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# Schlumberger-Private

Geomechanics
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## An asterisk is used throughout this presentation to denote a mark of Schlumberger.

Other company, product, and service names are the properties of their respective
owners.
Agenda

Geomechanics Overview
Mechanical Earth Model (MEM)

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Wellbore Stability
Geomechanics Overview

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What is Geomechanics?

## A specialized branch of engineering that applies solid mechanics, mathematics and

physics to quantify how rocks respond to
Excavation

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stress
pressure
Fluid flow
Deformation changes in properties failure
Geomechanics Challenges

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Review of Mechanics
Anderson Fault Model

maximum minimum
Normal Thrust
Sh<SH<Sv Sv<Sh<SH

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minimum maximum

intermediate intermediate
intermediate

Strike-slip
Sh<Sv<SH maximum

minimum
Stress

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Normal stress on A is L/A Shear stress on A is L/A
Strain

## Original length L0 L1 L0 (Simple definition

a

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New length L1 L0 of small axial strain)

Strain can be normal or shear. Like stress, it can be expressed as principal quantities - three normal strains, along
perpendicular axes.
Stress and strain are related through material properties, such as elastic properties. Can be simple (linear isotropic
elastic) or very complicated.
Strain has no dimensions or units. Can be quoted as ratio, %, millistrain, microstrain.
Elastic Properties
The elastic properties give a measure of the deformation experienced when the stress is applied

## Youngs Modulus: Stiffness Poissons Ratio: Compressibility

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Apply stress in one direction, Apply strain in one direction, measure
measure strain in that direction strain in perpendicular direction
Principal Stresses

## Any state of stress can be expressed as 3 perpendicular PRINCIPAL STRESSES,

plus their orientations in space relative to you chosen axes. This is how stress is
usually expressed.

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Principal Stresses are normal, not shear stresses
Each principal stress
has a magnitude,
independent of the
others.
The orientation of the
axes must also be
specified.
Parameters in Geomechanics

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Influence of wellbore

When we drill the wellbore we replace a cylinder of rock with a cylinder of fluid of
different density

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The rock can support shear and normal stresses, but the mud is unable to support
shear stress.
This leads to redistribution of the in-situ stresses near the hole, giving a stress
concentration.
The principal stresses are in equilibrium, i.e., the rock strength is high enough to
support formation shear stresses.
The rock may not be strong enough to support the stress concentration, and so will
deform and/or fail.
Mechanical Earth Model (MEM)

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What is a MEM?

The set of data and information about the formations needed to make rock
mechanical predictions and interpret behavior

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Related to the earth, not the trajectory of a well
The MEM can be 1D, 2D, 3D or 4D. The complexity is determined by:
Available data
Purpose
Complexity of structure and properties
The MEM needs to be complex enough to provide a useful representation of the
geomechanics in the field, but simple enough to populate easily and access quickly
Mechanical Earth Models

1D 2D

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3D 4D
Mechanical Earth Model for Stresses
Compressional
Input Logs Shear Sonic Bulk Density
Sonic

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Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio

Overburden
Pore Pressure Tectonics
Stress

Minimum Maximum
Outputs
Horizontal Stress Horizontal Stress
Elastic Properties Input Logs
Compressional
Shear Sonic Bulk Density
Sonic

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Dynamic = Tool Measurements

## Convert to Static via correlations

from rock tests
Mechanical Earth Model for Stresses
Compressional
Input Logs Shear Sonic Bulk Density
Sonic

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Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio

Overburden
Pore Pressure Tectonics
Stress
Overburden Stress
Overburden Stress

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Pore pressure Pore Pressure

## Easy to measure pore pressure in sands and carbonates,

not so easy in shales due to low permeability

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However, pore pressure in shales (only in shales) can be
estimated from acoustic and/or resistivity response e.g.
Eatons method

Over
pressure
Over
Pressure

Velocity Stress
Measurement of pore pressure Pore Pressure

## Wellbore sonic methods

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Formation Pressure Testing

Drilling Events
Mechanical Earth Model for Stresses
Compressional
Input Logs Shear Sonic Bulk Density
Sonic

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Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio

Overburden
Pore Pressure Tectonics
Stress

Minimum Maximum
Outputs
Horizontal Stress Horizontal Stress
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Horizontal Stresses
Stress in Tectonic Regions

## Stiff layer (higher youngs modulus)

will transmit tectonic stress more stress
easily than a softer layer (lower
youngs modulus)
Soft layer

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Stiff layer
p sh

## (Plumb et al August1991 Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 96, page14.509-14.528)

Stress Profiles

stress
Stress profile typical of a relaxed
basin tectonic stresses are High n

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minimal

## Higher poissons ratio = higher stresses Low n

p sh sv

depth
Minimum horizontal stress determination

Direct measurement
Leak-off tests

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Mini-FRAC
Indirect methods
PP (lower bound)
Mud loss data
Wellbore Deformation
Stress Magnitude Calibration using Extended Leak-off test

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Maximum horizontal stress

No direct measurement
Indirect methods
Interpretation from break-down pressures

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Stresses , Rock Strength, and Drilling

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Mechanical Earth Model for Stresses

## Minimum Horizontal Maximum Horizontal Minimum Horizontal

Stress Stress Stress Direction

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Unconfined
Rock
Compressive Friction Angle Tensile Strength
Strength Strength

## Drilling Mud Weight

Recommendations Window
Failure Mechanisms

## Induced Fracture Breakout

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Sh Min Pw Sh Min P w- P p
Identifying Stress Directions

Image
Oriented Calipers

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Sonic
Pw Pw- Pp
Minimum Horizontal Stress direction using image logs

In vertical or near
vertical holes (<15
degrees), stress Induced fractures
direction can be

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inferred from borehole
failures
In deviated wells >15
degrees, a combination
of 3 wells with different Breakouts

azimuth is required to
estimate the stress
direction
Wellbore Stability due to Stress Imbalance
Removal of rock causes concentered near-
well stresses
High mud weights relieve the additional
compression

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Excessive mud weights or ECD lead to
hydraulic fracturing
Breakouts aligned with minimum
principal stress
Drilling-induced fractures are aligned
with maximum principal stress
Allow borehole image to be used to
understand in-situ stress state
Mechanical Earth Model for Stresses

## Minimum Horizontal Maximum Horizontal Minimum Horizontal

Stress Stress Stress Direction

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Unconfined
Rock
Compressive Friction Angle Tensile Strength
Strength Strength
Rock Strength Properties

## Unconfined compressive strength UCS

s1

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Tensile strength TSTR
s3 s3

## 10- 25 % of UCS, depending on

s1
strength magnitude of rock
s1

s3 s3
Friction angle FANG:
s1
Core Testing for Geomechanics

## Rock mechanics heavily based on

experiments

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Types of tests:
Triaxial Compression
Unconfined Compression
Scratch Test
Tensile Test
Mechanical Earth Model for Stresses

## Minimum Horizontal Maximum Horizontal Minimum Horizontal

Stress Stress Stress Direction

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Unconfined
Rock
Compressive Friction Angle Tensile Strength
Strength Strength

## Drilling Mud Weight

Recommendations Window
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Wellbore Stability
Parameters in Geomechanics

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Failure Mode: Breakouts

Shear Failure between hoop stress and radial stress, favored by:
Low wellbore pressure

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Big difference in stresses
Low rock strength
Mohr Coulomb Failure Criterion
Failure Mode: Drilling-induced fractures

Tensile failure when hoop stress becomes tensile and exceeds the (low)
tensile strength of the rock Generated by:
High wellbore pressure (e.g. , leak-off test, excessive mud weight,

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hydraulic fracturing)
Big difference between stresses normal to wellbore axis
DIFs do not always propagate away from the wellbore, so are not a
serious failure, but can cause wellbore breathing.
Mud weights for breakout/DIFs (non deviated well)

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Failure

Unconfined Unconfined
Overburden Stress Overburden Stress
Compressive Str. Compressive Str.

## Horizontal Stresses Horizontal Stresses

Friction Angle Pore Pressure

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& Stress Direction & Stress Direction

Pore Pressure

Breakout Breakdown
Mud Weight Mud Weight
Pre-Drill Wellbore Stability
Simulated Caliper
Damage

Grey: Kick
Yellow: Breakout

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Light Blue: Losses
Dark Blue: Frac
Dashed Lines: MW in section
MEM Results
Elastic & Rock Pore Pressure Wellbore
Str. Properties and Stresses Stability

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Planned Well Deviation Effect

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Planned Well Azimuth Effect

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Planned Well Breakout

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Planned Well Breakdown

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Benefits of Geomechanics in Drilling

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Optimum
Mud Weight Decrease Casing Point
Drilling
Optimization NPT Selection
Direction
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Thank You