJl = exp {ikr ioo,t}G,
case the density variation on/ n 0 becomes of the order
of fJ. 112 ), it becomes necessary to take into account the where G is the complex envelope of the wave, we ob
electronic nonlinearities. Qualitatively, however, the tain
situation does not change. The cavern will continue to
collapse, since the plasma is expelled from it by the ( ata 3
i +vV G+ ) ' G+  e'qk,'T
2 w.r A 4 mw
IGI'G=O. (4.1)
highfrequency pressure. This process continues un
Changing over to the comoving reference frame and
til the amplitude of the oscillations increases enough
to the dimensionless variables
for an intersection of the trajectories of the electrons
moving toward the center. Following this intersection, rvt = Y'/arp, t = T/w.,
the electrons, having an ordered velocity greatly ex f ( eq
ceeding the thermal velocity, leave the cavern and G=  )'' E
k, 4moo.T, '
carry away with them the energy of the Langmuir oscil we obtain for E
lations. The depleted cavern is "collapsed" by the
ionacoustic shock wave that converges towards the iE, +liE+ IEI'E = 0. (4.2)
center.
Equation (4.1) has the integrals of motion
We can obtain an upper bound for the energy of the
electrons leaving the cavern. In any case, the dimen I,= JIEI'dr, 1,= J{!VEI'! IEI')dr.
sion of the cavern cannot be smaller than the Debye
radius. It follows from (3.14) that the energy of the Introducing
outgoing electrons satisfies the inequality ~ < TefJ. 1/ 2
The formation and collapse of the caverns leads to A= Jr'IEI'dr,
a Langmuirwave dissipation characterized by a cer
we obtain from (4.1)
tain damping decrement. To calculate this de.crement,
we note that the development of the caverns is con d'A
nected with a local increase of the wave number. Since d, =61,4JIEI'dr<6I,,
t 0
the development of the caverns is the fastest of all the from which follows the inequality (3.7). Reasoning as
nonlinear processes, the average wave number will in Sec. 3, we conclude that the solution of the initial
actually always lie at the boundary of the instability
value problem for Eq. (4.1) should terminate in a
excitation, so that we have
singularity if l2 < 0. This means that the development
(kr)' ~ w for w < "' of automodulation of a monochromatic wave (for which
(kr)' ~ (J.tw) 'h for w > I' 12 =  oo) produces, in the regions where the wave in
tensities are high, "foci" that move at the group
(as before, w = W/nT, fJ. = m/M). velocity and whose amplitude becomes formally infinite
We consider first the case w << fJ.. The character after a finite time. The plasma density is lower near
istic cavern development time is then given by 1/T these foci.
COLLAPSE OF LANGMUIR WAVES 913
The development of the focus is similar in many The expression (5.2) for the kernel of the four
respects to the development of a plasma cavern. We plasmon equation coincides with the one calculated
assume that the wave envelope near the focus is earlier by Tsytovich and Pikel'ner by another
spherically symmetrical and make the selfsimilar method[ 11 l.
substitution (3.8). As a result we obtain a boundary If necessary, the induced scattering by the ions can
value problem for the eigenvalues be taken into account by refining Eq. (5.1). We note
for this purpose that since we assume on going over to
~ 11R+IRI'RR = ia a~ sR averaging over the phases that the nonlinearity is
with boundary conditions small, we can assume in the expression
R~'l t=o = 0, (sRh'l t~w+ 0 iln = G. u. = 4
mw,
J
e G. (k,k,).,.,1Jlo,.,il(k + k, k,)
and with properties analogous to those of the boundary X 6 ((J) + w, w,) dw, dw, dk, dk,
value problem (3.9). In particular, the asymptotic
expansion (3 .1 0) and the identity l2 = 0 hold for this that 1/Jk w ~ l/lk6(w  wk) is small. Then
problem. The coefficient c 1 and the eigenvalue a are an.,, = _i_ JG. ~  . II (k + k,  k,Xk,k,) IJl:,.,ljl., dk, dk, dw, dw,. (5 .4)
connected by the relation ( ?"2) 1c 1 12 = a 2 + 1. 4mtl.lp Jt 1
It follows from the selfsimilar substitution that the Substituting (5.14) in (1.2) and changing over to the
amplitude of the Langmuir wave near the focus becomes variables Ck, we obtain a more precise version of
infinite like G ~ 1/~. Actually, Eq. (4.2) ceases (5 .1), in which the kernel if' is replaced by r' where
to hold already at 1G 2 1/nT ~ (kro) 2 The amplitude of
 f Wp f
the wave in the region of the focus reaches a value such 1f'u,>,o, = 8, kk 1k 2 k 3 [ (kk,) (k,k,)G.  .1.o~
no a 1
that its collapse becomes possible, namely, the caverns
come into being and collapse over a dimension on the + (kk,) (k,k,) G, ,. 1.,_., 1].
order of the wavelength. This leads to a nonlinar Since G~::::i n 0 / ( Ti + Te), the real parts of the kernels
damping of the wave energy, and this indeed limits the W and W can be assumed to be equal, with good ac
growth of the amplitude at the focus. curacy. The kinetic equation (5, 3), however, acquires
The development of foci leads also to a strong a term that describes the induced scattering:
broadening of the wave spectrum.
( ~: )
1
= 2n. JJf'u,n., dk.,
5. COLLAPSE AND KINETICS OF WEAK TURBULENCE
 L 1 Wp (kk,)'
The condition for the collapse of Langmuir waves Jf'.., = Im)l"u,  
8 ;:k'k, ImG  .1,.1
no  ' 2 '
(w ~ (kro)2 ) is the inverse of the condition for the Analogously, the decay kinetic equations can'be de
applicability of weak turbulence (w (kro)2 ). None rived from the initial system for (kro) 2 > ll
theless, collapse and weak turbulence can coexist in When ( kro)2 < ll we can neglect the induced scatter
different regions of the spectrum. The collapse, by ing if w (kro) 2 Ti/Te. We shall consider just this
effecting selfconsistent damping of long waves, exerts case, although the collapse plays an important role in
an appreciable influence on the kinetics of the weak the establishment of the stationary spectrum also at
turbulence in all of space. small wave amplitudes.
The equations describing the weak turbulence can We average (5.3) over the angles in each of the k
be derived from the system (1.2), (1.4) (1.6 ). This is spaces and change over to the variable w = k 2 We
particularly simple for longwave turbulence, when obtain '"
(kro) 2 < ll (Such a turbulence can be excited, for ex an.
"fro Tt = JJ S(l),&~+(t}aw.w2 ,w3(n(l)2+..oa(l)nro2nw3
ample by an electron beam having a velocity (5.5)
vn > VTe !J. 112 .) In the first approximation we can de + nwnw,nwa nwn(l) 2+ws(l}nWa nwnw2+w3(Aln(l) 2)dwzd(j)3.
scribe such a turbulence by starting with the dynamic The integration is now over the region shown in the
equation (1.8). Taking its Fourier transform with re figure. Then
spect to the coordinates and changing over to the
variable Ck = kl/Jkl ../ 811wp, we obtain in region 1: Swill,, t:DzCila = T (JHllj, (1)2(1)1 > 0;
in region II: S.w., = T "'J"'
W.:JW3 CllaWJ;
in region II,
914 V. E. ZAKHAROV
W, = 4n Jw,k'n, dk,
0
(k,rD)' ~  1 ~(W)'' ;
k,ro nT
w,+
(w,+w,w)w
Ws+
w' when k > k 8 we get weak turbulence, and when
w, w, k $ k8 we get strong turbulence due to collapse.
in region III, and If instability exists at k ~ k 0 (say, twostream
Wz+,
w'
Wa+
( w, + w,  w) w instability), with a characteristic increment y, then
h)a Wa fourplasmon scattering limits the instability to the
level
in region IV, we obtain
WinT ~ koro(y/w,)'h,
T fii,Wz+IDaCI),ID2>ID3 + (w)' (w)']
Jf w,"w +
3'(ll, w, w)' [
1 (1)
( w, + w, w
) '


;;,  ;;, This yields for the boundary of the strong turbulence
The stationary spectrum nk ~ Q113/k 713 presupposes Prikl. Mat. Teor. Fiz. 1972 (in press).
8 B. N. Breizman, D. D. Ryutov, and P. Z. Chebotaev, Konferentsiya
the presence of wave absorption at small wave numbers.
Langmuir collapse is such a mechanism. To verify the po teorii p1azmy (Conference on the Theory of Plasma), 1971, Kiev;
existence of collapse, we rewrite the spectrum in the Preprint IYaF No. 6571; Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 62, 1409 (1972) [Sov.
Phys.JETP 35, 7 41 (1972) ].
form 9 V. N. Vlasov, V. A. Petrishchev, and V. I. Talanov, Fourth Allunion
Fiz. 1, ,(1972).
Here k 0 is the characteristic wave number of the 11 S. B. Pikel'ner and V. N. Tsytovich, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 55, 977
energycontaining turbulence region. (1968) [Sov. Phys.JETP 28, 507 (1969)].
We consider the quantity 12 V. E. Zakharov and N. K. Filonenko, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR
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