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Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946

Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materialsg a u t h o r a t : K a r a d e n i z T e k n i k U niv. Maden Muh. Bol. 61080, Tra- bzon, Turkey. Tel.: +90 462 377 3171; fax: +90 462 325 7405. E-mail address: bercikdi@ktu.edu.tr (B. Ercikdi). 0304-3894/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.096 In concrete industry, water-reducing admixtures (WRAs), also known as plasticisers and superplasticisers, are extensively used to produce high strength concrete without increasing the dosage of a binder [6–9] . Lignosulphonate, naphthalene sulfonate and polycarboxylate-based admixtures are the well-known reagents with their capacity to reduce water content by 5–30% [7–10] . Papayianni et al. [8] reported that the concrete mixtures containing a polycarboxylate type WRA produced 1.5 times higher UCSs than those of reference mixtures at 28 days of curing period. Erdogdu [7] demonstrated that the impact of a superplasticiser depended on the cement type with the highest gain of strength that occurred at a dosage of 3% of dry cement. WRAs could be potentially exploited for CPB since the desired consistency for the transport of CPB to underground can be achieved at low w/c ratios with the likely reduction in the oper- ational costs of CBP [11–13] . The reduction in w/c ratio would be expected to improve microstructure and alleviate the short- and long-term strength and stability problems encountered particu- larly in CPB of sulphide-rich tailings [5] . These problems are alleged to be associated with the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings [14–19] . Despite extensive use in concrete, the use of WRAs in CPB has received very limited attention with no data available on CPB of high sulphide tailings. Klein and Simon [12] reported the bene- ficial effect of WRAs on the strength and stability of CPB samples prepared from low grade sulphide tailings (5.9%S). They recorded consistently higher UCSs (1.8 times over 360 days) than those of CPB without WRA presumably due to the reduction of water content from 28% to 24–26%. " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">

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Journal of Hazardous Materials

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Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materialsg a u t h o r a t : K a r a d e n i z T e k n i k U niv. Maden Muh. Bol. 61080, Tra- bzon, Turkey. Tel.: +90 462 377 3171; fax: +90 462 325 7405. E-mail address: bercikdi@ktu.edu.tr (B. Ercikdi). 0304-3894/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.096 In concrete industry, water-reducing admixtures (WRAs), also known as plasticisers and superplasticisers, are extensively used to produce high strength concrete without increasing the dosage of a binder [6–9] . Lignosulphonate, naphthalene sulfonate and polycarboxylate-based admixtures are the well-known reagents with their capacity to reduce water content by 5–30% [7–10] . Papayianni et al. [8] reported that the concrete mixtures containing a polycarboxylate type WRA produced 1.5 times higher UCSs than those of reference mixtures at 28 days of curing period. Erdogdu [7] demonstrated that the impact of a superplasticiser depended on the cement type with the highest gain of strength that occurred at a dosage of 3% of dry cement. WRAs could be potentially exploited for CPB since the desired consistency for the transport of CPB to underground can be achieved at low w/c ratios with the likely reduction in the oper- ational costs of CBP [11–13] . The reduction in w/c ratio would be expected to improve microstructure and alleviate the short- and long-term strength and stability problems encountered particu- larly in CPB of sulphide-rich tailings [5] . These problems are alleged to be associated with the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings [14–19] . Despite extensive use in concrete, the use of WRAs in CPB has received very limited attention with no data available on CPB of high sulphide tailings. Klein and Simon [12] reported the bene- ficial effect of WRAs on the strength and stability of CPB samples prepared from low grade sulphide tailings (5.9%S). They recorded consistently higher UCSs (1.8 times over 360 days) than those of CPB without WRA presumably due to the reduction of water content from 28% to 24–26%. " id="pdf-obj-0-17" src="pdf-obj-0-17.jpg">

Utilization of water-reducing admixtures in cemented paste backfill of sulphide-rich mill tailings

Bayram Ercikdi , Ferdi Cihangir, Ayhan Kesimal, Haci Deveci, Ibrahim ˙ Alp

Department of Mining Eng., Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

article

info

Article history:

Received 1 March 2010

Received in revised form 23 March 2010 Accepted 23 March 2010

Available online 27 March 2010

Keywords:

Cemented paste backfill

Water-reducing admixtures Sulphide tailings Consistency Stability

abstract

This study presents the effect of three different water-reducing admixtures (WRAs) on the rheological and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples. A 28-day strength of 0.7 MPa and the maintenance of the stability (i.e. 0.7 MPa) over 360 days of curing were desired as the design criteria. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland composite cement (PCC) were used as binders at 5 wt.% dose. WRAs were initially tested to determine the dosage of a WRA for a required consistency of 7

for CPB mixtures. A total of 192 CPB samples were then prepared using WRAs. The utilization of WRAs enhanced the flow characteristics of the CPB mixture and allowed to achieve the same consistency at a lower water-to-cement ratio. For OPC, the addition of WRAs appeared to improve the both short- and long-term performance of CPB samples. However, only polycarboxylate-based superplasticiser produced the desired 28-day strength of 0.7 MPa when PCC was used as the binder. These findings suggest that WRAs can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich tailings to improve the strength and stability in short and long terms allowing to reduce binder costs in a CPB plant.

© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Process tailings mixed with water and a hydraulic binder can be placed underground as cemented paste backfill (CPB) [1]. CPB is potentially one of the best practical approaches for the manage- ment of process tailings since it offers significant environmental, technical and economic benefits. These include the alleviation of the environmental impact of potentially hazardous mill tailings (e.g. sulphide tailings, in particular) by disposal of them safely into underground, the support of underground openings to provide a safe working environment and minimize surface subsidence, and the reduction of the tailings disposal and rehabilitation costs [2–4]. The amount of the tailings to be placed underground depend on the solids contents (typically ranges between 70 and 85 wt.% solids) and flowability of the paste mixtures. Increasing solid concentration usually increases the strength and stability of CPB at the expense of a reduction in the consistency (slump) of mixtures. It is of prac- tical importance to note that CPB is required to contain sufficient water to achieve the desired consistency for its transport from the paste plant to the underground openings. However, an increase in the water-to-cement (w/c) ratio adversely affects the strength and stability of CPB [5].

Corresponding author at: Karadeniz Teknik Univ. Maden Muh. Bol. 61080, Tra- bzon, Turkey. Tel.: +90 462 377 3171; fax: +90 462 325 7405. E-mail address: bercikdi@ktu.edu.tr (B. Ercikdi).

0304-3894/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.096

In concrete industry, water-reducing admixtures (WRAs), also known as plasticisers and superplasticisers, are extensively used to produce high strength concrete without increasing the dosage of a binder [6–9]. Lignosulphonate, naphthalene sulfonate and polycarboxylate-based admixtures are the well-known reagents with their capacity to reduce water content by 5–30% [7–10]. Papayianni et al. [8] reported that the concrete mixtures containing a polycarboxylate type WRA produced 1.5 times higher UCSs than those of reference mixtures at 28 days of curing period. Erdogdu [7] demonstrated that the impact of a superplasticiser depended on the cement type with the highest gain of strength that occurred at a dosage of 3% of dry cement. WRAs could be potentially exploited for CPB since the desired consistency for the transport of CPB to underground can be achieved at low w/c ratios with the likely reduction in the oper- ational costs of CBP [11–13]. The reduction in w/c ratio would be expected to improve microstructure and alleviate the short- and long-term strength and stability problems encountered particu- larly in CPB of sulphide-rich tailings [5]. These problems are alleged to be associated with the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings [14–19]. Despite extensive use in concrete, the use of WRAs in CPB has received very limited attention with no data available on CPB of high sulphide tailings. Klein and Simon [12] reported the bene- ficial effect of WRAs on the strength and stability of CPB samples prepared from low grade sulphide tailings (5.9%S). They recorded consistently higher UCSs (1.8 times over 360 days) than those of CPB without WRA presumably due to the reduction of water content from 28% to 24–26%.

B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946

Table 1 Chemical and physical properties of binders and tailings used [5].

941

Oxide composition

SiO 2 (%)

Al 2 O 3 (%)

Fe 2 O 3 (%)

CaO (%)

MgO (%)

Na 2 O (%)

K 2 O (%)

S (%)

Remarks

Tailings

11.39

3.27

50.9

0.95

1.19

0.17

0.23

26.2

49% FeS 2

OPC

20.3

5.9

2.8

61.0

1.2

0.3

1.1

PCC

24.51

7.15

3.42

54.36

1.24

0.53

1.38

– 20% additive

Physical properties

G s (–)

S S (cm 2 /g)

>90 m (%)

>45 m (%)

D 10 ( m)

D 30 ( m)

D 80 ( m)

C u ( m)

C c (–)

%Fine (<20 m)

Tailings

4.09

3584

4.0

15.0

62

9.3

1.52

40

OPC

3.01

4345

2.2

15.8

PCC

2.94

4280

2.1

15.4

G s : specific gravity; S S : specific surface; C u : coefficient of uniformity (D 60 /D 10 ); C c : coefficient of curvature ((D 30 ) 2 /(D 10 × D 60 )).

 

Table 2

Properties of the WRAs used in the tests.

 
 

P1

SP1

SP2

Commercial name

EUCO-FILL 30 (Euclid Chemical Inc.)

 

IKSAMENT NS (Iksa Beton ve Yapı Kimyasalları Inc.)

POLYCAR-100 (Iksa Beton ve Yapı Kimyasalları Inc.)

Chemical base

Lignin

Poly naphthalene sulfonate condensate

Polycarboxylate condensate

Recommended dosage (%by mass of cement)

0.5–0.7

1.0–1.2

1.5–1.8

Standard (ASTM C 494)

Type A

Type F

Type F

Density (g/cm 3 )

1.19

1.22

1.05

pH

6.6–9.6

6.5–8.0

6.5–8.0

In this study, the effect of three different WRAs on the rheologi- cal properties of CPB mixtures produced from sulphide-rich tailings was examined using ordinary Portland cement and Portland com- posite cement as binders. The influence of WRAs on the strength and stability performance of CPB was also evaluated over a cur- ing period of 360 days. Potential benefits of WRAs for CPB were discussed.

  • 2. Materials and methods

    • 2.1. Tailings and binders

The tailings sample used in this study were obtained from a copper–zinc underground mine located in the northeast of Turkey. Particle size analysis of the tailings indicated that the tailings can be classified as a medium size tailings material since 40 wt.% of the sample was finer than 20 m in size (Table 1) [20]. Chemical com- position of the tailings and binders were performed according to TS EN 196-2 [21]. The tailings sample was determined to be rich in sulphide (26.2% S) (Table 1) and to contain pyrite as the major sulphide mineral [5]. Further detailed physical, chemical and min- eralogical properties of the tailings used in this study can be found

Table 3

A summary of the experimental conditions used in the preparation of CPB samples.

elsewhere [5,22,23]. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) (Type I) and Portland composite cement (PCC) were used as the binders in this study (Table 1). PCC contains a natural pozzolan of volcanic origin (14%) and limestone (6%) as mineral admixtures.

  • 2.2. Admixtures

Three different water-reducing admixtures (P1, SP1 and SP2) were used as the WRAs in this study. P1 is a lignin sulphonic based agent composed of water, calcium lignosulfonate, sodium lignosulfonate and triethanolamine. SP1, namely polynaphthalene sulfonate condensate, and SP2, namely polycarboxylate conden- sate, are particularly suggested for the applications where high range water reducing and high performance for strength are desired [8]. These admixtures (Table 2) comply with the relative specifications in ASTM C 494 [24].

  • 2.3. Slump tests

A series of slump tests were performed to evaluate the consis- tency of CPB mixtures to achieve 7 slump. WRAs were tested by

Binder type

Additive type and dosage

Solids content (SC) b (wt.%)

Binder dosage (BD) c (wt.%)

Water-to-cement ratio (w/c) d

Slump (in.)

Type

AD a (wt.%)

 

OPC

77.0

5.0

5.97

7.0

P1

7.0

78.1

5.60

7.2

SP1

6.0

78.2

5.59

SP2

5.4

5.58

PCC

77.0

5.0

5.97

7.0

P1

7.0

78.1

5.60

SP1

6.0

78.2

5.59

SP2

5.4

5.58

a

b

c

AD : 100×(M WRAs )

SC :

(M dry-binder ) . 100×(M dry-tailings +M dry-binder )

(M dry-tailings +M dry-binder +M water +M WRAs

BD :

100×(M dry-binder )

(M dry-binder +M dry-tailings ) .

  • d w/c : M water +M WRAs

M

dry-binder

; (M: weight).

.

  • 942 B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946

942 B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 Fig. 1. Preparation

Fig. 1. Preparation and testing of CPB samples: mixing (a); casting (b); curing (c) and UCS tests (d).

varying their dosages in the range of 0.7–7.0% (i.e. by mass of dry binder). Binder dosage was kept constant at 5 wt.% of solids (tailings plus binder on dry basis). Previous studies have shown that WRAs are more effective when their addition to the paste is delayed by 30–60 s after the cement comes into contact with water [12,25]. Therefore, the WRAs were added in 1 min after the cement come into contact with water. The slump tests were conducted according to ASTM C 143 [26].

  • 2.4. Preparation and testing of CPB samples

A number of CPB samples (192 in total) were prepared by blend- ing the tailings sample, binder (OPC and PCC), mix water (the tailings water and tap water) and water-reducing admixtures in a Univex SRMF20 Stand model blender equipped with a double spi-

942 B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 Fig. 1. Preparation

Fig. 2. The effect of WRAs on the rheological properties of CPB samples prepared from OPC and PCC at a binder dosage of 5 wt.%.

ral. The experimental conditions (i.e. w/c ratio, solids content and slump) were given in Table 3. The CPB mixtures were thoroughly mixed and poured into plas- tic cylinders of 10 × 20 cm (D × H cm) in size (Fig. 1a and b). The open-top cylinders were placed in a humidity room for curing (Fig. 1c). Over the curing period, the room was maintained at approximately 80% humidity and 25 C temperature in order to ensure the curing of the samples under the conditions similar to the underground mines. Following a predetermined period (up to 360 days) of curing, the CPB samples were tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS) according to ASTM C 39 [27]. Prior to a UCS test, the ends of a sample were rectified to get plane surfaces. UCS tests were performed using a computer-controlled mechanical press, which had a load capacity of 50 kN and a displacement speed of 0.5 mm per minute (Fig. 1d). The CPB systems are often designed to produce a 28-day unconfined compressive strength of 0.7–2 MPa depending on the application [1]. In this study, the strength and

942 B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 Fig. 1. Preparation

Fig. 3. The effect of WRAs on the mechanical performance of CPB samples prepared from OPC at a binder dosage of 5 wt.%.

B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946

943

B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 943 Fig. 4. The

Fig. 4. The effect of WRAs on the mechanical performance of CPB samples prepared from PCC at a binder dosage of 5 wt.%.

stability performance of CPB samples were evaluated based on the threshold value of 0.7 MPa for 28-day UCS.

  • 2.5. SEM and XRD studies

The fractured samples obtained from UCS tests after 360 days were examined under a LEO Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with a Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) unit. The samples were dried in an oven maintained at 50 C and then treated with acetone to halt further hydration prior to SEM observations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) (Philips X’pert PW 3040 Diffractometer) analyses of the acetone-treated CPB samples were also performed to examine the mineralogical composition of CPB samples after the curing process. XRD scanning of the samples was carried out over a 2 range of 5–70 with a 0.005 step size.

B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 943 Fig. 4. The

Fig. 6. XRD pattern for the CPB sample prepared from PCC+ SP1 after a curing period of 360 days (Py (Pyrite); Qtz (Quartz), Ill (Illite), Chl (Chlorite), C (Plaster of Paris), Fsp (Feldspar), Brt (Barite)).

  • 3. Results and discussion

    • 3.1. Effect of water-reducing admixtures on the rheological

properties of CPB

The effect of WRAs on the rheological properties of cement- based mixtures has been highlighted in many studies [8,9,11,28]. In this study, the slump tests were initially designed to determine the dosage of a WRA to produce a CPB mixture at 7 slump, which is the minimum slump required for the efficient transport of CPB mixture to underground as indicated by the plant practice [29]. Fig. 2 illus- trates the effect of dosage of three different WRAs (P1, SP1 and SP2) on the slump of CPB samples prepared from OPC and PCC at a fixed

B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 943 Fig. 4. The

Fig. 5. SEM images of the CPB samples prepared from OPC+P1 (a) and OPC+SP2 (b) at a binder dosage of 5 wt.%.

  • 944 B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946

binder dosage of 5 wt.%. As expected, the consistency of CPB mix- tures increased with increasing the dosage of WRAs. The findings suggest that, compared with the control (i.e. no WRA), the water content (and hence w/c ratio) of CPB mixtures at 7 slump could be reduced by 6.6% by the addition of P1, SP1 and SP2 at those predetermined dosages of, respectively, 7%, 6% and 5.4% (by mass of dry binder). The performance of WRAs appeared to depend on the binder type as they are more effective for OPC than for PCC. The findings

also showed the respective capacity of WRAs (i.e. P1, SP1 and SP2 in a decreasing order) based on the dosage required to produce a 7 slump. To illustrate, the required dosages of P1, SP1 and SP2 to achieve 7 in. slump for CPB mixtures prepared from PCC were found to be 7%, 6% and 5.4% (by mass of dry binder), respectively (Table 3). CBP samples at 7 slump were shown to be produced at lower dosages of these WRAs when OPC was used as the binder (Fig. 2). Such variations in the performance of WRAa could be attributed to inherent characteristics of binders, admixtures and interaction

944 B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946 binder dosage of

Fig. 7. Visual appearance of 360-day cured CPB samples prepared from OPC without (a and c) and with WRA (b) showing the contribution of WRA to the stability of CPB as indicated by the formation of no cracks.

B. Ercikdi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 179 (2010) 940–946

945

between cement and admixtures [5,28]. Consistent with these find- ings, Erdogdu [7] also identified the composition of cement to be the most influential factor determining the mechanical performance of a superplasticiser with its higher compatibility with OPC than with PCCs. Huynh et al. [11] demonstrated the beneficial effect of polyphosphate and naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde conden- sate on the rheological properties (i.e. yield stress) of dewatered tailings containing predominantly magnetite and quartz. They also noted unexpectedly low performance for polyphosphate in CPB, which was attributed to its chemical interaction with Ca in cement phase.

  • 3.2. Effect of water-reducing admixtures on the mechanical

properties of CPB

A previous study by the authors [5] had shown that CPB sam- ples produced from the same tailings (Table 1) suffered consistently from low strength and stability performance (i.e. failure to maintain a UCS of 0.7 MPa over 28–360 days of curing period) irrespec- tive of the binder type (OPC, PCC and sulphate resistant cement) at 5% binder dosage. They had demonstrated that an increase in the binder dosage (>5%) was required to achieve the desired mechan- ical performance. They had also revealed that a reduction in w/c ratio from 5.97 to 5.81 could remarkably ameliorate the strength of CPB samples. However, it would have adversely affected the flowa- bility of CPB mixture as indicated by the corresponding decrease in slump from 7 to 6.5 . Therefore, in the current study, WRAs were tested to reduce w/c ratio and improve the flowability and strength performance of CPB without increasing binder dosage or decreasing the slump value. Figs. 3 and 4 show the effect of WRAs (P1, SP1 and SP2) on the short- and long-term strength development of CPB samples pre- pared from OPC and PCC at a fixed binder dosage of 5 wt.%. In these tests, P1, SP1 and SP2 were added at the predetermined dosages for 7 slump (Fig. 2). The strength development of CPB samples was similar in character in that the UCSs of CPB samples peaked at an initial curing period of 56-90 days; thereafter, a tendency for decline was observed. The addition of WRAs was found to significantly improve the strength gain of CPB samples over the curing periods. The contri- bution ofWRAs to the mechanical performance of CPB depended on type of agent and binder. In this regard, the superplasticisers (SP1 and SP2) were more effective than the plasticiser (P1) and, in terms of strength gain, SP1 and SP2 were the most compatible WRAs with OPC and PCC, respectively. Klein and Simon [12] tested the performance of polycarboxylated acrylic acid-, naphthalene and melamine sulfonic acid-based four different superplasticizers for CPB of low sulphide (5.9% S) tailings. They observed that all the WRAs improved the flowability and 28-day strength of CPB and allowed to reduce the water content from 28% down to 24–26%. They also noted that the carboxylated acrylic acid-based superplas- ticizer was the most efficient leading to 80% higher one-year UCS than that of the control. The CPB samples prepared from OPC and WRAs were able to produce a 28-day UCS of 0.7 MPa (i.e. the desired threshold value for the mechanical performance) and to maintain the stability (0.7 MPa UCS) over 360 days of curing periods. However, apart from those containing SP2, PCC based CPB samples failed to develop a UCS of 0.7 MPa at 28 days. Over the curing period between 90 and 360 days, the UCSs of CPB samples prepared from OPC and PCC with WRAs were approximately 20–50% higher than those of CPB samples without WRAs. The addition of WRAs remarkably miti- gated the deterioration in the stability of CPB samples of OPC and PCC, i.e. only 1–8% and 13% losses in strength, respectively, cf. 25% and 15% without WRAs over the same curing period. The beneficial effect of the addition of P1, SP1 and SP2 on the strength and sta-

bility CPB could be attributed to a better dispersion of the cement and tailings grains in the CPB matrix and, more importantly, the reduction of w/c ratio [9]. The microstructure of CPB is expected to improve by the reduction in w/c ratio due to the decreased porosity and permeability and hence, better particle packing and a denser structure [5,8,11,30,31]. This may, in turn, mitigate the oxidation of pyrite present in CPB due to the likely attenuation of ingress of moisture and air. It has been reported that sulphates (SO 4 2 ) present in the mix- ing water and those produced by the oxidation of pyrite present in CPB can react with free calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), giv- ing rise to the formation secondary gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O) and ettringite (3CaSO 4 ·Al 2 O 3 ·32H 2 O) [5,15–19,32–34]. SEM and EDX analysis of CPB samples indicated the presence of sulphate phases (e.g. secondary gypsum and ferrous sulphate) within CPB sam- ples with WRAs as shown in Fig. 5. No ettringite/gypsum was identified in XRD studies of CPB samples with WRAs (Fig. 6) pre- sumable due to their presence below the detection limit or low crystallinity. The excessive formation of these expansive prod- ucts can reduce the strength and stability of CPB as observed in Figs. 3 and 4. In this regard, the development of severe cracks was observed in the CPB samples without WRAs (Fig. 7a and c). Consistent with their better mechanical performance, no such cracks were apparent when WRAs were added (Fig. 7b). It is pertinent to note that the formation of secondary gypsum or fer- rous sulphate in certain quantity could be beneficial allegedly for filling the voids within CPB and, in turn, decreasing porosity

[32,35,36].

4. Conclusion

This study reveals the influence of the addition of lignin (P1), polynapthalene sulfonate (SP1) and polycarboxylate (SP2) based water-reducing admixtures (WRAs) on the rheological and mechanical properties of CPB produced from sulphide-rich tailings. The addition of these WRAs appeared to improve the consistency and the strength development of CPB. The performance of a WRA depended mainly on the type of WRA and binder. Compared with P1 and SP1, SP2 was the most effective agent producing the desired slump of 7 at the lowest dosage. At the predetermined dosages for 7 slump, WRAs allowed to reduce the water content (and hence the w/c ratio) by 6.6% with the concomitant enhancement (by 20–50%) in the mechanical performance of CPB. OPC-based CPB samples were able to achieve the desired mechanical perfor- mance (i.e. 0.7 MPa UCS over 28 days) only in the presence of WRAs. Furthermore, the addition of WRAs was shown to remark- ably alleviate the stability problems (i.e. loss of strength) in the long term. Despite the significant improvement observed in the strength development of PCC based CPB samples, the beneficial effect ofWRAs on the long-term stability was limited and only those samples containing SP2 produced the desired 28-day strength of 0.7 MPa. This study highlights the beneficial effect of WRAs in CPB of high sulphide tailings to sustain/enhance the mechanical performance and flowability by reducing w/c ratio without increasing binder dosage or decreasing the slump value.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their sincere thanks and appreciation for the financial support to the Research Foundation of Karadeniz Technical University (Project No: 2005.112.008.1), to TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) (Project No: 107M183) and finally, to Prof. Dr. S¸ akir Erdogdu ˘ for helping to improve the quality of the manuscript.

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