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Network Analysis

Chapter 5
The Transfer Functions,
Frequency Response, and Bode Plot
Chien-Jung Li
Department of Electronic Engineering
National Taipei University of Technology
Linear Systems
Linear Time-invariant
x (t ) Lumped (LTIL) y (t )
System
Input Output
(excitation) (response)

Linear System
A system is said to be linear if the following two properties are hold:

 Superposition principle: x1 (t ) y1 (t ) and x2 (t ) y 2 ( t )

then x1 (t ) + x2 ( t ) y1 (t ) + y 2 (t )

Time-invariant System
If the characteristics or properties of a system do not change with time,
then the system is said to be time invariant. (Note that time invariance is
defined for systems, not for signals.)
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Transfer Function
Assume an initially relaxed linear system excited at t=0 by an input
x(t), and assume that y(t) is the corresponding output. Let

X ( s ) = L x ( t )
x (t ) Linear
y (t )
system
Y ( s ) = L y ( t )
Transform into s-domain
(frequency domain)
For a linear system
X (s ) G (s ) Y (s )
Y (s ) = G (s ) X (s )

Y (s )
where G ( s ) = is called the transfer function of the circuit or
X (s )
system, and it provides a direct mathematical relationship
between the input and the output for any arbitrary input.

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Application of Transfer Function
Once the transfer function of the circuit or system is known, the
output may be determined for any arbitrary input.
The transfer function describes the input/output relationship which
can include frequency dependent parameters, i.e., the gain of an
amplifier.
The transfer function is fixed by the nature of the system or circuit
and is not dependent on the type of excitation.

The transfer concept has been developed with the assumption that
the circuit has been initially relaxed. Unless state otherwise, initially
relaxed circuit conditions will be assumed in all further
developments relative to the transfer function.

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Example
Determine the transfer function of the circuit:
4 4

+ + + +

v1 (t ) v 2 (t ) V1 ( s ) V2 ( s )
1 40
F
40 s

40 40V1 ( s ) 10V1 ( s )
V2( s ) = s V (s ) = =
40 + 4 1 4s + 40 s + 10
s

V (s ) 10 V1 ( s ) G (s ) =
10
V2 ( s )
G (s ) = 2 =
V1 ( s ) s + 10 s + 10

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Example
Determine the transfer function of the circuit:
2H 2s

+ + + +

v1 (t ) 20 v 2 (t ) V1 ( s ) 20 V2 ( s )

V2 ( s ) 20 10 10
G (s ) = = = V2 ( s ) = G ( s )V1 ( s ) = V (s )
V1 ( s ) 2s + 20 s + 10 s + 10 1

If the input v1(t ) = 20 for t > 0 If the input v1(t ) = 20 sin10t for t > 0
20 20 (10 ) 200
V1 ( s ) = V1 ( s ) = 2 =
s + (10 ) s 2 + 100
2
s
2000
V2 ( s ) =
10 20
=
200 V2 ( s ) =
s + 10 s s ( s + 10 ) ( s + 10 ) ( s 2 + 100 )
v 2 (t ) = 20 20e 10t v 2 (t ) = 10e 10t + 10 2 sin (10t 45 )

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Natural and Forced Response
Consider the input/output relationship

Y (s ) = G (s ) X (s )

Poles Forced response

Total response y ( t )
Poles Natural response

In general both G(s) and X(s) will have poles (as well as zeros). Thus
the poles of Y(s) will consist of the poles of G(s) and the poles of X(s).
Recall that each pole (or pair of complex poles) may be considered
as producing one of the terms in the associated output function y(t).
The poles of G(s) are a function of the system parameters, whereas
poles of X(s) are a function of excitation or input.

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Example
The transfer function of a certain system is given by
Y (s ) N (s )
G(s ) = =
X ( s ) ( s 2 + 5s + 6 )( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

write the general form of the response y(t) for x (t ) = 10 cos 6t

Y (s ) N (s )
G(s ) = =
X ( s ) ( s + 2 )( s + 3 ) ( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

N ( s ) X (s )
Y (s ) =
( s + 2 )( s + 3 ) ( s 2 + 2s + 17 )
10s
X (s ) =
s 2 + 36

10sN ( s )
Y (s ) =
(s 2
+ 36 ) ( s + 2 )( s + 3 ) ( s 2 + 2s + 17 )

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Poles and Zeros of Transfer Functions
In general, the transfer function of a LTI system is a ratio of
polynomials in the variable s and can be expressed as

N ( s ) = an s n + an 1s n 1 + + a1s + a0
N (s )
G (s ) =
D (s )
D ( s ) = bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + + b1s + b0

Poles (finite): The m roots of D(s) are called the finite poles of the G(s)

Zeros (finite): The n roots of N(s) are called the finite zeros of the G(s)

The order of a transfer function is the value of the larger of the two
integers m and n. Thus, if m > n, the transfer function is of order n.
Most transfer function occurring in circuits are characterized by the
condition m n.

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Zeros and Poles at Infinite
If m > n, there are one or more zeros at infinite. In this case, the transfer
function is said to have ni zeros at infinite, where ni = m n
Consider that s approaches infinity, N(s) and D(s) may each closely
approximately by their highest term:
an an
N ( s ) ans n for s >> 1 as n
b b
G ( s ) n m = m mn = ni m for s >> 1
D ( s ) b s for s >> 1
m
m bms s s

If m < n, there are one or more poles at infinite. In this case, the
transfer function is said to have mi poles at infinite, where mi = n m
an s n an n m an mi
G (s ) m
= s = s for s >> 1
bms bm bm

We can conclude that the number of zeros of a transfer function is

equal to poles if zeros and poles at s = are included in the total.

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Factored Form of Transfer Function
Let z1, z2, z3, , zn represent the n finite zeros of G(s), and let p1, p2, ,
pm represent the m finite poles of G(s). G(s) may be expressed in
factored form:
A(s z1 )(s z2 ) (s zn )
G (s ) =
(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s pm )

Im
s-plane s-plane
Since s = + j is a complex variable p2
(also called the complex frequency), the : pole
z2
poles and zeros can be plotted on the : zero
plane (except the ones at infinite). p1 z4 z1
Re

p3 z3

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Example
Write the transfer function corresponds to the s-plane
Im
s-plane
4 + j 3

6 2 0
Re

4 j 3

A ( s 0 ) [s ( 2)]
G (s ) =
[s ( 6)][s ( 4 j 3)][s ( 4 + j 3)]
As ( s + 2 ) As ( s + 2 )
= =
s ( s + 6 )( s + 4 + j 3 )( s + 4 j 3 ) ( s + 6 ) ( s 2 + 8s + 25 )

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Example
Construct an s-plane of finite poles and zeros with the transfer
function:
G (s ) =
(
2 s 2 + 6s + 25 )
s 3 + 7s 2 + 10s

Im
3 + j 4 s-plane

5 2 0
Re

3 j 4

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Stability (I)
The concept of stability is very important in the design and analysis
of active electronic circuits and closed-loop feedback control system.
For example, an amplifier may turn out to oscillate or to move into
saturation if circuit condition are not favorable.
Relationship to Natural Response:
 When a system is excited by an arbitrary input signal, the natural response
turns appear in the output and if such a response vanishes after a sufficient
period of time, the circuit settles into a of operation in which the forced

 The question of stability can be related to whether or not the natural

response terms banish, remain at a fixed level, or possibly even grow without
bound.

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Stability (II)
Definitions of Stability:
 Stable system: all natural response terms vanish or approach zero after a
sufficiently long time.
 Unstable system: at least one term in the natural response grows without
bound (i.e., approaches infinity) as time increases.
 Marginally stable system: there are no unstable terms and if at least one
term approaches a constant nonzero value or a constant amplitude
oscillation as time increases.
y n (t ) y n (t ) y n (t )
Stable Unstable Marginally stable

t t

In the next few slides, we will see that stability can be related to the
locations of poles in the complex s-plane.
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Practical Perspective The S -Plane
 Left-hand half-plane (LHHP): Im
All points to the left of the j -axis, but not s-plane
including the j -axis.
 Right-hand half-plane (RHHP): LHHP RHHP
All points to the right of the j -axis, but not
including the j -axis.
Re
 j-axis:
The j -axis will be considered as a separated
area of the s-plane for reasons that will be
clear shortly. The j -axis includes the point
s = 0.

The effects of different pole locations will be investigated as they

relate to the natural response. In each case, the form of a natural
response term yn(t) will be shown based on the particular pole or pair
of poles assumed.
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Poles on the Negative Real Axis
Im
The natural response corresponds to a pole
on the negative real axis is of the form:
y n (t ) = Ae 1t LHHP

Re
where A is some arbitrary constant. This term s1 = 1
approaches zero as t increases, so it is a
stable response.

s-plane

to the origin, is very large, and the time

that it takes for the natural response to y n (t )
become negligible can be rather long, and Time response
vise versa. (natural, from circuit)

Multiple-order pole: Stable

y n (t ) = At k e t
t

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Complex Poles in the LHHP
Im
The natural response corresponds to a pair of LHHP
complex poles in the LHHP is of the form: s1 = 1 + j 1
y n (t ) = Ae 1t sin (1t + )
where A and are arbitrary constants. This term Re
approaches zero as t increases, so it is a stable
response.
s1 = 1 j 1
Time constant = (1 1 ) . The closer is to s-plane
the j-axis, the longer will be the duration o
the natural response, and vice versa.
y n (t )
If the poles are very close to the negative real Time response
axis, the oscillation frequency 1 is small, (natural, from circuit)
and the period of the oscillation will be long, Stable
and vice versa.
Multiple-order complex-pole pairs:
y n (t ) = At k e 1t sin (1t + ) t

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Poles on Positive Real Axis and RHHP
Im
RHHP
A pole on the positive real axis: The natural s2 = 2 + j 2
response is of the form
y n (t ) = Ae1t
Re
where A is some arbitrary constant. This term s1 = 1
grows without bound, so it is a unstable response.
s2 = 2 j 2
s-plane
Complex poles in the RHHP The natural
response is of the form:
y n (t ) Time response
y n (t ) = Ae2t sin (2t + ) (natural, from circuit)

where A is some arbitrary constant. This term

grows without bound, so it is a unstable response.
t
Unstable

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Poles at the Origin and on j-axis
Im
A pole at the origin: The natural response is
of the form s2 = j 2
y n (t ) = A

The response remains constant as time increases, Re

so it is marginally stable. s1 = 0

s2 = j 2
Poles on j-axis: The natural response is of
s-plane
the form
y n (t ) = A sin (2t + )
y n (t ) Time response
This function oscillates with a constant amplitude (natural, from circuit)
for all time, so it is a marginally stable response.
In many systems, j-axis poles are undesirable. Marginally stable
Multiple Pole-pairs on j-axis:
t
y n (t ) = At k sin (3t + )
which is an unstable response.
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Summary of Stability
LHHP Im RHHP

 Unstable
 Stable

 Poles at origin
1st order: marginally stable
2nd order: unstable
Re

 Poles on j-axis
1st order pole-pair: marginally stable
2nd order pole-pair: unstable

s-plane

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Transfer Function Algebra
Complete linear circuit blocks are connected to achieve a composite
system function and this complete transfer function may be
expressed as a combination of the individual transfer functions.

Each transfer function given is either assumed to be unaffected by

the interconnection used, or the transfer function is defined under

effect occurs, a modified transfer function could be defined under
such conditions. The point is that one cannot simply throw together
blocks and assume that transfer functions remain unchanged. The

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Here, we stress that the preceding individual transfer functions are
either unaffected by the connections, or the transfer function are
Y1 ( s ) Y2 ( s )

X (s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) G2 ( s ) Y (s )

Y1 ( s ) = G1 ( s ) X ( s )
Y2 ( s ) = G2 ( s )Y1 ( s ) Yn ( s ) = Gn ( s )Yn 1 ( s )

The composite transfer function of a cascade connection is the product of all

the individual transfer functions.

X (s ) G ( s ) = G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) G3 ( s )Gn ( s ) Y (s )

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Parallel Connection
The composite transfer function of a parallel connection is the sum of all the
individual transfer functions.

G1 ( s )

G2 ( s )
X (s ) Y (s ) X (s ) G(s ) = G1(s ) + G2 (s ) + + Gn (s ) Y (s )

Y (s ) = [G1(s ) + G2 (s ) + + Gn (s )] X (s )

Gn ( s ) Y (s )
G(s ) = = G1(s ) + G2 (s ) + + Gn (s )
X (s )

Y1(s ) = G1(s ) X (s )
Y2 (s ) = G2 (s ) X (s )

Yn (s ) = Gn (s ) X (s )

Y (s ) = Y1(s ) + Y2 (s ) + + Yn (s )

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Feedback Loop
A feedback loop consisting of a forward transfer function G (s) and a
feedback transfer function H(s). The subtraction of the input X(s) and
the feedback signal F(s) yield a difference variable D(s).

+ D (s )
X (s ) G (s ) Y (s )
G(s )
X (s ) T (s ) = Y (s )
1 + G(s )H (s )
F (s )
H (s ) Y (s ) G(s )
T (s ) = =
X (s ) 1 + G(s )H (s )

D( s ) = X ( s ) F ( s )
Y (s ) = G(s )D(s ) The result is one of the most important
relationships of linear system theory, and it
F (s ) = H (s )Y (s )
servers as the basis for much of the design
G(s ) work of stable linear circuit and closed-loop
Y (s ) = X (s ) feedback control system.
1 + G( s )H ( s )

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Example
A simple resistive network of voltage divider is used to illustrate how

1 k 1 k 1 k

+ + + +
V1 ( s ) 1 k V (s ) V1 ( s ) 1 k 1 k V2 ( s )

1000 1 V2 (s ) 1000 1 1
GA (s ) = = G(s ) = = =
1000 + 1000 2 V1(s ) 1000 + 1500 2 5

1 1 1
Why not G(s ) = GA (s ) GA (s ) = = ?
2 2 4

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Example (I)
Determine a single transfer function equivalent to the system shown.
+
X (s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

+
H1 ( s )
Y (s )
+
G3 ( s )

Feedback loop
+
X (s ) G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )

+
H1 ( s )
Y (s )
+
G3 ( s )

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Example (II)

G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )
X (s )
1 + G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) H1 ( s ) +

Y (s )
G3 ( s ) +

G1 ( s ) G2 ( s )
X (s ) + G3 ( s ) Y (s )
1 + G1 ( s ) G2 ( s ) H1 ( s )

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Generalized 2nd-order Transfer Function
Let P(s) represent a quadratic denominator factor with unity
coefficient for the s2 term:

P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2

or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

where = is the damping ratio and n is the natural frequency.
n

No Damping Circuit: = 0 and also = 0

P ( s ) = s 2 + n 2

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Roots of the 2nd-oredr Denominator
The Quadratic Denominator: P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2 or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

roots s1
= 2 n 2 = n n 2 1
s2
Overdamped Circuit: > n or when > 1
In this case, n is not too meaningful because no oscillations actually
occur. The two roots s1 and s2 are real that represent two damping
factors in the exponential terms of the natural response, respectively.
Critically Damped Circuit: = n or when = 1
Underdamped Circuit: < n or when < 1
roots s1
= j n 2 2 = j d = n j n 1 2
s2
d = n2 2 = n 1 2 represents the damped oscillation frequency,
which is the actual oscillation frequency in the natural response for the
underdamped case.
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Common Form of a 2nd-order Transfer Function

The common form of a second-order transfer function that arises

frequently in practice, which is a low-pass second-order response, is
given by
Y (s ) n 2
G( s ) = =
X (s ) s 2 + 2n s + n 2

Unit Step Response:

Let input x(t) = u(t), such that X(s) = 1/s
n 2
Y ( s ) = G( s ) X ( s ) =
s ( s 2 + 2n s + n 2 )

When the system is critically damped: y (t ) = 1 (n t + 1)e n t for = 1

e n t
When the system is underdamped: y (t ) = 1 sin( 1 2 n t + cos1 )
1 2

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Step Response of a 2nd-order System

v(t)

nt

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What is Frequency Response
Frequency response is the quantitative measure of a system or device
in frequency domain to show how a system affects the frequency
components of the input signal.
A Bode plot is a graph of the transfer function (LTI system) versus
frequency, plotted with a log-frequency axis, to show the frequency
response of the system.

We may want to know what is the relationship between the frequency

response and s-plane.
(System)
X ( ) Y ( )
Linear Network

(Signal) Transfer function? (Signal)
s-plane? Frequency Response?

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Laplace Transform of a Signal
x (t )
Signal

= 2 = 1 =0 =1 =2

F F F F F
Im-axis ( j )

X ( s ) = x ( t ) e t e jt dt

Re-axis ( r )
r = 2 r = 1 r = 0 r = 1 r = 2

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Fourier Transform is the Special Case

Signal Spectrum

s-domain =0

Amplitude
Re-axis ( ) Im-axis ( j )

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Laplace Transform of a System s-plane

Pole-zero plot
Frequency response

System Pole
Linear Network

Zero
s-domain

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Frequency Response is the Special Case

Pole-zero plot

Image
Laplace Evaluate
transform Real at =0

Physical system Frequency response

Amplitude
R C
L Phasor transform

Frequency

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Impedance Z

Z = Z ( s ) s = j = Z ( j )

Z ( j ) = R ( ) + jX ( ) Z ( j ) represents a complex value

resistance
reactance

Y = Y ( s ) s = j = Y ( j )

Y ( j ) = G ( ) + jB ( )

conductance
susceptance

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Example
Use (a) the s-domain model to find 4
the complete time-domain current i(t) t =0
and (b) phasor-domain model to + 1
F
20 sin2t i (t ) 6
iss(t).
40 40
4
I (s ) = s + 4 = s + 4 =
2 2 10s
(a)
6 4s + 6 ( s + 1.5 ) ( s 2 + 4 )
4+
s s 6
40 +
i ( t ) = 2.4e 1.5t + 4 sin ( 2t + 36.87 ) s2 + 4 I (s ) s

4
(b) I = 200 = 200
 
= 4 36.87
4 j3 5 36.87 

+ 6
200 = j3
i ss (t ) = 4 sin ( 2t + 36.87 ) I (s ) j


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Steady-state Transfer function (Frequency Response): = 0 ,thus s = j
Y (s )
= G (s ) Y ( j )
X (s ) A ( ) = G ( j ) =
X ( j )
Y ( j )
G ( j ) = G ( s ) s = j = = A ( ) ( )
X ( j )

Input and output relationship

phasor
Input: x (t ) = X sin (t + x ) X = X x
Output: y ( t ) = Y sin (t + y )
phasor
Y = Y y

Y = G ( j ) X Y = Y y = A ( ) ( ) ( X x ) = X A ( ) ( x + ( ) )

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Decibel Response
Whereas the linear amplitude response A ( ) is useful for many purpose, the
decibel amplitude response AdB ( ) are widely used in many applications.

Y ( j )
AdB ( ) = 20log10 = 20log10 A ( )
X ( j )

For example: R = 10 k C = 0.01 F

+
R
+ =
(10 j ) V
8
108
V2 1 = V1
10 + (10 j ) 108 + 104 j
v1 (t ) v 2 (t )
4 8

C
108 104
G ( j ) =
V2
= =
V1 108 + 10 4 j 104 + j
10 4
A ( ) = G ( j ) =
R 108 + 2
+ +
10 4
V1 1
V2 AdB ( ) = 20log10 A ( ) = 20log10 ( )
j C 108 + 2
( ) = tan1

104
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Development of Bode Plot Approach
Normalized Factored Form Force the constant
s s s terms to be unity.
N1 1 + N2 1 + Nn 1 +
(s + N1 )(s + N2 ) (s + Nn ) N1 N2 Nn
G (s ) = A =A
(s + D1 )(s + D2 ) (s + Dm ) s s s
D1 1 + D2 1 + Dn 1 +
D1 D2 Dn
GN1 ( s ) GN 2 ( s ) GN 3 ( s )GNn ( s )
= A0
GD1 ( s ) GD 2 ( s ) GD 3 ( s )GDm ( s )
GN 1 ( j ) GN 2 ( j ) GN 3 ( j )GNn ( j )
Steady-state Transfer Function G ( j ) = A0
GD1 ( j ) GD 2 ( j ) GD 3 ( j )GDm ( j )

GN 1 ( j ) GN 2 ( j ) GN 3 ( j ) GNn ( j )
Amplitude Response G ( j ) = A0
GD1 ( j ) GD 2 ( j ) GD 3 ( j ) GDm ( j )

ANk ( ) = GNk ( j ) for any k

Let
ADk ( ) = GDk ( j ) for any k

The net amplitude A ( ) = G ( j ) can be represented as

AN1 ( ) AN 2 ( ) AN 3 ( ) ANn ( )
A ( ) = A0

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Example
2000 ( s + 4 )
Write the normalized factored form of G ( s ) =
s 2 + 116s + 1600

s 4
2000 4 +
2000 ( s + 4 ) 4 4
G (s ) = =
( s + 16 )( s + 100 ) 16 s + 16 100 s + 100
16 16
100 100
s
5 1 +
= 4
s s
1 + 1
16 100 +

Bode plot.

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Linear Scale to Log Scale
Recall that Key 1: The decibel response makes it easy to
log10 xy = log10 x + log10 y express the amplitude response as the sum
and difference of simpler functions. (This
x means the amplitude response can be drawn
log10 = log10 x log10 y
y with dB on the y-axis)

20log10 A ( ) = 20log10 A0 + 20log10 AN 1 ( ) + 20log10 AN 2 ( ) + + 20log10 ANn ( )

(dB)
ANk ( ) = 20log10 ANk ( ) for any k
Let
(dB)
A0(dB) = 20log10 A0

A(dB) ( ) = A0(dB) + AN(dB)

1 ( ) + AN 2 ( ) + + ANn ( ) AD1 ( ) AD 2 ( ) ADm ( )
(dB) (dB) (dB) (dB) (dB)

Phase Response
( ) = N1 ( ) + N 2 ( ) + + Nn ( ) D1 ( ) D1 ( ) Dm ( )

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Semi-Log Plot
50

40

30

20

10
Key 2: Normalized factored
0 form is easy to show that
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
0.01 0.1 1
how 10
is
2 times of (1 octave) or
Normalized factored form when is 10 times of (1
frequency response j
G (s ) = 1 +
s
with > 0 G ( j ) = 1 + axis.
=0

2

2
decibel response
A ( ) = G ( j ) = 1 + AdB ( ) = 20log10 1+

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Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Zero (I)
Zero on Negative Real Axis Amplitude Response

2
j
2
s
G (s ) = 1 + with > 0 G ( j ) = 1 + A ( ) = 1 + AdB ( ) = 20log10 1+

10

50

40

+6 dB/oct. (or +20 dB/dec.)

30

20

=
10
E BP
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
0.01 0.1 1 10 100

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Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Zero (II)
Zero on Negative Real Axis Phase Response
s j
G (s ) = 1 + with > 0 G ( j ) = 1 + ( ) = tan1

100 
90 

80 E

60
() (deg)

45
40 BP =

20


0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
0.01 0.1 1 10 100

47/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Pole (I)
Pole on Negative Real Axis Amplitude Response

2
1 1 1
G (s ) = with > 0 G ( j ) = A ( ) = AdB ( ) = 20log10 1+
s j

2
1+ 1+
1+

0 BP

=
10 E 6 dB/oct. (or 20 dB/dec.)

20

30 

40

50
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
0.01 0.1 1 10 100

48/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Negative Real Pole (II)
Pole on Negative Real Axis Phase Response
1 1
G (s ) = with > 0 G ( j ) = ( ) = tan1
s j
1+ 1+

100

0 

20 E
() (deg)

40
=
45
60

BP
80 

90
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
0.01 0.1 1 10 100

49/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Zero at Origin (I)
Zero at Origin Amplitude Response
G (s ) = s G ( j ) = j A ( ) = AdB ( ) = 20log10

10


0

10

20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

50/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Zero at Origin (II)
Zero at Origin Phase Response
G (s ) = s G ( j ) = j ( ) = 90

100
90

80

60
() (deg)

45
40

20

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
0.01 0.1 1 10 100

51/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Pole at Origin (I)
Pole at Origin Amplitude Response
1 1 1 1
G (s ) = G ( j ) = A ( ) = AdB ( ) = 20log10 = 20log10
s j

10


0

10

20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

52/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Bode Plot Forms - Pole at Origin (II)
Pole at Origin Phase Response
1 1
G (s ) = G ( j ) = ( ) = 90
s j

0

20
() (deg)

40

60

80
90

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

53/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Example (I)
2000 ( s + 4 )
Consider G (s ) = , plot the amplitude frequency response.
s 2 + 116s + 1600

s j
5 1+ 5 1+
G (s ) = 4 G ( j ) = 4
s s j j
1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +
16 100 16 100

5 1+
4
A ( ) =

2 2

1+ 1+
16 100

2 2 2

AdB ( ) = 20log10 A ( ) = 14 + 20log10 1 + 20log 1 + 20log10 1 +

4 16 100

( ) = tan1 tan1 tan1
4 16 100

54/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Example (II)

30
26 dB

20
14 dB
+6 dB/oct. 6 dB/oct.
14

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
1 10 100 1k 10 k

55/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

RC Low-pass Filter
R

+ +

v1 C v2

1
0.1b b = 10b
RC
V2 ( s ) 1
fb =
1 G (s ) = =
0.1 f b 2 RC 10 f b V1 ( s ) 1 + sRC
f
0 1
b =
RC
1
G( s ) =
45 
s
1+
b

90

56/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

RC High-pass Filter
R

+ +

v1 C v2

1
0.1b b = 10b
RC
V2 ( s ) sRC
fb =
1 G (s ) = =
0.1 f b 2 RC 10 f b V1 ( s ) 1 + sRC
f
+90 1
b =
RC
s
+45 
G (s ) =
b
s
1+
b

0 1
fb =
2 RC

57/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Roots of the 2nd-oredr Denominator
The Quadratic Denominator: P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2 or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2

roots s1
= 2 n 2 = n n 2 1
s2
Overdamped Circuit: > n or when > 1 Two real roots

Underdamped Circuit: < n or when < 1 Complex conjugate roots

roots s1
= j n 2 2 = j d = n jn 1 2
s2
The Normalized Form for Bode Plot:
n2 1 1
G (s ) = 2 G (s ) = G ( j ) =
s + 2n s + n2 s s
2 2

1 + 2 + 1 + j 2
n n n n

58/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Second-order Lowpass Function
Second-order Amplitude and Phase Responses:

1 1 1
G ( j ) = 2
A ( ) = =

2 2 4
2 2

1 + j 2
n n
2
1 + 4 ( )
1 + 4 2 +
2

n n n n

2 4

( )
AdB ( ) = 20log10 1 + 4 2 +
2

n n

2
n
( ) = tan1 2

1
n

It seems not easy to draw the Bode plot, how do you think?
Lets go back to the roots of the quadratic denominator.

59/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Root Locations and Frequency Response (I)
The Quadratic Denominator: P (s ) = s 2 + 2 s + n 2 or P (s ) = s 2 + 2n s + n 2
roots s1
= 2 n 2 = n n 2 1
s2
roots
c s1 n + n 2 1 = 1
For damping ratio > 1 =
v s2 n n 2 1 = 2
j 6 dB/oct.
s-plane
s2 s1 c 12 dB/oct.

v
increases 1 2
j
s-plane 6 dB/oct.
s2 s1 c
12 dB/oct.
v
1 2
60/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT
Root Locations and Frequency Response (II)
roots
c s + 2
1 = n = 1
For damping ratio = 1
1
= n n

v s2 2 1 = =
n n n 1

j
s-plane
s1 12 dB/oct.
c

v
1

So, when = 1 you get double roots while > 1 you get two different
real roots.
For 1 , the same principle as first-order poles (or zeros) for Bode
plot can be applied. (two 1st-order roots)
For > 1, a higher means that two real roots depart farther.

61/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Root Locations and Frequency Response (III)
roots s1 n + jn 1 2 = + jd
For damping ratio < 1 c =
v s2 n jn 1 2 = jd

= n j AdB ( )
j n <1
=1
= s1 jd
n c
v
s2 jd
n
j n
decreases
j n <1
jd =1
s1
c
v
n
s2 jd
j n Chien-Jung, Li, Dept. E.E. & Grad. Inst.
Computer and Comm. Engineering, NTUT

62/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT

Frequency Response of a Second-order System
15
= 0.1
10
5 = 0.2

0 = 0.5
5
10 = 0.707
15
=1
20
25
30
35 12 dB/octave
40
0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10
0
= 0.1
45 = 0.2
= 0.707
() (dB)

= 0.5
90
=1
135

180
0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10
n
63/64 Department of Electronic Engineering, NTUT
Example
Determine (a) The transfer function G(s) = V2(s)/V1(s) (b) , n , and fn
(c) Frequency response of the given RLC circuit.
0.1 H 0.1s

+ + + +

v1 ( t ) 0.1 F 5 k v2 (t ) V1 ( s ) 107
5000 V2 ( s )
s

107
5000
s 5000 107 107
Zp = = =
107 5000s + 107 s + 2000
5000 +
s
V2 ( s ) Zp 107
G (s ) = = =
V1 ( s ) Z p + 0.1s 0.1s 2 + 200s + 107 n = 108 = 104 rad/s
8