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ZADACI ZA VEBANJE (Tautologije, Skupovne jednakosti) :

1.Koristei se istinitosnim tablicama, dokazati da su sledee formule tautologije:

1) p ( q p )
2) p ( p q )
3) ( p ( p q ) ) q
4) ( p q ) p q
5) ( p q ) p q
6) ( ( p q ) ( q r ) ) ( p r )
7) ( p ( q r ) ) ( ( p q ) r )
8) ( ( p r ) ( q r ) ) ( ( p q ) r )

Reenje:

1) F1 : p ( q p ) 2) F2 : p ( p q )
p q q p F1 p q p q F2
T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T

F1 F2

3) F3 : ( p ( p q ) ) q 4) F4 : ( p q ) p q
p q pq p ( p q) F3 p q p p q ( p q ) q p q F4
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T

F3 F4

5) F5 : ( p q ) p q
p q p p q ( p q ) q p q F5
T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T

F5
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6) F6 : ( ( p q ) ( q r ) ) ( p r )

p q r pq qr ( p q) (q r ) p p r F6
T T T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T T
T T T
T T T T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T

F6

7) F7 : ( p ( q r ) ) ( ( p q ) r )

p q r qr p (q r) pq ( p q) r F7
T T T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T

F7

8) F8 : ( ( p r ) ( q r ) ) ( ( p q ) r )

p q r pr qr ( p r ) (q r) pq ( p q) r F8
T T T T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T T

F8
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2. Dokazati da je sledea iskazna formula tautologija:


( p q ) ( p r ) ( q p ) ( q r )
a zatim dokazati skupovnu jednakost:
( A B ) \ ( A C ) = ( B \ A) ( B \ C )
Reenje:

F: ( p q ) ( p r ) ( q p ) ( q r )

p q r pq pr ( pr) ( p q) ( p r ) p q p r q r ( q p ) ( q r ) F
T T T T T T
T T T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T
T T T T

x ( A B ) \ ( A C ) x ( A B ) ( x ( A C ))
( x A x B) ( x A x C )
( x B ( x A ) ) ( x B ( x C ) ) ( F je tautologija)
( x B \ A) ( x B \ C )
x ( B \ A) ( B \ C )

3. Dokazati skupovnu jednakost


1) A ( B \ C ) = ( A B ) \ C
2) A \ ( B \ C ) = ( A \ B ) ( A C )
3) A \ ( B C ) = ( A \ B ) ( A \ C )

Reenje:
1) x A(B\C) x A x B\C
x A ( x B ( x C ))
( x A x B ) ( x C ) (asocijativnost konjukcije)
x A B ( x C )
x ( A B) \ C
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2) x A \ ( B \ C ) x A ( x B \ C )
x A ( x B ( x C ))

(
x A ( x B ) ( ( x C )) ) (De Morganov zakon)

x A ( ( x B ) x C ) (Zakon dvojne negacije ( p ) p )


( x A ( x B ) ) ( x A x C ) (Distributivnost konjukcije prema disjunkciji)
( x A\ B) ( x A C )
x ( A\ B) ( A C )

3) x A \ ( B C ) x A ( x B C )
x A ( x B x C )
x A ( ( x B ) ( x C ) ) (De Morganov zakon)
( x A ( x B ) ) ( x A ( x C ) ) (Distributivnost konjukcije prema disjunkciji)
x A\ B x A\C
x ( A\ B) ( A\ C )

Sanja Lonar