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A MONOGRAPH OF RESEARCH ENDEAVORS

AT ALBANY STATE UNIVERSITY


Volume 1 Fall 2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Enhanced Student Learning of Chemistry in a Computer-Assisted Environment,
by Granville Wrensford, Associate Professor and
Chair Department of Natural Sciences and
Louise Wrensford, Associate Professor, Department of Natural Sciences, ASU ....1

Hand-Held Technology and Innovative Pedagogy in Mathematics:


The Changing Practice of Mathematics Instruction and Learning,
by Zephryinus Okonkwo, Associate Professor and Chairman of
Mathematics and Computer Science (ASU)
and Mark S. Korlie, Associate Professor of Mathematics,
Montclair State University....................................................................................13

Self-Control and Delinquency: A Test of Hirschi and Gottfredsons Recent


Extension of Social Control Theory,
by Donald L. Yates, Associate Professor of Criminal Justice, ASU;
Vijayan K. Pillai, University of Texas at Arlington
and Kern Amaechi Egbo, Iowa Wesleyan College ................................................27

An Investigation into the Social and Economic Events Leading to the Creation of
Various Tax Laws,
by Charlotte Atteberry, Senior Accounting and Management Major, ASU ..........42

Marital-Based Injustice in Sentencing Outcomes,


by Charles O. Ochie, Sr., Assistant Professor and Chairman
of Criminal Justice and Adansi Amankwaa, Assistant Professor
of Psychology, Sociology and Social Work, ASU..................................................52

Knowledge, Perceptions of HIV/AIDS risk and Condom Use Motivation Among


College Students in Southwest Georgia,
by Adansi A. Amankwaa, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Sociology and
Social Work, ASU ..................................................................................................60

Victimization among Middle and High School Students,


by Rani George, Assistant Professor, College of Education, ASU .......................75

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Measuring How Technology Courses and Computers are Evolving within the
K-12 Education System,
by Ericka Nicole Jackson, Junior Business Information Systems Major, ASU ....85

Equilibrium Molecular Geometry of CF4 Using Real Time Gas Electron


Diffraction,
by Seong S. Seo, Assistant Professor of Natural Sciences, Albany State University
and John D. Ewbank, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of
Arkansas, Fayetteville ...........................................................................................96

IT Skills: Employment and Salary Options for the Technical Professional,


by Taurus J. Jackson, Senior Business Information Systems Major, ASU ..........103

Role of Parental Supervision on Adolescents Deviant Behaviors,


by George Thomas, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, ASU ....................110

A Contribution to the Theory of Neutral Stochastic Functional Differential


Equations with Causal Operators,
by Z. Okonkwo, Associate Professor and Chairman of Mathematics and
Computer Science, ASU ......................................................................................120

Using an Analysis of the Roles of the Instruments in a Traditional New Orleans


Jazz Band as a Tool for Teaching Improvisation,
by Michael Decuir, Assistant Professor of Music, ASU......................................130

Alcohol and Marijuana Among Young Adolescents: Role of Parental Bond and
Deviant Peer Association,
by George Thomas, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice
and Michael E. Orok, Professor and Chairman of History,
Political Science and Public Administration, ASU .............................................135

Communication Tools: An investigation into the Business Students Utilization of


Traditional vs. Technical Tools of Information Access and Exchange,
by Kathaleena Edward Monds, Assistant Professor of Business, ASU ..............147

2003 by Albany State University

page ii a centennial publication


___________________________________________________________
Monograph of Research Endeavors at Albany State University
___________________________________________________________
Published by
ALBANY STATE UNIVERSITY
Printed in the United States of America

EDITORIAL BOARD

Editor in Chief/Project Director


Michael E. Orok
Professor & Chairman
Department of History, Political Science and Public Administration

Associate Editors
Kathaleena Monds, Assist. Professor of Business Administration
George Thomas, Assist. Professor of Criminal Justice

Editors
John Culbreath, Dean, College of Education
Rani George, Assist. Professor, College of Education
Cynthia Hoke, Director, Public Information
Walter Kimbrough, Vice President, Student Affairs
Joshua Murfree, Assoc. Professor/Chairman, Psychology, Sociology & Social
Work
Abiodun Ojemakinde, Dean, College of Business Administration
Ganiyu Oladunjoye, Assoc. Professor/Chairman, Business Information Systems
Zephyrinus Okonkwo, Assoc. Professor/Chairman, Mathematics and Computer
Science
Teresa Merriweather Orok, Assoc. V.P. Institutional Research, Planning &
Outreach
Claude Perkins, Assoc. V. P. for Academic Affairs/Dean of the Graduate School
David Roberts, Professor, English and Modern Languages

Production Staff
Joe West
Research/Editorial Assistant

Emmanuel Freeman
Editorial Assistant

Secretary
Carolyn Mansfield

a centennial publication page iii


EDITORS NOTE

When I was first asked to lead the effort of editing and producing two major
University publications, including this Monograph as part of the Universitys
centennial, I had some reservations. I have written and published papers and
edited a journal, but I had never managed a project of this historical significance
and magnitude, therefore, I spent several days contemplating the appropriate
format and structure for the publications. Fortunately, my initial meeting with
President Portia Holmes Shields yielded some very insightful information and
after that discussion, I was prepared to plunge directly into what I have come to
label as one of the most rewarding projects of my professional life.

As I visited academic departments and made presentations regarding the


publications, I could sense the excitement and the willingness of the faculty and
staff to participate in this historical event. Those who have a dynamic and
working research agenda at Albany State University went to work immediately
and as a result of their hard work, we received many scholarly manuscripts. The
editorial board worked intensively and reviewed all manuscripts; therefore, what
is published in this centennial edition represents sound research and scholarly
work by Albany State University faculty, staff and students. Because many
persons are interested in publishing in the Monograph, we plan to issue another
volume next year so that those who missed submitting manuscripts for this
volume may have the opportunity to showcase their scholarship.

Articles in this issue cover a wide range of academic areas, utilizing applied
research in some cases. I hope that this document helps to shed some light on
some academic or policy area and helps someone in understanding the role and
importance of research in informing, teaching and learning.

I thank Dr. Shields for her support of this very worthwhile effort. Thanks to the
members of the editorial board for their diligence and dedication. I also
appreciate the professional input that I received from the Office of Institutional
Research, Planning and Outreach; Marsha Aaron and the staff in the Public
Information Office. I acknowledge the support of anyone who has contributed to
the successful publication of this Monograph.

Michael E. Orok

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by Granville Wrensford and Louise Wrensford

Enhanced Department of Natural Sciences


Albany State University, Albany, GA

Student
Learning of
Chemistry in
a Computer-
Description of Paper for Conference Program:
A computer-assisted environment was created in General and Organic Chemistry
courses. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was used in conjunction with peer
tutoring and instructor-led help sessions to provide varied instructional modes of
teaching and learning. The four-year study (1999-2002) shows enhanced student
performance in General and Organic Chemistry after these tools were integrated into
the learning environment.

Abstract
This study focuses on the implementation of instructional tools (computer-assisted
instruction, peer tutoring, and instructor-led help sessions) in General and Organic Chemistry
courses, and the evaluation of student outcomes over the past four years using 1998 as the
baseline year, when these instructional aids were not utilized. The data show progressive and
significant improvement in student performance over the course of the study. The percentage
of students receiving a grade of C or better increased from 27% in 1998 to 67% in 2002 in
General Chemistry. In Organic Chemistry, the percentage of students receiving C or better
increased from 31% in 1998 to 61% in 2002. Of the students responding to a course survey,
most perceived the additional course tools to be beneficial in understanding the subject matter
for the course.

Introduction
Over the past decade, reform documents such as the National Science Education
Standards have promoted systemic changes to the way science courses are taught in
order to provide students with a high quality science education and to enhance student
learning. This has been fueled by studies that suggest that the traditional modes of

a centennial publication page 1


delivery or instruction in science courses are not very effective. While these methods
may be effective in covering large amounts of material, they do not ensure that students
learn or understand the material. Among the strategies that have been proposed and
are being assessed by the scientific community are inquiry-based learning (Paulson,
1999), (Moog, 1997) and (Bradley, et al., 2002), cooperative learning (Lazarowitz,
1988) and (Nurrenbern and Robinson 1997), active learning (Silberman), critical
thinking (Kogut, 1996) and classroom assessment (Wright, 1998).
The hierarchical nature of chemistry and the requirement of basic math skills in
order to do well have led to the General and Organic Chemistry courses being viewed
as difficult and demanding. As a result, many strategies have been prescribed for
increasing retention rates in these courses. Use of peer tutors, active learning, team
learning and grade/performance contracts are some examples. The American Chemical
Society and the National Science Foundation proposed a series of guidelines and
recommendations aimed at revitalizing the chemistry curriculum in undergraduate
institutions (Yarnell, 2002). Many chemistry educators are utilizing computer-assisted
instruction, including the use of Internet resources to supplement traditional course
instruction (lecture, text, audio-visuals) (Donavan and Nakhleh, 2001, Whitnell, 1994,
Hall, Butler, McGuire, Saundra, McGlynn, Lyon, Reese, et al. 2001, Carpi, 2001 and
Wink, 2000). The advantages of the Web format are that it offers a different venue for
providing and presenting information, and increases the instructors ability to present
and the students ability to grasp abstract and difficult concepts. This is achieved
primarily through animations, user manipulated representations of chemistry
phenomena, and drill and practice tutorials, which provide instant feedback.

Purpose
The purpose of this study was to increase the number of students successfully
completing the General and Organic Chemistry courses without decreasing the course
content, by implementing computer-assisted instruction, peer tutors and instructor-led
help sessions as instructional tools that could be utilized by students to enhance
learning. Prior to 1999, these courses were delivered in the traditional lecture format.
During 1999-2002, the courses were revised to include computer-assisted instruction,
peer tutors and a weekly instructor-led help session. To measure the effectiveness of the
added components, the passing rates and students use of the resources were monitored.

Methods
Class Description and Demographics
General Chemistry. The General Chemistry course, CHEM1211, is a study in basic
chemistry concepts that include matter stoichiometry, atomic and molecular structure,
solution chemistry and chemical equilibrium. This General Chemistry course is the first
required for students interested in pursuing degrees in math, biology, chemistry, pre-
engineering and technology. The majority of students take this course in their freshman

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or sophomore year. While students are encouraged to take College Algebra prior to
taking the General Chemistry course, it is not a requirement. The majority of the
students (>95%) indicated taking chemistry in high school. Less than 2% had taken
Advanced Placement Chemistry. During the period of this study, students could take
the Chemistry course once admitted to the university if no remediation course in
mathematics was required. The number of students enrolled in the General Chemistry
course during the study period ranged from 45 to 59 students with an average class size
of 52 7 students.
Organic Chemistry. The Organic Chemistry course, CHEM2301, is an introduction
to the chemistry of carbon compounds and covers topics such as nucleophilic
substitution, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aromaticity, stereochemistry and
spectroscopy. The students enrolled in this course are either Biology or Chemistry
majors. Students taking the Organic Chemistry course must have completed the
General Chemistry course with a grade of C or better. Included are students who took
the General Chemistry course in the computer-assisted environment as well as students
who did not, and those who were unfamiliar with the computer environment used in
this study. The number of students enrolled in the Organic Chemistry course during
the study period ranged from 29 to 42 students with an average class size of 35 5
students.

Period of Study, Instrumentation and Procedures


The first semester General and Organic Chemistry classes from the Fall Semester of
1998 to the Fall Semester 2002 were utilized in this study. In 1998, the class content
was delivered in a traditional lecture format. Development of computer-assisted
environments in the General and Organic Chemistry classes began in 1999, with the
use of computerized tutorials, drill and practice exercises, a class Web site, and
instructional delivery via WebCT, (with on-line class notes, e-mail, bulletin boards, on-
line grade access, animation links, and on-line quizzes). Throughout the study, the
same instructor taught each course. The textbook and course content also remained
the same.
To determine the readiness of students for the General Chemistry course, the
American Chemical Society (ACS) Toledo examination was administered at the
beginning of each semester. The ACS Toledo Examination tests the basic math and
chemistry background of students prior to taking a college level chemistry course. The
examination comprises a total of 60 questions in basic math and chemistry. A score of
51% (31 correct responses) is generally used as a cut-off score.
Students were evaluated using objective tests of knowledge and content (in class
exams 40%) and final exam (15%), quizzes (15%), assignments (10%) and laboratory
exercises (20%). For each year of the study the exams were not identical, however, the
exams covered the same content and had the same format. Questions were generated
from the American Chemical Society Test Bank and the test bank for the course text.

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Students grades were assigned A=90-100; B=80-89; C=70-79, D=60-69, F=below 60.
Pass percentages for the courses were determined from the percentage of students in
each course receiving a grade of C or higher.
Students use of CAI materials was determined from the WebCT log of students
access to the course Web site. Using this log, students use of the course content and
the on-line bulletin board were accessed. All students who logged onto the home page
only, were not counted as accessing the course materials, which were on secondary
pages.
In addition to objective assessments, a subjective student survey was given to
evaluate the course during the 13th week of class. Survey questions are shown in Table
1. The evaluation asked students to rate the class on a variety of items, including the
usefulness and ease of using various components of the course. Most students answer
choices involved yes or no responses on a 5-point rating scale with 1 indicating
strong agreement, 3 indicating neutral and 5 indicating strong disagreement.

Instructor-led help sessions


Each week an instructor-led help session was conducted. This was mandatory for
students. These sessions were held during the first hour of each lab section for the
General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry classes. Because lab sessions were limited to
24-28 students, this provided a smaller group interaction in each session. The activities
consisted of problem-solving sessions and computer-assisted software. Students were
required to work through a series of problems utilizing chemistry software from Falcon.
There was immediate feedback, and the instructor was available to give additional help
if needed. The instructor was present at all times and was able to lend individual
assistance to students. After an hour, the students proceeded to the laboratory where
they conducted the days experiment/lab exercise.

Peer Tutors
Peer tutors were made available for both courses. The tutors were selected from
outstanding students who had recently completed the course and had obtained a B (80-
89) or A (90) in the general chemistry sequence courses, CHEM1211 and CHEM1212.
The tutors were available at various hours during the week. Tutors schedules and
location were posted and given to students during the second week of class. Students
who did poorly on the first exams were encouraged by the instructor to work with a
tutor. The use of peer tutors was monitored.

Technology Integration
Technology integration began with the introduction of chemistry software that
provided drill and practice exercises in general chemistry and organic chemistry
concepts. With the adoption of WebCT by the University System of Georgia, the
capabilities of WebCT were utilized to provide a computer-assisted environment in

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chemistry. The tools used included the following:
On-line Course Notes. Notes for each topic covered in the course were placed on
WebCT. Students could access the course Web site at any time to review or print
copies of the notes.
Bulletin board/e-mail. Bulletin board and e-mail were used in several ways:
a) student-to-student communication
b) student-to-instructor communication
c) to facilitate integration of writing-across-the-curriculum in general chemistry.
Small writing assignments were given throughout the course. The assignments were
based on topics that required students to understand some content as well as for
students to gain insight into the applications of chemistry in the real world. Typical
topics included applications of chemistry and chemical reactions in the students lives,
and exploration of the chemical processes involved in acid rain formation, the green
house effect, global warming and ozone depletion. Students grades for these
assignments were based on content and understanding as well as proper use of English,
grammar and paragraph development.
d) to enhance oral communication skills in Organic Chemistry. To help
students research and formulate an effective presentation the on-line bulletin board was
used. Each student in the Organic Chemistry class was required to give an oral
presentation at the end of the semester on a particular topic. Students were required to
describe, analyze, interpret and explore the topic as it related to chemistry. During the
first two weeks of the semester students were randomly assigned to groups and topics.
To prepare for the oral presentation, students were required to post relevant
information to the bulletin board on a weekly basis for a period of eight weeks. Topics
included, but were not limited to, chemical warfare agents, artificial sweeteners,
digitalis, tamoxifen, okadaic acid, red tides, licopene, Phen-Fen, Chitosan, Viagra,
Prozac and DEET.
Quizzes. The quizzes were used as a tool to focus students on the important
concepts, and the subject matter that had to be mastered in the course. At the end of
each topic, students were given a quiz. The students were given the option of taking
the quiz twice, and the average score of the two trials taken. The use of WebCT
calculated questions allowed a variety of questions to be prepared, so that each student
attempted a different quiz each time.
Grades on-line. Grades were posted on-line and updated immediately after a quiz or
exam had been graded. Students were therefore able to obtain grades for all
assignments, as well as their average grade in the class at all times during the course by
accessing the course Web site.
Animations. Computer projection and animation were utilized in the classroom to
enhance lectures that involved concepts that tend to be difficult for students to
understand.

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Results
The mean scores and standard deviations for the ACS Toledo examination for
General Chemistry I from 1998 to 2002 are shown in Table 2. The results are slightly
below the scores compiled by the ACS Division of Chemical Education (DivChemED)
Examination Institute (31 7.12). The mean Toledo score in the base-line year
(1998) was 28.6 with a standard deviation of 7.2. When scores are compared for each
class during the study period (1998-2002), the results show that the average
performance of entering students during the study period was fairly consistent.

Pass Percentages and Correlations


Students passing the course received grades of C or higher. The results show higher
algebraic means for student performance in both general and organic chemistry courses
following implementation of course instructional aides in each year of the study
(Figures 1 and 2). For General Chemistry, a 14% increase or greater pass percentage
above base year was observed. Except for 2000, the pass percentage increased steadily
from 46% in 1999 to 67.8% in 2002. In 2000 the pass percentage of 41 is above the
baseline year pass percentage of 27, however, the 2000 pass percentage is five points
below the pass percentage in 1999 (46%). The larger number of students involved in
the study, N=117 in 2000 compared to N=54 in 1999, may have provided a more
statistically significant pass percentage. Pass percentages in organic chemistry increased
in each year of the study, from 31% in the baseline year to 61% in 2002.
In the General and Organic Chemistry courses, the frequency of usage of the course
Web site was determined. When this was compared to students grades in both general
and organic chemistry courses the pass percentage was higher for students that utilized
the Web site compared to those students who did not use the web site regularly, that is,
less than three times a week, (Tables 3 and 4). In 2001 and 2002, the correlation of
Web site usage to course grade is significant for General Chemistry at the 95%
confidence level, (p=0.019 in 2001 and p=0.002 in 2002). For Organic Chemistry,
p=0.109 in 2001 and p=0.263 in 2002, at the 95% confidence interval, indicating that
the correlation was not significant for this course, (Table 5).

Students Attitudes
CHEM1211, Fall 2001. Twenty-eight students returned surveys (Table 6). When
questioned on the on-line component of the course, on a scale of 1(strongly agree) to 5
(strongly disagree) student results were positive. Students found the computer assisted
instructional tools improved their learning (mean score=1.94); access to their grade
information and performance measures such as quizzes prompted them to take action
(mean score=1.96); and found the WebCT format preferable to other web-based
courses (mean score=2.11) (50% had experience with other web-based courses). When
asked if too much time was spent on learning the technology, the mean score was 3.59
(1=strongly agree and 5=strongly disagree). This indicated a neutral to slight

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disagreement that too much time was taken learning the technology. This may be
attributed to the fact that students needed to input some time and effort in getting
familiar with and navigating the on-line materials, but that students already had
familiarity with using computers. The fact that 75% of the students indicated that they
preferred a class with a web-based component to one without showed that learning to
use the technology did not distract from the advantages of having the computer
environment as a part of the course.
Students indicated that the most useful components of the course were the class
notes (50%) and grades on-line (39%) in 2001. The least useful components for this
course were e-mail/bulletin (32%) and calendar (43%). This can be attributed to the
fact that these tools were used mainly for back-up announcements and to provide
information already provided in class. The attendance policy at the university is
enforced and most students attend classes regularly and are aware of announcements
made in class.
Fall 2002. Thirty-eight surveys were returned. All evaluation categories improved
compared to 2001 surveys. Students chose having grades on-line (42.1 %) and class
notes (36.8%) as the most useful aspects of the Web site. The on-line quizzes were
found most useful by 18.4% of the students.
Table 7 shows the utilization of tutors in both Organic Chemistry and General
Chemistry was consistently low throughout the course of this study. While students
agreed that tutors were useful, very few saw tutors at least once per week. Most students
saw tutors less than 5 times throughout the semester in each year of this study. When
asked, the majority of students indicated that other obligations (mainly jobs) made it
difficult to interact with the tutor, or that they tried to work through the course
materials on their own. Most of the students who saw a tutor at least once per week
passed the course (Table 7), though the sample pool for this data is small due to the
poor utilization of this service and may not be statistically significant.
Students found the computer-assisted instructional materials (score=1.94) more
useful than the peer tutoring (score=3.45) or the instructor-led help session
(score=3.43).

Discussion
Although there was no statistical correlation of computer usage to student
performance, for organic chemistry, the survey responses indicated that students
perceive the on-line resources to be beneficial.
One of the most important lessons learned was that the use of the course materials
on a voluntary basis resulted in poor utilization of resources, even when students were
doing poorly in the class. Maximum utilization resulted when the instructor provided
specific activities and assignments that required students to use resources.
It is evident that the varied classroom environment helped students learning. The
number of students completing the courses successfully increased and the student

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surveys certainly show that students perceive that the tools enhanced their learning.
Integrating the additional instructional modes, as done in this study, exposed students
to different ways of learning the subject matter, an important consideration since
different methods of course delivery may have different effectiveness.


Table 1.
Student Survey Items

Have you had previous experience with a course that had a Web site?
Have you had previous experience with a course that used WebCT?
How would you rate your expertise with computer technology?
How often did you use the course Web site?
From what location did you most often access the course Web site?
I have found the Web format used in this course preferable to other web-based courses.
The computer-assisted instructional tools available for the class were valuable and improved
my learning.
It is important to have experience using the latest technology applied to my field of study.
Access to my grade information and performance measures such as quizzes, prompted me to
take action (such as visiting my instructor or tutor).
Which component of the course was least useful to you?
Which component of the course did you find most beneficial?
I spent too much time learning technology.
In general, I am very satisfied with my overall experience with the course.
If a choice exists, Id prefer a course with a Web component to one without.
Instructor-led sessions were helpful in understanding the subject matter.
Peer tutors were helpful in understanding the subject matter.


Table 2.
Mean ACS Toledo Exam Scores, General Chemistry

1998 1999 2001 2002
N=76 N=78 N=56 N=55

Mean Score 28.6 30.2 25.4 27.7
Standard Deviation 7.17 7.13 7.12 7.09

American Chemical Society Data1 31.5 7.12

1
Data obtained from the ACS DivCHED Examination Institute Website, collected in 1998-1999.
2000 data not available

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Table 3.
Utilization of CAI in General Chemistry I1

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
N=90 N=54 N=117 N=43 N=55
Number of students
utilizing CAI2 0 5 64 27 50

pass rate for students


utilizing CAI - ND 61 67 72

pass rate for students


not utilizing CAI - ND 7.5 31 20

Class Pass % 27 46 41 51 67
1
The large variation in N values (N=43 to N=117) for this course reflects the fact that the instructor
taught an additional general chemistry section in 2000
2
Students utilizing CAI an average of three times per week or more. ND- Not Determined

Table 4.
Utilization of CAI in Organic Chemistry I

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
N=32 N=29 N=32 N=42 N=38
Number of students
utilizing CAI1 0 6 30 39 35

pass rate for students


utilizing CAI - ND 47 59 66

pass rate for students


not utilizing CAI - ND 0 0 0

Class Pass % 31 41 44 58 61
1Students utilizing CAI an average of three times per week or more
ND-Not Determined

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Table 5.
Correlations of Grades to Use of CAI

Course Pearson
Correlation Coefficient P N

Fall 2001

General Chemistry I 0.343 0.019 43


Organic Chemistry I 0.217 0.109 42

Fall 2002

General Chemistry I 0.397 0.002 55


Organic Chemistry I 0.112 0.263 38

Significance level = 0.05


Table 6.
Student Survey Responses, General Chemistry

Statement Mean Response
Fall 2001 Fall 2002
N=28 N=38
I have found the Web format used in this course
preferable to other web-based courses. 2.11 2.05

The computer-assisted instructional tools available, for


the class, were valuable and improved my learning. 1.94 1.82

It is important to have experience using the latest


technology applied to my field of study. 1.65 1.34

Access to my grade information and performance


measures such as quizzes, prompted me to take action
(such as visiting my instructor or tutor). 1.96 1.42

I spent too much time learning technology. 3.59 4.11

In general, I am very satisfied with my overall


experience with the course. 1.74 1.45

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Instructor-led sessions were helpful in understanding
the subject matter 3.45 1.50

Peer tutors were helpful in understanding the


subject matter 3.42 2.84

Above questions were rated on a scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree)

I have had previous experience with a web-based course 50% 53%


If a choice exists, Id prefer a class with a
web component to one without 75% 84%

Table 7.
Utilization of Peer Tutors

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

CHEM1211-General Chemistry I N=90 N=54 N=117 N= 43 N=55


Number of students utilizing tutors 9 16 4 6

Pass % for students utilizing tutors - ND 63 80 83

CHEM2301-Organic Chemistry 1 N=32 N=29 N=32 N= 42 N=38

Number of students utilizing tutors - 8 13 17 10

Pass % for students utilizing tutors - ND 75 86 90

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Instructor-led sessions were helpful in understanding
the subject matter 3.45 1.50

Peer tutors were helpful in understanding the


subject matter 3.42 2.84

Above questions were rated on a scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree)

I have had previous experience with a web-based course 50% 53%


If a choice exists, Id prefer a class with a
web component to one without 75% 84%

Table 7.
Utilization of Peer Tutors

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

CHEM1211-General Chemistry I N=90 N=54 N=117 N= 43 N=55


Number of students utilizing tutors 9 16 4 6

Pass % for students utilizing tutors - ND 63 80 83

CHEM2301-Organic Chemistry 1 N=32 N=29 N=32 N= 42 N=38

Number of students utilizing tutors - 8 13 17 10

Pass % for students utilizing tutors - ND 75 86 90

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Instructor-led sessions were helpful in understanding
the subject matter 3.45 1.50

Peer tutors were helpful in understanding the


subject matter 3.42 2.84

Above questions were rated on a scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree)

I have had previous experience with a web-based course 50% 53%


If a choice exists, Id prefer a class with a
web component to one without 75% 84%

Table 7.
Utilization of Peer Tutors

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

CHEM1211-General Chemistry I N=90 N=54 N=117 N= 43 N=55


Number of students utilizing tutors 9 16 4 6

Pass % for students utilizing tutors - ND 63 80 83

CHEM2301-Organic Chemistry 1 N=32 N=29 N=32 N= 42 N=38

Number of students utilizing tutors - 8 13 17 10

Pass % for students utilizing tutors - ND 75 86 90

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Acknowledgements
The activities described in this article was supported in part by a University System
of Georgia Teaching and Learning Grant, the Department of Education Minority
Science and Engineering Improvement Program, Health and Human Services Health
Careers Opportunities Program and the National Science Foundation Historically
Black Colleges and Universities Undergraduate Program

References
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Carpi, A. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 78, 1709.
Donavan, W.J. and Nakhleh, M.B. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 975-980.
Hall, R.W., Butler, Leslie G., McGuire, Saundra Y., McGlynn, Sean P., Lyon, Gary L.,
Reese, Ron L., et al. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 78, 1704-1708.
Kogut, L. S. (1996). Journal of Chemistry Education, 73, 218.
Lazarowitz, R. (1988). Science Education, 72, 475-487.
Moog, R. S. and Farrell, J. J. (1997). Chemistry: A guided inquiry. New York: Wiley.
Nurrenbern, S. C. and Robinson, W.R. (1997). Journal of Chemistry Education, 74, 623-
624.
Paulson, D.R. (1999). Journal of Chemistry Education, 76, 1136-1140.
Silberman, M. Active Learning. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.
Whitnell, R.M., et.al. (1994) Journal of Chemistry Education, 71, 721-727.
Wink, D. J. (2000). NSF Web Site Links on Instructional Technology and Education.
Journal of Chemistry Education, 77, 25.
Wright, J.C. et al. (1998). Journal of Chemistry Education, 75, 986-992.
Yarnell, A., (2002). Focusing on reform. Chemical & Engineering News, 80, 43.

page 12 a centennial publication


Acknowledgements
The activities described in this article was supported in part by a University System
of Georgia Teaching and Learning Grant, the Department of Education Minority
Science and Engineering Improvement Program, Health and Human Services Health
Careers Opportunities Program and the National Science Foundation Historically
Black Colleges and Universities Undergraduate Program

References
Bradley, A. Z. et al. (2002). Journal of Chemistry Education, 79 (4), 514-519.
Carpi, A. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 78, 1709.
Donavan, W.J. and Nakhleh, M.B. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 975-980.
Hall, R.W., Butler, Leslie G., McGuire, Saundra Y., McGlynn, Sean P., Lyon, Gary L.,
Reese, Ron L., et al. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 78, 1704-1708.
Kogut, L. S. (1996). Journal of Chemistry Education, 73, 218.
Lazarowitz, R. (1988). Science Education, 72, 475-487.
Moog, R. S. and Farrell, J. J. (1997). Chemistry: A guided inquiry. New York: Wiley.
Nurrenbern, S. C. and Robinson, W.R. (1997). Journal of Chemistry Education, 74, 623-
624.
Paulson, D.R. (1999). Journal of Chemistry Education, 76, 1136-1140.
Silberman, M. Active Learning. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.
Whitnell, R.M., et.al. (1994) Journal of Chemistry Education, 71, 721-727.
Wink, D. J. (2000). NSF Web Site Links on Instructional Technology and Education.
Journal of Chemistry Education, 77, 25.
Wright, J.C. et al. (1998). Journal of Chemistry Education, 75, 986-992.
Yarnell, A., (2002). Focusing on reform. Chemical & Engineering News, 80, 43.

page 12 a centennial publication


Acknowledgements
The activities described in this article was supported in part by a University System
of Georgia Teaching and Learning Grant, the Department of Education Minority
Science and Engineering Improvement Program, Health and Human Services Health
Careers Opportunities Program and the National Science Foundation Historically
Black Colleges and Universities Undergraduate Program

References
Bradley, A. Z. et al. (2002). Journal of Chemistry Education, 79 (4), 514-519.
Carpi, A. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 78, 1709.
Donavan, W.J. and Nakhleh, M.B. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 975-980.
Hall, R.W., Butler, Leslie G., McGuire, Saundra Y., McGlynn, Sean P., Lyon, Gary L.,
Reese, Ron L., et al. (2001). Journal of Chemistry Education, 78, 1704-1708.
Kogut, L. S. (1996). Journal of Chemistry Education, 73, 218.
Lazarowitz, R. (1988). Science Education, 72, 475-487.
Moog, R. S. and Farrell, J. J. (1997). Chemistry: A guided inquiry. New York: Wiley.
Nurrenbern, S. C. and Robinson, W.R. (1997). Journal of Chemistry Education, 74, 623-
624.
Paulson, D.R. (1999). Journal of Chemistry Education, 76, 1136-1140.
Silberman, M. Active Learning. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.
Whitnell, R.M., et.al. (1994) Journal of Chemistry Education, 71, 721-727.
Wink, D. J. (2000). NSF Web Site Links on Instructional Technology and Education.
Journal of Chemistry Education, 77, 25.
Wright, J.C. et al. (1998). Journal of Chemistry Education, 75, 986-992.
Yarnell, A., (2002). Focusing on reform. Chemical & Engineering News, 80, 43.

page 12 a centennial publication


by Mark S. Korlie

Hand-Held Department of Mathematical Sciences,


Montclair State University
Upper Montclair, NJ 07043

Technology Zephyrinus C. Okonkwo


Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,
Albany State University
and Albany, GA 31705

Innovative
Pedagogy in
Mathematics
: The
Changing
Abstract. Since their introduction in the mid 1980s, graphing calculators continue to have a
profound impact on the teaching and learning of mathematics in the United States and many
other countries. Graphing calculators are affecting the curriculum in a positive sense and are
creating more opportunities for mathematics teachers to include more realistic examples and
applications and introduce topics and concepts that were once inaccessible to students. In this
paper, we present a brief history of this revolution, give examples using graphing calculators,
and discuss current trends and future implications on the use of hand-held-technology in
mathematics education.

1. Introduction

Throughout the ages, mathematicians, engineers, and scientists have used various
technologies available to improve our standard of living and study the world around us.
In addition to playing an ever-increasing role in our daily lives, technology facilitates
the study of nature and its powerful forces. It also helps us to predict when and where

a centennial publication page 13


an uncontrollable natural phenomenon will occur. For example, technology makes it
possible to predict the weather, volcanic eruptions, or when and where an earthquake
will occur.
From mental calculations to paper-and-pencil calculations and then to calculators
and computers, technology has continued to have profound influence on the fields of
mathematics, engineering, and the sciences in general.
Prior to the advent of the scientific calculator, generations of mathematicians,
engineers, and scientists used the venerable slide rule for calculations, measurements,
and other mathematical operations. The slide rule, invented in the 1600s, was
considered a wonderful calculating device and a very useful hand-held technology
during its time (Redin). According to Ball (1997), Cannon, Inc. introduced to the
world the first hand-held electronic calculator in the following April 14, 1970 press
release from Japan:

Cannon Inc., in close collaboration with Texas Instruments Inc. of the


United States, has successfully developed the worlds first pocketable
battery-driven electronic print-out calculator with full large-scale integrated
circuitry.

In 1972, the HP-35, the one single product that forever changed the whole image
of the computer industry, (Stine 1984) was born, and it ushered in the beginning of
the end for the slide-rule. The HP-35 was the first hand-held electronic calculator ever
to perform logarithmic and trigonometric functions; it was the first scientific calculator.
After its introduction, the market for pocket calculators exploded. Dozens of
manufacturers and hundreds of different models of pocket calculators began to appear
around the world during that period. Most of the models were standard four-operation
units. In the field of scientific calculator technology, Texas Instruments remains the
leader.
Casio invented the first graphing calculator (Casio FX7000) with powerful built-in,
computer-like graphing software (Demana and Waits 1992). The graphing calculators
introduction in 1986 started a revolution in the teaching and learning of mathematics
in the United States and many other countries around the world. Texas Instruments
saw the potential of this revolution and quickly introduced the TI-81, which was more
user-friendly and had more features than the Casio graphing calculator at that time.
With the introduction of the TI-81, followed by more powerful graphing calculators:
TI-82, TI-83, TI-85, TI-86, etc., Texas Instruments became the dominant player in the
graphing calculators market. Today it continues to be one of the dominant players, if
not the dominant player, and its calculators are very popular with educators in the
teaching and learning of mathematics. Casio, Sharp, and Hewlett-Packard are
important players in this revolution, and they have all introduced powerful graphing
calculators for the education market and the general public.

page 14 a centennial publication


The major consequence of this revolution is the integration of graphing calculator
technology in many high schools, colleges, and universities curriculum. Indeed, the
infusion of graphing calculator technology in teaching mathematics, science,
engineering, and business has become central in innovative pedagogical practices in
classrooms and laboratories.
In addition to doing everything that a scientific calculator does, a graphing
calculator (like the TI-83 and TI-86) has powerful built-in graphing software, statistical
functionality with graphics interface, powerful matrix arithmetic capabilities, I/O
capability for sharing programs and files, programming capability, and other features.
Graphing calculators are computers that fit in a pocket or purse and are portable,
which make them very convenient for in-class and out-of-class activities in teaching
and learning mathematics.
In 1996, Texas Instrument introduced the TI-92, the first calculator that contained
an easy-to-use versatile computer algebra system (CAS) and a computer interactive
dynamic geometry system (Demana and Waits 1997). A CAS is a program that can be
used to do symbolic manipulation of mathematical expressions. The TI-92 also has
built-in software for 3D graphing, matrix algebra, statistics, sequence graphing, a partial
spreadsheet, programming, table, text editor functionality, as well as all the traditional
features of a graphing calculator. It can be linked to a Calculator-Based Laboratory
System (CBL) to collect experimental data electronically. The full range of probes
available for computers is also available for CBLs. Texas Instruments later introduced
the TI-92 Plus Module, a powerful upgrade for the TI-92, which plugs into the back of
any TI-92. The new module upgrade contains Flash ROM that is upgradable. The TI-
89 calculator also has built-in CAS and many of the other features of the TI-92.
The TI-89 and TI-92 are examples of Algebraic Calculators. These are graphic
calculators that can perform symbolic manipulations, in addition to traditional graphing
calculator features and other functionalities.
Texas Instrument and Casio, among other competitors, have introduced Flash
ROM calculators, which have many positive implications for the future. Flash ROM
provides the ability to extend the life of calculators by electronically upgrading to new
software and versions. It enables many kinds of useful computer programs to run on
calculators. Therefore, one updates functionality as needs change and avoids buying
and learning new products every year.
Hand-held technology includes arithmetic calculators, scientific calculators, graphing
calculators, algebraic calculators, Personal Data Assistants (PDAs), Data collection
devices, Palmtop computers, etc. As you can see this is a long list of devices, and it will
continue to grow as new hand-held devices are introduced.
However, for the rest of this paper, we concentrate on calculators, in particular,
graphing and algebraic calculators. Beginning with graphing calculators, we shall treat
each separately and discuss the profound impact these technologies are having on
teaching and learning mathematics. They are providing millions of students useful and

a centennial publication page 15


exciting experiences in mathematics classrooms in the United States and many other
countries.

2. Graphing Calculators

There are many powerful graphing calculators on the market today and many of
them can provide the same learning experiences provided by the calculators used in the
examples of this paper. For the examples in this section, we use the TI-86 graphing
calculator, which is used extensively for instruction in introductory
mathematics classes (algebra, trigonometry, calculus, linear algebra,
differential equations, etc.) at colleges and universities in the United
States and other countries.
The TI-86 (shown left) has the capabilities to graph functions, polar,
parametric, and differential equations in up to 7 different graphing styles.
Its powerful features include finding derivatives, integrals, minimums,
maximums, and roots of equations numerically.
Graphing calculators are valuable tools for visualizing mathematical
equations and principles, verifying solutions to equations, exploring mathematical
ideas, and developing mathematical models. The combination of knowledge of
mathematics and the use of graphing calculators allow us to explore mathematics more
easily and in greater depth.
The mathematics content that is taught today has evolved over time as
mathematicians updated the curriculum and used the tools available to facilitate
teaching and learning mathematics. One recent example is what the scientific
calculator did to the kind of computation that was taught after it was introduced in the
1970s. It significantly changed some of the mathematics curriculum in most countries
and made other mathematics course content, say at the university level, obsolete. This
trend has continued to the present and it will continue in the future as technology
continues to influence pedagogical decisions and course content. However, not all
mathematics will change in response to technology. For example, there is the
mathematics that consists of conceptual understanding, reasoning, theorems and proofs,
applications, and problem solving, which will continue to be very important in learning
and understanding mathematics.
Technology has an impact on both content and teaching. It causes changes in the
mathematics we teach and provides significant pedagogical enhancement to the
teaching and learning of mathematics. As a pedagogical tool, a graphing calculator
provides the means of viewing a problem multiple ways (multiple representations of
functions or solutions to a problem). One can view it analytically with paper-and-
pencil approach, visually using a graph, or numerically using a table.
The calculator broadens our problem solving horizons. It allows us to solve more
complex and realistic problems, and use concepts from advanced courses in solving

page 16 a centennial publication


problems in lower-level mathematics courses. It trivializes many mathematical
operations/procedures. For example, accurate graphing of functions is not a trivial
exercise using paper-and-pencil methods, especially for complicated functions. Drawing
the graphs for certain functions (e.g. linear functions or quadratic functions) is simple
once you know the geometric meaning of the coefficients and general shapes of their
graphs. However, drawing the graphs of functions like

f ( x ) = cos ( 2x ) + 2 sin and f ( x ) = cos ( 2x ) + 2 sin ,


x x
2 2
using the
paper-and-pencil approach, is more difficult and requires a reasonable degree of talent
for graphing functions. Using the graphing calculator one can graph these and other
functions easily. The graphs f of g, obtained from the TI-86, are shown in Figure 1
below.

Figure 1. Graph of f (shown left) and graph of g (shown right).

We believe that appropriate use of technology is an essential part of a balanced


curriculum in todays technological and increasingly competitive global economy.
Students can learn more mathematics more deeply with appropriate use of technology.
They can make and test conjectures and the technology enhances their mathematical
thinking. Calculators affect the way we teach and the way students learn in a positive
sense.
The graphing calculator facilitates problem solving using multiple approaches
algebraic, graphical, and numerical. These multiple-approach formats show students
different solution methods that lead to the same answer; thus, helping students to
expand their problem solving abilities. For example, consider the equation.
1. Using traditional algebraic methods, one gets its solution: 2 x + 7 x 2 = 0
2. Using a graphical method with the TI-86 graphing calculator, one graphs the
function y = 2 x + 7 x 2 and finds its x-intercept, which is the solution of the given
equation. This approach yields the result in figure 2(a) below, where we have used the
root solver to find the x-intercept.

a centennial publication page 17


(a) (b)
Figure 2. Graphical (a) and numerical (b) solutions of the equation 2 x + 7 x 2 = 0 .

3. Using a numerical approach with the TI-86, one gets the required solution as
shown in the Figure 2(b) above, where the table feature is used.

Figure 3. Graphical solution of the equation e x + x 2 + x + 2 5 = 0 .


2

With the graphing calculator, even if it is not possible to algebraically solve a given
equation, one can solve it graphically or numerically to get excellent approximate
solutions, accurate to desirable digits of accuracy. For example, the equation
x 2
2
e + x + x + 2 5 = 0 cannot be solved algebraically. However, we can use the TI-86
to find an approximate solution as shown in Figure 3.
The authors of this paper believe in a balanced approach, which is practiced by
many successful users of technology in enhancing the teaching and learning of
mathematics. By balance, we mean the appropriate use of paper-and-pencil and
calculator techniques on a regular basis, where they complement each other. One
method of achieving balance is to have students routinely employ each of the following
three strategies (Waits and Demana 1994).
Solve problems using paper-and-pencil techniques and then support/verify the
results using technology.
Solve problems using technology and then confirm/verify the results using paper-
and-pencil techniques.
Solve problems that require them to choose whether it is most appropriate to use
paper-and-pencil techniques, calculator techniques, or a combination of both.
Another way of achieving a balanced approach is to use paper-and-pencil

page 18 a centennial publication


techniques during the initial concept development and use calculators in the extension
and generalization phases.

More Examples

Example 1. This example involves regression analysis. Consider the following table
containing orbital periods and mean distances of planets from the sun (Giordano, Weir,
and Fox 2003).


Planet Period (days) Mean distance
(millions of miles)
T R
Mercury 88.0 36.00
Venus 224.7 67.25
Earth 365.3 93.00
Mars 687.0 141.75
Jupiter 4331.8 483.80
Saturn 10,760.0 887.97
Uranus 30,684.0 1764.50
Neptune 60,188.3 2791.05
Pluto 90,466.8 3653.90

Table 1. Orbital periods and mean distances of planets from the sun.

Using the regression capability of the TI-86, we get the results in Figure 4(a). It
shows plots of the points in Table 1 and the graph of the regression equation
T = 0.4043 R1.50164 , which was obtained from the TI-86. For the sake of comparison, the
values of T obtained from the regression equation using the corresponding values of R
are shown in Figure 4 (b). Figure 4 clearly shows that the regression equation closely
fits the data.
The data satisfy Keplers Third Law: T = c R3 / 2, where T is the period (days), R is the
mean distance to the sun, and c is a positive constant. Johannes Kepler was a German
astronomer who became director of the Prague Observatory in 1601 after the death of
his mentor, Tycho Brahe. He used the data collected by Brahe and him over a period
of about 13 years to formulate his three laws of planetary motion.

a centennial publication page 19


(a) (b)

Figure 4. (a) Plot of the data in Table 1 with corresponding regression equation.
(b) Values of T obtained from the regression equation.

Example 2 (another regression example). The logistic model has been shown to yield
reasonably good predictions for the behavior of populations of yeast cells, bacteria and
protozoans (the most primitive form of animal life), when grown under suitable
laboratory conditions. In this spirit, consider the following table, which is based on
results obtained from actual experiment (Fulford, Forrester, and Jones 1997). A plot of
the data in Table 2 with graph of corresponding regression equation obtained from the
TI-86 is shown in Figure 5. The resulting regression model for predicting the number
of yeast cells is the logistic equation N = 658.984
+ 0.0136 .
0.547t
( 1 + 71.365e )

Time Number of
in hours yeast cells
t N

0 10
2 29
4 71
6 175
8 351
10 513 Figure 5. Plot of the Data in Table 2 and graph of
12 584 the corresponding regression equation.
14 641
16 651
18 662

Table 2. Growth of yeast cells.

page 20 a centennial publication


Example 3 (a predator-prey problem). The classic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey
problem, expressed in terms of differential equations, is as follows.
df
= f ( a r b)
dt
dr
= r ( c d f)
dt ,
where f(t) is the predator population (foxes), r(t) is the prey population (rabbits), and
a, b, c, d are positive constant. For our example, we choose, a=0.02, b=0.5, c=1, and
d=0.1. The above non-linear system of coupled differential equations has no closed
form solution. Given initial conditions, finding its solution requires numerical
methods. Suppose there are 10 foxes and 50 rabbits at time t=0, what are the
population graphs? How are the populations related?
We use the TI-86 built-in differential equation solver with graphics interface to get
the results shown in Figure 6(a) below. The thick graph represents the fox population
and the light one the rabbit population over a period of 30 years with the given initial
conditions. Figure 6(b) shows the population patterns for various initial conditions in
one view, which represents a phase plane solution. The orbits in the phase plane
solution are found by plotting the point (f(t),r(t)) for six different beginning
populations (initial conditions). Students can be led to conjecture that perhaps there
are initial conditions for which the population is stable (constant) over time. The
orbits in Figure 6(b) suggest that if the initial populations are 10 foxes and 25 rabbits
then the populations will be stable. This result can be confirmed analytically using
paper-and-pencil calculations by solving the system
df dr
= 0, = 0
dt dt .

It can also be supported graphically using the TI-86.

(a) (b)

Figure 6. (a) The fox and rabbit populations for 30 years (starting with 10 foxes and 50
rabbits. (b) A phase plane solution of the problem, where stable equilibrium
solution is obtained by starting with 10 foxes and 50 rabbits.

a centennial publication page 21


3. Algebraic Calculators

A significant leap in the evolution of hand-held technology for the teaching and
learning of mathematics occurred in 1996 with the introduction of the TI-92. It
ushered in a new generation of powerful hand-held computers for mathematics
education. Algebraic calculators can perform symbolic manipulations; they can
simplify expressions, differentiate, integrate, plot functions, solve equations, manipulate
matrices, and perform many other operations. These calculators contained built-in
computer algebra system (CAS).

Texas Instruments, Casio, Sharp, and Hewlett-Packard, among


other competitors, have all introduced powerful graphing calculators,
many of which are algebraic calculators. For the examples that follow
in demonstrating some of the usefulness of algebraic calculators, we
shall use the TI-92 shown above.
The TI-92 is very powerful and versatile; it makes a great deal of modern
mathematics using both discrete and continuous models accessible to students.
For our first example using the TI-92, consider the problem of finding the limit of
sin(x)/x as x 0. In the spirit of solving a problem using multiple approaches, we solve
this problem using graphical, numerical, and a direct built-in computer algebra
procedure. The results are shown in the Figure 7 below.

(a) Graphical exploration using Trace (b) Numerical exploration with Table

(c) Computer algebra using limit and one-sided limits.

page 22 a centennial publication


Figure 7. Multiple approaches for finding the limit of sin(x)/x as x 0.
As shown in Figure 7, clearly, the limit of sin(x)/x as x 0 is 1.

As shown in Figure 8, the TI-92 manipulates symbols. It factors, differentiate, solve


equations, etc. Its powerful features can be used to better illustrate important concepts
and applications of mathematics. The challenge for using such a powerful tool in
teaching and learning mathematics is to develop a curriculum that takes advantage of
the technology and assists students in becoming thoughtful problem solvers.

Figure 8. Some examples obtained from using the TI-92.

For example, consider the problem of factoring algebraic expressions. Factoring is


very important and it will continue to be important; technology is not going to change
this fact, after all, the fundamental theorem of algebra is a factoring theorem. This
theorem is very important to good mathematical understanding, as are the very
important connections among factors, intercepts of a graph of functions, zeros of
functions, and behavior of functions. To illustrate this connection, consider the
expression 2x 3 + 3x 2 29x + 30 whose factor is given in Figure 8. The factors easily yield
the solutions to the equation 2x 3 + 3x 2 29x + 30 = 0 and provide more information
about the behavior of the resulting function than the nonfactored form.

Figure 9 shows examples of the TI-92 graphical capabilities.

Figure 9. 3D graphing (left) and sequence graphing (right).

a centennial publication page 23


Using this new tool in the classroom requires many changes. The Curriculum will
change, tests will change and expectation will also change. New pedagogical
approaches are needed. An example of successful strategies for using CAS in algebra
and calculus, are the black-box-white-box and the scaffolding principles developed in
Austria (Heugl, Klinger, and Lechner 1996). For example, teaching long division of
polynomials by first using paper-and-pencil procedures to illustrate the division
algorithm and why it works (white-box phase). Later in the year, when division of
polynomials is needed in a problem, students are allowed to use a calculator for
computation (black-box phase).

4. Remarks

We begin by stating the following two quotes in order to emphasize the importance
of understanding and thinking in mathematics education:

I dont know whats the matter with people: they dont learn by understanding; they
learn by some other way by rote, or something. Their knowledge is so fragile!
Richard Feynman
(He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965.)

If one learns by memory, and does not think, all remains dark.
Confucius

It is now well-established in many countries that the use of technology is an


essential part of an up-to-date curriculum, and that a richer mathematics curriculum is
possible when students have access to graphing calculators. Calculators are useful tools
that can enhance mathematical instruction, foster improved teaching and learning,
facilitate modeling realistic problems and interpreting functions in realistic context,
and increase students understanding of mathematics. They provide students with
excellent learning experiences and a vehicle for students to engage in doing
mathematics. They allow us to include many rich examples and illustrations that
promote the understanding and learning of mathematics.
Student use of technology will have an impact on the curriculum. It will affect the
amount of time spent on teaching computation and symbolic manipulative techniques
in algebra and calculus. More class time will then be available for teaching real
mathematics understanding, reasoning, problem-solving, and applications. There
will be more time for activities that show the beauty and utility of mathematics, and
more time to look at mathematics that were once inaccessible but are now accessible
because of technology.
Technology is making it possible for students to use computer visualization on a
regular basis in both in-class and out-of-class activities. It helps students to master the

page 24 a centennial publication


concepts and helps provide deeper understanding. It has even affected pure
mathematics by opening new mathematics content for study and revitalizing well-
established areas. Fractal geometry is one area that has benefited from technology.
Appropriate use of technology leads to more efficient teaching and learning.
Through a balanced approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics, students
learn to solve problems using multiple approaches. They learn to represent, investigate,
and solve problems algebraically/analytically, graphically and numerically.
According to Bert Waits and Franklin Demana (1996), successful technology-based
reform requires two important ingredients. First, teachers need to be provided with
technology-based materials; and second, they need to be trained in the appropriate use
of the technology to enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics.
One organization that has played a pivotal role in promoting the use of technology
to enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics is T3 (Teachers Teaching with
Technology). T3 was founded at The Ohio State University, US, by professors Frank
Demana and Bert Waits in 1988, when they began offering short courses at Ohio State
University for teachers to learn how to use technology to enhance the teaching and
learning of mathematics. Today T3 provides the best professional development program
for the appropriate use of educational technology in the teaching and learning of
mathematics and science worldwide. Its program operates in more than 25 countries,
including Australia, China, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Japan, and USA.
It is the ideal organization to join in order to facilitate a successful technology-based
curriculum implementation.
Hand-held technologies now provide millions of students worldwide useful and
exciting experiences enhancing their mathematics learning. They enable better
pedagogy for teaching mathematics and facilitate the incorporation of realistic problem
solving activities and applications. Teachers are now able to present mathematical
ideas, concepts and applications in a variety of ways: algebraically, numerically and
graphically.
Hand-held technologies for enhancing the teaching and learning of mathematics
are here to stay. They will continue to be better, and it is inevitable that educators will
continue to use them and modify curricula to enhance teaching and learning. There is
more to come; it is certainly going to be an exciting century with powerful hand-held
technologies that will continue to revolutionize the teaching and learning of
mathematics. As in the past, mathematicians, engineers and scientists in general will
continue to use the available technology to improve our standard of living and study
the world around us.

a centennial publication page 25


5. References

Ball, Guy. (1997). Texas Instruments Cal-Tech, Worlds First Pocket Electronic Calculator.
http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Park/7227/caltech.html

Demana, F., & Waits, B. K. (1992). A computer for all students, The Mathematics
Teacher, 84 (2).

Demana, F. and Waits, B. K. (1994). Graphing Calculator Intensive Calculus: A First Step
in Calculus Reform for All Students. Preparing for New Calculus, edited by A. Solow,
MAA Notes No. 36, Mathematical Association of America, Washington, DC.

Demna, F. and Waits, B. K. (1997). A Zero-Based Technology Enhanced Mathematics


Curriculum for Secondary Mathematics, In A. Ralston & H. Burkhardt (Eds.),
Proceedings of WG 11, ICME 8. England.

Feynman, Richard P. (1985). Surely Youre Joking, Mr. Feynman!, W.W. Norton &
Company, Inc.

Fulford, G., Forrester, P., and Jones, A. (1997). Modelling With Differential and Difference
Equations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Giordano F. R., Weir, M. D., and Fox, W. P. (2003). A First Course in Mathematical
Modeling, 3rd Edition, Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA.

Redin, James. The Death of the Slide Rule, http://www.dotpoint.com/xnumber/hp.htm.

Stine, G. Harry. (1984). The Untold Story of the Computer Revolution Bits, Bytes,
Bauds, and Brains, Arbor House Pub Co, New York

Waits, B. K. and Demana, F. (1994). The Calculator and Computer Precalculus Project
(PC): What Have We Learned in Ten Years? In Impact of Calculators on
Mathematics Instruction, edited by George Bright, Hersholt. C. Waxman, & Susan
E. Williams, Lanham, Maryland, University Press of America. 91-110.

Waits, B. K. and Demana, F. (1996). A Computer for All StudentsRevisited,


Mathematics Teacher, 89 (December). 712-14.

page 26 a centennial publication


by Donald L. Yates

Self Control Albany State University

Vijayan K. Pillai

and University of North Texas

Ken Amaechi Egbo


Iowa Wesleyan College
Delinquency:
An Analysis
of Hirschi
and
ABSTRACT. Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi have recently put forth the argument
that low self-control produces crime, delinquency and other dysfunctional behavior, while high
self-control results in conformity. It is a perspective, that has been historically associated with
the more controversial group of personal control theories of delinquency and crime mostly
found in psychology. This study tests Gottfredson and Hirschis theory of self-control by
examining the impact of several of their dimensions of self-control (impulsivity, preference for
simple tasks, risk seeking, preference for physical activities, self-centeredness, and temper) on a
retrospective self-report behavior inventory of a group of African-American students at a
middle-sized, American midwestern University.
Impulsivity is the best predictor of reported delinquency, showing a significant effect on
property, person, drug, but not status offenses. Only one other self-control variable, risk
seeking, exercises a significant effect on reported delinquency, and that is only in the case of
status offenses. Almost one-third of hypothesized coefficients were in directions opposite to
that predicted by the self-control theory.
Additionally, gender was a more effective predictor of delinquency than most of the other
dimensions of self-control theory. The findings suggest that researchers exercise more caution
than utilizing the central tenets of A General Theory of Crime.

INTRODUCTION

Gottfredson and Hirschis A General Theory of Crime (1990) has generated, over
the years, significant discussion, debate and research relative to their central thesis in

a centennial publication page 27


linking criminal activities to their construct of low self-control (Akers, 1991; Barlow,
1991; Nagin and Farrington, 1992; Benson and Moore, 1992; Arneklev et al., 1993;
Grasmick et al., 1993; Evans et al., 1997; Sellers, 1999; Pratt and Cullen, 2000). Since
their 1950 expos, several major concerns have evolved regarding this theory. Among
them is the opposition to the tradition of social structural, and more proximate causal
perspectives in sociology as a cause of crime (Currie, 1985).
These traditions are reflected in Shaw and McKays (1929) social disorganization
theory, Sutherlands (1947) theory of differential association, Mertons (1968) strain
theory, Hirschis (1969) social bond theory, Lemerts (1972) labeling theory, Felson and
Cohens (1980) routine activity theory, Akers (1985) social learning theory,
contemporary deterrence and rational choice theory (Cornish and Clark, 1986), as well
as the more recent life course perspective proposed by Sampson and Laub (1992; 1993).
While divergent in specifying a central core cause of crime, each of these perspectives
shares a common assumption of criminal behaviors link to social structure (e.g.,
metropolitan communities, modern technology, freeway systems, urbanization, racial,
gender, and class inequality, culture conflict) and other social organizational forces,
which reduce individual choices in social behavior.
Likewise, these theories share a common design in attempting to explain that
individual criminal behavior possesses causal features much more immediate to the
offender. The traditions of differential association theory focus mainly on crime and its
favorable messages as expressed in the recent interpersonal field (Sutherland, 1947).
While social learning theory has an emphasis on the reinforcements to criminal activity
in the more immediate environment (Akers, 1985), in social disorganization theory
emphasizes criminogenic sources of current community disorganization and social
condition (Shaw and McKay, 1929). All those theories illustrate a common interest in
sociological theories, they show a common interest in the more proximate causes of
crime. In the traditions of social structural and more proximate theories of criminal
activity, criminal adaptations reflect the individual and social group reactions to the
adversities or routine acceptances of social order, social group norms, institutional
practices, social policies, and other conditions of social organization impacting the lives
of societal group members.
In contrast to social structure and other organizational prerequisites to social
deviance and crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) expose the criminogenic
corruption of early childhood experience, which, according to them, guarantees a later
life of criminal orientation tied directly to the dysfunctions of the individuals early
childhood relationships.
Borrowing heavily from Walter Reckless principle of containment (1973),
Gottfredson and Hirschi stress the learning of self-control in the family and the
stability of self-control after early childhood (Akers, 1991). Crime ultimately locates
its beginnings in the personal irresponsibility within the family (Akers, 1991). Parents
play the original role in its cause by failing to monitor the childs behavior, and

page 28 a centennial publication


neglecting to punish the child for misbehaving (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990).
While parents initiate childhood delinquency, the primary cause is the personality of
self-centered interests, insensitivity to others, short-time perspective and low diligence.
(Gottfredson and Hischi, 1990:89-90). The two predict the stability of the personality,
as well as its criminal orientations, throughout the life of the individual.
Besides the strong opposition to well-established structural and proximate
explanations of delinquency, Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) have been criticized for:
1. Their vague concept of crime;
2. Their failure to construct and link testable propositions in support of self-control
theory;
3. Their failure to develop the concept of criminal opportunity as an equally
salient component in predicting the general cause of criminal activity;
4. Their failure to operationalize self-control, as well as specify a basis for
distinguishing degrees of self-control;
5. Their support of tautological reasoning in defining low self-control and
criminality with essentially the same language;
6. The generality of their theory of self-control; and
7. Their view of early childhood experience as being deterministic (i.e. the
individual having no capacity to alter his state of mind or conditioning as a
mature adult, thus moving away from delinquency).
This study tests the central tenets of Gottfredson and Hirschis theory that low self-
control is a primary cause of childhood delinquency. The study utilizes as a sample for
investigation, a largely urban Midwestern, African-American college student
population. The interest is in assessing Gottfredson and Hirschis several dimensions of
self-control as causally related to self-reported delinquency behavior. Given the urban
nature of the sample population and the greater likelihood of strain influences and
other structural conditions, the opportunity to assess the strength of self-control theory,
therefore, exists.

SOCIAL STRUCTURE VS. PERSONAL IRRESPONSIBILITY

Gottfredson and Hirschi depart significantly from the well-established emphasis on


structural and more proximate causes of crime established by Cesare Beccaria (1819;
1972), and Jeremy Bentham (Mack, 1968). Weighing the costs versus the benefits of
criminal behavior in particular situations, Beccaria and Bentham said that crime is
caused by the failure to make the pain following a violation greater than the pleasure
derived from it (Beccaria, 1819; 1972; Mack, 1968).
Classical school theorys perspective in assigning the closeness of costs and benefits
in situations to criminal behavior, clearly makes the traditions of this theory, and,
indeed, the work of Beccaria and Bentham, early establishers in prominently
positioning more proximate causes as motivations to criminal behavior. Likewise, the

a centennial publication page 29


tradition in classical school theory in relating crime to inequities in the criminal justice
system, establishes classical theorys connection to the social structural crime
perspectives of the early and mid-20th century (Beccaria, 1819; 1972).
Besides the structural base antecedents of classical school theory, a number of
prominent 20th century theoretical frameworks on crime would extend the structural,
and proximate traditions laid down earlier by the classical scholars. Social
disorganization, and ecological theories of crime (Shaw and McKay, 1929) trumpeted
the structural conditions of community physical decay, and the immediate dynamics of
racially and culturally diverse neighborhoods, and conflicting community norms as the
source of high rates of urban delinquency. Differential association theory (Sutherland,
1947) saw the dilemmas of high crime rates as tied to learning processes initiated in the
social settings of intimate personal groups.
Strain theory (Merton, 1957), on the other hand, has linked criminal behavior to
contradictions of currently encountered social structural goals and means. In all of
these frameworks, there is the element of social structure at some level and an
emphasis on the prominence of a more immediate cause of motivational crime. More
recent scholarship in labeling theory (Lemert, 1972), routine activity theory (Felson
and Cohen, 1980), and the life course perspective (Sampson and Laub, 1992; 1993)
mirror the structural and more immediate causal dynamics of these earlier established
paradigms.
Finding considerable fault with conventional criminological thinking, Gottfredson
and Hirschi (1990) tie the cause of crime to more personal factors; specifically, a lack of
self-control. Gottfredson and Hirschis theories claim that differences among
individuals in criminal and related behavior is a product of variations in self-control
(Barlow, 1991; Akers, 1991; Arneklev, Grasmick, Tittle, and Bursik, 1993; Grasmick et
al., 1993). Ineffective or incomplete socialization, especially ineffective child-rearing, is
considered to cause low self-control (Akers, 1991; Arneklev, Grasmick, Tittle, and
Bursik, 1993). Parents who spend more time with their children, monitor their
activities closely and reward or punish in accordance with social norms, have a more
positive influence on a childs level of self-control (Akers, 1991). Thus, according to
Arneklev et al. (1993), although self-control theory locates the ultimate causes of crime
in personal irresponsibility within the family, it attributes the immediate causes to an
individual personality trait growing out of the childhood experience. The result is that
individuals with low self-control, given criminal opportunity, will have a predisposition
to engage in criminal and other imprudent acts (Arneklev et al., 1993).
Locating criminal genesis in personality conditions such as low self-concept, is part
of the wider history and experience of pathologically based theories of criminal
behavior, associated with the research traditions in both biology and psychology.
Walter Reckless containment theory, from which Gottfredson and Hirschi borrow
considerably in advancing their theory of self-control even Akers (1991) in his
review of their book points out the strong resemblance to Recklesss theory, provides a

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social psychological synthesis, bridging social structural variables, such as social
disorganization, with a strictly psychological framework in the concepts of self-control,
good and bad self-concept, ego strength, well-developed superego, high frustration
tolerance, and other components which make up his concept of inner containment
(Reckless, 1973). Reckless (1973:55-56) offers the assessment that such inner
constraints or containments (e.g., self-control), once produced in the process of
socialization, isolate an individual from pushes or pulls in the direction of deviance or
nonconformity. Therefore, Gottfredson and Hirschis theory and concept of self-
control is heavily influenced by the social psychological tenets of Walter Reckless
containment theory.
The theory of self-control is disturbingly more Freudian than has been
acknowledged. In fact, Freudian theory in psychology is well known for its
preoccupation with early childhood experience (Healy and Bronner, 1936; Glueck and
Glueck, 1952; Abrahamsen, 1960; Warren and Hindelang, 1979; Empey and Stafford,
1991). Freudians believe that early childhood experiences produce in every individual
a deeply ingrained and enduring personality (Healy and Bronner, 1936; Glueck and
Glueck, 1952; Abrahamsen, 1960; Warren and Hindelang, 1979; Empey and Stafford,
1991). It is their contention that this personality divides troublemakers from well-
adjusted children, with troublemakers possessing personality traits that predispose them
to antisocial conduct (Healy and Bronner, 1936; Glueck and Glueck, 1952; Empey and
Stafford, 1991). Gottfredson and Hirschis theory of self-control in its general
construction is very much a repetition of what has come to be recognized as the
entrenched principles of Freudian theory. While Gottfredson and Hirschi do not adopt
Freuds concepts of id, ego and superego as components in their theory, their theoretical
roots in control theory (a theory that describes all human nature as inherently
antisocial, and criminogenic if not restrained) aligns conceptually, if not theoretically,
with psychoanalytic traditions in psychology.
While there are other concerns with A General Theory of Crime, Gottfredson and
Hirshcis failure to construct and link testable propositions in support of self-control
theory (Barlow, 1991:241; Grasmick et al., 1993:23; Arneklev et al., 1993:236-37), as
well as the theorys failure to account for sources of variation among individuals in
exposure to criminal opportunities (Grasmick et al., 1993), leads to the principal
criticism that the theory downgrades social structure in explaining crime and other
social behavior. This is surprising, as they admit in their writings on self-control that
structural variables will affect the ability of families to instill self-control in their
children (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990: 102-105). Nevertheless, they fail to develop
this component of their theory in a manner that explains how a persons predisposition
to criminal behavior leads to the establishment of a dysfunctional personality
(Grasmick et al., 1993). The two remain appropriately the subject of criticism, because
they ignore social structure as a source of criminal opportunity in favor of
individualistic traits, even after clearly incorporating social structure as an early

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component in criminal behavior (Grasmick et al., 1993).

METHODOLOGY

The data for this study were obtained in a 1995 survey of African-American male
and female students attending a middle-sized, upper midwestern university (approximate
size: 12,000) during the winter semester (January 9 through May 12). The survey
documented students perceptions about their home, school, religious, community, and
social life while growing. The survey also ascertained students perceptions of their
personality while teenagers. The survey, further, obtained self-reported information on
the extent of their own personal involvement, as well as their friends involvement, in
delinquent activity as teenagers. Finally, the survey obtained information about
students perceptions regarding their current church involvement and religious
commitment.
A stratified random sampling method was utilized in obtaining the sample
population. Six hundred (600) students were randomly chosen for the study. Our
methods included creating a primary sample group (400 students were selected to be
participants in the study), and a secondary sample group (200 additional students
were selected as replacements for primary group members who, for one reason or
another, may fall out of the primary pool of participants). The sample pool consisted of
300 males (separately and randomly selected, and of which 100 were replacements),
and 300 females (separately randomly selected, and of which 100 were replacements).
Primary sample pool members were initially contacted by letter informing them of their
selection to be participants in the research project. Follow-up contacts with these
principal sample pool members were made by telephone. Employing strategies that
involved setting up organized survey sessions in the universitys 15 residential
dormitories, meeting with and surveying sample participants in their homes, having
participants personally pick up surveys for completion and later return, and enlisting a
number of faculty colleagues to distribute surveys to the student sample pool who
registered in their courses. Some 184 usable surveys (46% of the 400 targeted) were
returned.
The sample of African-American students was drawn from a pool of 888 registered
African-American students attending classes in the winter semester of 1995 (based on
the data provided to the principle investigator by university officials, during the winter
semester, 1995). The university adopts an open admissions policy, attracting many
students with below-college-level skills. The university operates, however, an ambitious
and active network of academic support services for its students, including academic
tutoring, skill development services, and other academic development support. The
sample was largely urban in background. More than half of the students surveyed came
from the largest metropolitan area in the state (a city that has routinely ranked in the
top 5 of the largest U.S. cities over the last several censuses).

page 32 a centennial publication


SELF-REPORT MEASURES

The survey contained 35 questions that spanned a range of deviant behaviors,


including the opportunities to self-report engagement in: minor offenses, status offenses,
property offenses, person offenses, drug offenses, and moral offenses. While the first
five categories of offense patterns are well known to researchers, our moral offense
category included self-reported behaviors of a sexually promiscuous nature, as well as
acts of public drunkenness. Our measure of frequency of delinquency engagement was
very wide encompassing an 8-item likert scale. The response options were: never,
once or twice a year, once every 2-3 months, once a month, once every 2-3 weeks, once
a week, 2-3 times a week, once a day, more than once a day. Thirty-one of these self-
report items were used to create six scales, which were analyzed as to their internal
consistency. The created scales were identified as follows: property, person, status,
drugs, minor property and morals. Four items from the original list of 35 that made up
the minor offense group were not analyzed in this research. Two of the six scales
(minor property and status) registered reliabilities below .50. The remaining four scales
(property, person, drugs, morals) registered reliabilities of .69 and higher. We ended up
using four scales in this current analysis (property, person, drugs, and status). The
composition of the four in the current analysis, along with their reliability scores appear
below.
1. Property Offenses stole a motor vehicle; stole something > $50; broke into a
building/vehicle; bought stolen goods; shoplifted items > $50; stole something <
$50; damaged school property (Crohnbachs Alpha=.86).
2. Person Offenses gang fight; threatened somebody with a weapon; beaten up
non-family person; beaten up family member; hurt someone with a weapon; hit
fellow student (Crohnbachs Alpha=.79).
3. Drug Offenses sold marijuana; sold hard drugs; used marijuana; used
cocaine/crack; used heroin; used other illegal drugs (Crohnbachs Alphas=.69).
4. Status Offenses been truant from school; lied about your age; used alcohol;
smoked cigarettes (Crohnbachs Alpha=.48).

Self-Control Measures

The survey adopted measures of low self-control developed by Grasmick et al.


(1993). Their measures of low self-control consisting of the six dimensions that make
up their broad self-report scale was essentially validated by Barlow (1991) in his critical
review of A General Theory of Crime. Low self-control consists of six separate
dimensions: impulsivity, preference for simple tasks, risk seeking, preference for physical
activities, self-centeredness, and temper (Grasmick et al., 1993). The composition of
each scale, along with their reliability scores appear below:

a centennial publication page 33


1. Impulsivity I often acted on the spur of the moment rather than stopping to
think; I didnt devote much thought and effort to preparing for the future; I was
more concerned with what happened to me in the short run than in the long
run (Crohnbachs Alpha=.67).
2. Simple Tasks I frequently tried to avoid projects that I knew would be difficult;
when things got complicated, I tended to quit or withdraw; the things in life
that were the easiest to do brought me the most pleasure; I disliked really hard
tasks that stretched my abilities to the limit (Crohnbachs Alpha=.82).
3. Risk Seeking I never liked to test myself by doing something a little risky; I
never took a risk just for the fun of it; I never found it exciting to do things for
which I might get in trouble; excitement and adventure were less important to
me than security (Crohnbachs Alpha=.62).
4. Physical Activities if I had a choice, I would almost always rather do
something physical than something mental; I almost always felt better when I
was on the move than when I was sitting and thinking; I like to get out and do
things more than I liked to read or contemplate ideas; I seemed to have had
more energy and a greater need for activity than other people my age
(Crohnbachs Alpha=.69).
5. Self-Centeredness I tried to look out for myself, even if it meant making
things difficult for other people; I was not very sympathetic to other people
when they had problems; if things I did upset people, it was their problem not
mine; I always tried to get things I wanted even when I knew it was causing
problems for other people (Crohnbachs Alpha=.75).
6. Temper I lost my temper pretty easily; often, when I was angry at people I felt
more like hurting them than talking to them about why I was angry; when I was
really angry, other people best stayed away from me; when I had serious
disagreement with someone, it was usually hard for me to talk about it without
getting upset (Crohnbachs Alpha=.78).
Multivariate regression analysis is used in examining the effects of each of the
dimensions of low self-control on four types of delinquency behavior.

RESULTS

Our analysis begins with an examination of the effects of Gottfredson and Hirschis
impulsivity, simple tasks, risk seeking, physical activities, self-centeredness, and temper
dimensions on two types of delinquent behavior self-reported property and person
offenses (see Table 1).

page 34 a centennial publication


Table 1. Unstandardized Regression Coeffients (bs) for the Effects of Six Dimensions of
Self-Control on Property and Person Offenses: African-American College Students
Attending An Upper Midwestern University, Winter, 1995

Dependent Variable

Property Offense Person Offense

Independent Variable

Impulsivity .305* .313*


(.192) (.184)

Simple Tasks .016 -.010


(.013) (-.007)

Risk Seeking -.184 -.119


(-.119) (-.732)

Physical Activities -.040 .129


(-.025) (.072)

Self-Centeredness -.023 .031


(-.018) (.021)

Temper .102 .341**


(.136) (.254)

Gender (1=female) -1.211 -(.113)

R2 .200***
P=.001****
P=.01***
P=.05**
P=.10*

Note: Numbers in parenthesis are Beta Weights

Impulsivity is a significant predictor of both property and person offenses. This


finding is consistent with the expectations of Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990), who
predict that persons who are impulsive (i.e. acting considerably on the moment, and are
prone to intense emotional sways as a basic feature of their personality) are more
delinquent than others who lack these personality traits. Further, temper is a

a centennial publication page 35


significant predictor of person offenses, but not property offenses. Interestingly, the
remaining four dimensions of self-control (simple tasks, risk seeking, physical activities,
and self-centeredness), show no significant predictive value on either property or
person offenses. Gender is placed in the analysis when it is regressed with the self-
control variables on person offenses.
Gender shows no significant predictive value on self-reporting person offenses. Six
of the coefficients (including gender) show an inverse relationship with either property
and/or person offenses. Females show a lower predisposition, relative to males,
regarding engagement in person offenses. The fact that so many self-control
coefficients show a negative relationship is worth noting. It suggests a direction
opposite to the predictions of self-control theory. The R2 values for the person offense
equation is significant, but yet still modest at .20 variance as explained.
Table 2 offers a repeat of table 1, with only three of 14 regression coefficients
showing significance at the .10 level.

Table 2. Unstandardized Regression Coeffients (bs) for the Effects of Six Dimensions of
Self-Control on Drug and Status Offenses: African-American College Students Attending
An Upper Midwestern University, Winter, 1995

Dependent Variable

Drug Offense Status Offense

Independent Variable

Impulsivity .401** .089


(.224) (.052)

Simple Tasks .150 .080


(-.103) (.059)

Risk Seeking .017 -.320*


(.010) (-.193)

Physical Activities .208 .168


(.112) (.097)

Self-Centeredness .077 .024


(.052) (.016)

Temper .083 .227


(.059) (.166)

page 36 a centennial publication


Gender (1=female) -2.888**** -.271
-(.257) -(.025)

R2 .187**** .113
P=.001****
P=.01***
P=.05**
P=.10*

Note: Numbers in Parenthesis are Beta Weights

Table 2 examines the effects of Gottfredson and Hirschis impulsivity, simple tasks,
risk seeking, physical activities, self-centeredness, and temper dimensions on self-
reported drug and status offenses. Impulsivity is a significant predictor of drug, but not
status offenses. Risk seeking is a significant predictor of status offenses, but not drug
offenses. These are the only two significant relationships with our two indicators of
delinquency (drug and status offenses), among the measures of self-control. Two of the
self-control coefficients show an inverse relationship with self-reported drug and status
offenses. Gender is an extremely significant predictor of drug offenses, while not a
significant predictor of status offenses. Females in the study, further, show a
considerably lower predisposition to engage in drug use, but they engage in status
crimes. The R2 values for the drug offenses are significant, yet modest. Much remains
unexplained about the reasons for youthful age drug use. The R2 value for status offense
is not significant and even more modest.

DISCUSSION

Our analysis at this point is very preliminary. Since this research was exploratory,
we essentially wanted to emphasize the literature on the topic of self-control, and
perform an analysis, which we will use for subsequently developing a more precise
model for assessing Gottfredson and Hirschis theory of self-control. Nevertheless, we
are struck by some very definite findings in regard to Gottfredson and Hirschis work in
proposing their theory of self-control.
For example, the operationalization of self-control developed by Grasmick et al.
(1993), based on their careful reading of Gottfredson and Hirschis (1990) proposed the
theory of self-control as a measure for studying several dimensions of self-control.
Three of the six scales recorded reliabilities of at least .75, with simple tasks registering
a reliability of .82 in our analysis. The remaining three registered respective reliabilities
of .62 and higher. While these scales can certainly be improved upon, they,
nevertheless, demonstrate a fairly credible measure for the concept of self-control. We
generally believe, therefore, that Grasmick et al.s (1993) self-control measure, is
statistically relevant.

a centennial publication page 37


In considering Gottfredson and Hirschis theory of self-control, the results of our
direct test of the dimensions of self-control on self-reported behavior is cautionary. We
were concerned that few of the regression coefficients registered any significance with
our four measures of delinquency. We admit that our status offense scale (which
registered an Alpha of .48) was not the best construct. However, even on our most
reliable measures of delinquency (see Table 1), only three out of 12 self-control
regression coefficients were significant predictors of self-reported juvenile delinquency.
Further, nearly a third (7 out of 24) hypothesized coefficients were in directions
opposite to that predicted by the self-control theory.
One dimension, impulsivity, was the most active in supporting Gottfredson and
Hirschis theory. But only in rare instances did our analysis point to the merits of self-
control theory.
Gender was more effective as a predictor of delinquency than most of the other
dimensions of self-control theory. Gender appeared to be an extremely valuable
characteristic in predicting the likelihood of drug use among young urban minority
teenagers. Females were extremely less likely than males to engage in drug use as
teenagers. Remarkably, gender was more effective as a predictor of adolescent drug use
than any of the other self-control dimensions.
While the R2 values were significant in two of the three equations where
information is known, the explanatory value of our self-control measures in the
equations, remain modest for explaining delinquency. What appears certain from our
exploratory analysis is that other conditions not a part of our current analysis are likely
to be more central to explaining childhood delinquency. We believe that these sources
are to be found in structural, and more proximate explanations for delinquency,
including differential association, social learning strain, social bonding and other
aspects of broader social organizational forces influencing important matters of social
relationships, interactions and social behavior.

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the Scope and Specification of the General Theory of Crime. Criminology 37:
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a centennial publication page 41


by Charlotte Atteberry,

An Senior Accounting and Management Major


Department of Business Information
Systems & Education

Investigation Albany State University

Faculty Advisor:
Dr. Kathaleena Edward Monds
into the
Social and
Economic
Events
Abstract - No new taxes! People often complain about paying too much in income taxes.
Though many believe that tax laws and their amendments are the creation and absolute
responsibility of local, state, and federal politicians, few stop to realize the social and economic
events that contribute to new tax laws and amendments to existing tax laws. An investigation
into the laws and the social and/or economic events that brought about their creation or
amendment, as well as the assessment of the average Americans awareness of tax law history
was the basis of this research. A survey was conducted in a small university. Out of those
surveyed, (of which 56% were students) an average of 45% were not sure if social events
affect tax laws or not, an average of 38% were aware of economic events effects on tax laws,
and an average of 40% were aware of how and why tax laws are created. A regression of
0.002834603 was found between social events and tax laws and a regression of 0.284851439
between economic events and tax laws.

Introduction
Most Americans are unclear about the laws and their causes within the current
federal income tax system. But when asked why, they cannot indicate just one tax or
just one tax law that really bothers them. They only know that taxes of all kinds seem
to continue to increase with no individual benefits in return. Few are aware or even
interested in the reasoning behind new tax reforms.
There are many tax laws that have been implemented, and more are added every
day. While researchers have identified various tax laws, they seldom identify the social

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and/or economic events that caused a particular tax law to be created or amended.
Social events such as The Civil War, World War II, and The Vietnam War, September
11, 2001 and the recent Enron case (and ones similar to Enron) have brought about a
renewed interest in investing and personal financial matters, more specifically the
current tax system (U. S. Treasury press release, 2002). With technology on the move,
Americans are becoming more global and more interactive with the world and their
financial planning. They have overcome the passive attitudes of yesteryear and are now
more attentive to social and economic events around them. These events have caused
the creation of new tax laws, as well as the creation of amendments to existing tax
laws. Economic events such as the 1970s Recession and the Great Depression have
similar affects on the creation and/or amendment of tax laws. Rates must be reduced to
ease economic burdens and boost the economy as a whole.
This research will investigate the root of various tax laws and their amendments,
with an emphasis on exploring the reasons for their creation. Besides, it would be
sensible to most Americans that if a tax law were enacted to fund World War I, then
today its validity would be outdated. Furthermore, a law was enacted for one event (and
has served its purpose and the event has since expired) but the law is not repealed, but
may be amended to suit another purpose(s). With this in mind, one must not only look
at the creation of a particular tax law but also at the amendments that have been made
to it throughout the years.
The findings of this research will help in understanding the effects of social and
economic events on federal individual income tax laws, as well as, the less obvious
implications as to why these events even happened.

Literature Review
Income taxes did not even exist during the first century of the United States of
America. Our countrys federal government survived on only the income derived from
tariffs and excise and property taxes (The Century Foundation, 2002). From The Civil
War until 1894 income tax was unheard of. In 1913, personal income taxes only
applied to the extremely wealthy. This meant that at least 90 percent of Americas
population was not even required to file taxes (The Century Foundation, 2002). By
1940 everyone was required to file income tax returns to fund the war. But after World
War II ended, the necessity for the added income no longer existed.
Throughout Americas history, tax laws seem to have been created without any
reasoning. Often social events were so important that the focus was on the actual event
and not the effects it had on other aspects of daily life. Their effects on changes in the
tax laws and the creation of new tax laws often went unnoticed.

Social Events
During the Civil War, the North did impose a temporary income tax. Temporary
was defined as a tax to serve a sole purpose and then to be terminated. After the

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temporary income tax served its purpose (to fund the war), it was disposed of. Tax
laws were virtually unaffected by any social events until World War II created the need
for additional funding. To create the necessary funds, income tax was extended from
only the very wealthy to include the majority of the population in 1940 (The Century
Foundation, 2002). The next major, national social event actually involved two social
events: the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and 1970s.
Most Americans are very aware of the impact of both the war and Civil Rights on
society, but few realize both also had a large affect on income taxes. With the added
voters (and taxpayers) that Civil Rights provided, and the need to fund the war, tax
laws had to be adjusted to fit the new population. The additional population also
allowed the tax rates to remain fairly untouched. Between the 1970s and the turn of
the century, income taxes were virtually unaffected by social events. On September 11,
2001 terrorists attacked the Twin Towers in New York City and the Pentagon in
Washington, D.C. With the destruction caused by the attacks, special provisions had
to be implemented to compensate for unusual losses. In 2002, tax laws again had to be
amended due to the unethical practices of several corporations including Enron. But
social events are not the only influences on tax laws; economic events also have a great
effect.

Economic Events
The 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed and signed into law in
October of 1913 by Woodrow Wilson. What brought about this need for income
taxation? Grand fortunes gained through industry, that had been made during the prior
time had many populist reformers demanding fairer treatment. And thus the system of
taxation was born, although the only required participants were the extremely wealthy.
The Great Depression was another factor of tax law reform. With the country almost in
financial ruin, tax laws had to be adjusted to ease the burden on taxpayers in order to
assist in the recovery of the entire country. After the recovery, economic events
stabilized until the mid-1970s when America went into a recession. The inflation rate
was almost out of control, and taxpayers again needed federal assistance in the form of
income tax relief. The tax laws were amended to match inflation and again ease the
burden. After the recession subsided, inflation no longer increased the federal
governments revenues, but it did increase its expenditures; thus, Congress felt pressure
to enact tax increases whenever the additional revenues were required. However,
because of political obstacles, the federal governments deficits continued to rise. This
led to the continuous implementations of several recovery acts over the next two
decades.
These recovery acts included The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, which
reduced income tax rates between 23-30 percent over the next three years. It required
tax brackets to be adjusted to match the inflation that created the higher incomes
without the higher spending abilities (The Century Foundation, 2002). The Economic

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Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 changed the configuration of
income, estate and gift tax laws (Rosen, 2001). It made several changes to pension and
retirement planning (Taylor, 2002). It also dropped the limit employers can contribute
to retirement plans and disallowed deductions for dividends paid only on stock
employees voluntarily reinvest (Girard, 2002). Although tax laws were affected by the
deficit created by governmental spending, the deficit was largely increased by unpaid
loans made to other countries. And this is the deficit that Americans have to repay.

Tax Laws
During 1894 Congress enacted an extremely progressive income tax that was
declared unconstitutional in 1895 (The Century Foundation, 2002). In 1913 the 16th
Amendment gave Congress the power to levy the personal income tax. Americas
personal income tax laws (or codes as they are now called) had little change until 1981.
In that year, Ronald Reagan enacted the Economic Recovery Tax Act (ERTA). In
1986 the Tax Reform Act (TRA) reduced the tax rates even more, so that the highest
bracket became only 28 percent (The Century Foundation, 2002). In 1997, tax credits
were created to help people who could not afford college tuition (Quinn, 2000). But
this also made many taxpayers subject to the individual Alternative Minimum Tax
(AMT) (Mares touts tax simplification, 1998). The IRS Restructuring and Reform Act
of 1998 shifted the burden of proof from taxpayers to the IRS (Knight, 1999). It also
included a confidentiality provision for CPAs and their clients (Firore, 1998).
Still the deficit remained enormous and it became the focus of attention for many
politicians. Few Americans understand, agree with, or wish to be held responsible for
the deficit. Thus, the deficit has had a great impact on the income tax rates and laws
and will continue to do so in the future. Currently the highest bracket rate is 39.6
percent (The Century Foundation, 2002). The cause for the increase this time was not
a war as in the past, but the leadership decisions of two presidents who were determined
to reduce Americas huge deficit by raising the tax rates (The Century Foundation,
2002). In conclusion, through the investigation into the causes of the history of
American tax laws, it has been found that tax laws have been greatly influenced by
social events and economic events. While many citizens complain about the amount of
taxes that must be paid, the reasons for many of the increases are very well founded.
Although tax rates increase, the deductions and credits allowed also increase. In the
case of special circumstances, such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and
Enron, additional provisions are also included. Even though it is not possible to please
the entire population at the same time, the tax laws have been implemented in the
fairest possible manner.

Methodology
The Tax History Information survey was administered to collect data on the
awareness of the social and economic events that cause tax laws to be created or

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amended. The survey has 15 questions on a five point Likert scale. The researcher
created the survey.
The population for this study included the student body and teaching staff of a
small university. The survey instrument was administered during the Fall 2002 semester.
The researcher handed out the survey in several business classes and to various teaching
staff members during both the morning and evening sessions. The model in Figure 1 is
a graphical representation of the research variables.

Figure 1 Tax Law Causation Model

Results and Conclusions

The survey was completed in a small university. Of those surveyed 72% were ages
18-25, with the remainder over the age of 26. Gender was almost evenly distributed,
and 78% of those surveyed had some college education. Fifty-six percent (56%) of all
participants were students.

Figure 2 Ages

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Figure 3 Gender

Figure 4 Educational Level

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Figure 5 Occupation Distribution Chart

Social Events
The majority of respondents totally agree that social events have an effect on tax
laws. Consequently, neither the Vietnam War nor September 11, 2001, both social
events, were viewed as having affected tax laws. However, on questions two through
four, the majority of respondents neither agree nor disagree.

1: Social events have an effect on tax laws; 2: Income taxes were created by the Civil War; 3: Income tax was
imposed on all social classes in 1940 due to WWII; 4: The Vietnam War affected tax laws; 5: September 11,
2002 affected tax laws.
Figure 6 Social Events

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Economic Events
Half of all respondents totally agree that the economy has an effect on tax laws,
while the majority of respondents totally disagree that the average age of the
population affects tax laws.

1: The economy has an effect on tax laws; 2: The Great Depression affected tax laws; 3: A recession would have
an effect on tax laws; 4: The growth of the population affects tax laws; 5: The average age of the population affects
tax laws; Figure 7 Economic Events Question
Figure 7 Economic Events

Tax Laws
The Federal deficit was caused by inefficient spending received the majority of
positive responses. Individual tax laws being unfair was equally distributed between
those who disagree somewhat, those who neither agree nor disagree, and those who
agree somewhat. Of all five (5) tax law questions, Question 5 received the majority of
totally disagree responses. The majority of those surveyed believe that individual
income tax laws are unfair. This portion of the survey was to assess the general beliefs
about the individual income tax laws and the federal income tax system.

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1: The federal deficit was caused by inefficient spending; 2: The federal deficit was caused by unpaid loans to other
countries; 3: Taxpayers are expected to repay the deficit caused by non-Americans; 4: Tax laws are amended to
give corporations a tax break; 5: Individual tax laws are fair.
Figure 8 Tax Laws

Conclusion
Conclusions revealed, through regression analysis, that economic events are
perceived to have more of an impact on tax laws than do social events. Regression was
measured between the responses to Social events have an effect on tax laws. and
The Federal deficit was caused by inefficient spending. and between The economy
has an effect on tax laws. and The Federal deficit was caused by inefficient spending.

Further Research
This research looked at the effects of social events and economic events on
American tax laws. Further research might look at the effects of E-commerce on tax
laws. The European Union is trying to make it so that non-EU vendors utilizing E-
commerce would have to collect and pay a value added tax (Firore, 2002). This may
affect American companies and individuals purchasing decisions. It may further
include global tax laws, which could also have an effect on Americas deficit.

References

[1] The Century Foundation, 2002 from http://www.tcf.org/Publications/Basics/Tax

[2] Firore, Nicholas, New CPA-client privilege, Journal of Accountancy, 1998

page 50 a centennial publication


[3] Firore, Nick, On-line sales to EU consumers may be taxed, Journal of Accountancy,
2002

[4] Girard, Bryan, Tax reform alters ESOP landscape; CPAs can help clients maximize
new plan features, Journal of Accountancy, 2002

[5] Knight, Ray A., shifting the burden of proof, Journal of Accountancy, 1999

[6] Mares touts tax simplification, Journal of Accountancy, 1998

[7] Quinn, Jane Bryant, Tax Credits Seldom Benefit Neediest Students, Los Angeles
Business Journal, 2000

[8] Rosen, Ellen, Estate Tax Repeal and the New Tax Law: Good and Bad News, Los
Angeles Business Journal, 2001

[9] Taylor, George, Big changes, big benefits: making sense of the new pension reform
laws, Journal of Accountancy, 2002

[10] U.S.Treasury press releases, Treasury and IRS issue home sale exclusion rules for
those affected by the September 11th terrorist attacks, August 22, 2002, from
http://www.ustreas.gov/press/releases/po3368.htm

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by Charles O. Ochie, Sr., Ph.D. Chair

Marital- Department of Criminal Justice


Albany State University
and

Based Adansi A. Amankwaa, Ph.D.


Department of Psychology,
Sociology and Social Work
Albany State University
Injustice in
Sentencing
Outcomes
Abstract: This study examines, over a four-year period, the relationship between marital
status and sentence outcomes using data from Oklahoma correctional facilities. We find
evidence that is contrary to prevailing notions that married criminal defendants suffer lower
sentencing discrimination than those who are single. In fact, the results show that single
defendants are more likely to be treated fairly; single defendants are more likely to receive short
and lenient sentences than are married or divorced and separated defendants. Overall, there
are observed differences in the severity of sentencing between persons who are married,
divorced or separated versus those who are single.

Criminologists have a long-standing interest in analyzing determinants of criminal


behavior and index crimes, including age, social class and gender. Furthermore,
emphasis on index crimes are often viewed as key to community safety, given its
linkages to politics. For the most part, issues such as marital-based injustice in
sentencing outcomes are much less established in criminal justice literature. Indeed,
criminological studies dealing with differential criminal court outcomes based on
marital status are rare (Daly, 1987; Bickle and Peterson, 1991; Eaton, 1983). While
there are few studies linking court discrimination with marital status, evidence in
criminal literature suggests that social status or characteristics affect the severity of
defendants sentences. Often, these discriminatory practices result in harsher sentences
for some criminal defendants than for others. Sometimes the sentences may reflect the
defendants family/marital status, age, class, gender and race.
Familial roles have been found to significantly affect sentencing outcomes. Most
studies tend to focus on questions and conclusions and tend to converge on
discrepancies in responses of defendants by family and gender. For example, Bickle and
Peterson (1991) conclude that having dependents, not marital status, is the key family

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factor explaining more lenient sentences. Kruttschnitt (1984) even leaves out
altogether marital status as a factor in some of her models. These findings suggest
paucity of scientific attention to sentencing variability specifically based on marital
status. In addition, there are few data sets that contain the information that is necessary
to link marital status with sentencing outcomes. In our study, we used data from
Oklahoma Corrections, to answer questions about the relationship between marital
status and sentencing outcomes.
This paper examines the relationship between marital status and sentence severity
for selected violent, non-violent, and drug-related offenses over a four-year period. The
primary question in this study is: Does marital status affect defendants sentencing
outcomes? Specifically, does being married increase defendants likelihood of receiving
longer, shorter or equal sentences? To be precise, this article compares sentence length
and marital status to determine any variations in the severity of sentencing outcomes.

Conceptual Framework
Our model posits that marital status is related to sentencing outcomes. Two
perspectives may explain the variability of marital effects across sentencing outcomes.
The first and possibly more common perspective gives consistent judicial leniency to
married defendants; the second perspective gives consistent judicial severity to married
defendants. In general, the first perspective reflects the social control theory as
suggested by Daly (1987) which postulates an inverse relationship between informal
(family/kin ties) and a formal (state) control. According to this inverse relationship,
the more tied one is to the normative social order such as familial relations, the more
likely one is to be perceived as respectable or law-abiding, the less likely formal social
control will be. Daly (1987) suggests that although the precise features of defendants
familial relations (or, in this case, marital status) vary, court officials draw a sharp
distinction between defendants with familial responsibilities and those without such
responsibilities. Daly used the terms familied and non-familied respectively to
describe defendants responsibilities.
Previous research has documented the relationship between marital status and court
sentencing. Using interviews and observations in their study of court practices, Daly
(1986, 1987) and Eaton (1983) demonstrated that familied defendants are more likely to
be granted leniency from the court than non-familied defendants. Daly points out that
among the non-familied defendants, judges may be lenient in sentencing if the
defendant is a strong authority figure in the household, has a good employment
record, or, in general, has strong family ties (Daly, 1987:155). Daly also suggests that
the criminal courts response to non-familied defendants is identical to that of juvenile
courts; that is, defendants tied to the normative social order via family or employment
are less likely to face formal social control. Implication: because court personnel assume
familied defendants to have greater informal social control in their lives than non-
familied defendants, that personnel perceives familied defendants as better probation

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risks (Daly, 1989:138). Also, in their study of the impact of gender-based family roles
on criminal justice, Bickle and Peterson (1991) suggest that marital status significantly
influences male prison sentences. But, they add, the direction of the effect remains
puzzling.
Yet another perspective may explain the varying effects of marital status on
sentencing: judges may actually show less leniency toward defendants in some family
roles, such as being married. From this perspective and given the responsibilities
attached to marriage, judges may perceive married defendants criminal involvement as
irresponsible violations of institutional trust. Consequently, judges may pass harsher
than usual sentences on married defendants.

Data and Methodology


The data used in this article come from the Oklahoma State Department of
Corrections. The data were collected in 1993 and comprise 20,932 receptions of males
and females serving various prison sentences during 1985, 1987, 1989, and 1991. No
special criteria were used in selecting the years covered in this study. The decision was
arbitrary and logistical. The data were obtained in aggregate form, and the three
categories of marital status were not defined.
To analyze the variations in sentencing outcomes by marital status, we constructed
three categories of marital status: married, divorced/separated, and single. Given the
nature of the data, it is not clear whether the divorced/separated category denotes legal
or recent separation. Nor is it clear whether the married category includes persons
common law, homosexual/lesbian, or other arrangements. We, therefore, assume that
the single defendant category denotes people who have never married.
The data also include the following variables: 25 offenses classified as violent, non-
violent, and drug-related; sex; marital status: single, married, divorced/separated; and
sentence length: .0-60 years. According to the data, 18,590 are male and 2,342 female
receptions, representing 88.8% and 11.2% respectively. Racially, .0% (5) are Asians,
30% (6,442) blacks, .0% (3) Chinese, .5% (114) Hispanic, 6.1% (1,287) American
Indians, 2.0% (410) Mexicans, .3% (61) other and 60.2% (12,610) whites. Of these,
28.8% are single, 21.4% are either divorced or separated, 34.5% are married, and 15.3%
are offenders whose marital status is not known.
Throughout the analysis, we attempted to identify sentencing differences by marital
status and criminal offense using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The simple analysis
of variance was applied to ascertain the average sentence length which, in turn, was
then used as a comparative tool in determining the severity of sentence length based on
marital status.

Results
The results of the Analysis of Variance are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. The data
show a significant discriminatory practice and bias against divorced/separated, as well as

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married defendants. Single defendants, in fact, appear to fare better in most of the
offenses examined. Overall, it was found that the defendants marital status significantly
affected their sentencing outcomes; that is, single defendants are significantly more
likely to receive short and lenient sentences than are married or divorced/separated
defendants. Thus, results from this study are contrary to the apparently dominant view
that being married may be advantageous for defendants facing criminal sentencing.
Table 1 shows the average sentence length for the defendants sentenced for the 14
violent offenses examined. It was found that married defendants received on average

longer sentences in seven of the 14 offenses examined. These offenses include burglary
II, robbery, larceny, kidnapping, rape, escape and other collapsed violent offenses. Also,
of the 14 offenses shown on Table 1, divorced/separated defendants received a longer
average sentence in four. These include burglary I, murder I, weapons, and arson.

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Further, single defendants received a longer average sentence in only three: murder II,
manslaughter, and assault.
The results in Table 2 show defendants average sentence length for six non-violent
offenses. In most of the offenses, it was found that married and divorced/separated
defendants were sentenced longer than single defendants. Results show that out of the

six non-violent offenses examined, married defendants were sentenced longer in three:
bogus-cheek-card, forgery and other collapsed non-violent offenses. Results also show
that while divorced/separated defendants were sentenced longer in two of the offenses,
embezzlement and sex offenses, single defendants were sentenced longer only in one,
fraud.
Finally, Table 3 shows the average sentence length or the defendants sentenced for
four drug-related offenses. Here, the pattern of judiciary discriminatory practices and
bias against divorced/separated is not only clear but appears consistent for drug offenses.

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Of the four drug-related offenses, divorced/separated defendants received a longer
average sentence in all four categories. It concluded, therefore, without a doubt (at least
during the period examined) that defendants marital status had significant impact on
their sentencing outcomes.

Discussion
The results from this paper reveal a significant disparity in sentencing outcomes
based on marital status. In a nutshell, this paper has revealed a significant
discriminatory practice and bias against familied defendants, as opposed to non-familied
defendants. As shown in Table 1, of the 14 violent offenses examined, married
defendants (both males and females) received a longer average prison sentence for
seven offenses. Divorced/separated received longer average sentences in four of the 14
offenses sentence severity. Single defendants were sentenced longer in three offenses
only.
A similar pattern of relatively more severe sentences for familied defendants is also
found for non-violent offenders where married defendants received a longer average
sentence in three of the six offenses. Divorced/separated defendants received longer
sentences in two offenses, and single defendants received a longer average sentence for
one offense only. In drug-related offenses, divorced/separated defendants received
longer average sentences for all four drug-related offenses examined.
The findings may prompt at least four crucial questions: (1) Why were the familied
(married) defendants sentenced more harshly than were single ones? (2) Why were
divorced/separated defendants sentenced more harshly, especially in drug-related
offenses, than single and married defendants? and (3) Overall, why were single
defendants sentenced less harshly than married and divorced/separated defendants? (4)
Is the Oklahoma judiciary conveying any underlying message to married and
divorced/separated people contemplating criminal activities? For married defendants,
the harsh sentences could reflect the need to preserve cultural strongholds. As a
respectable social institution assigned significant social functions, marriage appears to
invoke protectiveness from the Oklahoma judiciary. Therefore, they could rationalize
their severe and harsh treatment of married defendants as a deterrent from criminal
behavior. If so, the courts may have overlooked the possibility that longer sentences for
married defendants may actually have the unintended effect, among others, of breaking
up families and, additionally, punishing innocent family members such as children.
The harsh discriminatory treatment against divorced/separated defendants may be
attributable to perception of their social status as non-conforming. All available sources
indicate that divorce and separation today no longer carry the social stigma they did 20
to 50 years ago (Strong, 1989). Even so, there is no question that divorced and
separated individuals are still perceived and treated somewhat differently by some social
institutions. Evidently, the judiciary is one such social institution which perceives and
treats such defendants differently. Divorced and separated defendants who face criminal

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sentencing may be perceived by the judiciary as double social violators - people who
have not only violated their sacred marital contract but who have gone even further
and also violated the criminal code. It may be argued, therefore, that the harsh
treatment meted out to them reflects the judiciarys disapproval of their marital failure
and their consequent involvement in criminal activities. This disapproval is manifested
mostly in drug-related offenses where divorced/separated defendants receive longer
sentences than do defendants of a different marital status.
While attempts have been made by these authors to rationalize the harsh and
punitive treatment of married and divorced/separated defendants in criminal courts, the
leniency accorded single defendants remains unexplained and illogical. In the three
categories of offenses examined, single defendants consistently received a shorter
average sentence. On the other hand, this study reveals that the court consistently
showed leniency to most single defendants convicted in most of the offenses analyzed.
One wonders what kind of message the court is trying to send to the public by this
leniency towards single defendants. Should the court not aim to deter potential
criminals, especially single individuals, by imposing more severe sanctions?
Reasonable minds would agree that imposing harsh and punitive sanctions on
married and divorced/separated defendants while imposing lenient penalties on single
defendants convicted of similar charges is not only irrational but also nonsensical.
While discriminatory court practices remain illegal, they are nevertheless common in
criminal courts. These authors think that the reverse should be the practice: the
judiciary should strive to deter people from criminal behavior by imposing severe
punitive criminal sanctions particularly on single and non-familied defendants who, in
fact, constitute the majority of the criminal population.

Conclusion
This study, which examined the variability of sentencing outcomes based on three
levels of marital status, has clearly revealed a family-based injustice. It has clearly
shown that family-based variability is apparent in the sentencing of married,
divorced/separated, and single defendants. Given these findings, the prevalent
assumption that familied defendants are less likely to be sentenced severely is far from
confirmed. Familied defendants are, in fact, clear recipients of severe and punitive
sentences. Sentencing is even more severe for divorced/separated defendants convicted
for drug-related offenses.
Finally, it is particularly important to point out that our analyses demonstrate clearly
that individuals who are single are given lenient sentences a finding which is rather
puzzling and contrary to previous research. Caution, however, must be applied in
interpreting the meanings of these findings. As a note of caution, we remind readers
about the limitations of our analyses. For example, more information about the
proportion of single defendants with marital or familial ties, and other responsibilities,
could provide additional evidence about the nature of the relationship between marital

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status and sentencing outcomes. Unavailability of such information, thus, limits
interpretation and encourages overgeneralization of the conclusion derived from this
study. These authors are also aware of the issue raised in the method section, namely,
the unavailability of definitions for the four categories of marital status. To make an
emphatically sweeping generalization concerning this issue, further analysis needs to be
done, focusing on whether single male and female defendants with marital or familial
ties are more or less likely to be sentenced severely or leniently.

References

Bickle, Gayle S., and Peterson, Ruth D. 1991. The Impact of Gender Based Family
Roles on Criminal Sentencing. Social Problem Vol.38.No.3, August 1991.

Daly, Kathleen. 1987a. Discrimination in Criminal Courts: Family, Gender and the
Problem of Equal Treatment. Social Forces 66:152-175.

Daly, Kathleen. 1987b.Structure and Practice of Family-Based Justice in a Criminal


Court. Law and Society Review 21:267-290.

Daly, Kathleen. 1989.Neither Conflict Nor Labeling Nor Paternalism will Surfice:
Intersection of Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Family in Criminal Court Decision.
Crime and Delinquency 35: 136-168.

Eaton, M. 1993. Mitigating Circumstances: Familiar Rhetoric. International Journal


of Sociology of Law 11:385-400.

Kruttschnitt, C. 1980-1981.Social Status and Sentences for Female Offenders. Law.


Strong, Bryan. and DeVault, Christine.1983. The Marriage and Family Experience.
St. Paul: West Publishing Company.

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By Adansi A. Amankwaa, Ph.D.

Knowledge Department of Psychology,


Sociology and Social Work
Albany State University

and
Perceptions
of HIV/AIDS
Risk and the
Motivation
to Use
Abstract. Social scientists have argued increasingly that knowledge, perception and
HIV/AIDS risk behaviors are important mechanisms for understanding the motivation for
condom use. In this research I develop a model of condom use to prevent sexually transmitted
diseases (STD) and partners HIV status. I used randomly sampled data from a university in
southwest Georgia to investigate the relationship between a partners HIV status - as
measured by chances of getting infected with HIV - and the odds of using condoms as
protection from infection by STDs. The analyses indicated that knowledge and perception of
HIV/AIDS risks are associated with the odds of using condoms to protect against STDs. The
results also indicated that students who consider their chances of getting HIV from their HIV
positive partners as low or none are more likely to use condoms for prevention of sexually
transmitted diseases than those who consider their chances as medium or high.

INTRODUCTION

In spite of many educational programs in colleges and universities today as well as


medical advances made in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV),
the virus that causes AIDS, HIV still poses a multitude of problems among adolescents.
To date in the United States, one in four teenagers is reported to have newly

page 60 a centennial publication


contracted HIV (The Body, 1998). It is also estimated that half of all new infections in
the United States are among people who are under 24 years of age (Rosenberg, Biggar
and Goedert, 1994). In 2000, 1,688 AIDS cases were reported among 13-24-year-olds,
with 729 being females (Ellen, 2002). It has also been established that HIV/AIDS is an
important cause of death for Americans between ages 25 and 44 (Rosenberg, Biggar and
Goedert, 1994). In addition to HIV infection being prevalent among young adults, it is
estimated that Georgia ranks eighth in the nation in the number of HIV/AIDS cases
(Georgia Department of Human Resources, 1999). In fact, there is evidence to suggest
that HIV/AIDS is no longer a problem only for inner city youth, but increasingly a
concern for people living in rural as well as small and medium-size-metropolitan areas
(Bureau of the Census, 1986). These phenomena underscore the importance of
unraveling the linkages between HIV/AIDS awareness and behaviors among
adolescents, particularly college students, in order to understand high-risk behaviors
(drug use, etc).
Perhaps the attention drawn to this question in recent years is not surprising, given
the threat HIV and STD infections posed to youth in rural and medium size cities.
What has been overlooked, however, is not the prevalence of HIV and STD infections
but the relationship between knowledge and perceptions of HIV/STD infections, and
behavior modification. Against the backdrop of higher incidence of HIV and STD
infections among youth, the continued increase in HIV infection among U.S. youth,
particularly African-Americans, compels a reexamination of the perceptions of HIV
and risk-taking behaviors.
Determining the extent to which HIV/AIDS is prevalent among college students
requires an understanding of the complex set of relationships involving knowledge
acquisition, attitudes, environment and behavioral factors. Because human behavior
change is an incremental process, heavily influenced by sociocultural variables and
group norms, it is important to understand the processes through which sociocultural
and group norms affect high-risk behaviors. It is also important to increase the scientific
understanding of HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceptions and beliefs and the extent to
which it motivates young adults to use condoms.
This paper examines the extent to which students HIV awareness and perceptions
affect their motivations for using condoms for sexually transmitted disease (STD)
prevention. Exploring students knowledge, perceptions and behaviors about AIDS is
critical in this area of research because AIDS has been, and continues to be, a major
public health problem in the United States.

Previous Research and Hypotheses


The prevalence of HIV infections among youth has educators and policymakers
constantly grappling with issues of sex education in schools and colleges. Underlying
this delicate issue seems to be ways to engender appropriate behavior modification
among the youth. As a result, social scientists continue to conduct research examining

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the extent to which individuals act upon their knowledge and subsequently take the
necessary precautions to protect themselves from infection. Indeed, previous research
suggests that a significant number of people take the requisite steps to protect
themselves from HIV infection by using condoms (Anderson et al. 1996; Staneli et al.
1996). Yet there are other social scientists who argue that some individuals continue to
engage in high-risk behaviors, notwithstanding the consequences of HIV and STD
infection (Rich at al. 1996; Landry and Camelo, 1994). For example, 30 percent of men
diagnosed with sexually transmitted diseases reported no change in their sexual
behavior including the use of condoms during sexual intercourse (Payn et al, 1997).
Even though previous studies have examined HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among
adolescents and college-age populations (DiClemente at al, 1986, 1988; Becker and
Joseph, 1988), there are no significant published reports on college students regarding
their knowledge, attitudes and motivation for condom use.
Previous studies have shown that sex education programs are effective in promoting
condom use (Kirby et al, 1994; Kirby, 1995). Thus, sex education is vital in helping
adolescent behavior modification (CDC, 2002). Although sex education on HIV/AIDS
is examined in the literature, and HIV/AIDS guidelines are emphasized in most colleges
and universities, less attention is placed on exploring students knowledge, attitudes,
and motivations to use condoms.
Although there is evidence to suggest that there are linkages between awareness
and behavior (Weinstock at al. 1993; Payn et. al. 1997), explanations as to why some
people fail to prevent infection, while they are knowledgeable about necessary steps in
prevention, is still not clear from research among college students. In spite of the
apparent lack of clarity as to why some individuals continue to engage in HIV risk
behaviors, there is evidence to suggest that a large number of people protect themselves
from STDs by using condoms. This implies that previous studies have not adequately
explored how some people protect themselves from contracting STD infections, while
others are less careful in taking appropriate measures of STD prevention. Thus,
understanding students perceptions about the transmission of the virus enhances
understanding of high-risk behavior among young adults.
Given the intricate relationship between knowledge, perceptions and human
behavior, particularly as it relates to the prevention of HIV and STDs, several
competing hypotheses are formulated. The first set of hypothesis examines the
relationship between students knowledge and condom use. Thus, students who have
had an HIV test are more likely to report using condoms during sexual intercourse than
students who have not had the HIV test.
Related to the issue of HIV testing is the notion of counseling. Indeed, there is the
chance that individuals who undergo HIV testing are more likely to be educated about
the risk of HIV infection. By extension, it can be argued that individuals who perceived
HIV infection as having serious consequences would be predisposed to modify their
attitude about the disease. An examination of whether HIV testing is an important

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factor in attitude and behavior change is somewhat unveiling. Few studies have
indicated that HIV testing is related to attitude change (Anderson et al, 1996; Tanfer
at al. 1993). Because factors such as attitude are related to whether an individual will
use condoms to prevent STDs, it is important to consider a second hypothesis. This
hypothesis would suggest that students who consider their partners at higher risk of
HIV infection are more likely to report using condoms than students who consider
their partners not at risk of HIV infection.
At a first pass, this hypothesis suggests that students who are knowledgeable in the
transmission of STDs may be predisposed to engage in appropriate behavior
modification to prevent HIV infection. This interpretation, however, depends on the
assumption that students who are knowledgeable about STDs may be more likely to
engage in behavior modification. This also suggests that students will encourage their
partners to use condoms or protect themselves by wearing condoms in order to avoid
STDs and, subsequently, HIV infection.
Furthermore, it is likely that students may be more concerned with contracting
HIV from their partner than transmitting the virus to others. For this reason I will
examine the notion that students may or may not be more likely to protect themselves
if they believe that their partner has low probability or no chance of being infected.
The third hypothesis states that students who believe that their partner has a moderate
or high chance of being HIV positive are more likely to report using a condom during
sexual intercourse than students who believe that their partner has low chance or no
chance of being infected.

Data and Method


The research was carried out in a state university in southwest Georgia. Since it
was difficult to have a list of well-defined student body, selection of the sample size was
based on a random selection of semester course registration. First, the spring 2003
course schedule was numbered consecutively followed by systematic random selection
of courses yielding 26 courses and an initial sample size of 473. Second, I then
contacted each course instructor to distribute the survey questionnaires. A total of 354
responded to the questionnaire. Response to the items on the survey lasted about seven
minutes. Of the 354 respondents, only 5 were discarded because of misreporting.
Overall, the number of students participating in the survey is rather high (75%) given
the fact that it was anonymous and voluntary. Instruments used in this survey were
reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at Albany State University.
Respondents were asked questions about HIV infection and their perceptions of
being infected by a partner, personal opinion about the consequences of HIV infection,
condom use, marital status, classification, number of sexual partners, age at first sexual
intercourse, test for HIV, church attendance, place of residence and age. Questions
related to knowledge of HIV/AIDS risk included: Is there anything a person can do to
avoid getting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS? and What can a person do to avoid

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getting AIDS? Questions pertaining to their partners likelihood of being HIV positive
were asked to assess the notion that students may or may not be more likely to protect
themselves if they believe that their partner has a low probability or no chance of being
infected.
In this study, the predictor variables of interest include HIV test measures and
perceptions of respondents HIV risks. Another predictor variable relates to the
question What would you say are the chances that you are currently infected with
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS? High, medium, low or no chance? Students
evaluation of their partners HIV risk based on the question: What would you say are
the chances that you have had sexual intercourse with someone who was infected with
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS? was controlled for this study. In addition, covariates
such as age, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of months
of nonintercourse, church attendance, major and classification will be included as
controls, because these covariates have been found to vary with condom use.

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Analytical Technique. The major concern of the study is whether AIDS awareness
correlates with condom use for STD prevention. The effect of HIV testing on the log
odds of using a condom for protection against STDs was examined. The dependent
variable was constructed from the question Have you used condoms with a partner for
birth control only, prevention of disease only, or both birth control and disease
prevention? Responses that include ever used condom for prevention for birth control
only or condom were not used will be coded as 0; while responses that indicate disease
prevention and both birth control and disease prevention will be coded as 1. Logistic
regression was used to explore the effects of partners HIV/AIDS status on condom use
to protect against STDs. The model is expressed as follows:

Pr(y=1|X, chances of infection) = + X1 + X2 + 1 + Eq. 1

where y equals 1 if the respondent uses condoms to prevent STDs and birth control, X1
equals chances of partner getting AIDS, X1 is the chance that respondent had sexual
intercourse with partner who is HIV+ and is a set of individual characteristics with
the stochastic disturbance term.

Explanatory Variables
In this analysis, I considered two types of self-evaluation of partners risk of HIV
infection. For each type, perceptions of HIV infection as measured by self-evaluation of
getting HIV from partner and self-evaluation of getting AIDS from a partner who is
HIV positive, was considered.

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Self-evaluation of partners HIV status. The model posits that respondents are
responsive to modify their sexual behavior upon self-evaluation of their HIV status
including that of their partners. Respondents were asked: What do you think are the
chances for your partner getting AIDS? Responses measured on a 5-point scale from 1
(very low) to 5 (very high) were coded into two categories: those who perceived their
chances of getting HIV as low or high. I demarcate those who reported high chances of
being infected with HIV as the reference category.
Another self-evaluation measure of partners HIV status was created from the
question: What would you say are the chances that you have had sexual intercourse
with a partner who was HIV positive? The self-evaluation of partners HIV status is
coded into three categories: no chance, low chance and medium to high chance with
medium to high chance responses designated as the reference category.

Other Covariates. Drawing from prior research, I control for demographic variables
marital status, age, place of residence prior to attending college and classification.
Marital status is measured never married (reference group) and other because
preliminary analysis suggested that there are fewer students that were married, separated
or divorced. Age is measured as a continuous variable in single years; place of residence
is measured as city and town or countryside.
Students educational characteristics include their major course of study and
classification. Major is categorized into four groups: Nursing and Biology; Psychology
and Sociology; Education and other; and Business and Economics. Classification is
measured as a dummy variable with freshmen and sophomores coded 1 others (Juniors
and higher) coded as 0.
Measures of sexual and HIV behavior are also included. For HIV behavior, I
measure whether individuals tested for HIV and create dichotomous measure of HIV
test, blood donation and other settings. Further, number of lifetime sexual partners and
age at first sexual intercourse are measures that are frequently used in HIV analysis.
This analysis begins with a description of respondents characteristics and HIV risks
by condom use. Because the dependent is binary indicating the use and non-use of
condom to prevent STD infection, I employed logistic regression model to estimate the
odds and net associations of self-evaluations and self-evaluation of partners HIV risk.
Prior to analysis, the data were screened for missing elements and outliers. Initial
multiple regression was estimated to calculate Mahalanobis Distance and to evaluate
multicollinearity among four discrete and continuous covariates. The results of the
analysis suggests that multicollinearity was not violated because the tolerance statistics
of the four variables were greater than 1. I then used Explore to examine the cases that
exceeded the chi square criteria of 2 (6) = 22.458 at p = .001. Case numbers that
exceed the chi square value were deleted from the analysis.

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FINDINGS

Descriptive Analysis
I began with descriptive data about the students level of knowledge about
HIV/AIDS, presented in Table 1. Table 1 contains various summary statistics such as
percentage, means and standard deviation distribution of the sample. For example, the
average age of the respondents, the age at first sexual intercourse, and the number of
lifetime partners are 22 years, 16.19 years and 5.27 respectively. In contrast, the
standard deviation for age (5.7) and the number of lifetime partners are more than
twice the standard deviation of age at first intercourse (2.2). This suggests a wider
dispersion or greater heterogeneity in the ages and number of lifetime partners of the
respondents.

Student Level of Knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Overall, students knowledge about


HIV/AIDS is rather high. Table 1 also shows the percentage of correct responses to
each of the twelve statements about knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The percentage response
ranged from 11.4% to 95.6%. Specifically, it was interesting to note that students were
aware that AIDS can be avoided by either having safe sex (85.5%), abstaining from sex
(95.6%) or condom use (80.6%). A smaller percentage of the students responded that
AIDS can be avoided by refraining from kissing and avoiding mosquito bites. Such
responses suggest that there are gaps in their knowledge of HIV transmission.

As shown in Table 2, as respondents think of increased risk of HIV infection, both


from their partners and of themselves, they tended to test for HIV. Of those who
responded that their chances of being infected with AIDS from partner medium to high
are more likely to assess test for HIV given the reflection of the chances of them
getting AIDS. Respondents who think of themselves and their partners as having
medium or high chances of getting AIDS are more likely to test for HIV. The chi
square significance indicates that this relationship is statistically significant. Indeed,
perceptions of an increased risk tend to influence respondents behavior about HIV test.

Knowledge, Sexual Behavior and HIV Testing. Fundamental issues related to the

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sexual transmission of HIV include the use of condoms and whether the individuals test
for the HIV. As shown in Table 3, although condom use was practiced among
respondents who reported that they have not had an HIV test, a greater percentage
modify their behavior by using condoms (34.3%) or restricted sexual behavior to one
partner (32.4%). Respondents knowledge about HIV/AIDS tended to be related to
testing for HIV.

Sex-Related Risk Behavior. Sub-group differences about how knowledge of HIV


influenced respondents decision regarding sexual behavior and by the chances that they
are infected with HIV (see Table 4). Medium to high-risk groups were more likely
(38.9%) to start using condom compared to those who reported they have no chance
(29.8%) and low chance (35.9%) of HIV infection. This association is statistically
significant at an = .001 (2 =17.846, df = 6). Similarly, the chances that respondents
have had sexual intercourse with someone who was HIV positive is significantly
associated with their knowledge of HIV and their decision change about sexual behavior.
Table 5 presents the relationship between persons who have ever used condoms for
STD and disease prevention and the chances of having a sexual relationship with a
partner who is infected with HIV. Among persons who have not tested for HIV, those
who have not used condoms to prevent STD are more than twice as likely to report

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that they have no chance of having sexual intercourse with a partner with HIV (15.7%
to 6.0%). However, whether a person tests for HIV does not eliminate all the
differences in the chance of having sexual intercourse with a partner who is HIV
positive. In fact, students who have tested for HIV are still more likely to use condoms
for STDs and disease prevention than those who have not tested for the virus.

Multivariate Models of Perception of HIV Risk and Condom Use


The next set of analyses tests whether or not respondents perception of a partners
HIV status relates with the use of condom for STD prevention. The results obtained by
estimating equation 1 are shown in Table 6. Variables used in the analyses are listed in
column 1. Column 2 reports estimates of the baseline model of respondents perception
of partners HIV status only. Column 3 includes whether respondent tests for HIV.
Column 4 introduces individual characteristics associated with condom use, while
column 5 presents the estimates for individual and sexual activity characteristics.
The results in column 2 (model 1) indicate that the chances that a respondent had
sexual intercourse with a partner who is HIV positive is significantly related to the use
of condom to prevent STD. The odds that respondents would use a condom to prevent
STD were quite high and statistically significant among those who reported no and low
chance of getting HIV from a partner who is HIV positive than those who reported
medium to high chances. Compared with those whose chances of contracting infection
from HIV positive partners, those who reported no chance exhibit 177% odds of using
condoms, and those who responded low chance exhibit 379% odds of condom use.
Further, among all respondents, 48% of students who report that they think of the chances
of their partner getting AIDS are less likely to use condom for STD prevention.
The next logistic regression identifies whether there is an independent effect of
HIV testing on condom use to protect STD infection. Inclusion of the variable test
for HIV column 3 (model 2) changes the magnitude of association between chances of
getting AIDS from partner, chances partner is HIV positive and condom use to prevent
STD somewhat, but does not change the general pattern of the relationship. The

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attenuated effect for those who responded no and low chance of getting HIV from
partners who are HIV positive suggests that HIV testing plays an important role in the
odds of using condoms to prevent STDs. Most importantly, those who responded that
their chances of getting AIDS from a partner who is HIV positive as medium to high
are less likely to use condoms; however, there is no statistically significant association
between HIV testing and condom use.

In column 4 (model 3), additional individual characteristics are introduced in the


model and in turn, have a large influence on the association between the chances of
getting AIDS from a partner, chances partner is HIV positive and condom use to

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protect against STDs. In fact, controlling for marital status, previous place of residence,
classification and religious attendance does significantly alter the relationship between
chances of respondent being infected by a partner who is HIV positive and the odds of
condom use to protect against STDs. However, although, the covariate test for HIV was
not statistically significant in model 2, it had a strong statistical effect on the use of
condoms to protect against STDs. Previous examination of the crosstabulation of HIV
testing and changes in sexual behavior as a result of knowledge about AIDS indicated
that the two variables are related. As expected, married respondents are 27% less likely
to use condom for STD protection than those who reported as never married. This
possibly shows more fear among never married respondents than among married
persons. Indeed, the results indicate the overall model of the covariates was statistically
reliable in distinguishing between condom use and non-use to protect against STDs (-2
Log Likelihood = 147.765, model 2 = 27.06, df = 9 p< .0001).
The last column in Table 6 shows model 4 as the saturated model, a model that
includes a broad range of individual and contextual determinants of condom use.
Model 4, which includes age at first sexual intercourse, number of lifetime partners, and
current age, was estimated to assess whether there was any additional effects of these
characteristics on condom use to protect against STDs. Once again, the chances of
getting AIDS from a partner remains consistent, but the odd ratios are larger than in
less inclusive models. Net of all controls, however, those who responded that their
chances of getting AIDS from a partner are 77% less likely to use a condom compared
to those who responded medium to high chances. Further, those who think that their
chances of getting HIV from an HIV positive partner are low are 736% more likely to
use a condom against STDs than those who have medium or higher risk of HIV
infection from their partner.
Further, the results suggest that the number of lifetime partners is the only
additional included variable that has an effect on the odds of condom use. It is
estimated that there is a 384% probability that a first-time sexual intercourse of a 25-
year-old individual with 5 lifetime partners has experienced condom use for STD
protection. Thus, age at first sexual intercourse and the number of lifetime partners are
important in the odds of an individual using a condom for protection against STDs.

Discussion
The analyses indicate that the nature of perception of HIV risk and knowledge are
related to the odds of using condom to protect against STDs. The full model (model 4)
indicates that the factors promoting changes in sexual behavior include the chances of
getting AIDS from partner who is HIV positive, the chances of getting AIDS from
partner, marital status, place of prior residence and age at first sexual intercourse.
Testing for HIV also matters: those who test for HIV are more likely to modify their
sexual behavior by using condoms to protect themselves against STDs.
An examination of the relationship between testing for HIV and knowledge of

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AIDS confirms the first hypothesis that students who had an HIV test are more likely
to change their decision about sexual behavior. Following the hypothesis, students who
indicate HIV awareness and perceive HIV as risk are more likely to use condoms as a
measure of prevention. The results in Table 4 support this hypothesis. The findings
suggest that HIV awareness and subsequent decisions to modify sexual behavior may be
important explanations of perception of partners HIV status on the use of condom to
prevent STDs. The current research supports Anderson and associates (1996)
conclusion that HIV testing is related to attitude change. This study, however,
approaches the process of behavioral change with the prior assumption that HIV
testing is critical in sexual behavioral change.
The findings further demonstrate that individuals who perceived HIV infection as
having serious consequences were predisposed to modify their attitude about disease
prevention. Taken as a whole, the study suggests that students who consider their
partners at higher risk of HIV infection are more likely to report using condoms than
students who do not consider their partners at risk. The findings suggest that an
evaluation of the potential risk of HIV infection differ by the degree of assessment of
partners risk of HIV infection. This interpretation, however, is based on the
assumption that students who are knowledgeable about STDs are more likely to engage
in behavior modification. This also suggests that students will encourage their partners
to use condoms or protect themselves by wearing condoms in order to avoid STDs and,
subsequently, HIV infection.
In contrast to the relationship between chances of getting AIDS from a partner and
condom use, one of the most notable features of the study is the odd ratios between the
chances of getting HIV from a partner who is HIV positive. An examination of this
notion suggests that the odds of condom use are higher among those who think their
chances of getting HIV is lower or none from a partner who is HIV positive than those
are at a higher risk. Indeed, students may or may not be more likely to protect
themselves if they believe that their partner has low probability or no chance of being
infected. That part of the analysis shows that students who believe that their partner
has no or low chance of being infected with HIV by a partner who is HIV positive are
more likely to report using a condom than those who had medium to high chances of
HIV infection.
In this analysis I did not address whether race, sex, and income have an effect on
the odds of condom use for STD protection. Since the study took place at a
predominantly black institution, it limited the ability to examine the effect of race on
condom use for STD protection due to the small sample size of whites. Another
limitation is income. Most of the respondents are full-time students. This limits my
ability to assess the influence of income on condom use. It is reasonable to expect that
at least some of the findings reported here would differ if I had included in this analysis
data from predominantly white institutions. Ultimately, it is important to develop a
comprehensive understanding of both white and black perceptions and HIV awareness

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and their corresponding behavioral modification. The increase in new cases of HIV
infection among youth suggests that we have much to learn about behavioral change
and why youth engage in HIV risk-related behaviors.

Conclusion
Randomly sampled data from a Historically Black College were used to investigate
the relationship between partners HIV status - as measured by chances of getting
infected with HIV - and the odds of using a condom to protect infection of STDs.
Findings from this study show that partners HIV status is strongly associated with the
odds of using condoms to protect against STDs. For example, controlling for students
characteristics, students who indicate HIV awareness and perceive HIV as a risk are
more likely to use condoms as a measure of prevention.
To determine why partners HIV status is associated with condom use, I controlled
for student characteristics. Individual students evaluation of partners HIV status
exhibited significant association with condom use. The results indicated that students
who consider their chances as none or low of getting HIV from their partners who are
HIV positive arae more likely to use condoms for prevention of sexually transmitted
diseases than those who consider their chances as medium or high.
These results provide important initial descriptive and analytical steps in our
understanding of the process of condom use among a section of the student population
that is considered to be at risk of HIV infection. In addition, this research explored the
links between HIV testing and students knowledge, perceptions and a broad array of
social and behavioral factors on the motivation of condom use. In short, this study
provides an important step toward a better understanding of the relationship between
college students motivation to use condoms, HIV-related knowledge and self-
assessment of partners HIV status in an increasingly high-risk group in the United
States in the 21st century.

Policy or educational implications


Comprehensive and methodologically sound assessment of the effect of HIV
testing, knowledge, perceptions on need for condom use is essential to the development
of effective preventive programs in colleges and universities.
Previous research indicates that HIV infection is higher among young adolescents
than in any other age group. Payn and associates (1997) indicated that the increase of
HIV infections is out-paced by increases in high-risk sexual behavior. This implies that
more attention needs to be focused on behavioral and social measures by policymakers.
In fact, personalizing the effect of HIV infections is an important way to motivate
young adults to modify their behavior to protect themselves.

a centennial publication page 73


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programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors: a review of effectiveness. Public Health
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Landry, DJ., and Camelo TM (1994). Young unmarried men and women discuss mens
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Piaget, Jean (1965). The Moral Judgement of the Child. Trans Marjorie Gabain. New
York: Free Press
Stanelli, JS, Kouzis, AC, Hoover, DR, Polacsek, M., Bruwell, LC and Celentano, DD
(1996). Stages of behavior change for condom use: The influence of partner type
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Perspectives 25(2):61-66
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htt://www.thebody.com/aawh/force/aawho4.html
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heterosexual population, Sexually Transmitted Diseases 20: 14-20

page 74 a centennial publication


by Rani George

Victimizatio Albany State University


Albany, GA 31705

n
Among
Middle
and High
Abstract
The present study used data from the School Crime Supplement of the 1995 National
Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The goal of the study was to examine the rates of
violent and property crime victimization among middle and high school students. The results of
the study show that there is a higher rate of property victimization than violent victimization,
with boys reporting more victimization than girls. Almost half of the students report that
marijuana was easily available in schools and 40% reported that there was gang activity in and
around the schools. An important finding is that electronic surveillance measures were not
effective in reducing student victimization.

Victimization among Middle and High School Students


School safety is a major concern for parents, researchers and policymakers. This is
because children spend more time on school campuses than in any other place with the
exception being the home. In order for learning to take place, students and teachers
have to feel safe in schools. Although schools continue to be safe most of the time,
violence and theft do occur and affect the lives of students from time to time, making
this topic worthy of continued research (Kaufman et al. 2000).
Violence in schools directly affects educators and students by generating fear and
tension which reduces school effectiveness and inhibits student learning. Additionally,
unsafe school environments expose students who may already be at risk for school
failure to physical and emotional harm. School violence has been of great concern in
the U.S. in the past decade because of the horrifying shootings in several schools.
Although the national statistics indicate that school violence has decreased since the
1990s (U.S. Department of Education & U.S. Department of Justice, 2001), worries
about school violence appear to have increased (Hinds, 2000).

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Most of the attention directed at school crime is due to the concern that students
and teachers are affected in some way due to threats, assaults and injuries. In addition
to the costs to the victims and their families, school crimes disrupt education and may
have longer lasting effects on society than crime committed elsewhere (Bastian &
Taylor, 1991). A very important consequence of school crime is that it reduces the
effectiveness of education, especially in the public schools in large cities (Toby, 1980).
About one in four public school teachers ranked physical conflicts among students as
serious or moderately serious problems across their schools (Mansfield, Alexander, &
Farris, 1991). According to Toby (1980), teachers in high-crime schools are afraid to
demand more in-class and out-of-class efforts because work may be regarded by students
as unpleasant. School disorder also affects learning opportunities, for example, Jones
(1979) estimates that about 55% of instructional time is lost to minor classroom
disturbances.

Prevalence of Victimization
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) defines victimization as direct
personal experience of threats or harm. Property crime is the illegal taking of or
damaging property, including cash, and personal belongings. Examples of property crime
include burglary, theft, robbery, and vandalism. Often the victim is not present when
property crime occurs. Violent crime on the other hand involve contact between the
victim and the offender. Violent crime includes rape, sexual assault, robbery and assault
(both aggravated and simple). Since the NCVS is based on interviews with victims,
murder is not included under violent crime (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998).
Every year the National Center for Education Statistics publishes a report titled
Indicators of School Crime and Safety. Results from two of the most recent reports
are given next. This adds some current perspective on the problem of youth violence
and victimization From July 1, 1997, through June 30, 1998; there were 60 school-
associated violent deaths in the United States (NCES, 2001). The rates for the same
period in 1998-1999 were slightly lower, 47 school-associated violent deaths (NCES,
2002). The 2003 report is not yet available to the public.
Victimization rates for all age groups in 2001 were the lowest recorded since 1973,
when the NCVS began collecting data. In 2001, the violent crime rate fell 10% from
the previous year, and the property crime rate fell six percent for the same period.
However during the same period, significant differences were found across age groups.
In 2001 as well as 2000, violent victimizations rates were the highest for 16-19-year-
olds, followed by 12-15-year-olds (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003).
Property crime victimization rates are much higher for juveniles than for adults.
The crime information from the NCVS for 1996-97 and the National Incident-Based
Reporting System (NIBRS) for 1997 shows that one out of every six juveniles aged 12-
17 was a victim of a property crime each year (1996-97). Property crime victimization
rates were particularly high for African-American juveniles and juveniles living in

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urban areas and in the West. Items taken from juveniles were electronic and photo
gear, clothing and backpacks (Finkelhor & Ormrod, 2000).

Predictors of Victimization
Almost all victimization studies have found that boys were more often victimized
than girls (NIE, 1978; Rubel, 1978, Bastian & Taylor, 1991). Baker, Mednick and
Carothers (1989) examined the trends in victimization among high school students in
the Los Angeles Unified School District. Gender and ethnicity were found to be
strongly associated with student-reported victimization, with males reporting more
victimization than females and blacks reporting more victimization than either whites
or Hispanics.
Another important predictor of student victimization is the characteristics of
schools. According to Gottfredson and Gottfredson (1985), academically oriented
schools in general report less teacher and student victimizations, but students in those
schools reported more theft. Research has shown that school climate is also related to
the incidence of school misbehavior and victimization. Schools with positive climate
have less disorder and problems (Gottfredson & Gottfredson, 1983, 1985; NIE, 1978).
Patterson (1992) reported that school climates and environments were found to
determine the overall risks of victimization in schools, with the heterogeneity of
student populations (both in terms of ethnic origins and SES) increasing the amount of
risks.
Schools with better school administration had less teacher and student
victimization. Large schools with limited resources were also found to have more
problems (Gottfredson and Gottfredson, 1985). Other researchers have also found that
larger institutions tend to increase student misbehavior (Haller, 1992). Weishew and
Peng (1993) examined the variables predicting students problem behaviors using the
data from the administrator, teacher, parent, and student levels of the 1988 National
Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS: 88). In general they found that schools which
had high-achieving students, drug-free environments, structured environments, positive
climates, and involved parents had fewer behavior problems.
Garalfo, Siegel, and Laub (1987) used the interviewer narratives of the National
Crime Survey (NCS) victimization data to study school-related victimizations among
adolescents. They found that about half of the victimizations were school-related
occurred in a school building or elsewhere on school property (including on a school
bus). Kingery, Pruitt and Hurley (1992) examined victimization in two settings: while
at school or on a school bus, and while outside school supervision. Victimization was
related to drug use, with users being victimized more than nonusers, both at school and
outside school. Violence was more common among the younger adolescents, while drug
use was more prevalent among the older adolescents. However, when there was
violence among the older adolescents it was found to be more serious and often related
to drug use. NCES reported an increase in the use of marijuana among students in

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grades 9 through 12 between 1993-1995. However, the rates remained constant from
1995 to 1997 and in 1999 (NCES, 2002).
Another predictor of victimization is the incidence of gangs in schools and the
communities in which juveniles live. Research shows that the incidence of gangs in
schools nearly doubled from 1989 to 1995. With the strong correlation between the
presence of gangs and guns and gangs and drugs this increase is particularly
disturbing. Gang presence is an important contributor to overall levels of student
victimization at school (Howell & Lynch, 2000).

Method
Data Source
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), administered for the Bureau of
Justice Statistics by the Bureau of the Census, is the nations primary source of
information on crime victimization and victims of crime. The NCVS samples consist of
about 55,000 households selected using a stratified, multi-stage cluster design (Kaufman
et al. 2000). The National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Justice
Statistics co-designed a School Crime Supplement to the NCVS in order to collect
additional information about school-related victimizations on a national level. Data for
this study come from the 1995 National Crime Victimization Surveys supplement on
school crime (Kaufman et al. 2000).
All NCVS households in which there were 12-19-year-olds who attended a school
6 months prior to the survey were eligible to participate in the School Crime Survey.
This survey was conducted for a six-month period beginning in January 1995 and
extending through June 1995. The total eligible sample for the 1995 School Crime
Survey was 15,785. Of this sample, 77.5% participated in the survey (N=12,235). The
SCS asks students questions about their experiences with and perceptions of crime and
violence that occurred inside their school, on school grounds, or on their way to or
from school. Questions were also asked about students perceptions of school rules,
presence of weapons and gangs in schools, attitudinal questions relating to fear of
victimization, and avoidance behavior in school (Kaufman et al. 2000).

Research Objectives
The major objective of the present study is to examine the prevalence of
victimization, both property and violent, among middle and high school students. The
second objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between study variables
and victimization among middle and high school students. The final objective of the
study is to find out if avoidance measures taken by students have an effect on student
victimization.

Measures
Dependent variable: The victimization variable was created using Incident 1 of the

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NCVS Incident Section. Incident 1 consists of 40 types of crimes. These incidents were
grouped into: (a) violent crimes, b) personal theft, and c) property crimes. Violent
crimes consist of 20 items, including rape, assault, and robbery. Property theft consists
of 9 items, including purse snatching, pocket picking and larceny. Property crime
consists of 11 items, including burglary, trespassing, household larceny, and motor
vehicle theft (U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998). For the
present study, personal theft and property crimes were collapsed into one category,
namely property. In the present analyses, individuals who were not victimized were
compared with those who were victims of violent or property crimes. The victimization
variable is coded as follow, 1=Violent, 2=Property, and 3=Non-victim.

Independent variables: The independent variables are described below. The


demographic factors included in the present study are Gender and Race of the
adolescents. Gender is coded 1=male and 0=female. Race is a dummy variable with
four categories, namely white, Hispanics, black and other. White is the reference
category for the race variable. There are three school factors, namely Grade, Sector
(Public vs. Private), and Urbanicity (two dummy variables: rural and suburban, with
urban being the reference category). Grade is coded 1=high school and 0=middle
school.
The school domain factors are availability of marijuana (coded 0, 1), gang
membership among students (coded 0,1), security measures at school, and avoidance
measures used by students. The question about the availability of marijuana was asked
as follows: Is it easy, hard, or impossible to get marijuana at your school? The
responses hard and impossible were collapsed into one category, namely hard. The
gang variable was measured using the item Are there any street gangs at your school?
The responses are yes or no.
The security measures at school variable is an index with 6 items. The items in this
index include security guards; metal detectors; doors locked during the day; visitors
sign-in, and locker checks. The responses to these items are yes or no.
The avoidance measures variable consists of 8 items. Students were asked the
following question: Did you stay away from any of the following places because you
thought someone might attack or harm you there? This question about the places they
avoided included route to school, hallways, stairs, school cafeteria, restrooms, and
parking lots. The responses to these items are yes or no.
Weighted data were used in the present study to take advantage of the non-
response adjustments in the NCVS and to permit the computation of standard errors in
the complex study design. The statistical software STATA (version 7) was used to
perform data analyses (StataCorp, 2001).

Results
The frequencies for the study variables are given in Table 1. The sample for the

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present analysis includes equal proportions of males and females. A majority of the
respondents are Caucasian-American (71.2%), 11.7% are African-American, and
12.8% are Hispanic-American. About 39% are middle school students, while 61% are
high school students. 27.3% attend schools in urban locations, while 47.3% and 25.5%
attend suburban and rural schools respectively. Almost 91% of respondents attend
public schools.
Approximately 14% of the respondents reported that they were victimized. Of
these 4.4% reported violent victimization and 9.7% reported property victimization.
About 29% of the respondents reported that it was easy to get marijuana in the schools,
while 39% reported that it was hard or impossible to get marijuana. About 26%
reported that there were gangs in their schools. Approximately 14% reported that their
schools have very low use of security measures (e.g., metal detectors, electronic
monitoring), and 10% reported high use of such measures. Finally about 13% of the
students reported that they have taken measures to avoid being victimized (e.g.,
avoiding hallways, parking lots, restrooms).
Table 2 reports the descriptive statistics for all the continuous variables used in the
present study. On a 0-6 scale, the mean for the security measures variable is 2.89. The
mean for the avoidance measures variable on a 0-8 scale is 0.29.
Table 3 gives the results of the bivariate analysis. There is a statistically significant
difference in victimization (X2 =30.33, df = 2, p < 0.05) such that males report more
victimization than females. Males reported higher property and crime victimization
compared to females. However, there are no racial or grade differences in student
victimization. Students from rural schools report less victimization compared to
students from urban/suburban schools (X2 =28.44, df = 2, p < 0.05). Students reported
more property victimization in rural (8.5%) and urban/suburban (10.1) schools than
violent victimization.
Private school students reported lower victimization than public school students (X2
=13.19, df = 2, p < 0.05). Schools in which students perceived that it was easy to get
marijuana reported higher victimization than schools in which students perceived that
it was hard/impossible to get marijuana (X2 =144.81, df = 2, p < 0.05). In schools where
marijuana is easily available, the rates of violent victimization was more than double
that of schools where it was hard to get marijuana. Schools in which students
reported gang activities in and around the school had more victimization than schools
where there were no gangs (X2 =203.40, df = 2, p < 0.05). Schools where there was
gang activity had three times the rates of violent victimization and double the rate of
property victimization found in schools with no gang activity.
The next research question in this study is Can we prevent victimization using
security measures? The results of the study show that security measures such as
electronic monitoring and metal detectors do not prevent violent or property
victimization (X2 =5.22, df = 4, p > 0.05). Students take different measures to avoid
being victimized, for example avoiding certain routes to school, hallways, stairs,

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parking lot, etc. It was found that avoidance measures have a significant effect on
student victimization (X2 =75.65, df = 2, p < 0.05). Unfortunately, the results showed
that students who take avoidance measures are more likely to be victimized than those
who do not take such measures.

Discussion
As seen in previous studies, students reported higher rates of property victimization
compared to violent victimization. However, although the rates of violent victimization
are lower, we cannot underestimate the traumatic effects on students. The most
disturbing result in the study is the fact that almost half the students in the sample
reported that marijuana was easily available in the schools. One out of five students
surveyed reported that there was gang activity in and around their schools. The
presence of gangs and the availability of marijuana elevate the levels of both property
and violent victimization in schools. Further, the presence of drugs and gangs will affect
the academic climate of schools. Victimization inhibits student learning in general and
particularly exposes students who may already be at risk for school failure to physical
and emotional harm. It is therefore very important for schools to implement drug abuse
resistance education programs such as D.A.R.E and gang resistance education and
training programs such as G.R.E.A.T.
Although there were no significant grade differences in violent victimization,
middle school students reported more victimization than high school students.
Therefore it is important to teach middle school students anger management and
conflict resolution strategies. Students in urban and public schools experience more
victimization, especially violent victimization. This calls for more counselors and
security officers in public schools.
Due to the escalation of violence in schools in the past decade, more and more
schools are investing in electronic school surveillance measures. However, the results of
the study show that such measures did not reduce student victimization. For example,
the use of metal detectors only prevents the entry of weapons, however physical fights
and verbal violence can still occur inside the school. Increasing student support services
such as counseling, anger management and mentoring may be a better investment than
high-tech surveillance equipment.

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References
Baker, R. L., Mednick, B. R., & Carothers, L. (1989). Association of age, gender, and ethnicity
with juvenile victimization in and out of school. Youth and Society, 20, 320-341.
Bastian, L. D., & Taylor, B. M. (1991). School crime: A national crime survey victimization survey
report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2003). Crime victimization report. Available at:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cv00.pdf.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (1998). National crime victimization survey. Computer file (5th ed).
Survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Ann
Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.
Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2000). Juvenile victims of property crime. Bulletin. Washington,
DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and

a centennial publication page 83


Delinquency Prevention.
Garafalo, J., Siegel, L., Laub, J. (1987). School-related victimizations among adolescents: An
analysis of National Crime Survey (NCS) narratives. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3,
321-338.
Gottfredson, G. D., & Gottfredson, D. C. (1985). Victimization in schools. New York: Plenum
Press.
Gottfredson, G. D., Gottfredson, D. C., & Cook, M. S. (1983). The school action effectiveness
study: Second interim report (Report No. 342). Center for the Social Organization of
Schools. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University.
Haller, E. J. (1992). High school size and student indiscipline: Another aspect of the school
consolidation issue? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14, 145-156.
Hinds, M. D. (2000). Violent kids: Can we change the trend? Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
Howell, J. C., & Lynch, J. P. (2000). Youth gangs in schools. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U. S.
Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention.
Jones, F. H. (1979). The gentle art of classroom discipline. National Elementary Principal, 58: 26-
32.
Kaufman, P., Chen, X., Choy, S. P., Ruddy, S. A., Miller, A. K., Fleury, J. K., Chandler, K. A.,
Rand, M. R., Klaus, P., & Planty, M. G. (2000). Indicators of school crime and safety 2000.
(Publication number NCES 2001-017/NCJ-184176), Washington, D.C: U.S. Department
of Education and Justice.
Kingery, P. M., Pruitt, B. E., & Hurley, R. S. (1992). Violence and illegal drug use among
adolescents: Evidence from U.S. National Adolescent Student Health Survey. The
International Journal of the Addictions, 27, 1445-1464.
National Institute of Education (1978). Violent schools-safe schools: The safe school study report to
Congress. Washington, D.C.
NCES (2002). Indicators of school crime and safety, 2001. Available at:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/crime2001/
NCES (2001). Indicators of school crime and safety, 2000. Available at:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/crime2000/
Patterson, L. A. (1992). Victimization in schools: A contextual effects model of risk.
Unpublished dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland.
StataCorp (2001). Stata statistical software: Release 7.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation.
Toby, J. (1980). Crime in American public schools. The Public Interest, 58, 18-42.
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (1998). National Crime Victimization
Survey: School Crime Supplement, 1995 (Computer file). Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university
Consortium for Political and Social Research.
U.S. Department of Education & U. S. Department of Justice. (2001). 2000 Annual Report of
School Safety. Washington, D.C.
Weishew, N. L., & Peng, S. S. (1993). Variables predicting students problem behaviors. Journal
of Educational Research, 87, 5-17.

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by Ericka Nicole Jackson,

Measuring Erickanjackson@yahoo.com,
Junior, Business Information Systems Major
Department of Business Information Systems &

how Education
Albany State University
504 College Drive
Albany, GA 31075 USA
technology Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kathaleena Edward Monds

courses and
computers
are evolving
ABSTRACT
Technology has changed the way we live, work and learn. Students in K-12 have become
increasingly bombarded with new technology tools in the classroom. The technology skills that
students in grade schools acquire early on, may affect their understanding and use of
technology later in life. Not only will students become more computer literate and functional,
but they will also obtain skills that will help them in other classes.
The research study explored the various types of technology tools, technology courses, and
technology funding available in grades K-12. The Computer and Technology Courses Survey
was administered to 75 % students and 25% teachers. Strong correlations were found
between technology funding with technology courses (.827), and technology courses with
technology tools (.963). Most believe that technology funding should come from donations to
aid curriculum development and that these funds should be used to improve existing courses;
with Microsoft Office being the technology tool of choice.

Introduction

In todays age of advanced technology, it is important that all individuals, especially


youth, become knowledgeable of the various computers, peripheral devices, and
computer software that are available. The future lies in the hands of the youth of
today. Therefore, computer programs and technology courses should be offered in all
school systems. Some school systems vary in the types of computer programs and

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computer courses that are taught. These variations depend on the budgets of each
school and the availability of technology teachers. This study will explore various
school systems to identify which schools are keeping up with the vast changes in
technology and which schools are not.
Many school systems are now trying to find ways that will make learning about
technology exciting for students. Additionally, they are finding ways to fund these
technological advancements by having fund-raisers and other functions. This
investigation will further discuss the ways that these schools are financing their
technology curriculum. While this is an important issue to review, it is more important
to understand what technology standards are in place across K-12 Dougherty County
schools.
This study will examine various schools as it relates to computer technology and
computer courses. It will delve into the current computer systems and courses that are
utilized.
Literature Review

The computer technology and computer courses that are available in grade schools
will have an impact on students in the future. Additionally, computers and computer
courses should be up-to-date with the current trends in technology. Students in grades
K-12 need to learn how to solve technological problems in creative ways and
understand the nature of technology. Learning the concepts of technology is necessary
for children of all age groups. When schools decide what technological courses and
technologies to bring within the schools, they should consider the students interests,
opinions, and needs (Becker & Manunsaiyat, 2002). Understanding the pupils
knowledge and attitudes toward technology is necessary for effective teaching in
technology.

Technology Tools
To improve elementary students understanding of science and mathematics, some
schools are integrating technology with these subjects. Design Technology is shapes
and images on the computer that improve daily classroom subjects and activities by
capturing students attention. Many elementary school teachers are required to create a
division centered on Design Technology that illustrate connections among various
subject matter in their classrooms. Additionally, research that examines the effect of
implementing Design Technology based on students learning, attitudes, dispositions,
and their personal growth is now a requirement and must be conducted by all teachers
(Koch & Burghardt, 2002).
Many Teacher Education programs have added Design Technology for the
preparation of various courses. The everyday uses of technology within the classroom
give students just a hint of the technology available today. While students are learning
about other subjects such as math and science, they can also learn how to use the

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hardware and software that is available for enhancing classroom teachings. With
Design Technology, teachers can give students more control over their own learning.
Hands-on activities in technology help students relate the bookwork to real life
situations (Koch & Burghardt, 2002).
To introduce teachers to the field of Technology Education, a course called
Technology Education in Elementary School through the MA/MST (Master of
Arts/Mathematics, Science, and Technology) has been developed. The purpose of the
course is to educate teachers about computers and to exercise the design method in the
classroom. Many teachers enrolled in the program use the computers to aid them in
the procedures necessary to keep students in all classes knowledgeable of the
advancements in technology (Koch & Burghardt, 2002).

Technology Courses
A study by Arroyo examined the effects of extended use of computers on reading
achievement. The study population consisted of 75 seventh-grade students at the J. N.
Thorp Elementary School located in a primarily low-income area of South Chicago,
Illinois. Fifteen of the 75 students were subjected to a rigorous computer-assisted
training program. Another 15 randomly selected students received no computer
instruction and served as a control group. The reading subtest of the Iowa Tests of Basic
Skills (ITBS) served as the pre- and post-test. The outcome showed that students who
utilized computers experienced a considerable escalation in reading achievement
(Arroyo, 1992). Using technology to support instruction improved student outcomes in
language arts, math, social studies, and science, according to a 1995 review of more
than 130 academic studies (Bialo and Sivin-Kachala, 1995).
As some writings suggest, computers have a major influence on children of all ages.
Gaining in-depth knowledge about childrens use of computer technologies can aid in
enhancing their ability to learn technology. A study by Liu explored the use of
interactive multimedia by three-to five-year-olds. An assessment of adolescents voice
communications and body expressions, their mouse utilization, their body movement,
their approach to multimedia, and remarks and observations from teachers have proved
that multimedia technology could retain childrens attention for longer time frames.
Even though this was the first time that the children had interaction with technology,
they grasped the technology with eagerness, enthusiasm, and little difficulty. Giving
children the freedom to learn new things about the program and providing the use of
developmentally appropriate materials assisted in keeping children fascinated with
technology (Liu. 1996).
Bialo & Sivins research reflects factors that determine the effectiveness of
technology-based instruction. The effects of microcomputers on student achievement
are discussed in the first section of the study. Computer-assisted training and
conventional instructional techniques were compared in this research, as well as,
student attainment to software design, implementation resolutions, and learner

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characteristics. Microcomputers and other educational technologies have an enormous
influence on the motivation and improvement of student perceptions about learning
(Bialo & Sivin 1990).
Effective teaching in an introductory computer skills course requires detailed
knowledge about the students in the class. Conflicting characteristics in students may
create barriers to significant learning. Houles study examined various characteristics of
students enrolled in a computer skills course. Demographic characteristics included
demographic variables such as gender, college major, high school computer courses, and
other prior computer experiences. Other characteristics of the students examined were
computer self-efficacy, computer attitude, computer anxiety, and cognitive style. Houles
study showed that gender and high school programming classes appear not to
differentiate student scores. On the other hand, high school spreadsheet and database
courses, ownership of a computer, and having worked with a computer in a job did
differentiate student scores in computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, and computer
attitude. Many students had an incomplete conception of technology. (Houle, 1996).

Technology Funding
Strategies and guidelines for implementation of educational technologies within
the curriculum must be created before all affiliates within the learning community can
have reasonable access and use of the technology. In order to provide students with a
better understanding of technology, technological uses, and technological concepts,
financial support and professional development must be provided to have successful
execution of technology into the curriculum (Bell & Ramirez, 1997).
In conclusion, technology tools, technology courses, and technology funding are
variables that affect students, teachers, and school systems. The impact that various
computers and technology courses have on students in grades K-12 is tremendous. In
order to expand students interaction with technology in the classrooms, schools may
provide students with current computer equipment. This analysis will provide
information pertaining to the current technologies and computer courses implemented
within schools and identify ways in which the technology curriculum is funded.

Methodology

The Computer and Technology Courses Survey (CTC) was administered to collect
data on the following three variables: Technology Tools, Technology Courses, and
Technology Funding. The survey is a 15-question survey on a 5-point Likert Scale.
In addition to collecting information on the three variables, demographic information
was collected from each respondent. The survey was created by the researcher.
Research was done in order to find a survey instrument that was appropriate for the
study, however in order to ensure that all variables were considered, the researcher
created the CTC Survey.

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Results and Conclusions

The population for the study included students and teachers within the Dougherty
County School district. The survey was administered in the Fall 2002 semester. The
researcher hand-delivered the surveys to the technology classrooms at the K-12 level
and dispersed the survey to the students who were in those classes. The survey took
between three to five minutes to complete. The model shown in Figure 1.0 is used as a
graphical interpretation of the research variables in the study.

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References

Arroyo, C. (1992). What is the effect of extensive use of computers on the reading
achievement scores of seventh grade students? Chicago, IL (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 353 544)

Becker, K. H., & Maunsaiyat. (2002). Thai Students Attitudes and Concepts of
Technology. Journal of Technology Education, Vol 13, No. 2

Bell, R., & Ramirez, R. (1997). Ensuring equitable use of education technology.
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http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te400.htm

Bialo, E., & Sivin-Kachala, J. (1995). Effectiveness of technology in schools.


Washington, DC: Software Publishers Association.

Bialo, E., & Sivin, J. (1990). Report on the effectiveness of microcomputers in schools.
Washington, DC, Software Publishers Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED 327 177)

Houle, Phillip A. (1996). Toward Understanding Student Differences in a Computer


Skills Course. Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol 14, No.1, 25-48

Koch, J., & Burghardt, M. D. (2002). Design Technology in the Elementary School-A
Study of Teacher Action Research. Journal of Technology Education. Vol 13, No 2

Liu, Min. (1996). An Exploratory Study of How Pre-Kindergarten Children Use the
Interactive Multimedia Technology: Implications for Multimedia Software Design.
Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, Vol 7, No. 1/2, 71-92

a centennial publication page 95


by Seong S. Seo 1) and

Equilibrium John D. Ewbank 2)

1) Department of Natural Science,

Molecular Albany State University,


Albany, GA 31705
2) Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry,
University of Arkansas,
Geometry of Fayetteville, AR 72701

CF4 Using
Real Time

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References
1. J. D. Ewbank, L. Schfer, D. W. Paul, O. J. Benston, J. C. Lennox, Rev. Sci. Instrum.,
55, 1598, (1984)
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57, 967, (1986)
b) L. Schfer, J. D. Ewbank, Acta Chem. Scand., A42, 358, (1988)
c) J. D. Ewbank, D. W. Paul, L. Schfer, R. Bakhtiar, Appl. Spectrosc., 43, 415, (1989)
3. V. P. Spiridonov, A. G. Gersikov, E. Z. Zasorin, B. S. Butayev, Diffraction Studies on
Non-Crystalline Substances, I. Hargittai, W. J.Orville-Thomas, Eds., Arkademiai
Kiado: Budapest, (1981)
4. A. A. Ischenko, J. D. Ewbank, L. Schfer, J. Phys. Chem., 98, 4287, (1994)
5. P. Maggard, A. A. Ischenko, V. A. Lobastov, L. Schfer, J. D. Ewbank, J. Phys. Chem.,
99, 13115, (1995)
6. A. A. Ischenko, V. A. Lobastov, L. Schfer, J. D. Ewbank, J. Mol. Struct., 377, 261,
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7. Ewbank, J. D.; Schfer, L.; Paul, D. W.; Benston, O. J.; Lennox, J. C., Rev. Sci. Instrum..
55, 1958,(1984).
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(1995).
9. Ischenko, A. A.; Ewbank, J. D.; Schfer, L., J. Phys. Chem.. 98,4287, (1994).
10. Ischenko, A. A.; Spiridonov, V. P.; Strand, T. G., Acta Chem. Scand.. 42,651, (1988).
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page 102 a centennial publication


by Taurus J. Jackson,

IT Skills: Senior, Business Information Systems Major


Department of Business
Information Systems & Education

Employment Albany State University

and Salary
options for
the
ABSTRACT
With new Information Technology comes the fear that unless you invest in technology, you
will be left behind (Dumestre, 1999). In the field of Information Technology, there is an
increasing mismatch between employer requirements and workers skills. As a result, the skills
mismatch hypothesis relies on the notion that technology is not leading to the replacement of
workers, however, individuals using the Internet, spreadsheets, and word processing programs
have a better chance of obtaining employment than those individuals who have no knowledge of
these programs.
Information Technology (IT) job demands by corporations are at an all-time high. While
the demands are high, finding qualified employees with the necessary skills is difficult. IT skills
that are in demand range from understanding the Systems Development Life Cycle to
understanding business programming with C++. Qualified IT professionals have the privilege of
demanding higher salaries.
This research attempts to investigate the various skills currently expected of the IT graduate.
The study also attempts to focus on the IT jobs that are in demand by industries locally and
globally. Finally, steps were taken to list IT salaries that parallel the respective IT jobs.
The study population was 56% female and 36% male. A majority of the population
believed that computers are valuable. In addition, tests were performed to examine the
relationship between Information Technology Skills, Information Technology Jobs, and
Competitive Salary. This study revealed a relationship between those items.

Introduction
In todays society, it is important to understand the components of Information
Technology (IT). If a person does not acquire some knowledge of Information
Technology, he or she will likely miss out on available opportunities. It is not enough

a centennial publication page 103


for a technical professional just to understand the basics of IT, but it is important for
that individual to be able to demonstrate a thorough knowlede of technology. This
study details the relationship between a persons skills and his employability.
We then ask the question, what is Information Technology? It can be viewed from
a number of perspectives. Information Technology deals with human artifacts, systems,
researching, developing, design, planning and managing diverse systems (Gorokhov, p.
4).
The Information Technology field is complex and ever-changing. Professionals
should obtain certification in order to stay current and qualified for IT jobs. Obtaining
certification in a specific area of Information Technology will differentiate one IT
professional from another. Individuals with only a four-year degree and little or no
technical experience have difficulty finding employment in the field.

Literature Review

The following study attempts to examine the relationship between an individuals


understanding of possession of IT skills and higher ability to obtain employment with a
competitive salary. Other research studies provide support and justification for the
model introduced in this study.

Information Technology Skills


Research conducted by Marcel J. Dumestere discussed the importance of
Information Technology. She discovered that technology has always been viewed in
economic terms. More attempts are being made to investigate the importance of
technology in other terms. Information Technology has been a reliable form of the new
technology emerging over the past years. Not only are individuals increasing their
personal use of information technology, but agencies and businesses are relying on
information technology. With the arrival of new information technology comes the
awareness that unless one invests in technology, he or she will be left behind
(Dumestere, 1999). However, individuals who possess knowledge of the Internet,
spreadsheets, word processing, programming languages, and other software have tools
that may give them a competitive advantage over those individuals who have no
knowledge of these programs.

Employment
Other research examines skills required for individuals pursuing careers in Information
Technology. To obtain a precise match between worker skills and job skills required for
the job has always been difficult. In some cases, employers intense hiring requirements
led individuals to gain more education than required. Consequently, that ceated an
oversupply of well-educated workers (Handel, 1997). According to Braverman, skill
content of most jobs was declining even as individuals educational attainment

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continued to rise (Braverman, 1974). Handel, along with other researchers, agreed
there were an excess number of highly-educated workers relative to the number of jobs
that could make full use of their skills. Noticing this drastic imbalance, Handel
concluded that there was a need for new programs to set the national occupational
skills standards and improve the transition from college to workforce (Handel, 1997).
In the fields of Technology and Information Technology, there is in an increasing
mismatch between employer requirements and workers skills.
The skills mismatch hypothesis relies on the notion that technology has driven an
increase in educational requirements for todays jobs. However, the education
requirements have not increased. Corporations seek graduates who are able to apply
skills learned from their respective institutions in operating sophisticated technological
tools.
Information Technology is replacing workers, and changing the direction in which
corporations and other organizations conduct business. Technological skills can alter
the skill content level within various professions; thus adding more skilled workers at
the top level and eliminating less skilled workers at the entry level (Handel, 1997). As
IT grows, an individuals goals become clear. Although job requirements vary for all
individuals, it is difficult to find evidence that information technology has done much
to alter the skill content or the make-up of the workforce.

Salary
Having qualified IT skills puts a professional in a position where he or she can
demand higher salaries. However, within most job markets, shifts in requirements and
skills are often used as means for measuring salary options for individuals. Competitive
salaries are offered to individuals with higher skills. Economists studying large growth in
wage inequality concluded that the rising payoff to education reflected an imbalance in
the supply and demand for skilled labor due to technological advances. Therefore, it is
imperative that individuals maintain technical competance in order to remain
competitive for promotion (Zmud, et. al, 1986).
In conclusion, the ideas presented in this study provide insight into Information
Technology Skills for Technical Professions. Based on research, a model was created to
investigate the relationship between Information Technology Skills, Information
Technology Jobs, and Competitive Salary.
The Technical Career Survey was administered to collect data on understanding
Information Technology skills and obtaining employment with a competitive salary.
The survey has 22 questions on a five-point Likert scale. In addition to collecting data
on the three variables, demographic data were also collected. The survey was created
by the researcher. Research was done in order to find a survey instrument that was
appropriate for the study; however, in order to ensure that all variables were considered,
the researcher created the Technical Career Survey.
The population for the study included individuals who hold technical positions

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within large/small organizations. The survey instrument was administered during the
fall 2002 semester. The researcher distributed surveys to prospective employees. The
survey took between three to five minutes to complete. The model shown in Figure 1.0
is a graphical representation of the research variables in this study.

Figure 1.0
Information Technology Model

Results and Conclusions


Figures 2.0 through 4.0 illustrate the breakdown of the demographic information
from the surveyed population. The study revealed that 56% of the population was
female and 36% of the population was male. The age ranges of 36-45 and those over 46
resulted in 66% of the population. Thirty-two percent of the population made more
than $40K. The following formula can be used to find the average population mean of
gender, age and salary demographics.

Figure 2.0 Figure 3.0

Figure 4.0

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Figure 5.0 is a graphical representation related to questions that dealt with
Information Technology Skills. It includes the responses to the total numbers of
questions asked, which is the frequency distribution. A majority of the population
definitely believed that computers are valuable, which had a value of 32 and is denoted
by IT2. However, they also believed that older Information Technology professionals
(IT pros) should not be forced to change careers due to new technological advances,
which had a value of 17 and is denoted by IT5.

Figure 6.0 highlighted questions that dealt with obtaining employment. Out of the
questions asked, two resulted in having the same number of respondents. On the
contrary, those respondents definitely believed that it is important for individuals to
obtain certification for their jobs but disagreed with the notion that older IT
professionals should be forced to retire at a certain age, which had values of 22 and is
denoted as OE1 and OE5.

a centennial publication page 107


Figure 7.0 is a graphical representation of questions that dealt with competitive
salary. Unlike other information presented in this study, most of the population does
not believe an individuals pay wage is related to their skills. However, they definitely
believe that the use of technology is an important factor when creating competitive
positions with lucrative benefits.

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Tests were performed to examine a relationship between Information Technology
Skills, Information Technology Jobs, and Competitive Salary. Results showed that
while most people believe that computers are valuable, they do not believe older IT
professionals should be forced to retire at a certain age. In addition, they believe the
use of technology is an important factor in creating competitive positions with lucrative
benefits.
From the data collected, the study reveals there is a relationship between those
variables. Surprisingly, a majority of the population consisted of females. Based on the
statistical information presented, it can be concluded that female employees rather than
their counterparts hold more IT jobs.

References
Braverman, Harry. Labour and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the
Twentieth Century. New York & London: Monthly Review Press, 1974. Pp. xiv+465.

Casey, T. (1996). Philosophy of Technology in the Jesuit University. Conversations, 9,


12-20.
DiNardo, John E., and Jorn-Steffen Pischke. (1997). The Return to Computers Use
Revisited: Have Pencils Changed the Wage Structure, Too? Quarterly Journal of
Economics, 112, (1), 291-303.

Dumestre, Marcel J. (1999). The Impact of Technology on U. S. Higher Education: A


Philosophical Approach. Journal of Information Technology Impact, 1, (2), 63-72.

Handel, Micheal J. (1997). Is There a Skills Crisis?: Trends in Jobs Skills


Requirements, Techno and Wage Inequality in the United States. Journal of
Economics, 37, (5), 210-218.

Zmud, R. W., Boynton, A. C., and Jacobs, G. C. (1986). The Information Economy: A
New Perspective for Effective Information Systems Management. Database, 16, (1),
17-23.

a centennial publication page 109


by George Thomas, Ph.D.

Role of Department of Criminal Justice


Albany State University

Parental
Supervision
on
Adolescents
This research was partially supported by the ASU Title III program.

Abstract

The present study investigates the role of parental supervision on adolescents school
misbehavior and marijuana misuse. The analysis is based on a sample of 2,262 eighth-graders
from schools in the south-central region of the United States. The study found that parental
supervision is a protective factor which insulates adolescents from deviant behaviors.
Adolescents with low parental supervision are more likely to associate with deviant peers,
which is a risk factor for adolescent problem behaviors. Policy implications for schools are also
discussed in the paper.

Role of Parental Supervision on Adolescents Deviant Behaviors.


Family is a critical predictor in the research on adolescents over the last three
decades. Even now family plays a central part in research as well as discussion of various
issues, especially when something affects the lives of our children. For example, the
recent decades witnessed a higher incidence of violence and substance use among
adolescents. One of the most common explanations for this high incidence of violence
and substance use among adolescents is the disintegration of family. Attribution of
family as the culprit of adolescent deviant behavior is because family is the primary
agent of socialization. The family also went through a drastic change in structure and
function over the years to face the challenges of the modern, complex world. Yet,
family and other agencies play a significant role in the lives of adolescents. Literature
on family has shown that two components of family-parental bonding and parental
monitoring-play a significant role in insulating adolescents from deviant behaviors. In a

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previous study, Thomas and Orok (2002) found that parental bonding inhibits alcohol
and marijuana use among adolescents. The focus of the present study is to investigate
the role of parental monitoring on adolescent deviant behaviors.

Research on Family
The family is a very critical sociological variable in the study of deviant behaviors.
The role of family is more widely visited in social control perspective than any other
theoretical framework in explaining adolescent deviant behaviors. Social control theory
suggests that adolescents bonding with conventional social institutions such as family,
school, and church inhibit deviant behavior (Reiss, 1951; Reckless, 1955; Hirschi,
1969). Hirschi (1969) proposed a social bond theory by operationalizing different
components of previous versions of social control theories. He proposed that
adolescents who are attached to conventional social institutions are less likely to
engage in delinquent activities.
Attachment or bonding is the key element of social bonding theory. Attachment is
defined as a psychological construct or as an indirect means of control. In other words,
attachment refers to the extent of close emotional ties adolescents have to others or a
tendency to identify with them so that an adolescent values their opinions. Hirschi
argued that adolescents who have close relationships with parents are less likely to
engage in activities, which will sever their emotional bond with parents. A wide range
of studies support this proposition (Thomas, 1994; Thomas & Orok 2002).

Parental Supervision
One of the criticisms with social bonding theory is that it undermines the role of
parental direct control which is often referred to as monitoring or supervision
(Cernkovich & Giordano, 1987; Rankin & Wells, 1990; Thomas, 1994; Jacobson &
Crockett, 2000). A warm and demanding parent is generally considered to be involved
in the concept of parental supervision. Parental monitoring does not mean the constant
physical presence of parents in their childrens lives. Roth and Brooks-Gunn (2000)
suggest that consistent, firm control and monitoring can occur from a distance. Parental
supervision is operationalized in terms of whether parents know where and with whom
their child associates when they are away from home. In a recent study, it was found
that if a parent can enhance communication with the child and increase the childs
awareness that they know where (they are) and who they are with, subsequently, a
childs risk behavior may be reduced (Webster, 2001).

Research on Deviant Behaviors


Substance use among school children is an issue of great concern. More than half of
the eighth-graders reported in the Monitoring the Future studies that they can easily
get drugs, if they want or specifically alcohol or marijuana (Johnston et al., 1998). The
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance surveys indicate that more than a quarter of students

a centennial publication page 111


reported witnessing students drunk or high in their school and a third of students in
the nations high schools reported that someone tried to sell or offer them illegal drugs
(Kann et al., 1998). The United States has a higher rate of adolescent substance use
than any other industrialized nation in the world. The most disturbing fact about
substance use is the downward trend in the average age of initiation into substance
misuse-now between ages 10 and 14 (Thomas, 1994). Kandel (1975) proposed a
stepping stone theory where she proposed that adolescents start drug use with legal
drugs, for example alcohol, then progressed to marijuana and finally to so-called illegal
drugs. It is also documented that there is a trend in recent years that adolescents
initiate into the world of drugs with marijuana and other hard drugs. These adolescent
health-risking behaviors have a lasting impact on our society.
Like substance misuse, violence on the school campus is also a topic of great
concern in recent years. The National Crime Victimization Survey estimated that 2.7
million violent incidents are reported annually either at school or near school (NCES,
2001). Slightly more than 12 percent of adolescents reported committing at least one
index offense in their lifetime (NIJ, 2003). There was more property crime (11.6%)
than violent crime (4.2%) among school students (Thomas & George, 2002).

Peer Influence
In addition to family, peers also have significant influence in the adolescent years.
The association between peer influence and deviance has been examined in
delinquency research within the differential association theoretical perspective. The
general proposition of the differential association theory is that definitions favorable
to deviant behaviors are learned while associating with others in intimate social
relations (Sutherland, 1947). Several studies found that association with deviant peers
is strongly correlated with delinquency, including substance abuse (Matsueda and
Heimer, 1987; Kaplan, Martin, and Robbins, 1984; White, Johnson and Horwitz, 1986;
Thomas & Orok, 2002).
The Oregon Learning Center developed a promising framework to integrate the
components of social bonding and differential association perspectives (Patterson &
Dishion, 1985; Patterson & Bank, 1989; Thomas, 1994). They found that weak and/or
ineffective family processes lead adolescents to associate with deviant peers. Based on this
framework, it is plausible to conclude that adolescents bond outside the family such as at
school or with peers will be determined by how well the family performs its role as an
agent of social control. In other words, if adolescents are properly supervised, they are
less likely to bond with deviant peers. Studies consistently show that associating with
deviant peers is one of the significant predictors of deviance (see Thomas, 1994 for more
details). Thomas (1994) found that parental supervision has direct as well as indirect
effects on deviant behaviors through associating with deviant peers.
The major aim of the present study is: (a) to evaluate the variation in parental
supervision by family structure, gender, and race/ethnicity; (b) to examine the

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relationship between parental supervision and associating with deviant peers; (c) to
investigate the effect of parental supervision on adolescents deviant behaviors such as
school misbehavior and marijuana misuse.

METHOD
Sample and Procedure
Data for this study come from a school-based study to investigate the relationship
between school experiences and adolescent substance abuse. The adolescents who
participated in this study were eighth-graders from a south-central school system. A
structured questionnaire which covered information about family, school, friends,
self-esteem, risk-taking behaviors, attitudes and behaviors concerning drug use was
developed and pre-tested before the actual administration of the survey (Robbins,
1993). The response rate was estimated at about 93 percent (N=2,262). The modal age
of the respondents was 14 years.

Measures
Dependent Variables: (1) School problems: is measured by asking the respondents
how many times have you skipped classes, argued or had fights with students, been
suspended from class, destroyed school property, or stolen anything less than $50 in the
past year (alpha 0.789).
(2) Marijuana misuse is measured by asking three questions regarding marijuana use
in their lifetime, in the past year, and in the past month (alpha 0.951). Twenty-nine
percent and 13 percent of adolescents reported alcohol and marijuana misuse
respectively in the past month.
Independent Variables: (1) Parental Supervision is measured using the following
two indicators: Does your mother know where you are when you are away from home?
Does your mother know who you are with when you are away from home? The above
indicators are measured on a five-point scale, yes, most of the time indicates a high
level of parental supervision and a score no, never indicates a low level of parental
supervision.
(2) Peer Influence: The following are the indicators of the construct called deviant
peers. About how many of your friends smoke marijuana? About how many of
your friends skip school at least once a month? About how many of your friends
shoplift? and About how many of your friends damage or destroy property that does
not belong to them? The responses to each of these indicators are measured on a
five-point scale ranging from none to all. The lowest score none indicates the
lowest association with deviant peers and all indicates the highest association with
deviant peers (alpha 0.907).
(3) Family structure consisted of two categories: living with both biological parents
and living with a single parent. Fifty-two percent of the respondents live with both

a centennial publication page 113


biological parents (N=1,174), and 28 percent of adolescents are living with single
parents (N=636) and 15 and five percent of adolescents lived respectively with
stepparents or other living arrangements such as grandparents, relatives or foster homes.
The biological parent category is treated as the reference group for data analysis.
(4) Race and gender: Race is a dichotomous variable: African-American, Spanish,
Native Americans, and mixed (black and white) are recoded into the nonwhite
category. Nonwhites and whites are coded as one and zero respectively, and the
white category is the reference category. Seventy-one percent (N=1,593) are whites
and 29% (N=653) are nonwhites. Gender is a dummy variable coded one for males and
zero for females. A slightly higher percent (52.3%, N=1,177) of respondents are males.

Analytical Procedure
The distribution of the school problems and marijuana misuse variables is skewed.
For example, about 83% of these respondents indicate no or only a few occasions of
marijuana use and 35% of adolescents reported no school misbehaviors. Therefore,
these variables were converted into dichotomous outcome variables. Chi-square and
logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate study objectives.

RESULTS

Deviant behaviors by demographic factors


This research begins with the question are there any differences in deviant
behaviors among eighth-graders by gender, race/ethnicity, and family structure?
Statistical analyses (crosstabulation) indicate that adolescents school misbehavior and
marijuana use vary by gender, race, and family structure. A significantly higher percent
of nonwhite adolescents (X2=75.5, df=1, p= 0.000), male (X2=39.22, df=1, p= 0.000),
adolescents from single-parent family (X2=77.49, df=1, p= 0.000) reported school
misbehaviors compared to white, female, and adolescents from two-parent families. A
similar trend is also observed for adolescents marijuana misuse. Males (19.6%) tend to
use marijuana more than females (X2=10.10, df=1, p=0.000) and adolescents from
single-parent families (23.7%) use marijuana more than adolescents from (10.9%) two-
parent families (X2=50.70, df=1, p=0.000). Fifteen percent of white adolescents
reported marijuana use in the past month compared to 22% of nonwhite adolescents
(X2=13.59, df=1, p=0.000). A general finding is that there is more variation in
adolescents school misbehavior compared to marijuana misuse by gender, race and
family structure.

Parental Supervision by Study Variables


Female students reported higher parental supervision than male students

page 114 a centennial publication


(X2=11.25, df=2, p= 0.004). Similarly, white students and students from two-parent
families reported a higher level of parental supervision compared to nonwhite and
students from single-parent families. Since a high proportion of African-American
students are from single-parent families, it is important to examine whether there is any
interaction between family structure and race. While controlling for family structure
the present study did not find any statistical difference in the level of parental
supervision by race among single-parent families (X2=0.966, df=2, p= 0.617). However,
there is a statistically significant difference in the level of parental supervision by race
(6% difference) among adolescents from two-parent families (X2=6.88, df=2, p= 0.032).
The next question of interest was what is the impact of parental supervision on
adolescents association with deviant peers? Thirty-nine percent of adolescents with
low parental supervision reported association with deviant peers compared to 14% of
adolescents with high parental supervision (X2=235.61, df=2, p= 0.000). Finally, what
is the role of parental supervision on deviant behaviors? Eight-three percent of
adolescents with low parental supervision reported some form of school misbehaviors
compared to 51% of adolescents with higher parental supervision (X2=121.12, df=2, p=
0.000). Similarly, 36% of adolescents with low parental supervision reported marijuana
misuse compared to only 6% with high parental supervision who used marijuana.

Logistic regression
Multivariate statistical tests can capture the true effect of parental supervision on
deviant behaviors while controlling for other important predictors of the study. Logistic
regression was used to estimate the effects of these predictors because school
misbehaviors and marijuana misuse are dichotomous outcome variables.

School Misbehaviors:
Logistic regression analysis supports the findings of the bivariate statistical analyses.
While controlling for all the study variables, parental supervision was found to be a
statistically significant predictor of adolescents school misbehavior. Compared to
adolescents with high parental supervision, adolescents with low parental supervision
were two times more likely to be involved in school misbehaviors. Also adolescents
who associate with deviant peers are 10 times more likely to engage in school
misbehaviors compared to adolescents who do not associate with deviant peers (see
Table 1). Males, non-whites and adolescents from single-parent families are more likely
to engage in school misbehaviors.

Marijuana Misuse: Table 1 also shows the results from the logistic regression
analyses in the prediction of adolescents marijuana misuse. Similar to school
misbehaviors, parental supervision predicts adolescents marijuana misuse. Adolescents

a centennial publication page 115


with low parental supervision are almost five times more likely to misuse marijuana
compared to adolescents with a high level of parental supervision. Adolescents who
associate with deviant peers are also at high risk for misusing marijuana compared to
adolescents with low or no association with deviant peers. This study found that race is
not a statistically significant predictor of adolescents marijuana misuse while
controlling for other study variables. Male students and adolescents from single-parent
families are one and a half times more likely to misuse marijuana compared to females
and adolescents who live with both parents.

DISCUSSION
The present research found that parental supervision is a protective factor, which
insulates adolescents from deviant behaviors. Adolescents with low parental supervision
are more likely to engage in both school misbehaviors and marijuana use. This result is
consistent with previous research which showed that parental supervision inhibits
adolescents problem behaviors (Thomas, 1994, University of Maryland Medical News,
1999; Jacobson & Crockett, 2000). The present research also identified gender and
family structure as the predictors of parental supervision. This study found that there is
no major racial/ethnic difference in the level of parental supervision while controlling
family structure. Family structure is a significant predictor of parental supervision and
lower level of parental supervision is reported among adolescents from single-parent
families. Since a high percent of single-parent families existed among African-
Americans, there is an interaction between race and parental supervision.
Parental supervision insulates adolescents from deviant behaviors. It is found above
that parental supervision is lower among single-parent families. There is a greater
likelihood for adolescents from single-parental families to engage in deviant behaviors
than adolescents who live with both parents. Previous studies indicate that it is not
whether adolescents live with both parents but the quality of relationships that is more
important. In recent years, it is found that mentors/role models have a significant
impact on adolescents lives. Therefore, it is important to design programs such as after-
school programs, which provide an opportunity for adolescents to engage in activities
under adult supervision which will alleviate the negative effects of the absence of adult
role models.
Differential association theory proposes that deviant peer association is a risk factor
in adolescent years. The question is why adolescents associate with deviant peers.
Research on adolescence gives some evidence that lower parental supervision is
associated with higher level of peer association. The present data indicate that
adolescents with lower parental supervision are about 4 times more likely to associate
with deviant peers. This research also traces back to the crucial role of family in
adolescent years.
The policy implication of this research is that we need to design programs to
improve parental supervision. There is some evidence that too much supervision is

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related to problem behaviors. The context of supervision should be cordial and in a
warm relational plane. This may not be a reality; for example, single-parent households
often face different challenges including financial worries so they may have to work
overtime to support their family. They are burned out by the time they get home, and
they may not have patience and skills to handle the problems of their teenagers. It is
important to note here that very few fathers assume the responsibility for monitoring or
supervising their adolescents. Therefore, it is important to devise programs for family
bonding that include the issues of supervision.
According to the 1990 U.S. Census, Albany has the highest number of single-
parent households (37.3%) in the nation. The numbers may have changed a little bit
by 2000; however, we still have a high proportion of single-parent households in this
region. Therefore, parenting skills are among the key variables in preventing
delinquency and substance use among our future generation. It is also documented that
Albany has a high teen pregnancy rate (Orok, 1999). Recent studies on adolescents
underscore the positive effect of parental monitoring, supervision or rules in reducing
pregnancy and other health-risk behaviors (Webster, 2001; University of Maryland
Medical News, 1999). Similarly, Jacobson and Crockett (2000) found that high levels
of parental monitoring are associated with higher levels of academic achievement,
lower levels of anti-social or delinquent behaviors and lower levels of sexual activities
among adolescents. In sum, family should be a component of any program that targets
adolescents, whether it is academic improvement or violence prevention.

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References

Cernkovich, S. and Giordano, P. (1987). Family relationships and delinquency.


Criminology, 25:295-321.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jacobson, K.C., and Crockett, L.J. (2000). Parental monitoring and adolescent
adjustment: An ecological perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10:65-97.
Johnston, L.D., OMalley, P.M. and Bachman, J.G. (1998).National survey results
on drug use from Monitoring the Future Study 1975-1992:Vol 1: Secondary school
students.Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Kann, L., Kinchen, S.A., Williams, B.I., Ross, J.G., Lowery, R., Hill, C.V.,
Grunbaum, J.,Blumson., P.S.,Collins, J.L., and Kolbe, L.J., (1998). Youth Risk Behavior
Surveillance - United States, 1997. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Govt. Printing Office.
Kaplan, H. B., Martin, S. S., and Robbins, C. A. (1984). Pathways to adolescent
drug use: Self-derogations, peer influence, weakening of social controls, and early
substance use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 270-289.
Matsueda, R. L. and Heimer, K. (1987). Race, family structure, and delinquency:
A test of differential association and social control theories. American Sociological
Review, 52, 826-840.
NCES (2001). Indicators of school crime and safety, 2000. Available at:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/crime2000/
NIJ (2003). Youth victimization: Prevalence and implications. Available at:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/
Orok, T.M. (1999). Community collaboration: A solution for Americas cities.
Journal of Public Affairs and Issues, 3, 33-40.
Patterson, G. R., and Bank, L. (1989). Some amplifying mechanisms for
pathogenic processes in families. In Gunnare, M. R., & Thelen E. (Eds.), Systems and
development: The Minnesota symposium on child psychology, Vol. 22 (pp.167-209).
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

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Patterson, G., and Dishion, T. (1985). Contributions of families and peers to
delinquency. Criminology, 23, 63-79.
Rankin, J. H., and Wells, E. L. (1990). The effect of parental attachments and
direct controls on delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 27: 140-
165.
Reckless, W. C. (1955). The Crime Problem. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Reiss, A. J., Jr. (1951). Delinquency as the failure of personal and social controls.
American Sociological Review, 16, 196-207.
Robbins, C. A. (1993). Substance abuse and school experiences. Unpublished
research proposal.
Roth, J., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). What do adolescents need for healthy
development? Implications for youth policy. Social Policy Report, 14:3-19.
Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of Criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA:
J.B. Lippincott.
Thomas, G. and Orok, M.E. (2002). Alcohol and marijuana misuse by young
adolescents: Role of parental bond and deviant association. Journal of Public Affairs and
Issues, 6, 47-62.
Thomas, G., and George, R. (March, 2002). Victimization among school students:
Evidence from 1995 National Crime Victimization Survey. Paper presented at the
Annual meeting of American Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Anaheim, CA.
Thomas, G. (1994). Role of parental bond and control on adolescents substance
abuse. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Delaware, Department of
Sociology.
University of Maryland Medical News (1999). Available at: www.umm.edu/news/
releases/parents.html
White, H. R., Johnson, V., and Horwitz, A. (1986). An application of three
deviance theories to adolescent substance abuse. The International Journal of the
Addictions, 21, 347-366.
Webster, T. (2001). Less parental monitoring can lead to adverse health. Emory
Report, June, 25.

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by Zephyrinus C. Okonkwo

A Department of Mathematics
and Computer Science
Albany State University

Contribution
to the
Theory of
Neutral
Stochastic

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by Michael Decuir

Using an Assistant Professor of Music


Albany State University

Analysis of
the Roles of
the Wind
Instruments
in a
Traditional
ABSTRACT

One hundred years ago Dr. Joseph Holley put in place a vehicle to educate African-
Americans in southwest Georgia. Simultaneously, a new music idiom, born out of
African-American spirituals, blues, work songs and ragtime, called jazz was emerging in
America. Due primarily to the improvisational techniques utilized by the musicians,
jazz became this countrys true original art form. This article explores the option of
using an analysis of the roles of wind instruments in a traditional (early) New Orleans
Jazz band as a tool in teaching young musicians the art of jazz improvisation.
The cultural atmosphere which gave rise to this new music was born out of the
continued and accepted use of West African musical practices in New Orleans. The
musicians on the 1924 recording discussed in the article are Sidney Bechet, Louis
Armstrong (both recently from New Orleans, LA.) and Charles Irvis. When used as a
supplement to chord studies, scale studies, etc., the analysis will assist students in
learning jazz improvisation techniques.
Not unlike many other courses, teaching jazz improvisation is an attempt at tapping
into a students creative area of the brain. As instructors we want to empower our
students with as many tools as possible in an attempt to assist their creative endeavors.

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Historically, the musicians discussed used the same musical approach utilized by their
slave foreparents in Congo Square, and by the first generation of jazz musicians. They are
steeped in the tradition and understand fully the role(s) of their respective instruments.
We are eternally grateful for the many tools on hand to assist us with teaching
improvisation. Certainly, the Jamie Aebersol series as well as the various method books
dealing with scales and scale studies are invaluable. Many jazz musicians of my
generation used the drop the needle method to memorize Charlie Parker, King Curtis,
and Cannonball Adderly solos, among others. Most of us will agree that it was difficult,
but enjoyable. Students should not be encouraged to memorize and perform previously
recorded solos as a goal, but as a means to achieve the ultimate goal of improvisation. I
do believe that students should use previously recorded ideas as a starting point in
exploring their own improvised musical thoughts. We all learned to improvise through
this process and will continue to do so. Musicians such as Edward Kidd Jordan, Ornette
Coleman, Don Cherry and Cecil Taylor have, in my opinion, reached a plateau
(though they continue to search for new horizons) with regards to the art form in its
purest sense. They have evolved into their respective levels of creativity after
thoroughly exploring traditional, swing, and bebop styles. Essentially, our task is to get
the students to tap into their inherent creativity so that at some point in their musical
lifetime they will reach some plateau. An analysis of the musical role(s) of the wind
instruments of a traditional New Orleans Jazz Ensemble is a tool that can assist us.
As jazz educators, some of us utilize the earliest jazz recordings in order to develop
an understanding of this music. Many of the early New Orleans pioneers
(unfortunately most were unrecorded) of jazz such as Buddy Bolden, King Oliver,
Manuel Perez, Louis Nelson, George Baquet and John Robicheaux, clearly defined the
roles of their respective instruments in the traditional jazz setting. These early jazz
musicians were influenced by their African heritage through their slave ancestors
continued use of West African rhythms and melodies on makeshift instruments in
Congo Square. They in turn applied the same musical expressions on European
instruments, creating an American art form. Their musical genius inspired a second
wave of outstanding jazz musicians including clarinetist/soprano saxophonist Sidney
Bechet (whose grandfather, Omar was a slave and musician in Congo Square) and
trumpeter Louis Armstrong.
In 1924, Bechet, Armstrong, and trombonist Charles Irvis teamed with Clarence
Williams in New York City and recorded Texas Moaner Blues. A transcription of
the wind instruments will be referenced during this discussion. At this point,
Armstrong and Bechet are less than a decade removed from the New Orleans scene,
and we can assume that what we hear are fresh influences from the early
aforementioned pioneers. According to author Lewis Porter:
One is immediately struck by the equality of the three lead voices: Armstrong on
cornet, Bechet on clarinet and Charles Irvis on trombone. (Perhaps they are too
independent; the ensemble does not have the ideal coherent sound.) Armstrongs solo

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is notable for its rhythmic variety, and because it has some of the freedom from the beat
that characterizes Bechets early work. It is not technically polished, however, and
Armstrong does not utilize space with the sublime control of later recordings (Porter
and Ullman 1989:140).
I believe that Armstrong and Bechet fully understood the function and relationship
between the wind instruments in a traditional New Orleans Jazz band. The beauty of
this combination (trumpet, clarinet and trombone) is that the timbre of each
instrument is harnessed so that just like their slave foreparents in Congo Square,
musical independence is maintained, melody prevails, and improvisational freedom is
not only sought, but expected. When our students listen to this recording, they can be
made to realize that when the wind instruments of a traditional New Orleans jazz
ensemble play the blues, the trombone plays low moving tones which are analogous
to the countermelody of a traditional march, and the clarinets role is to improvise
and/or embellish the melody being played by the trumpet, also analogous to what
occurs in traditional wind band music. Essentially, these creative artists have brought
their African roots to the traditional wind band medium.
This performance represents the fruit of two young men (Armstrong and Bechet)
who are steeped in the blues tradition and its role in the traditional jazz band. I
disagree with Porters suggestion that this performance is incoherent. Armstrongs
stop-time explorations, shifting roles, and Bechets musicianship (he doubled on
soprano saxophone while maintaining intonation and character on both it and the
clarinet) makes for a successful and seminal recording.
An analysis of the wind instruments in this recording helps develop an
understanding of two aspects prevalent in African-American music: (a) antiphonal
effects and (b) rhythmic contrasts. The former is evident in Bechets performance in
the first chorus. The second chorus (measure 13) begins with an initial two measure
statement by trombonist Irvis; Bechet responded with a short reply, maintaining the
aforementioned role of the traditional jazz band clarinetist. A combination of the
three elements mentioned above occurs over the next four measures as Bechet does not
wait until Irvis statement is completed, but rather enters with a reply on the fourth
beat of measure 16. His line continues and serves as an accompaniment, but is not
completed until three full beats after Irvis has come to a rest (measure 19). Despite the
fact that Bechets line is long and expressive, it maintained its responsorial character.
At this point (measure 20), students will be encouraged to hear that Armstrong quietly
assumed the role traditionally held by the trombone. He responded to Bechet with the
sensitivity of a seasoned musician who realized his role at this point is a supportive one
that filled the space left when Bechet completed his response.
Students should and can be made aware that Armstrongs solo is an example of the
ultimate use of space, particularly his choices on the stop-time break. These choices
represent a courageous endeavor, allowing for rhythmical differentiation (as compared
to the previous measures), which in turn gives the listener a sense of double-time that

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really is not there. This can become evident to the students when they note Bechets
return on the upbeat of beat four.
Students can also be made aware that Bechets musicianship is in full bloom when
he switches to soprano saxophone for his solo. One can only marvel at the technique it
requires when the construction of the instrument is brought to light. The early soprano
saxophone was built so that low A natural was pitched at 435Hz (rather than 440) and
high A natural was pitched at 454Hz. Consequently, despite tuning up before a session
or performance, the upper register was extremely sharp. Students can be made aware
that the heavy vibrato indicative of Bechets approach on both the soprano saxophone
and the clarinet therefore served two purposes: it assisted with intonation and
according to Bechet, growls and buzzes which is a part of ragtime music, which is a
way the musicianer has of replacing different feelings he finds inside the music and
inside himself all those interpreting moans and groans and happy sounds. (Bechet
1978: 79)
Bechets solo (measure 36) began with the novel practice of filling up space, then
proceeded to utilize responsorial effects in each measure while displaying superb
articulation. The character established in the previous measures changes as he displays
smoothness while bending with the characteristic Bechet vibrato. The technique
utilized in this performance reached its zenith when he extended a glissando up two
octaves (keep in mind the inherent intonation problems) followed by a slow descent to
the tonic.
One aspect of Bechets soprano saxophone solo can be attributed to West African
influences. As noted in the analysis, the first three measures have a responsorial effect
and according to Professor Olly Wilson in his discussion of a particular West African
characteristic:
There seems to be a profusion of musical activities going on simultaneously, as if
an attempt is being made to fill up every possible musical space. This partially is a
result of the stratification commonly found in the instrumental music of the culture
area we are considering, but it is also present in solo songs - where the singer seems to
furnish his own counter voice. (Wilson 1974:15)
Initially some students rejected the contributions of early jazz musicians. Indeed,
the primitive recordings sometimes challenge the ears. Most students are accustomed
to modern post-WWII recordings, or whatever the latest technology has to offer, and
would prefer to explore the musical choices of Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Clifford
Brown, etc. However, after careful preparation (biographical research, historical
perspectives, etc.), students who heretofore rejected the early contributors to the art-
form, often embraced them. Utilizing an analysis of the instrumental role(s) of the
traditional New Orleans jazz ensemble is meant to serve as a supplement to scale and
chord studies. Students should be encouraged to assume the roles of Armstrong, Bechet
and Irvis and then exchange roles while playing subsequent choruses. When one
student is playing the melody, other students should embellish it either via response

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(just as Bechet did on the recording) or simultaneously creating a counter melody. At
the same time another student should play the underlying chord root movement (Irvis
role) which is the role traditionally held by the trombone player. When assuming the
role of the accompanying voices, students are forced to constantly create new ideas in
much the same way they do when, for example, trading fours. This can be another
tool in our arsenal as we try to unlock the inherent creativity in our students.

References
Bechet, Sidney. 1978 Treat It Gentle New York, N.Y. Twayne Publishers Inc.

Porter and Ullman. 1989 Sidney Bechet and His Long Song. The Black Perspective in
Music. Vol. 16, No. 2. p. 214-25.

Wilson, Olly. 1974 The Significance of the Relationship Between Afro-American Music and
West African Music. The Black Perspective in Music. Spring Vol. 2, No. 1. p. 3-22.

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by George Thomas, Ph.D.

Alcohol and Michael E. Orok, Ph.D.


Albany State University

Marijuana
Misuse
among
Young
Adolescents:
Role of
A Policy Analysis

Schools play a crucial role in the socialization and creation of a new generation of citizens
in every country. In the recent decades people in all spectrums of life are concerned about the
schools in our country because of the prevalence of violence and drug use across the schools.
Research indicates that drug use among students plays a significant role in the escalation of
violence in the schools. The National Educational Goals (1992) states, every school in
America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conducive
for learning. The recent Monitoring the Future studies reported that a significant majority of
school students responded they can easily get drugs, if they want (Johnston et al., 2000). It
is a decade since the declaration of the National Educational Goals, yet this national goal still
remains a myth.
The widespread misuse of alcohol and other illegal substances among adolescents and its
consequences call for more research into the etiology of adolescent alcohol and marijuana
misuse. This study approaches alcohol and marijuana misuse among early adolescents in a
social control theoretical framework. Social control theory posits that identification with
conventional social institutions such as family, school, and church inhibit deviant behaviors
including substance misuse. The main objectives of this study are: (1) to examine the role of

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family as a protective factor on alcohol and marijuana misuse, (2) to investigate the role of
deviant peers in adolescents alcohol and marijuana misuse.

Social control perspective


Social control theory posits that deviance arises when adolescents lack sufficient
ties to conventional social institutions, such as families, schools, peers, and churches
(Reiss, 1951; Reckless, 1955; Sykes and Matza, 1957; Hirschi, 1969). Hirschi (1969)
synthesized and clarified the abstract concepts of earlier versions of social control
theories and proposed the social bond theory. According to social bonding theory
individuals who are bonded to conventional social institutions, such as the family,
school and church, are less likely to engage in delinquent activities.
A key element of Hirschis social bonding theory is attachment to conventional
social institutions. Attachment refers to the extent of close affectional ties to others,
the tendency to admire them, and identify with them so that their opinions are valued
by an adolescent (Hirschi, 1969). Adolescents who are insensitive to the opinions of
others and are less constrained by their norms are more likely to violate social norms.
Attachment is operationalized in terms of a psychological construct or as an indirect
means of control. For example, adolescents who have close relationships with parents
are less likely to engage in activities, which will sever their emotional bond with
parents.

Influence of Family
Hirschis (1969) social bonding theory has received wide empirical support in
delinquency research (Briar and Piliavin, 1965; Hindelang, 1973; Krohn and Massey,
1980; Wiatrowski, Griswold & Roberts, 1981; Wiatrowski and Anderson, 1987). An
inverse relationship between attachment to family (parents) and delinquency has been
consistently found in these empirical studies. Family is a primary agent of social control.
It is noted earlier that previous research found that family bond insulates adolescents
from deviance including substance misuse (Barnes & Farrell, 1992; Farrell & Barnes,
1993; Thomas, 1994; Thomas, Farrell & Barnes, 1997). Several studies have also found
an inverse relationship between ties to conventional institutions and adolescent
substance misuse (Newcomb and Bentler, 1988; Dull, 1984; Kandel, 1978; Kaplan,
Martin and Robbins, 1984; Thompson, Smith-DiJulio, & Mathew, 1982).

Peer influence
In addition to family, peers also have significant influence in the adolescent years.
The association between peer influence and deviance has been examined in
delinquency research within the differential association theoretical perspective. The
general proposition of the differential association theory is that definitions favorable
to deviant behaviors are learned while associating with others in intimate social
relations (Sutherland, 1947). Several studies found that association with deviant peers

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is strongly correlated with delinquency, including substance abuse (Matsueda, 1982;
Matsueda and Heimer, 1987; Kaplan, Martin, and Robbins, 1984; Lober and Dishion,
1983; Brook, Whiteman & Gordon, 1983; Kandel, 1978; White, Johnson and Horwitz,
1986).
Social bonding theory questions the role of peers in the explanation of
delinquency. Hirschi (1969) emphasizes that attachment to conventional others is
important; but it does not matter to whom one is attached. The fact is that attachment
to others by itself inhibits norm violations. So, it is with attachment to othersdeviant
or non-deviantit is not the character of the people to whom one is attached that
determines tendencies to become delinquent (see Akers, 1993).
The Oregon Learning Center developed a promising framework to integrate the
components of social bonding and differential association perspectives (Patterson, 1982;
Patterson & Dishion, 1985; Patterson & Bank, 1989). They found that weak and/or
ineffective family processes lead adolescents to associate with deviant peers. Based on
this framework, it is plausible to conclude that adolescents bond outside the family
such as school or peers will be determined by how well the family performs its role as an
agent of social control. In other words, adolescents who are effectively socialized in the
family through family control mechanisms (attachment) make bonds with conventional
institutions, such as school, which inhibit substance misuse. Conversely, adolescents
who have weak family controls make bonds with deviant peers, which escalate
adolescents substance misuse.
In sum, the two major objectives of this study are: (a) to examine the role of
parental attachment also called parental bond in the prediction of adolescents alcohol
and marijuana misuse; (b) to investigate the effect of associating with deviant peers on
adolescent alcohol and marijuana misuse, when controlled for adolescents attachment
(bonds) to parents.

METHODS
Sample and Procedure
Data for this study are based on eighth graders who participated in a school-based
study to investigate the relationship between school experiences and adolescent
substance abuse. These adolescents were from a south central school system. A
structured questionnaire which covered information about family, school, friends,
self-esteem, risk-taking behavior, attitudes and behavior concerning drug use was
developed and pre-tested before the actual administration of the survey. The
questionnaire was administered to the students in a classroom setting, but teachers were
not present during the survey administration. Students were assured that no school
personnel would see their completed questionnaires and told that the confidentiality
and anonymity of their responses would be maintained. Passive parental consents were
also obtained before the administration of the survey. The response rate was estimated
at about 93 percent (N=2262). The modal age of the respondents was fourteen years.

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Measures
Dependent Variables: (1) Alcohol misuse: measured by asking the respondents
about how many times have you drunk a full glass of alcohol (beer, wine or liquor) in
the past month and in the last two weeks (alpha 0.835). These items measure the
current (within the past 30 days) alcohol misuse among adolescents. (2) Marijuana
misuse is measured by asking three questions regarding marijuana use in their lifetime,
in the past year, and the in the past month (alpha 0.951). Twenty-nine percent and
13% of adolescents reported alcohol and marijuana misuse respectively in the past
month.
Independent Variables: (1) Parental attachment: The following four indicators are
used to measure parental attachment. Do you get along well with your mother or
guardian? Do your parents understand you? Are you happy at home? and Do you
feel close to your family? The above indicators are measured on a five-point scale,
yes, most of the time indicates a high level of parental attachment and a score no,
never indicates a low level of family control. For convenience, polarity of these scores
is reversed in such a way that a score of one indicates a lower and five indicates a
higher level of parental attachment (alpha 0.865). (2) Deviant peers: The following are
the indicators of the construct called deviant peers: About how many of your friends
smoke marijuana? About how many of your friends skip school at least once a
month? About how many of your friends shoplift? and About how many of your
friends damage or destroy property that does not belong to them? The responses to
each of these indicators are measured on a five-point scale ranging from none to all.
The lowest score none indicates the lowest association with deviant peers and all
indicates the highest association with deviant peers (alpha 0.907).
The literature shows that demographic factors such as family structure, race and
gender are significant predictors of substance misuse. Family structure: consisted of both
biological parent category and single parent category. Fifty-two percent of the
respondents live with both biological parents (N=1174) and twenty-eight percent of
adolescent living in single parents (N=636) and fifteen and 5 percent of adolescents
lived respectively with stepparents or other living arrangements such as grandparents,
relatives, and foster homes. The biological parent category is treated as the reference
group for data analysis. Race and gender: Race is a dummy variable: African American,
Spanish, Native Americans, and mixed (black and white) are recoded into the
nonwhite category. Nonwhites and whites are coded as one and zero
respectively, and the white category is the reference category. Seventy-one percent
(N=1593) are whites and twenty-nine percent (N=653) are nonwhites. Gender is a
dummy variable coded one for males and zero for females. A slightly higher percent
(52.3%, N=1177) of respondent are males.

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Procedure
Alcohol misuse and marijuana misuse are skewed among the early adolescents. For
example, about 79 percent of these respondents indicate only a few occasions of
marijuana use. Alcohol misuse range from one to thirteen, 70.5 percent reported
one/two incidents of either drunk a full glass of alcohol in the past month or in the last
two weeks. Therefore these variables were converted into dichotomous outcome
variables.
RESULTS
One of the major objectives of this research is to find out whether alcohol and
marijuana misuse among eighth graders vary by gender, race and family structure. Cross-
tabular analyses indicate that there are statistical differences in adolescents alcohol
misuse by race and family structure but not by gender. This finding is consistent with
previous national studies that there is no gender difference in alcohol misuse among
adolescents. Among eighth graders, one-third of nonwhite students (X2=8.96, df=1, p=
0.002) and thirty-five percent of adolescents from single-parent families (X2=29.04,
df=1, p=0.000) reported alcohol use within the past 30-days. Further analyses show
that there are statistical differences in adolescents marijuana misuse by gender, race
and family structure. Males (19.6%) tend to use marijuana more than females
(X2=10.10, df=1, p=0.000) and adolescents from single-parent families (23.7%) use
marijuana more than adolescents from two-parent families (X2=50.70, df=1, p=0.000).
In the bivariate analyses, it was found that gender, race, and family structure are
significant predictors of adolescents alcohol and marijuana misuse. The next objective
was to examine whether adolescents parental bond (attachment) and association with
deviant peers affect their alcohol and marijuana use. Both social control theory and the
differential association theory support this proposition. Table 2 indicates that parental
attachment and association with deviant peers influence adolescents alcohol and
marijuana misuse. About 51 percent of adolescents who reported low parental
attachment misused alcohol in the past 30-days compared to 20 percent of adolescents
who reported high parental attachment (X2=123.56, df=2, p=0.000). Also, two-thirds
(66.8%) of the eighth graders with high levels of association with deviant peers misused
alcohol compared to less than 4 percent of eighth graders who reported no or low
association with deviant peers (X2=549.53, df=2, p=0.000). The effects of parental
attachment and association with deviant peers on alcohol misuse were also found in
adolescents marijuana misuse. Nine out of ten eighth graders with high parental bond
reported no marijuana use (X2=107.25, df=2, p=0.000). Similarly, almost 100 percent of
the eighth graders with no or low association with deviant peers reported no marijuana
use (X2=441.30, df=2, p=0.000). This finding underscores the role of friendship
network or deviate subculture that initiate the adolescents into marijuana use.
Finally, the effects of parental attachment and association with deviant peers on
adolescents alcohol and marijuana misuse were evaluated while controlling for

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demographic factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of these
predictors because alcohol misuse and marijuana misuse are binary outcome variables.
Male, white, single parents, low parental attachments, and high deviant peer
associations are the reference categories.

Alcohol Misuse: Table 3 indicates that gender and race has no statistical effect in the
prediction of adolescents alcohol misuse. Compared to adolescents from two-parent
families, adolescents from single parental families were one and one half times more
likely to misuse alcohol (p<0.05). After controlling for demographic characteristics and
deviant peer association, adolescents with low parental attachment were almost two-
times (odds-ratio=1.865) more likely to misuse alcohol (p<. 001). Deviant peer
association was found to be the most effective predictor of adolescents alcohol misuse
even after controlling for all other predictors of this study. In other words, adolescents
who associate with deviant peers are nine times more likely to misuse alcohol (odds-
ratio=8.69, p< .001).

Marijuana Misuse: Table 3 also indicates the results from the logistic regression analyses
in the prediction of adolescents marijuana misuse. Results show that there is no racial
or ethnic difference in eighth graders marijuana misuse after controlling for other
predictors in the model. However, there are gender and family structure differences in
the prediction of adolescents marijuana misuse. Male and adolescents from single-
parent families are more likely to misuse marijuana. Adolescents from single-parent
families are two times more likely to misuse marijuana compared to adolescents from
two parent families (p< .01). Low parental attachment and deviant peer association are
risk factors for adolescents marijuana misuse. Deviant peer association, like in alcohol
misuse, has a significant effect on adolescents marijuana misuse compared to parental
attachment.

DISCUSSION
While the statistics show that there are differences in alcohol misuse by race and
family structure and not by gender, the utilization of Hirschis (1969) Social Bonding
theory emphasizes intrafamilial relationships involving parental attachment and
association with deviant peers as being predictors of alcohol and or marijuana misuse.
Social bonding theory has been widely debated and accepted as having theoretical
validity; therefore the emphasis was to shed some light on other relevant variables and
not just focus on an analysis of intrafamilial relationships.
There is a tremendous amount of conflict in social science literature over the utility
of the pluralist framework in explaining the political and social behaviors of ethnic
minorities in the United States. As articulated by McClain and Stewart (1995), it is
reasonable to expect that racial differences and family structure account for the way in
which different racial groups (e.g. Latinos, Native Americans, and Asians) respond to

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problems. Some may call this type of analysis racial profiling; others may simply see
racial and family response to alcohol and marijuana use as being associated with group
cohesion. The latter may explain why in our statistics it is clear then there are
differences in alcohol misuse by race and family structure. For example, regarding
closeness, 93 percent of black respondents to the National Black Election Study
(NBES) of 1984-1988 reported being close to other blacks in terms of feelings and ideas
(Hatchett and Jackson 1989). This is not endemic to blacks only; other groups
including Latinos have different levels of cohesiveness.
Can group cohesiveness be used to measure a groups response to social maladies
such as alcohol and marijuana use? Hirschi (1969) in his social bonding theory
proposes that the family as a cohesive unit is a primary agent of social control.
Therefore, when adolescents use alcohol or misuse marijuana, they do so partly because
of the learned behavior either from the family or from the peer group. Along this line
of thought, George W. Knox (1994) in his discussion of gangs and gang (criminal)
behavior posits that one must understand group affiliation and group dynamics because
that understanding appears to shape specific knowledge. Therefore, while the
differences in family structure and gender do not account for alcohol abuse and
marijuana misuse among adolescents, group affiliation appears to be more of a predictor
than a determinant factor for deviant behavior. Now, let us look at the problem from a
public policy perspective.
Societal problems encompass us. The typical response has been to contemplate
why people cannot do the right thing and avoid getting involved in issues that may
cause societal problems. If the claim is made that adolescents are misusing drugs and
alcohol because they do not identify with social institutions such as school, churches,
etc., as posited by social control theorists, then we ignore other unclassified and
unidentified problems. As articulated by Kenneth Bickers and John T. Williams
(2001), Individual actions which aggregate to the group level often have unintended
consequences for society . . . Essentially, therefore since there are a limited number of
useful theories for explaining group behavior, one tends to settle for the most common
public policy explanations. For example, the rational model can be used to support the
notion that individuals are capable of choosing the best alternative with or without
external influence and the dominant and submissive group theory can be applied to the
explanation that the dominant group will have dominion and control over the other.
Because ad hoc policy analyses are based on general principles, Bickers and Williams
(2001), state that there is a tendency to confuse group outcomes with individual action.
If conventional social institutions were to be blamed for adolescents alcohol abuse or
marijuana misuse, we would be underestimating individual incentives that may be
inconsistent with group thinking. For the purposes of policy analysis, we must revisit
group theory and expand that discussion to include Mancur Olsons (1965) exposition
on collective action. In his work entitled The Logic of Collective Action, he posits
that group members participate in group activities because of the expected outcome.

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Following this line of thinking, it is apparent that adolescents do not participate in the
abuse of alcohol or in the misuse of marijuana not because of their affiliation with
traditional institutions such as school, churches, etc., but because of perceived or
expected outcome be it for group acceptance or personal fulfillment. This is why
Olson (1965) postulates, selective incentives are the tangible items of value offered
only to contributors. Collective Action Theory, therefore, presupposes that there is no
cohesion associated with alcohol abuse or marijuana misuse. This theoretical premise is
consistent with the result of our statistical analysis. This assessment also shows that
race, ethnicity, and intrafamilial affiliations have no bearing upon adolescent behavior
and participation in irresponsible activities. What is significant in this policy analysis
at this point may not be the cause or the effect of adolescent action but the
motivations behind these actions. But we do not want to get ahead of ourselves by
suggesting possible motivating factors. We only want to say that participation in group
behavior or in deviant behavior is voluntary.
Finally, bonding theory includes only adolescents emotional bonding to parents as
a social control mechanism, which is more of an indirect control. However, recent
research shows that parental direct control such as supervision and monitoring play a
significant role in the prevention of adolescent deviant behaviors including alcohol and
marijuana use (Rankin and Wells, 1990, Thomas, 1994). Future research should
address the role of parental supervision/monitoring in the control of unhealthy
adolescent social behaviors.

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This article was previously published in the Journal of Public Affairs and Issues Volume
VI and is being reprinted with the permission of the Editor.

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by Kathaleena Edward Monds, Ph.D.

Communicati Assistant Professor


College of Business
Albany State University

on Tools:
An
investigation
into the
Business
Student s
Utilization of
Introduction
While much has been discussed about the importance of information access and
exchange, little is known about which method of communication is best utilized among
students majoring in business. Local, state, and national initiatives have focused on the
need to increase access to information among under-represented populations, including
African-Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic-Americans. But little is known
about whether these methods are working to the advantage of those under-served.
The Digital Divide emphasizes the need to educate, train, and put into the hands
of under-served groups, the tools necessary to improve their way of life by having access
to information. This initiative should ultimately impact their ability to use information
in a way that positively benefits them, their families, their communities, and ultimately
the world. Now that more and more under-represented business students have personal
computers or at least access to one, the focus has shifted from information divide to
information utilization.
Several questions remain unanswered. Have business students mastered the skills of
communication in order to secure employment, enter graduate school, establish the

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necessary contacts they need in starting an entrepreneurial venture, or simply be
prepared to effectively communicate with others? The answers to this question are
important in understanding the disparity that exists between the business students and
their non-business counterparts when it comes to employment, higher education, and
business ownership. Observations of common mistakes found among business students
include: a) untimely response to correspondences, b) lack of accountability, c) poor use
of basic word processing functions, and d) fear of initiating contact with an employer or
recruiter.
The business student has yet another challenge. Although technology has changed
the way we live, work, and learn, there remains a need for business students to
maximize and perfect traditional communication skills. Students fall short in the areas
of networking skills, rsum writing, letter writing, and fail to master the technical
communication skills of word processing, electronic-mail (e-mail), conducting searches
on the World Wide Web (WWW), and other technical methods of communication.
While business schools work to prepare students for this ever-changing workforce,
more attention should be placed on those transferable skills that help make the
transition from school to industry a smooth one. Transferable skills are those skills that
result in a change in on-the-job behavior (Richey, 1992). Transferable skills may be
observed in students transferring to the workplace or employees performing a new on-
the-job task after some training has taken place.

What is Information access and exchange?


Few would argue that access to information and exchange of information is crucial
to all students regardless of their academic background. However, many would agree
that it is the business students utilization of such tools that should be perfected.
Business students have always been looked upon as a resource for keeping up-to-
date on stock market trends, management paradigm shifts, changes in cutting-edge
technology, marketing and sales trends to reach diverse populations, and basic
accounting changes in laws and taxation. Some business schools are under-prepared in
providing students with access to the appropriate tools to ensure they are equally
prepared. Examples of under-preparedness may include: a) schools lack of computers,
b) schools lack of internet connectivity, c) schools lack of adequate business
communications teachers to teach such skills (Brown, 2000), d) students lack of
exposure to business etiquette training, and e) students inability to sell themselves to
an employer through effective communication techniques.
By understanding such factors, institutions responsible for educating tomorrows
business leaders today are better equipped with the understanding that more emphasis
be made, not merely in building intelligent business minds, but also in building those
skills that make communicating such knowledge easier.
Lets review some of the various communication tools used in information access
and information exchange today. Information access is defined as the means of accessing

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meaningful data for knowledge gain. It serves an internal purpose, one best described
as knowledge for the sake of knowledge. Information exchange is defined as the means
of taking information and using it in a way that benefits self or others. It serves an
external purpose, one best described as to whom much is given, much is expected.
Both access to, and exchange of, information requires some mode of communication
either utilizing traditional or technical tools.

Traditional Information Tools


Rsum writing. One of the first tools that the average business student must master is
the generation of a rsum. Rsum writing is a skill, which, if perfected, can land a
student the best-fit job or graduate school opportunity. A good rsum should stimulate
the reader on seven candidate areas: 1) how the candidate thinks, 2) how the candidate
gets things done, 3) if the candidate is well-rounded, 4) if the candidate shows signs of
progress, 5) the candidates standards of excellence, 6) whether the candidate is flexible
to change, and 7) whether the candidate possesses strong communication skills (Bovee
& Thill, 2000b).
Rsum writing comprises not only ones ability to summarize his/her educational
and employment background, but also the ability to transfer this information into
electronic form. Employers are able to capture information on many more applicants
when resumes are in electronic form. Traditional resums differ from electronic
resums in formatting guidelines and the utilization of keywords (Anderson, 2000).
Observing the rsums of business students, the following seems consistent:
students tend to downplay their academic experiences and knowledge gain
students lack written communication skills in describing their previous
employment
students fail to make contact with reference people prior to including them on
their rsums
students inability to accept constructive criticism prevents them from having
someone review their rsums prior to distribution.

Letter writing. Along with a working rsum, students should be equipped with
excellent letter-writing skills. Business students often have to generate letters of
interest, write statements of purpose, generate sample business proposals, and write
cover letters to supplement their rsum.
Letter writing goes beyond the business students ability to generate a document.
They must be able to generate spontaneous correspondence utilizing proper grammar.
The business administration student has to perfect dictation and transform the
information into a working document. The marketing student has to perfect persuasive
writing in order to obtain new clients and to market products. The management
student has to perfect proposal writing, customer satisfaction/complaint letters,

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departmental or divisional inter-office memoranda, and project update correspondence.
Finally, the accounting student has to write analytical reviews summarizing calculations
of statistical data.

Networking skills. Networking serves as a means of establishing relationships with


others. Business students who have mastered business communications and public
speaking courses tend to master the art of networking.
Firm handshakes, eye contact, good listening skills, and favorable questions are all
factors that lead to excellent networking skills. It is important for business students to
understand the role that networking plays in their future as business leaders or graduate
students. Typically, individuals with whom positive networks are established serve in a
capacity to write letters of recommendation, serve as references, and even mentor such
business students long after their undergraduate studies have been completed.

Oral communication skills. Ones ability to perfect public speaking has always made a
difference in the business world. Preparation, development, and delivery are the three
phases of oral presentations.
Preparation allows one to define the purpose of the speech and analyze the
audience. Development involves writing the speech in detail, with emphasis on oral
communication techniques: arousing interest, building credibility, and ending on a
positive note. Finally, delivery engages the speaker in the oral projection of his/her
developed speech.
The business student who serves in a leadership capacity with campus-based
organizations is often recruited to speak publicly on behalf of the business school. Such
experiences serve them well in perfecting oral communication. Others have few
opportunities to develop this skill.

Other Traditional Tools. There are non-verbal ways of communicating. According to


Bovee and Thill, there are five ways in which individuals communicate non-verbally:
1) facial expressions and eye behavior, 2) gestures and postures, 3) vocal characteristics,
4) personal appearance, and 5) touching behavior (Bovee & Thill, 2000a). They
postulate that non-verbal communication is so powerful, that people find more truth in
non-verbal than in verbal messages.
Gestures and postures, along with personal appearance are two key factors in how
business students send vibes to those with whom they communicate, especially during
interviews or introductions. How students walk and how good they feel about
themselves are all analyzed by recruiters and others in determining a students
capabilities.
The emphasis on blue/black business suits has narrowed what experts consider
business dress. However, for women it is more difficult to choose what is appropriate
attire than for men. A persons appearance helps to establish what others perceive as

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his/her social identity. Women are often torn between wearing attire that is
uncomplimentary to them, which may serve as a distraction in the business
environment. Female business students express themselves through style which is not
always reflective of those they want to impress. The goal is in determining when and
where such dress is appropriate.

Technical Information Tools


Document preparation. Keyboarding and word processing skills are prerequisite to
generating a document in todays technological society. Studies have shown that
students who lack keyboarding skills have difficulty in document preparation utilizing
the computer (Edward, 1994).
Document preparation is aimed at the creation, generation, storage, and
management of documents in the computer. Business courses that teach such skills also
strive to develop the business students writing style, formatting, font usage, and overall
document layout. The business student needs more hands-on experience in document
preparation using the computer and the application software that exist.

Electronic-mail (e-mail). E-mail is the most useful Internet feature for business
students today. Course assignments are now being posted on e-mail accounts for
student access.
There are advantages and disadvantages of utilizing e-mail. One major advantage is
that e-mail supports the thrust toward a paperless society. E-mail also allows for
more expedient transfer/retrieval of assignments. Furthermore, e-mail provides a
method of time-stamping messages, which makes business students accountable for
timely assignments.
Although it is assumed that most, if not all, business students are computer literate,
it must be understood that they are not. One major disadvantage of e-mail is the
inability to reach those students who do not have an e-mail account, or those who have
one, but fail to check it on a consistent basis. The availability of e-mail has cut into
the academic time, making it difficult to separate academics from friendly chats. E-
mail, like other Internet features, leaves many business students apprehensive about
privacy and security issues (OBrien, 2000).

World Wide Web (WWW). Developed in the 1990s, the World Wide Web uses
Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to make it easy for individuals to search, display
information, and save data.
The World Wide Web has become the centralized platform for selling products and
services among businesses and consumers. This is known as e-commerce. On the
wholesale side, businesses are able to place orders, establish new clients, and track
inventory and sales. This is known as business-to-business e-commerce, or simply b-to-
b. On the retail side, consumers are able to purchase products and services over the

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network. This is known as business-to-consumer e-commerce, or simply b-to-c. With
the proliferation of credit card purchases, the desire to have products in the most
expedient way, and basic materialism, most business students have made strides in this
area.

Research and Presentation. Research and the presentation of research findings are key
to the business student curriculum. Business students are exposed early in the
curriculum on how to utilize Microsoft PowerPoint in making presentations. This
multi-media software application allows students to integrate text, graphics, video, and
sound into a single presentation (Shelly, Cashman, Sebok, 2000).
Business students must perfect the skills of information dissemination and
summarize their findings into a comprehensive slide presentation. These skills are
utilized in most businesses to conduct meetings and review project/program status.
These too are transferable, and if mastered, will prove beneficial.

Other technical tools. The business student who masters the above technical tools is
still met with the need to understand others. Many corporations are requiring that
business professionals utilize cellular phones, pagers, palm pilots, and electronic
organizers, all in an effort to be accessible and productive.
With the exception of cellular phones and pagers, not many business students have
mastered the use of these auxiliary tools. The average business student-turned-
professional who will have the opportunity to telecommute, or work away from a
conventional office, must understand how these tools work in making his/her job easier.

Summary
While much is written on the importance for preparing business students to be
effective communicators, little is known as to whether these students have mastered the
traditional and technical approaches of communication. As the World Wide Web
(WWW) widens the gap between the haves and have-nots, institutions which cater to
the business-minded learner must begin to place more emphasis on proper
communication techniques.
Empirical research should be conducted to identify which tools are being utilized
and which methods of teaching these tools are most effective for business students.
Data should be gathered on how students perceive the benefits of utilizing such tools.
In addition, further study is needed to determine the Human Computer Interaction
(HCI), factors that negatively impact utilization of such technical toolseye, neck,
and wrist strain just to name a few.
No longer should the business school be primarily responsible for developing
communication skills, but such skills should be gained in cross-functional disciplines.
The business curriculum should continue to require students to take public speaking,
along with a business communications course. In addition, schools should include

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professional development courses for business students to mold themselves into well-
rounded individuals who have mastered both information access and information
exchange.

References
Anderson, P. L. (2000). Preparing Your Rsum for the Electronic Arena. GBEA
Journal, 18(1), 11-14.
Bovee, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. (2000a), Business Communication Today, 6th
edition, Prentice Hall, 36-37.
Bovee, Courtland L. and Thill, John V. (2000b), Business Communication Today, 6th
edition, Prentice Hall, 597-598.
Brown, H. F. III (2000), An analysis of distance education technologies for business
education curriculum delivery, GBEA Journal, 18(1), 1-3.
Edward, K. (1994). The development of a model of computer anxiety among at-risk
students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 34-35.
OBrien, J. A. (2000) Introduction to Information Systems: An Networked Enterprise
Perspective, 2nd alternate edition, Irwin McGraw-Hill Publishing, Chapter 13.
Richey, R. (1992), Designing instruction for the adult learner, Kogan Page Limited,
41-42.
Shelly, G. B., Cashman, T.J., Sebok, S. L. (2000), Microsoft PowerPoint 2000:
Introductory Concepts and Techniques, International Thomson Publishing
Company, 1-10.

This article was previously published in The Georgia Business Education Association
Journal Volume 19, Number 1 and is being reprinted with the permission of the Editor.

a centennial publication page 153


INSTITUTIONAL ACCREDITATION

Albany State University is accredited by the commission on colleges of the


Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, (1866 Southern Lane, Decatur,
Georgia 30033-4097); Telephone number 404-679-4501), to award the
bachelors, masters and Educational Specialist degrees.

Albany State University is also accredited by the National Council for the
Accreditation of Teacher education, the Georgia Department of Education, the
Association of Collegiate Business Schools and programs, the National League
of Nursing and approved by the Georgia Board of Nursing

Individual colleges and departments also hold membership in the regional and
national professional organizations associated with their respective disciplines.

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