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Table of formulae

Physical constants:

Plancks constant: h = 6.62607510-34 Js


Bolzmanns constant: k = 1.3806610-23 J/K
Electron charge: q = 1.60217710-19 As
Free electron mass: m0= 9.1093910-31 kg
Dielectric constant of vacuum: = 8.854187817 10-12 As/Vm
Dielectric constant of silicon: = 11.9
Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon at 300K: ni= 9.65109 cm-3
Electron mobility of silicon at 300K: n=1450 cm2/Vs
Hole mobility of silicon at 300K: p=505 cm2/Vs
Effective mass of electrons in silicon: mn=0.26 m0
Effective mass of holes in silicon: mp=0.69 m0

Physics formulae:

Kinetic energy:
1 2 1 p2
Wk mv
2 2 m
Bolzmann distribution: Fermi-Dirac distribution:
1
F ( E ) e E / kT F (E) ( E E F / kT
1 e
Intrinsic charge carrier concentration:
ni N C N V e EG / 2 kT
3 3

2 mn kT 2 3 2 m p kT 2 3
Si: N C 12 m N V 2 m
h
2 2
h
3 3

2 mn kT 3 2 2 m p kT 2 3
GaAs: NC 2 m N V 2 m
h
2 2
h
Electron concentration:
n N C e ( EC EF ) / kT ni e ( EF Ei ) / kT

Hole concentration:
p NV e ( EF EV ) / kT ni e ( Ei EF ) / kT
Mobility: Temperature dependence of mobility:
3

q c T 2
n, p (T ) (300)
mn , p 300

Temperature dependence of bandgap of silicon:


(4.73 10 4 ) T 2
E g (T ) 1.17
(T 636)

Mass action law:


n p ni2

Charge neutrality:
n N A p ND

Conductivity: Resistivity: Resistance:


1 L
nq n pq p R
A
Einstein`s relation:
kT
Dn , p n, p
q

Diode equation (p-n):

I I p In A
qD p p n 0
Lp
e qV / kT
1 A
qDn n p 0
Ln
)e qV / kT 1 I s e qV / kT 1

qD p p n 0 qDn n p 0
Is A ( )
Lp Ln
Diode equation (Schottky junction):
I s AA *T 2 e q Bn / kT

I I s e qV / kT 1
Diffusion length: Ln, p Dn, p n, p

Photodiode: Series resistance:


I Is e qV / kT

1 I L
I I s e q (V RS I ) / kT 1
Photogenerated excess carriers:

Built-in potential: Depletion region: Capacitance:


kT N A N D 2 s Vbi V 1 1 s
Vbi ln W CA
q ni2 q D
N N A W
Transistor equations (PNP):
qADB ni2 qVEB / kT
I Ep I Cp e
N BW

qADE n E 0 qVEB / kT qADc nC 0


I En (e 1) I Cn
LE LC
Minority carrier concentration in base (PNP):
p n (0) p n 0 e qVEB / kT pn (W ) 0

Common base current gain (PNP):


I C 0 I E I CB0
I Cp I Ep 1 I Cp W2
0 T T 1
IE I Ep I En D N W I Ep 2 L2p
1 E B
D p N E LE
Common emitter current gain (PNP):
0
2
2L p
I C 0 I B I CE 0 0 2
10 W
Base transit time:
W2 W2
PNP: B NPN: B
2D p 2 Dn
Transistor equations (N-MOSFET):

Surface potential:
qN AW 2
s
2 s
Strong inversion:

s (inv) 2B Voltage over oxide:


Q
V0 d ; Q qN AW
ox
Threshold voltage:
qN AWm d d 2 s qN A (2B )
VT S (inv) 2B
ox ox

Current-Voltage characteristics:
Z
ID n ox (VG VT ) VD ; VD (VG VT )
L d

Z n ox
I DSat (VG VT ) 2 ; VD (VG VT )
2dL