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SUBMIT ON 6 October 2017


1. Please find out the requirement and concept about this figure from your personal view
and the fact is need to know as a surveyor.
2. The coordinates system is very important in surveying. Please explain and describe
these issues in e-Cadastre. Please refer this figure.

3. A cadastral survey system governs the creation and mutation of parcel boundaries. The
system also maintains both microlevel and macrolevel spatial records of current land-tenure
arrangements. The functions of a cadastral survey system will be defined in one or more
surveying and boundaries statutes and in regulations pursuant to these statutes. In a
comprehensive system, statutory authority will specify

a. The geometric reference framework to which all information must be referred,

b. The type and weighting of information that must be provided in evidence of the
creation or mutation of a boundary,
c. The standards of survey practice that must be met in providing this information,
d. The authority vested in a public survey administrator to examine and register proposed
boundary mutations, and
e. The right of judicial appeal from administrative decisions.

Please elaborate this statements in right perspectives under the cadastral principle.

Additional Info

Accuracy of Position

Boundaries may be described by points or corners, straight lines, and/or curvilinear lines.
Accuracy specifications may be expressed in terms of traverse misclosures or boundary
tolerances. Of these the boundary tolerance is a far superior, if somewhat more complex,
approach that is illustrated in the following cadastral relocation example. In this example
two cases can be described (see Figure):

1. Point P was originally coordinated and marked in the location P1 by Survey I

connected to control points A and B. Later, Survey II, connected to control points
C and D, was requested in order to relocate point P in its original location
corresponding to the coordinates of point P1. Owing to the accumulation of
random errors, Survey II determined that point P should be located at P2. The
question then becomes What maximum distance (maximum relocation error)
between P1 and P2 may be expected at a given confidence level?
2. The same point P, marked on the ground, was independently coordinated by
Survey I and Survey II. Owing to the accumulalion of random errors, two sets of
coordinates have been obtained for the same point. raising the question, What
maximum differences X and Y may be expected at a given confidence level?

In both cases there is an accumulation of errors from three sources:

a. Influence ec of relative positional errors of the control points,

b. Influence eo of errors of the original survey (Survey I), and
c. Influence er of errors of the relocation survey (Survey II).
FIGURE : Cadastral relocation.

The total positioning error of P, which in the first case is expressed by the maximum
expected distance P1 P2 and in the second case as the maximum expected differences
X = X2X1 and Y = Y2Y2, is a function of the three random error sources ec, eo, and er,
If Survey I and Survey II are tied to the same control points, then the influence of ec. is 0.
In Case 1, the maximum expected distance P1P2 may be expressed as the semimajor
axis of a relative error ellipse between P1 and P2, Since the distance is treated as
univariate, the semimajor axis of a standard error ellipse will correspond to a 68 percent
(1) probability that the distance will not be larger than the value of the semimajor axis.
To obtain a higher probability level (e.g., 95 percent) the semimajor axis is lengthened
(statistically speaking). In Case 2, the expected maximum differences X and Y can also
be expressed in a statistical fashion at a desired confidence level. In both cases one has to
determine the variance-covariance matrix for point P, which is treated as two separate
points P1 and P2. The matrix , is included in the general variance-covariance matrix ,
which contains the quality information for all coordinates involved in the survey.

To be able to estimate the achievable accuracy in relocation surveys the following

information must be available for each individual case:

a. Variance-covariance matrix of the control points,

b. Type and standard deviations of observations in the original relocating surveys,
c. Configuration of the survey network that connects point P with the control points.