Electromagnetism

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Electromagnetism

© All Rights Reserved

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Physical constants:

Bolzmanns constant: k = 1.3806610-23 J/K

Electron charge: q = 1.60217710-19 As

Free electron mass: m0= 9.1093910-31 kg

Dielectric constant of vacuum: = 8.854187817 10-12 As/Vm

Dielectric constant of silicon: = 11.9

Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon at 300K: ni= 9.65109 cm-3

Electron mobility of silicon at 300K: n=1450 cm2/Vs

Hole mobility of silicon at 300K: p=505 cm2/Vs

Effective mass of electrons in silicon: mn=0.26 m0

Effective mass of holes in silicon: mp=0.69 m0

Physics formulae:

Kinetic energy:

1 2 1 p2

Wk mv

2 2 m

Bolzmann distribution: Fermi-Dirac distribution:

1

F ( E ) e E / kT F (E) ( E E F / kT

1 e

Intrinsic charge carrier concentration:

ni N C N V e EG / 2 kT

3 3

2 mn kT 2 3 2 m p kT 2 3

Si: N C 12 m N V 2 m

h

2 2

h

3 3

2 mn kT 3 2 2 m p kT 2 3

GaAs: NC 2 m N V 2 m

h

2 2

h

Electron concentration:

n N C e ( EC EF ) / kT ni e ( EF Ei ) / kT

Hole concentration:

p NV e ( EF EV ) / kT ni e ( Ei EF ) / kT

Mobility: Temperature dependence of mobility:

3

q c T 2

n, p (T ) (300)

mn , p 300

(4.73 10 4 ) T 2

E g (T ) 1.17

(T 636)

n p ni2

Charge neutrality:

n N A p ND

1 L

nq n pq p R

A

Einstein`s relation:

kT

Dn , p n, p

q

I I p In A

qD p p n 0

Lp

e qV / kT

1 A

qDn n p 0

Ln

)e qV / kT 1 I s e qV / kT 1

qD p p n 0 qDn n p 0

Is A ( )

Lp Ln

Diode equation (Schottky junction):

I s AA *T 2 e q Bn / kT

I I s e qV / kT 1

Diffusion length: Ln, p Dn, p n, p

I Is e qV / kT

1 I L

I I s e q (V RS I ) / kT 1

Photogenerated excess carriers:

kT N A N D 2 s Vbi V 1 1 s

Vbi ln W CA

q ni2 q D

N N A W

Transistor equations (PNP):

qADB ni2 qVEB / kT

I Ep I Cp e

N BW

I En (e 1) I Cn

LE LC

Minority carrier concentration in base (PNP):

p n (0) p n 0 e qVEB / kT pn (W ) 0

I C 0 I E I CB0

I Cp I Ep 1 I Cp W2

0 T T 1

IE I Ep I En D N W I Ep 2 L2p

1 E B

D p N E LE

Common emitter current gain (PNP):

0

2

2L p

I C 0 I B I CE 0 0 2

10 W

Base transit time:

W2 W2

PNP: B NPN: B

2D p 2 Dn

Transistor equations (N-MOSFET):

Surface potential:

qN AW 2

s

2 s

Strong inversion:

Q

V0 d ; Q qN AW

ox

Threshold voltage:

qN AWm d d 2 s qN A (2B )

VT S (inv) 2B

ox ox

Current-Voltage characteristics:

Z

ID n ox (VG VT ) VD ; VD (VG VT )

L d

Z n ox

I DSat (VG VT ) 2 ; VD (VG VT )

2dL

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