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AT F215 STAR KOMPLEKS

1. Please find out the requirement and concept about this figure from your personal view

and the fact is need to know as a surveyor.

2. The coordinates system is very important in surveying. Please explain and describe

these issues in e-Cadastre. Please refer this figure.

3. A cadastral survey system governs the creation and mutation of parcel boundaries. The

system also maintains both microlevel and macrolevel spatial records of current land-tenure

arrangements. The functions of a cadastral survey system will be defined in one or more

surveying and boundaries statutes and in regulations pursuant to these statutes. In a

comprehensive system, statutory authority will specify

b. The type and weighting of information that must be provided in evidence of the

creation or mutation of a boundary,

c. The standards of survey practice that must be met in providing this information,

d. The authority vested in a public survey administrator to examine and register proposed

boundary mutations, and

e. The right of judicial appeal from administrative decisions.

Please elaborate this statements in right perspectives under the cadastral principle.

Additional Info

Accuracy of Position

Boundaries may be described by points or corners, straight lines, and/or curvilinear lines.

Accuracy specifications may be expressed in terms of traverse misclosures or boundary

tolerances. Of these the boundary tolerance is a far superior, if somewhat more complex,

approach that is illustrated in the following cadastral relocation example. In this example

two cases can be described (see Figure):

connected to control points A and B. Later, Survey II, connected to control points

C and D, was requested in order to relocate point P in its original location

corresponding to the coordinates of point P1. Owing to the accumulation of

random errors, Survey II determined that point P should be located at P2. The

question then becomes What maximum distance (maximum relocation error)

between P1 and P2 may be expected at a given confidence level?

2. The same point P, marked on the ground, was independently coordinated by

Survey I and Survey II. Owing to the accumulalion of random errors, two sets of

coordinates have been obtained for the same point. raising the question, What

maximum differences X and Y may be expected at a given confidence level?

b. Influence eo of errors of the original survey (Survey I), and

c. Influence er of errors of the relocation survey (Survey II).

FIGURE : Cadastral relocation.

The total positioning error of P, which in the first case is expressed by the maximum

expected distance P1 P2 and in the second case as the maximum expected differences

X = X2X1 and Y = Y2Y2, is a function of the three random error sources ec, eo, and er,

If Survey I and Survey II are tied to the same control points, then the influence of ec. is 0.

In Case 1, the maximum expected distance P1P2 may be expressed as the semimajor

axis of a relative error ellipse between P1 and P2, Since the distance is treated as

univariate, the semimajor axis of a standard error ellipse will correspond to a 68 percent

(1) probability that the distance will not be larger than the value of the semimajor axis.

To obtain a higher probability level (e.g., 95 percent) the semimajor axis is lengthened

(statistically speaking). In Case 2, the expected maximum differences X and Y can also

be expressed in a statistical fashion at a desired confidence level. In both cases one has to

determine the variance-covariance matrix for point P, which is treated as two separate

points P1 and P2. The matrix , is included in the general variance-covariance matrix ,

which contains the quality information for all coordinates involved in the survey.

information must be available for each individual case:

b. Type and standard deviations of observations in the original relocating surveys,

and

c. Configuration of the survey network that connects point P with the control points.

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