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You are on page 1of 64

Chapter 5

The Transfer Functions,

Frequency Response, and Bode Plot

Chien-Jung Li

Department of Electronic Engineering

National Taipei University of Technology

Linear Systems

Linear Time-invariant

x (t ) Lumped (LTIL) y (t )

System

Input Output

(excitation) (response)

Linear System

A system is said to be linear if the following two properties are hold:

then x1 (t ) + x2 ( t ) y1 (t ) + y 2 (t )

Time-invariant System

If the characteristics or properties of a system do not change with time,

then the system is said to be time invariant. (Note that time invariance is

defined for systems, not for signals.)

2/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Transfer Function

Assume an initially relaxed linear system excited at t=0 by an input

x(t), and assume that y(t) is the corresponding output. Let

X ( s ) = L x ( t )

x (t ) Linear

y (t )

system

Y ( s ) = L y ( t )

Transform into s-domain

(frequency domain)

For a linear system

X (s ) G (s ) Y (s )

Y (s ) = G (s ) X (s )

Y (s )

where G ( s ) = is called the transfer function of the circuit or

X (s )

system, and it provides a direct mathematical relationship

between the input and the output for any arbitrary input.

Application of Transfer Function

Once the transfer function of the circuit or system is known, the

output may be determined for any arbitrary input.

The transfer function describes the input/output relationship which

can include frequency dependent parameters, i.e., the gain of an

amplifier.

The transfer function is fixed by the nature of the system or circuit

and is not dependent on the type of excitation.

The transfer concept has been developed with the assumption that

the circuit has been initially relaxed. Unless state otherwise, initially

relaxed circuit conditions will be assumed in all further

developments relative to the transfer function.

Example

Determine the transfer function of the circuit:

4 4

+ + + +

v1 (t ) v 2 (t ) V1 ( s ) V2 ( s )

1 40

F

40 s

40 40V1 ( s ) 10V1 ( s )

V2( s ) = s V (s ) = =

40 + 4 1 4s + 40 s + 10

s

V (s ) 10 V1 ( s ) G (s ) =

10

V2 ( s )

G (s ) = 2 =

V1 ( s ) s + 10 s + 10

Example

Determine the transfer function of the circuit:

2H 2s

+ + + +

v1 (t ) 20 v 2 (t ) V1 ( s ) 20 V2 ( s )

V2 ( s ) 20 10 10

G (s ) = = = V2 ( s ) = G ( s )V1 ( s ) = V (s )

V1 ( s ) 2s + 20 s + 10 s + 10 1

If the input v1(t ) = 20 for t > 0 If the input v1(t ) = 20 sin10t for t > 0

20 20 (10 ) 200

V1 ( s ) = V1 ( s ) = 2 =

s + (10 ) s 2 + 100

2

s

2000

V2 ( s ) =

10 20

=

200 V2 ( s ) =

s + 10 s s ( s + 10 ) ( s + 10 ) ( s 2 + 100 )

v 2 (t ) = 20 20e 10t v 2 (t ) = 10e 10t + 10 2 sin (10t 45 )

Natural and Forced Response

Consider the input/output relationship

Y (s ) = G (s ) X (s )

Total response y ( t )

Poles Natural response

In general both G(s) and X(s) will have poles (as well as zeros). Thus

the poles of Y(s) will consist of the poles of G(s) and the poles of X(s).

Recall that each pole (or pair of complex poles) may be considered

as producing one of the terms in the associated output function y(t).

The poles of G(s) are a function of the system parameters, whereas

poles of X(s) are a function of excitation or input.

Example

The transfer function of a certain system is given by

Y (s ) N (s )

G(s ) = =

X ( s ) ( s 2 + 5s + 6 )( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

Y (s ) N (s )

G(s ) = =

X ( s ) ( s + 2 )( s + 3 ) ( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

N ( s ) X (s )

Y (s ) =

( s + 2 )( s + 3 ) ( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

10s

X (s ) =

s 2 + 36

10sN ( s )

Y (s ) =

(s 2

+ 36 ) ( s + 2 )( s + 3 ) ( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

Poles and Zeros of Transfer Functions

In general, the transfer function of a LTI system is a ratio of

polynomials in the variable s and can be expressed as

N ( s ) = an s n + an 1s n 1 + + a1s + a0

N (s )

G (s ) =

D (s )

D ( s ) = bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + + b1s + b0

Poles (finite): The m roots of D(s) are called the finite poles of the G(s)

Zeros (finite): The n roots of N(s) are called the finite zeros of the G(s)

The order of a transfer function is the value of the larger of the two

integers m and n. Thus, if m > n, the transfer function is of order n.

Most transfer function occurring in circuits are characterized by the

condition m n.

Zeros and Poles at Infinite

If m > n, there are one or more zeros at infinite. In this case, the transfer

function is said to have ni zeros at infinite, where ni = m n

Consider that s approaches infinity, N(s) and D(s) may each closely

approximately by their highest term:

an an

N ( s ) ans n for s >> 1 as n

b b

G ( s ) n m = m mn = ni m for s >> 1

D ( s ) b s for s >> 1

m

m bms s s

If m < n, there are one or more poles at infinite. In this case, the

transfer function is said to have mi poles at infinite, where mi = n m

an s n an n m an mi

G (s ) m

= s = s for s >> 1

bms bm bm

equal to poles if zeros and poles at s = are included in the total.

Factored Form of Transfer Function

Let z1, z2, z3, , zn represent the n finite zeros of G(s), and let p1, p2, ,

pm represent the m finite poles of G(s). G(s) may be expressed in

factored form:

A(s z1 )(s z2 ) (s zn )

G (s ) =

(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pm )

Im

s-plane s-plane

Since s = + j is a complex variable p2

(also called the complex frequency), the : pole

z2

poles and zeros can be plotted on the : zero

plane (except the ones at infinite). p1 z4 z1

Re

p3 z3

Example

Write the transfer function corresponds to the s-plane

Im

s-plane

4 + j 3

6 2 0

Re

4 j 3

A ( s 0 ) [s ( 2)]

G (s ) =

[s ( 6)][s ( 4 j 3)][s ( 4 + j 3)]

As ( s + 2 ) As ( s + 2 )

= =

s ( s + 6 )( s + 4 + j 3 )( s + 4 j 3 ) ( s + 6 ) ( s 2 + 8s + 25 )

Example

Construct an s-plane of finite poles and zeros with the transfer

function:

G (s ) =

(

2 s 2 + 6s + 25 )

s 3 + 7s 2 + 10s

Im

3 + j 4 s-plane

5 2 0

Re

3 j 4

Stability (I)

The concept of stability is very important in the design and analysis

of active electronic circuits and closed-loop feedback control system.

For example, an amplifier may turn out to oscillate or to move into

saturation if circuit condition are not favorable.

Relationship to Natural Response:

When a system is excited by an arbitrary input signal, the natural response

turns appear in the output and if such a response vanishes after a sufficient

period of time, the circuit settles into a of operation in which the forced

response assume a steady-state.

response terms banish, remain at a fixed level, or possibly even grow without

bound.

Stability (II)

Definitions of Stability:

Stable system: all natural response terms vanish or approach zero after a

sufficiently long time.

Unstable system: at least one term in the natural response grows without

bound (i.e., approaches infinity) as time increases.

Marginally stable system: there are no unstable terms and if at least one

term approaches a constant nonzero value or a constant amplitude

oscillation as time increases.

y n (t ) y n (t ) y n (t )

Stable Unstable Marginally stable

t t

In the next few slides, we will see that stability can be related to the

locations of poles in the complex s-plane.

15/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Practical Perspective The S -Plane

Left-hand half-plane (LHHP): Im

All points to the left of the j -axis, but not s-plane

including the j -axis.

Right-hand half-plane (RHHP): LHHP RHHP

All points to the right of the j -axis, but not

including the j -axis.

Re

j-axis:

The j -axis will be considered as a separated

area of the s-plane for reasons that will be

clear shortly. The j -axis includes the point

s = 0.

relate to the natural response. In each case, the form of a natural

response term yn(t) will be shown based on the particular pole or pair

of poles assumed.

16/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Poles on the Negative Real Axis

Im

The natural response corresponds to a pole

on the negative real axis is of the form:

y n (t ) = Ae 1t LHHP

Re

where A is some arbitrary constant. This term s1 = 1

approaches zero as t increases, so it is a

stable response.

s-plane

that it takes for the natural response to y n (t )

become negligible can be rather long, and Time response

vise versa. (natural, from circuit)

y n (t ) = At k e t

t

Complex Poles in the LHHP

Im

The natural response corresponds to a pair of LHHP

complex poles in the LHHP is of the form: s1 = 1 + j 1

y n (t ) = Ae 1t sin (1t + )

where A and are arbitrary constants. This term Re

approaches zero as t increases, so it is a stable

response.

s1 = 1 j 1

Time constant = (1 1 ) . The closer is to s-plane

the j-axis, the longer will be the duration o

the natural response, and vice versa.

y n (t )

If the poles are very close to the negative real Time response

axis, the oscillation frequency 1 is small, (natural, from circuit)

and the period of the oscillation will be long, Stable

and vice versa.

Multiple-order complex-pole pairs:

y n (t ) = At k e 1t sin (1t + ) t

Poles on Positive Real Axis and RHHP

Im

RHHP

A pole on the positive real axis: The natural s2 = 2 + j 2

response is of the form

y n (t ) = Ae1t

Re

where A is some arbitrary constant. This term s1 = 1

grows without bound, so it is a unstable response.

s2 = 2 j 2

s-plane

Complex poles in the RHHP The natural

response is of the form:

y n (t ) Time response

y n (t ) = Ae2t sin (2t + ) (natural, from circuit)

grows without bound, so it is a unstable response.

t

Unstable

Poles at the Origin and on j-axis

Im

A pole at the origin: The natural response is

of the form s2 = j 2

y n (t ) = A

so it is marginally stable. s1 = 0

s2 = j 2

Poles on j-axis: The natural response is of

s-plane

the form

y n (t ) = A sin (2t + )

y n (t ) Time response

This function oscillates with a constant amplitude (natural, from circuit)

for all time, so it is a marginally stable response.

In many systems, j-axis poles are undesirable. Marginally stable

Multiple Pole-pairs on j-axis:

t

y n (t ) = At k sin (3t + )

which is an unstable response.

20/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Summary of Stability

LHHP Im RHHP

Unstable

Stable

Poles at origin

1st order: marginally stable

2nd order: unstable

Re

Poles on j-axis

1st order pole-pair: marginally stable

2nd order pole-pair: unstable

s-plane

Transfer Function Algebra

Complete linear circuit blocks are connected to achieve a composite

system function and this complete transfer function may be

expressed as a combination of the individual transfer functions.

the interconnection used, or the transfer function is defined under

the loaded conditions given.

effect occurs, a modified transfer function could be defined under

such conditions. The point is that one cannot simply throw together

blocks and assume that transfer functions remain unchanged. The

loading effect will be discussed later.

Cascade Connection

Here, we stress that the preceding individual transfer functions are

either unaffected by the connections, or the transfer function are

defined under loaded conditions.

Y1 ( s ) Y2 ( s )

X (s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) G2 ( s ) Y (s )

Y1 ( s ) = G1 ( s ) X ( s )

Y2 ( s ) = G2 ( s )Y1 ( s ) Yn ( s ) = Gn ( s )Yn 1 ( s )

the individual transfer functions.

X (s ) G ( s ) = G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )Gn ( s ) Y (s )

Parallel Connection

The composite transfer function of a parallel connection is the sum of all the

individual transfer functions.

G1 ( s )

G2 ( s )

X (s ) Y (s ) X (s ) G(s ) = G1(s ) + G2 (s ) + + Gn (s ) Y (s )

Y (s ) = [G1(s ) + G2 (s ) + + Gn (s )] X (s )

Gn ( s ) Y (s )

G(s ) = = G1(s ) + G2 (s ) + + Gn (s )

X (s )

Y1(s ) = G1(s ) X (s )

Y2 (s ) = G2 (s ) X (s )

Yn (s ) = Gn (s ) X (s )

Y (s ) = Y1(s ) + Y2 (s ) + + Yn (s )

Feedback Loop

A feedback loop consisting of a forward transfer function G (s) and a

feedback transfer function H(s). The subtraction of the input X(s) and

the feedback signal F(s) yield a difference variable D(s).

+ D (s )

X (s ) G (s ) Y (s )

G(s )

X (s ) T (s ) = Y (s )

1 + G(s )H (s )

F (s )

H (s ) Y (s ) G(s )

T (s ) = =

X (s ) 1 + G(s )H (s )

D( s ) = X ( s ) F ( s )

Y (s ) = G(s )D(s ) The result is one of the most important

relationships of linear system theory, and it

F (s ) = H (s )Y (s )

servers as the basis for much of the design

G(s ) work of stable linear circuit and closed-loop

Y (s ) = X (s ) feedback control system.

1 + G( s )H ( s )

Example

A simple resistive network of voltage divider is used to illustrate how

loading effects can affect the transfer results.

1 k 1 k 1 k

+ + + +

cascade

V1 ( s ) 1 k V (s ) V1 ( s ) 1 k 1 k V2 ( s )

1000 1 V2 (s ) 1000 1 1

GA (s ) = = G(s ) = = =

1000 + 1000 2 V1(s ) 1000 + 1500 2 5

1 1 1

Why not G(s ) = GA (s ) GA (s ) = = ?

2 2 4

Example (I)

Determine a single transfer function equivalent to the system shown.

+

X (s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

+

H1 ( s )

Y (s )

+

G3 ( s )

Feedback loop

+

X (s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

+

H1 ( s )

Y (s )

+

G3 ( s )

Example (II)

G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

X (s )

1 + G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) H1 ( s ) +

Y (s )

G3 ( s ) +

G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

X (s ) + G3 ( s ) Y (s )

1 + G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) H1 ( s )

Generalized 2nd-order Transfer Function

Let P(s) represent a quadratic denominator factor with unity

coefficient for the s2 term:

P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2

or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

where = is the damping ratio and n is the natural frequency.

n

P ( s ) = s 2 + n 2

radian frequency n .

Roots of the 2nd-oredr Denominator

The Quadratic Denominator: P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2 or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

roots s1

= 2 n 2 = n n 2 1

s2

Overdamped Circuit: > n or when > 1

In this case, n is not too meaningful because no oscillations actually

occur. The two roots s1 and s2 are real that represent two damping

factors in the exponential terms of the natural response, respectively.

Critically Damped Circuit: = n or when = 1

Underdamped Circuit: < n or when < 1

roots s1

= j n 2 2 = j d = n j n 1 2

s2

d = n2 2 = n 1 2 represents the damped oscillation frequency,

which is the actual oscillation frequency in the natural response for the

underdamped case.

30/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Common Form of a 2nd-order Transfer Function

frequently in practice, which is a low-pass second-order response, is

given by

Y (s ) n 2

G( s ) = =

X (s ) s 2 + 2n s + n 2

Let input x(t) = u(t), such that X(s) = 1/s

n 2

Y ( s ) = G( s ) X ( s ) =

s ( s 2 + 2n s + n 2 )

e n t

When the system is underdamped: y (t ) = 1 sin( 1 2 n t + cos1 )

1 2

Step Response of a 2nd-order System

v(t)

nt

What is Frequency Response

Frequency response is the quantitative measure of a system or device

in frequency domain to show how a system affects the frequency

components of the input signal.

A Bode plot is a graph of the transfer function (LTI system) versus

frequency, plotted with a log-frequency axis, to show the frequency

response of the system.

response and s-plane.

(System)

X ( ) Y ( )

Linear Network

(Signal) Transfer function? (Signal)

s-plane? Frequency Response?

Laplace Transform of a Signal

x (t )

Signal

= 2 = 1 =0 =1 =2

F F F F F

Im-axis ( j )

X ( s ) = x ( t ) e t e jt dt

Re-axis ( r )

r = 2 r = 1 r = 0 r = 1 r = 2

Fourier Transform is the Special Case

Signal Spectrum

s-domain =0

Amplitude

Re-axis ( ) Im-axis ( j )

Laplace Transform of a System s-plane

Pole-zero plot

Frequency response

System Pole

Linear Network

Zero

s-domain

Frequency Response is the Special Case

Pole-zero plot

Image

Laplace Evaluate

transform Real at =0

Amplitude

R C

L Phasor transform

Frequency

Steady-state Impedance and Admittance

Impedance Z

Z = Z ( s ) s = j = Z ( j )

resistance

reactance

Admittance Y

Y = Y ( s ) s = j = Y ( j )

Y ( j ) = G ( ) + jB ( )

conductance

susceptance

Example

Use (a) the s-domain model to find 4

the complete time-domain current i(t) t =0

and (b) phasor-domain model to + 1

F

determined the steady-state current

20 sin2t i (t ) 6

iss(t).

40 40

4

I (s ) = s + 4 = s + 4 =

2 2 10s

(a)

6 4s + 6 ( s + 1.5 ) ( s 2 + 4 )

4+

s s 6

40 +

i ( t ) = 2.4e 1.5t + 4 sin ( 2t + 36.87 ) s2 + 4 I (s ) s

4

(b) I = 200 = 200

= 4 36.87

4 j3 5 36.87

+ 6

200 = j3

i ss (t ) = 4 sin ( 2t + 36.87 ) I (s ) j

Steady-State Transfer Function

Steady-state Transfer function (Frequency Response): = 0 ,thus s = j

Y (s )

= G (s ) Y ( j )

X (s ) A ( ) = G ( j ) =

X ( j )

Y ( j )

G ( j ) = G ( s ) s = j = = A ( ) ( )

X ( j )

phasor

Input: x (t ) = X sin (t + x ) X = X x

Output: y ( t ) = Y sin (t + y )

phasor

Y = Y y

Y = G ( j ) X Y = Y y = A ( ) ( ) ( X x ) = X A ( ) ( x + ( ) )

Decibel Response

Whereas the linear amplitude response A ( ) is useful for many purpose, the

decibel amplitude response AdB ( ) are widely used in many applications.

Y ( j )

AdB ( ) = 20log10 = 20log10 A ( )

X ( j )

+

R

+ =

(10 j ) V

8

108

V2 1 = V1

10 + (10 j ) 108 + 104 j

v1 (t ) v 2 (t )

4 8

C

108 104

G ( j ) =

V2

= =

V1 108 + 10 4 j 104 + j

10 4

A ( ) = G ( j ) =

R 108 + 2

+ +

10 4

V1 1

V2 AdB ( ) = 20log10 A ( ) = 20log10 ( )

j C 108 + 2

( ) = tan1

104

41/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Development of Bode Plot Approach

Normalized Factored Form Force the constant

s s s terms to be unity.

N1 1 + N2 1 + Nn 1 +

(s + N1 )(s + N2 ) (s + Nn ) N1 N2 Nn

G (s ) = A =A

(s + D1 )(s + D2 ) (s + Dm ) s s s

D1 1 + D2 1 + Dn 1 +

D1 D2 Dn

GN1 ( s ) GN 2 ( s ) GN 3 ( s )GNn ( s )

= A0

GD1 ( s ) GD 2 ( s ) GD 3 ( s )GDm ( s )

GN 1 ( j ) GN 2 ( j ) GN 3 ( j )GNn ( j )

Steady-state Transfer Function G ( j ) = A0

GD1 ( j ) GD 2 ( j ) GD 3 ( j )GDm ( j )

GN 1 ( j ) GN 2 ( j ) GN 3 ( j ) GNn ( j )

Amplitude Response G ( j ) = A0

GD1 ( j ) GD 2 ( j ) GD 3 ( j ) GDm ( j )

Let

ADk ( ) = GDk ( j ) for any k

AN1 ( ) AN 2 ( ) AN 3 ( ) ANn ( )

A ( ) = A0

AD1 ( ) AD 2 ( ) AD 3 ( ) ADm ( )

Example

2000 ( s + 4 )

Write the normalized factored form of G ( s ) =

s 2 + 116s + 1600

s 4

2000 4 +

2000 ( s + 4 ) 4 4

G (s ) = =

( s + 16 )( s + 100 ) 16 s + 16 100 s + 100

16 16

100 100

s

5 1 +

= 4

s s

1 + 1

16 100 +

Bode plot.

Linear Scale to Log Scale

Recall that Key 1: The decibel response makes it easy to

log10 xy = log10 x + log10 y express the amplitude response as the sum

and difference of simpler functions. (This

x means the amplitude response can be drawn

log10 = log10 x log10 y

y with dB on the y-axis)

20log10 AD1 ( ) 20log10 AD 2 ( ) 20log10 ADm ( )

(dB)

ANk ( ) = 20log10 ANk ( ) for any k

Let

(dB)

ADk ( ) = 20log10 ADk ( ) for any k

A0(dB) = 20log10 A0

1 ( ) + AN 2 ( ) + + ANn ( ) AD1 ( ) AD 2 ( ) ADm ( )

(dB) (dB) (dB) (dB) (dB)

Phase Response

( ) = N1 ( ) + N 2 ( ) + + Nn ( ) D1 ( ) D1 ( ) Dm ( )

Semi-Log Plot

50

40

AdB() (dB)

30

20

10

Key 2: Normalized factored

0 form is easy to show that

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1

how 10

affects AdB when 100

is

2 times of (1 octave) or

Normalized factored form when is 10 times of (1

decade). This is ready on x-

frequency response j

G (s ) = 1 +

s

with > 0 G ( j ) = 1 + axis.

=0

2

2

decibel response

A ( ) = G ( j ) = 1 + AdB ( ) = 20log10 1+

Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Zero (I)

Zero on Negative Real Axis Amplitude Response

2

j

2

s

G (s ) = 1 + with > 0 G ( j ) = 1 + A ( ) = 1 + AdB ( ) = 20log10 1+

10

50

40

AdB() (dB)

30

20

=

10

E BP

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

46/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Zero (II)

Zero on Negative Real Axis Phase Response

s j

G (s ) = 1 + with > 0 G ( j ) = 1 + ( ) = tan1

100

90

80 E

60

() (deg)

45

40 BP =

20

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Pole (I)

Pole on Negative Real Axis Amplitude Response

2

1 1 1

G (s ) = with > 0 G ( j ) = A ( ) = AdB ( ) = 20log10 1+

s j

2

1+ 1+

1+

0 BP

=

10 E 6 dB/oct. (or 20 dB/dec.)

AdB() (dB)

20

30

40

50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Pole (II)

Pole on Negative Real Axis Phase Response

1 1

G (s ) = with > 0 G ( j ) = ( ) = tan1

s j

1+ 1+

100

0

20 E

() (deg)

40

=

45

60

BP

80

90

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bode Plot Forms - Zero at Origin (I)

Zero at Origin Amplitude Response

G (s ) = s G ( j ) = j A ( ) = AdB ( ) = 20log10

10

AdB() (dB)

0

10

20

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bode Plot Forms - Zero at Origin (II)

Zero at Origin Phase Response

G (s ) = s G ( j ) = j ( ) = 90

100

90

80

60

() (deg)

45

40

20

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bode Plot Forms - Pole at Origin (I)

Pole at Origin Amplitude Response

1 1 1 1

G (s ) = G ( j ) = A ( ) = AdB ( ) = 20log10 = 20log10

s j

10

AdB() (dB)

0

10

20

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Bode Plot Forms - Pole at Origin (II)

Pole at Origin Phase Response

1 1

G (s ) = G ( j ) = ( ) = 90

s j

0

20

() (deg)

40

60

80

90

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

Example (I)

2000 ( s + 4 )

Consider G (s ) = , plot the amplitude frequency response.

s 2 + 116s + 1600

s j

5 1+ 5 1+

G (s ) = 4 G ( j ) = 4

s s j j

1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +

16 100 16 100

5 1+

4

A ( ) =

2 2

1+ 1+

16 100

2 2 2

4 16 100

( ) = tan1 tan1 tan1

4 16 100

Example (II)

30

26 dB

AdB() (dB)

20

14 dB

+6 dB/oct. 6 dB/oct.

14

10

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

1 10 100 1k 10 k

(rad/s )

RC Low-pass Filter

R

+ +

v1 C v2

1

0.1b b = 10b

RC

V2 ( s ) 1

fb =

1 G (s ) = =

0.1 f b 2 RC 10 f b V1 ( s ) 1 + sRC

f

0 1

b =

RC

1

G( s ) =

45

s

1+

b

90

RC High-pass Filter

R

+ +

v1 C v2

1

0.1b b = 10b

RC

V2 ( s ) sRC

fb =

1 G (s ) = =

0.1 f b 2 RC 10 f b V1 ( s ) 1 + sRC

f

+90 1

b =

RC

s

+45

G (s ) =

b

s

1+

b

0 1

fb =

2 RC

Roots of the 2nd-oredr Denominator

The Quadratic Denominator: P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2 or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

roots s1

= 2 n 2 = n n 2 1

s2

Overdamped Circuit: > n or when > 1 Two real roots

roots s1

= j n 2 2 = j d = n jn 1 2

s2

The Normalized Form for Bode Plot:

n2 1 1

G (s ) = 2 G (s ) = G ( j ) =

s + 2n s + n2 s s

2 2

1 + 2 + 1 + j 2

n n n n

Second-order Lowpass Function

Second-order Amplitude and Phase Responses:

1 1 1

G ( j ) = 2

A ( ) = =

2 2 4

2 2

1 + j 2

n n

2

1 + 4 ( )

1 + 4 2 +

2

n n n n

2 4

( )

AdB ( ) = 20log10 1 + 4 2 +

2

n n

2

n

( ) = tan1 2

1

n

It seems not easy to draw the Bode plot, how do you think?

Lets go back to the roots of the quadratic denominator.

Root Locations and Frequency Response (I)

The Quadratic Denominator: P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2 or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

roots s1

= 2 n 2 = n n 2 1

s2

roots

c s1 n + n 2 1 = 1

For damping ratio > 1 =

v s2 n n 2 1 = 2

AdB ( )

j 6 dB/oct.

s-plane

s2 s1 c 12 dB/oct.

v

increases 1 2

AdB ( )

j

s-plane 6 dB/oct.

s2 s1 c

12 dB/oct.

v

1 2

60/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Root Locations and Frequency Response (II)

roots

c s + 2

1 = n = 1

For damping ratio = 1

1

= n n

v s2 2 1 = =

n n n 1

AdB ( )

j

s-plane

s1 12 dB/oct.

c

v

1

So, when = 1 you get double roots while > 1 you get two different

real roots.

For 1 , the same principle as first-order poles (or zeros) for Bode

plot can be applied. (two 1st-order roots)

For > 1, a higher means that two real roots depart farther.

Root Locations and Frequency Response (III)

roots s1 n + jn 1 2 = + jd

For damping ratio < 1 c =

v s2 n jn 1 2 = jd

= n j AdB ( )

j n <1

=1

= s1 jd

n c

v

s2 jd

n

j n

decreases

j AdB ( )

j n <1

jd =1

s1

c

v

n

s2 jd

j n Chien-Jung, Li, Dept. E.E. & Grad. Inst.

Computer and Comm. Engineering, NTUT

Frequency Response of a Second-order System

15

= 0.1

10

5 = 0.2

AdB() (dB)

0 = 0.5

5

10 = 0.707

15

=1

20

25

30

35 12 dB/octave

40

0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10

0

= 0.1

45 = 0.2

= 0.707

() (dB)

= 0.5

90

=1

135

180

0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10

n

63/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Example

Determine (a) The transfer function G(s) = V2(s)/V1(s) (b) , n , and fn

(c) Frequency response of the given RLC circuit.

0.1 H 0.1s

+ + + +

v1 ( t ) 0.1 F 5 k v2 (t ) V1 ( s ) 107

5000 V2 ( s )

s

107

5000

s 5000 107 107

Zp = = =

107 5000s + 107 s + 2000

5000 +

s

V2 ( s ) Zp 107

G (s ) = = =

V1 ( s ) Z p + 0.1s 0.1s 2 + 200s + 107 n = 108 = 104 rad/s

8

2 104 ( rad/s )

=

10

= 2 n fn = = 1.592 kHz

s + 2000s + 10

2 8

s + 2n s + n2 2

2000

= = 0.1

2 104

64/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

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