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Date:

Experiment # 2
Title: System of units and conversion factors:

In mechanics we have four fundamental quantities called dimensions.


These are length, mass, force and time.
The units used to measure these quantities cannot be chosen
independently because they must be consistent with Newtons second
law. Although there are number of system of units, but only two are
commonly used.

1. SI Units
2. U.S. Customary Units

SI Units:

The international system of units, abbreviated SI (from French, Systeme


International dunites.) is accepted in United States and through out the
world and is a modern version of metric system. By the international
agreement, SI units will in time replace other systems.

U.S. Customary Units:

The U.S Customary or British system of units, also called the foot-
pound-second (FPS) system, has been the common system in English
speaking countries. Although this system will in time be replaced by SI
units, but for many more years engineers must be able to work in both
SI units and FPS units.
The four fundamental four fundamental dimensions, their units and
symbols in two systems are given below:

Quantity Dimension SI Units FPS Units

Mass M Kilogram (Kg) Slug

Length L Meter (m) Foot (ft)

Time T Second (s) Second (s)

Force F Newton (N) Pound (lb)


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Unit Conversions:

Length:

1 ft = 0.3048 m
1 ft = 0.0254 inch
1 mile (us) = 1609.3 m
1 nautical mile = 1852 m

Mass:

1 tonne = 1000 kg
1 ton (UK) = 1016.05 kg = 2240 lbs
1 ton (US) = 908.1 kg = 2000 lbs
1 kg = 2.204 lbs

Force:

1 lbf = 4.448N

Area:

1 Acre = 4047 m2 = 43560 ft2


1 Acre = 8 kanals
1 Kanals = 20 Marlas
1 Hector = 10000 m2

Volume:

1 m3 = 35.311 ft3
1 liter = 10-3 m3

The prefixes of SI:

SI allows the sizes of units to be made bigger or smaller by the use of


appropriate prefixes.
Some important prefixes with their symbols or abbreviations and their
multiplying factors are given below.

Giga (G) = 1000 000 000 (a thousand million = billion)


Mega (M) = 1000 000 (a million)
Kilo (k) = 1000 (a thousand)
Milli (m) = 0.001 (a thousandth)
Micro () = 0.000 001 (a millionth)
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Examples: 1000N = 1 KN, 0.001m = 1 mm