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RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 1

Teaching Portfolio

Andrew Hill

The University of Texas at San Antonio


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Table of Contents

Philosophy of Teaching: Second Language Writing

Reflection

Module 1

Module 2

Module 3

Module 4

Module 5

Module 6

Module 7

Module 8

Module 9
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Philosophy of Teaching: Second Language Writing

I believe that L2 writing teachers serve to empower their students. This viewpoint echoes Nelson

Mandelas words of wisdom: Education is the most powerful [tool] which you can use to

change [your life, your community, and] the world. My experiences teaching EFL writing,

coupled with my TESOL graduate studies, inform my philosophy. As writing instructor, I strive

to achieve the following:

(a) Teach the writing process and stress its value,

(b) Prepare students to participate in writing communities beyond the classroom, and

(c) Inspire, equip, and in doing so empower.

The Writing Process. Integral to L2 writing instruction is the writing process. I teach my

students to recognize the value of (and then carry out) planning, writing, revising, and publishing

of texts. I counsel students at each phase. A students experience drafting a text is as significant,

sometimes more so, than their final product. I also stress the importance of self-discovery in this

process. I ask my students to write about subjects they find meaningful (Ferris and Hedgecock,

2014, p. 65). Students often find value in journaling personal feelings that are sometimes

difficult to convey in a second language. I work to empower my pupils and make certain they

feel their newfound voice is capable, legitimate, and a force for positive change.

Digital Literacy. L2 writing is no longer a mere matter of putting pen to paper. I empower L2

writers to communicate via prominent social media platforms and to critically evaluate digital

information they interact with. Teachers have at their disposal a spectrum of digital tools that
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help students to become conscientious digital citizens. I am particularly enthused by

opportunities for digital storytelling in the classroom. Students often relish the opportunity to

transform personal stories into short films (by manipulating words, imagery, music, and

narration) and then share with family, classmates, and the online community. They often serve as

a tremendous point of pride. Multimodal endeavors can be another opportunity to engage in the

writing process (Christiansen and Koelzer, 2016, p. 1 and 2).

Error Correction. I typically correct errors as opposed to idiomatic style. As I evaluate each

students text, I seek persistent patterns and mark only those. By targeting patterns of error, I can

strategically help students to improve their writing. Marking every error may serve to simply

distress. I strive to create a classroom atmosphere where students feel comfortable. In multi-draft

assignments, I mark for content and structure in the first few drafts. I mark for grammatical

errors in the final draft. I like to assign writing activities that require use of a word processor. At

the beginning of a writing course, I highlight student errors. I indicate problems, and offer

solutions. As the course progresses, I highlight the problem but offer no solution. I want students

to eventually seek answers themselves and engage in critical problem solving (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 285).

It is no coincidence that I use the word empower multiple times. Each and every student has a

rich and complex worldview they bring to the classroom and then learn to share with their new

language communities. I will teach my students the value of finding and using their voice in

English language writing, and I will do so with empathy, creativity, and unbound enthusiasm.



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Reflection


This is, so far as I can recall, the first teaching portfolio assignment I have written and

organized. Constructing each writing assignment (Modules 1 9) has proven to be such an

awesome exercise. I can understand why this activity would both benefit and appeal to students

of composition and literacy (L1 and L2). As I revised each assignment and organized all in the

text of a single document, I experienced a great deal of pride. I learned a lot and accomplished a

great deal in the course of this first semester. Compiling this document these past few weeks has

also been a great refresher as far as content is concerned. In truth, I was unable to revise my

writing assignment up until this past week. The demands of each assignment each week and

the demands of my counterpart classes prevented me from doing so. At first I found this a bit

frustrating and I imagined the final weeks of this course would prove overwhelming! That said,

I benefited from having to go reread and reconsider specific portions of our course texts. I was

able to analyze the material in light of the all we had learned.

I think creating a website on which to store and display our portfolios is also a great

exercise. Just like using Facebook, doing so is a tool and exercise to which we can introduce our

future students. I can see how navigating and utilizing these wiki online website tools might

overwhelm some students (just as effectively compiling a portfolio that is more than one hundred

pages in length might be overwhelming). That said, its a worthy endeavor and I enjoyed the

process!





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Module 1

Application Activity 1.2: Schematic and Rhetorical Text Analysis



Introduction to English Composition meets every Monday at 2pm. I teach this course at a

private university in South Korea. My class consists of twelve L2 students, all native South

Koreans. For next Mondays class I have selected, for purposes of instruction, a New York

Times Article. Its title is The Great Affluence Fallacy and its author is David Brooks. This

text, per genres listed on page 27 of Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and Practice,

may be categorized as a nonacademic informational text for a general audience (Hedgecock,

Ferris 2014 27) and Op-Ed.

This articles central premise is as follows: Americans have long, but perhaps mistakenly,

valued individualism over the well-being of community. The value set of American millennials

seems to be shifting from the former to the latter (Brooks 2016).

I chose this article for two reasons. First, while it concerns American (instead of Korean)

culture directly, its central premise is one my Korean students may find value in. South Koreas

culture has strong elements of communitarianism. That said, Korea has experienced a boom in

individualism, one that parallels a boom in its national economy. The balance of these competing

values may be of concern to my students. Second, it expounds on American culture as it

concerns millennials, Americans aged 18 - 34 (Fry 2016). My Korean L2 students have

expressed interest in this culture and in understanding their American counterpart peer group. Six

of the twelve students have expressed a desire to study in the United States.

In order to effectively utilize this article in the classroom I must consider my students

schematic knowledge. This term is defined below.


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Prior knowledge about texts, their genre categories, their purposes, and their formal

properties make up learners schematic knowledge. Schema, a script or frame

consisting of a mental framework that organizes prior knowledge, refers to an

individuals knowledge about a topic, text, or experience (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart,

1980; Rumelhart, Smolensky, McClelland, & Hinton, 1986). (Hedgecock, Ferris 2014

17).

Schemata have three stratifications: content, cultural, and formal. Content Schema is

defined as an individuals prior knowledge of the ideas expressed in an oral or written text

(Hedgecock, p. 17). Cultural schema, defined as knowledge about culture-specific practices,

traditions, relationships, identities, beliefs, and values, (Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 19) is

considered a cultural extension of content schemata as the two are inextricably intertwined

(Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 17).

Brooks assumes his readership is familiar with the following value: pursuit of happiness.

His readership, culture and country of origin notwithstanding, may recognize and relate to this

value. This article, however, focuses on this evolving pursuit within the United States. My

Korean students may be unfamiliar with the American variety. Consequently, I would explore

the historical importance of this pursuit with my students.

Brooks also assumes his readership is familiar with communitarianisms relation to the

American experience and history. Communitarianism, defined by The Oxford Dictionary as

an ideology that emphasizes the responsibility of the individual to the community and the social

importance of the family unit, (Communitarianism) has long been at odds with individualism,

defined by the Oxford Dictionary as the habit or principle of being independent and self-reliant
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(Individualism). Brooks questions the future prospects of strict individualism, suggesting

millennials may now seek a future that values the well-being of community over personal gain.

Finally, Brooks assumes his readership is familiar with millennials, a generational

identity group. My Korean L2 students may identify with this group given their proximity in age

(and aforementioned desire to visit the United States). I would discuss this group with my

students.

Formal schema is defined as the organization of text speech events related to words,

vocabulary, and structure (Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 18).

Brooks employs, and assumes his readership is familiar with, the following words: Native

American, Indian, communal, defecting, habituated, and apotheosis. My Korean L2 students may

be unfamiliar with these eight words (among others).

Brooks uses the words Native American and Indian interchangeably. It is probable

that a Korean L2 student would simply define Native American as an individual born in the

United States and an Indian as an individual born in India. Without background knowledge of

United States history, and prior introduction to this specific vocabulary, my Korean L2 students

may be perplexed by this article. Its therefore quite important that they be introduced to both in

the course of my class.

Brooks assumes his readers are familiar with the rhetorical and meaning making

patterns of English (Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 19). Robert Kaplans study of Contrastive Rhetoric

(CR) suggests L2 students from non-English speaking countries may find it difficult to utilize

these aforementioned patterns in their writing. As Hedgecock and Ferris state: Kaplan observed
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that speakers of certain Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese tended to circle around a

topic or argument rather than approaching it head-on or introducing an explicit argument

(Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 19).

Furthemore:

In subsequent work in the CR tradition, Hinds (1984, 1987, 1990) compared

compositions produced by speakers of Japanese, Korean, and English. He discovered that

Japanese and Korean writers consistently delayed revealing their purposes for writing

until the end of their texts, apparently preferring an inductive (in contrast to deductive)

rhetorical pattern (Hedgecock, 2012; Hudson, 2007). In interpreting his results, Hinds

hypothesized that the texts generated by Japanese and Korean writers reflected an effort

to convince readers of the validity of their arguments before confirming their theses (and

thus gaining their readers sympathy). In contrast, Hinds found that Anglo-American

essay writers generally prerevealed their purposes or arguments quite early in their texts,

adhering to a predominantly deductive rhetorical structure. (Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 20)

Kaplan recommends impressing upon L2 students these aforementioned patterns. I

appreciate Kaplans guidance but take heed of Lis critique of CR:

The most damaging criticism of CR has come from uncritical wholesalers of post-

colonial theory. Kubota (1997, 1999, 2001, 2002) has charged applied linguistics,

TESOL, L2 education, and CR in particular, with essentializing, stereotyping,

homogenizing, othering, and, to top it all off, racism. Pennycook (1998), another major

critic of CR, claimed that Kaplans work reproduces. . .the view of the Other as deviant

and locked in ancient and unchanging modes of thought and action (p. 189). (Li
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2014 109).

My classroom teaching philosophy reflects respect for and consideration of the culture

and linguistic norms of the L2 students I teach. There may be positive lessons to take from

Kaplans study but I must take seriously the critique of Li and others. I appreciate, and agree

with, Hedgecock and Ferriss belief regarding L2 writers:

L2 writers primary languages, home cultures, and prior educational experiences do not

predetermine their cognitive advantages or the potential challenges that they may face in

comprehending and producing unfamiliar rhetorical patterns (Atkinson, 1999; Connor,

2011). L2 writers knowledge bases differ not only from those of monolingual writers of

English, but also from those of other L2 writers. That is, each L2 writer should be viewed

in individual terms, not as a prototype representing a set of essentializing collective

norms or stereotypes (Kubota, 1998, 1999, 2010; Scollon, 1997). (Hedgecock, Ferris

2014 24)

I have included below an instructional guide that aims to 1) help my Korean L2 students

predict the texts content and structure, 2) understand and interpret it, and 3) respond to it in

a writing task of exercise (Hedgecock, Ferris 2014 27).











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Supplemental 1: The Great Affluence Fallacy by David Brooks

Page 1

In 18th-century America, colonial society and Native American society sat side by side. The former was buddingly
commercial; the latter was communal and tribal. As time went by, the settlers from Europe noticed something: No
Indians were defecting to join colonial society, but many whites were defecting to live in the Native American one.

This struck them as strange. Colonial society was richer and more advanced. And yet people were voting with their
feet the other way.

The colonials occasionally tried to welcome Native American children into their midst, but they couldnt persuade
them to stay. Benjamin Franklin observed the phenomenon in 1753, writing, When an Indian child has been
brought up among us, taught our language and habituated to our customs, yet if he goes to see his relations and make
one Indian ramble with them, there is no persuading him ever to return.

During the wars with the Indians, many European settlers were taken prisoner and held within Indian tribes. After a
while, they had plenty of chances to escape and return, and yet they did not. In fact, when they were rescued, they
fled and hid from their rescuers.

Sometimes the Indians tried to forcibly return the colonials in a prisoner swap, and still the colonials refused to go.
In one case, the Shawanese Indians were compelled to tie up some European women in order to ship them back.
After they were returned, the women escaped the colonial towns and ran back to the Indians.

Even as late as 1782, the pattern was still going strong. Hector de Crvecoeur wrote, Thousands of Europeans are
Indians, and we have no examples of even one of those aborigines having from choice become European.

I first read about this history several months ago in Sebastian Jungers excellent book Tribe. It has haunted me
since. It raises the possibility that our culture is built on some fundamental error about what makes people happy and
fulfilled.

The native cultures were more communal. As Junger writes, They would have practiced extremely close and
involved child care. And they would have done almost everything in the company of others. They would have
almost never been alone.If colonial culture was relatively atomized, imagine American culture of today. As weve
gotten richer, weve used wealth to buy space: bigger homes, bigger yards, separate bedrooms, private cars,
autonomous lifestyles. Each individual choice makes sense, but the overall atomizing trajectory sometimes seems to
backfire. According to the World Health Organization, people in wealthy countries suffer depression by as much as
eight times the rate as people in poor countries.
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Supplemental 1: The Great Affluence Fallacy by David Brooks

Page 2

There might be a Great Affluence Fallacy going on we want privacy in individual instances, but often this makes
life generally worse.

Every generation faces the challenge of how to reconcile freedom and community On the Road versus Its a
Wonderful Life. But Im not sure any generation has faced it as acutely as millennials.

In the great American tradition, millennials would like to have their cake and eat it, too. A few years ago,
Macklemore and Ryan Lewis came out with a song called Cant Hold Us, which contained the couplet: We came
here to live life like nobody was watching/I got my city right behind me, if I fall, they got me. In the first line they
want complete autonomy; in the second, complete community.

But, of course, you cant really have both in pure form. If millennials are heading anywhere, it seems to be in the
direction of community. Politically, millennials have been drawn to the class solidarity of the Bernie Sanders
campaign. Hillary Clinton secretive and a wall-builder is the quintessence of boomer autonomy. She has
trouble with younger voters.

Professionally, millennials are famous for bringing their whole self to work: turning the office into a source of
friendships, meaning and social occasions.

Im meeting more millennials who embrace the mentality expressed in the book The Abundant Community, by
John McKnight and Peter Block. The authors are notably hostile to consumerism.

They are anti-institutional and anti-systems. Our institutions can offer only service not care for care is the
freely given commitment from the heart of one to another, they write.

Millennials are oriented around neighborhood hospitality, rather than national identity or the borderless digital
world. A neighborhood is the place where you live and sleep. How many of your physical neighbors know your
name?

Maybe were on the cusp of some great cracking. Instead of just paying lip service to community while living for
autonomy, I get the sense a lot of people are actually about to make the break and immerse themselves in demanding
local community movements. It wouldnt surprise me if the big change in the coming decades were this: an end to
the apotheosis of freedom; more people making the modern equivalent of the Native American leap.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/09/opinion/the-great-affluence-fallacy.html
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Works Cited

Brooks, D. (2016). The Great Affluence Fallacy. Retrieved September 04, 2016, from

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/09/opinion/the-great-affluence-fallacy.html?_r=0

Communitarianism: Definition of communitarianism in Oxford dictionary (American English)

(US). Retrieved September 04, 2016, from

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/communitarianism

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Fry, R. (2016). Millennials overtake Baby Boomers as America's largest generation. Retrieved

September 04, 2016, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/04/25/millennials-

overtake-baby-boomers/

Individualism: Definition of individualism in Oxford dictionary (American English) (US).

Retrieved September 04, 2016, from

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/individualism

Li, X. (2014). Are Cultural differences a mere fiction?: Reflections and arguments on

contrastive rhetoric. Journal of Second Language Writing, 25, 104-113.

doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2014.06.004
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Module 2

Application Activity 2.4: Investigating an Institutional Context

To the Executive Director of Foundation Communities:

This letter is in regard to your English as a Second Language (ESL) program. My name is

Andrew Hill. Im pursuing a Master of Arts in TESL at the University of Texas at San Antonio.

I recently corresponded with your Adult Education Program Manager Kelsie Laing. I hoped to

better understand your Austin-based program. I was impressed and, quite frankly, inspired by her

account of your programs efforts. I felt compelled to pen this letter of praise.

Your ESL program provides meaningful and consequential educational services to vulnerable

populations. As I learned from Ms. Laing, most of your students are resident immigrants from

Central and South America. Resident immigrants have relocated, usually permanently to the

United States (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2013, p. 34). Ms. Laing characterized these students as

voluntary immigrants [as opposed to refugees], [who have] come to a new home for better

professional or economic opportunities (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 35). Among your

students: young stay-at-home mothers and day-laborers (painters, custodians, and construction

workers). Both groups are primarily native Spanish speakers with little to no formal education.

Their education may have been interrupted at points, and they may not necessarily have strong

L1 literacy skills (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 35). As Ms. Laing indicated, a smaller

proportion are F1 student visa holders. (K. Laing, Personal Communication, September 9, 2016)

These students travelled to the United States to study and usually (but not always) to complete
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an undergraduate or graduate degree (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 30). You are providing

important services to both of these groups.

As Ms. Laing explained, the Best Plus exam is used to assess and place students into one of two

offered classes. Students who score between 0 and 2 are placed into a Beginners class. Those

who score between 3 and 4 are placed into an Intermediate class. Ms. Laing indicated that

students will ultimately only be assigned to the level they are most comfortable with. She

conducts several interviews with each student to gauge their interest and ability. (K. Laing,

Personal Communication, September 9, 2016)

Best Plus is also used to assess students during the course of their classes. If students excel and

complete the Intermediate level, they are referred to Austin Community Colleges English for

Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program. The fact that your program helps its student

transition to a subsequent phase is wonderful. Do you maintain contact with former students? Do

they continue to achieve their personal and professional goals after their education within your

program? Ms. Laing mentioned that there is significant turnover amongst your student

population and many students are unable to attend classes consistently. I imagine this proves

challenging to teachers who wish to scaffold learning content and curriculum. (K. Laing,

Personal Communication, September 9, 2016)

As I understand it, your curriculum responds to your students diverse needs. Instructors

effectively tailor lesson plans. Stay-at-home-mothers (who attend your programs morning

classes) receive lessons on speaking to a childs teacher, going to the doctor, using the bus, and
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going to the store, among other things. Laborers (who attend your programs evening classes)

receive lessons regarding customer service conversation, how to speak with a supervisor, and

interview skills, among other things. (K. Laing, Personal Communication, September 9, 2016).

Im curious: To what degree is student culture taken into account in the classroom? ESL students

[cultural] beliefs related to individuality versus collectivity, ownership of text and ideas, student

versus teacher roles impact how [they] shape their texts. ("CCCC Statement on Second

Language Writing and Writers"). I would encourage Foundation Communities teaching staff to

consider these differences.

Im sure you would agree: instructors within any ESL program must be qualified and motivated.

Im not privy to Foundation Communities budgetary constraints but I do know that many

nonprofits, in our respective communities and across the nation, are cash-strapped and making

tough decisions. Your program relies on volunteer teachers. Consequently, they may not all hold

degrees in the field of English-language education. Still, you seek out some of our nations best

and brightest: AmeriCorps National Service Members. As a former member, I know that these

young servant leaders commit to a year of community service. As instructors within your

program, they receive training from the Literacy Coalition of Texas and Texas Family Literacy.

Many of these individuals do in fact hold TESOL and CELTA certification. I wonder if your

program provides its teachers with trainings specific to sensitivity in working with your student

populations. As Im sure you are aware, these help teachers to create a class environment

conducive to ESL learning. (K. Laing, Personal Communication, September 9, 2016)


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I personally appreciate Foundation Communities commitment to ESL instruction; to serving

communities in need. Roughly fifteen years ago, a young and nave middle school student sat in

the back of his mothers evening ESL class. She was a dedicated teacher. Like Foundation

Communities, hers was open enrollment and free of charge. Each evening for one month he

observed her instruction and her students commitment to learning English; to improving their

lives for the sake of themselves and their children. This middle school student was me. That

experience sparked in me a desire to engage in service learning. I have since volunteered with

City Year San Antonio (an AmeriCorps program) and other vital nonprofits to build community

and bridge opportunity gaps that effect far too many, particularly immigrants. I hope that one

day, degree in hand, Ill join Foundation Communities in its efforts, perhaps as a volunteer.

Thank you for your time and for your service.

Sincerely,

Andrew Hill
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Works Cited

CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers. (n.d.). Retrieved December 03,

2016, from http://www.ncte.org/cccc/resources/positions/secondlangwriting

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.


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Module 3

Application Activity 3.4: Textbook Analysis and Comparison



For this module, I selected two books. The first - "Academic Writing: A Handbook for

International Students - is a textbook geared toward international L2 learners. Its author is

Stephen Bailey. The second - Exploring College Writing: Reading, Writing, and Research

Across the Curriculum - is a textbook geared toward L1 learners. Its author is

Daniel Melzer. Both exercise a distinct approach to composition pedagogy.

Stephen Bailey is guided by a process-oriented cognitivist approach. Students of his text

engage in "planning, formulation, and revision (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, 66). This process,

central to cognitivism, suggests steps taken in production of a paper are of equal import to the

final product. This textbooks first section - The Writing Process - strikes a process-oriented

tone. It asks students to recognize common types of academic writing, (Bailey, 2011, 4) the

format of long and short writing tasks, (Bailey, 2011, 5) and an approach to writing in

paragraphs (Bailey, 2011 9). This textbooks third section Accuracy in Writing asks

students to consider the significance of grammatical concepts (prepositions and punctuation,

among others) to the writing process.

Bailey's writing activities reinforce his approach. His first instructs students to read a

short paragraph and then identify specific sentences as essential paragraph features. Sentences

may be identified as Supporting point 1, Supporting point 2, Supporting point 3, Example,

Reason, [and] Topic (Bailey, 2011, 79). Cognitivists assert that development of a well-crafted

paper includes assessment of sentence structure and arrangement.

Daniel Melzer, conversely, is guided by a process-oriented expressivist approach. This

approach, like cognitivism, believes process is as important as product. Unlike cognitivism,


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however, espressivism considers the composition process an exercise in discovering oneself (and

not simply the consideration of a papers mechanics and structure) (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014,

66). According to Melzer, students of his text will connect college writing to their own literary

histories and reflect on their own experiences as college writers (Melzer, 2011, 2). His first

writing activity asks students to construct a literacy history narrative (Melzer, 2011, 106). In

doing so, students consideration of their writing background and experiences inform their foray

into writing education and the written text they produce within the stated activity.

There exist elements within each textbook that I appreciate and would utilize as an

instructor in a university classroom setting. For example, Bailey gives his readers helpful advice

regarding time management (Bailey, 2011, xiii). My girlfriend a Seoul-based native Korean

and graduate level English language learner recently articulated the chief challenge of her

English literature homework. Her required texts are brief but demand repeated and extended

readings. Her homework is far more time-consuming than she had expected or prepared for and

has forced her to reconsider her basic approach to time management. Authors of L1 and L2

English composition textbooks may choose not to cover this ostensibly basic skill but I laud its

inclusion and believe it sensible for an author or teacher to convey its importance.

In my estimation, both textbooks benefit their intended audiences (Bailey for L2, Melzer

for L1) in their intended settings (university English language writing programs). Both

expressivist and cognitivist approaches recognize the need to understand and cultivate novice

writers composing processes as generative, recursive, [and] individuated (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 66). A focus on process, as opposed to product, teaches students (L2 and

L2) necessary skills. The [product approachs] imitation of formulaic models contributes only

marginally to developing writing proficiency and that traditional, mechanical grammar study
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actually inhibits the emergence of measurable composition skills (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014,

p. 64). L1 and L2 students benefit from a firm understanding of the process. In evaluating

Melzers expressivist textbooks effectiveness in an L1 setting, and Baileys cognitivist

textbooks effectiveness in an L2 setting, we should consider the expectations of students (and

the Discourses they wish to enter). In learning to write, the access of novice writers to

academic, professional, and workplace Discourses depends crucially on mastering certain

communication skills and reproducing the conventions unique to specific fields of inquiry and

work [emphasis and underline added] Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 72). Any instructor who

uses Melzer book (written for international students in an ELL program), should ask themselves

the following: To what degree will the type of process-approach instruction prepare my students

to enter their desired Discourse? If these international students intend to return to their

countries, environments wherein an expressivist approach is outside the norm, the cognitivist

approach may be preferable. Baileys textbook, which is broken down into three parts the

writing process, elements of writing, accuracy in writing, and writing models clearly provides

instruction in writing activities applicable to a slew of professional realms across the globe (and

more inward looking writing activities and assignment are noticeably absent). His models and

relevant writing activities consist of formal letters and emails; curriculum vitae, reports, case

studies, and literature reviews; and designing and reporting surveys. Clearly certain authors

like Bailey here see the benefit of a cognitivist approach. The same considerations must be

made in the L1 composition classroom. Either book will benefit the students. The other key

elements one must consider are the student makeup, their desires, and the instructor who will

teach them.
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Works Cited

Bailey, S. (2011). Academic writing: A handbook for international students (3rd ed.). London:

Routledge.

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Melzer, D. (2011). Exploring College Writing: Reading, Writing, and Researching Across the

Curriculum. Oakville, CT: Equinox Publishing.























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Module 4

Application Activity 5.2: Syllabus Assessment



I evaluate herein the strengths and weaknesses of Ferris and Hedgecocks Sample

Syllabus and Course Outline henceforth referred to as Sample Syllabus. This syllabus is

written for university students enrolled in the course English 2210 Writing for Academic and

Professional Purposes. My chief focus is the efficacy of Sample Syllabuss course goal and

target objectives. I will also identify two weaknesses of stated syllabus and recommend it adopt

provisions used in the Amherst College course English Composition and Literature 1 syllabus

henceforth referred to as Amherst Syllabus. This syllabus was drafted for and used in a non-

ESL writing course1.

This paper uses Ferris and Hedgecocks working definition of syllabus: [a] contract

between instructor and students . . . [that summarizes course] expectations and how they can be

met (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 163). Sample Syllabus clearly enumerates its course goal

a term defined as the main purposes and intended outcomes of . . . [a] course (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 157), and its course objectives a term defined as a narrower range of

desired outcomes or statements about how . . . goals will be achieved [emphasis added] (Ferris

and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 158).

Sample Syllabuss course goal is to foster core print and digital literacies necessary for

success in university-level courses and the workplace, with a particular focus on reading [skills],


1
My choice of non-ESL syllabus was deliberate given my interpretation of Ferris and
Hedgecocks instructions: using the syllabus development checklist in Figure 5.4, compare the
Sample Syllabus in Appendix 5.2 with a syllabus and course outline for a writing course at a
local school or college [emphasis and underline added] (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 182).
As I understood the instructions which lacked any explicit reference to ESL syllabi a non-
ESL programs syllabus was acceptable (if not preferable). I have since reviewed and studied the
sample ESL syllabi on Blackboard.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 29

thinking [skills], research [skills], and writing skills [emphases added] (Ferris and Hedgecock,

2014, p. 168). This goal will be realized if behaviorally observable and . . . measurable (Ferris

and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 159) objectives are met. Sample Syllabus attributes three objectives to

reading skills. One such objective asserts students will be able to comprehend, analyze, and

interpret other peoples writing by reading fluently and accurately (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014,

p. 168). In this course, students pen and publish blog posts, an exercise in digital literacy.

Students are asked to consider and post comments to two of their classmates entries. Comments

are then assessed by the course instructor. Stated assessment is based on criteria described in the

ENGL2210 Assessment Scale (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 190). Consequently, this

objective is behaviorally observable and . . . measurable (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 159).

Two objectives are attributed to thinking and research skills. One such objective asserts

students will be able to gather valid, reliable, and useful information for writing by conducting

systematic research of print and online sources and by using effective web and navigation skills

(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 168). This course instructor mandates laptop computer and/or

tablet use. Students will use these devices to research information for designated timed writing

assignments and aforementioned blog posts. The course instructor will assess the quality and

substance of students research. This objective is behaviorally observable and . . . measurable

(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 159).

Six objectives are attributed to writing skills. One such objective asserts students will be

able to solicit, produce, and use peer feedback on writing (Ferris an Hedgecock, 2014, p. 168).

In this course, students will be asked to draft responses to classmates writing assignments.

Students will practice and evaluate peer review techniques periodically, and . . . will be given

instructor feedback (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 190). The Sample Syllabuss partial course
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 30

outline indicates that in week three of the course students will study and engage in the peer

review process (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 193).

The relationship of Sample Syllabuss stated goals and objectives, reinforced by the

course instructors established system of evaluation, serves to ensure students have met target

objectives. This is demonstrated, quite clearly, in Sample Syllabus. Another strength: its use of

action verbs that represent desired student behavior (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 158) and

support learning outcomes. Comprehend . . . analyze . . . [and] interpret (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 168), gather . . . [and] conducting (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 168),

solicit . . . produce . . . [and] use (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 169).

Goals and objectives are foundational to syllabi. Their construction is a significant step

forward in syllabus development (one subsequent to and shaped by environmental and needs

analyses2). Once a course instructor articulates suitable goals and objectives, they may develop

and organize course content, select textbooks, and draft a schedule.

If I were to instruct the course for which Sample Syllabus is used, I would make two

specific revisions to its syllabus, each change influenced by Amherst Syllabus. First, I would add

to Sample Syllabus a section devoted to academic honesty. Amherst Syllabus includes such a

section. It imparts the following advice to students:

Although you are allowed, even encouraged, to consult secondary sources to help you

understand the assigned works and to generate ideas for papers, you must give credit to

these sources and cite them correctly if you use anything from them in your papers or


2
Environmental analysis may be defined as careful examination of factors that . . . effect . . .
decisions about the goals of the course, what to include in the course, and how to teach and
assess it (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 149). Needs Analysis is the evaluation of skills
students must attain and those they have already learned. (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 151)
Both analyses occur prior to construction of a course syllabus.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 31

responses. Be careful also when you enlist the help of the Communication Center,

friends, family members, and colleagues. I encourage your asking others to help you to

proofread and understand errors; however, you may not simply use them as editors to

fix your paper and to correct errors for you. All work for this course must be original to

this course. You may not submit work done previously and/or in another class to receive

credit for this course. (English Composition and Literature 1)

According to the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC

Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers), textual ownership and the ownership of

ideas are concepts that are culturally based and therefore not shared across cultures and

educational systems (CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers). The course

for which Sample Syllabus is used may service L2 learners, including international students.

Students hailing from Korea, for example, may engage in stated borrowing. The absence of

categorical provisions regarding academic dishonesty and plagiarism may be of disservice to this

courses students. If the institution within which the Sample Syllabus course is taught takes

disciplinary measures when plagiarism or intellectual theft occur, students who know no better

(and who received no counsel in the Sample Syllabus course) may find themselves in trouble in

any one of the classes they are enrolled in.

I would add a second section to Sample Syllabus regarding the special and diverse needs

of students. According to Amherst Syllabus, every effort will be made to meet the . . . varied

learning styles of the student (English Composition and Literature 1). Furthermore, student

[must] inform the professor at the beginning of the term of his/her concern about a learning

disability or any other need (English Composition and Literature 1). Students native to the

United States as well as those studying abroad may be reticent to share these special needs, even
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 32

if withholding such information is detrimental to academic performance. The latter group may

consist of students from countries where persons are shamed (publicly and/or privately) because

of their learning disabilities (Discrimination Against People with Disabilities Persists South

Korean Human Rights Monitor). A course instructor must create a classroom environment that

encourages students to seek assistance if needed. Incorporating a relevant provision in the

syllabus may be an important step in cultivating this atmosphere. Sample Syllabus as written in

our textbook contains no provision regarding special needs. This too may be a disservice to L2

students with special needs or learning disabilities. Appendix A includes Sample Disability

Statement for Course Syllabi drafted by Oberlin College and Conservatorys Disability

Services3 each of which offers language to model statements after. In conducting the

aforementioned environmental and needs analyses, I might better understand the special needs of

my students that have been identified as well as relevant institutional resources available to me

and my students.

A full analysis, one that takes into account each component of our textbooks syllabus

checklist, would lend itself to a paper much longer this. A brief analysis suggests that Sample

Syllabus is well constructed overall and, most importantly, makes clear its goals and target

objectives. It does, however, lack in several ways: namely the absence of provisions regarding

plagiarism and special needs. I have never had the opportunity to draft a syllabus but intend to as

an instructor of English as a foreign language in the near future. I found this chapter quite

relevant to that endeavor.


3
These statements are as far as I can tell not drafted specifically with L2 learners in mind.
Any statement used in an ESL course syllabus should be sensitive to L2 learners.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 33

Appendix A

Sample Disability Statements

("Oberlin College")
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 34

Works Cited

CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25,

2016, from http://www.ncte.org/cccc/resources/positions/secondlangwriting

Discrimination Against People with Disabilities Persists - South Korean Human Rights Monitor.

(2014). Retrieved September 25, 2016, from

http://www.humanrightskorea.org/2013/discrimination-people-disabilities-persists/

English Composition and Literature 1. (n.d.). Retrieved September 24, 2016, from

https://www.amherst.edu/media/view/140224/original/F09 ENG 101-31 Syllabus.pdf

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.



Oberlin College. (n.d.). Retrieved December 08, 2016, from

https://new.oberlin.edu/office/disability-services/for-faculty/sample-disability-statements-for-

course-syllabi.dot









RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 35

Module 5

Genre Analysis

Argumentative Research Paper Student Assignment


Approximately 11 million undocumented immigrants reside in the United States

(Krogstad, Passel, & Cohn, 2016). If they seek medical, legal, or governmental assistance, they

may be asked to supply official documentation they do not have. Doing so risks their

deportation: forced removal from their homes, separation from their families, and a one way trip

back to their country of origin. They live in the shadow of the law (About).

The United States government must provide these people a pathway to citizenship. This

policy proposal is, admittedly, contentious. There exists some public antipathy toward

conscionable immigration reform. Consequently, politicians have been unwilling to draft and

pass necessary legislation. That stated, our elected officials and the general public must

understand the economic benefits and moral imperatives tied to this proposed policy. Two

factors undergird my support for this reform. The first: a pathway to citizenship will benefit the

national economy. The second: offering a pathway will provide basic security for these men,

women, and, children. Doing so is simply a moral imperative.

A pathway to citizenship will boost our nations economy. According to the Pew

Research Center, there were 11.1 million unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. in 2014

(Krogstad, Passel, & Cohn, 2016). An August 2013 White House report asserts: Granting

citizenship to undocumented workers may spike their earnings and, in a decades time, boost

U.S. GDP by $1.4 trillion, increase total income for all Americans by $791 billion, generate $184

billion in additional state and federal tax revenue from currently undocumented immigrants, and

create two million jobs (The White House).


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 36

Aforementioned politicians and citizens may be reticent to support a pathway to

citizenship, but doing so will strengthen our economy, and thusly, our country. Doing so is

patriotic. Republicans historically oppose a pathway to citizenship but do historically favor a

strong national defense. The truth is that national security and economic strength are

inextricably linked (Flournoy, 2015). If we can collectively accept this, then we can muster the

will to support a pathway to citizenship.

Providing a pathway to citizenship is not only patriotic, it is a moral imperative.

Undocumented persons, or persons perceived as such, may be subject to discrimination. The

second largest growing minority group in the United States are Latinos (right behind Asians)

(H., & H). According to Gallup Polling:

About one in 10 U.S. Hispanics say they have experienced discrimination because of

their ethnicity over the past month in each of several locations -- their place of work, in

dealings with police, while getting healthcare and at an entertainment venue such as a bar

or restaurant. Slightly fewer report being discriminated against in a store while shopping

(7%). Altogether, 25% of Hispanics have felt discriminated against in at least one of

these situations. (Gallup, 2015)

Moreover:

The treatment of Hispanics, particularly of immigrants, takes on special significance as

the nation continues to debate immigration reform. The issue has already become a major

issue in the 2016 presidential campaign, and Republican front-runner Donald Trump, in

particular, has attracted both support and criticism for his unflattering portrayal of

Mexican immigrants and a platform that attempts to crack down on illegal immigrants.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 37

(Gallup, 2015)

The population most affected by undocumented immigrants shadow status are children.

Between 2008 and 2013, the office of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in

Atlanta . . . deported 114,590 people and . . . experts say that most of those who were deported

have children ("Living in the Shadows: An immigration system that breaks hearts"). Imagine,

for a moment, a ten-year-old girl seated at her familys dining room table for lunch one Saturday

afternoon with her parents. An only child, both of her parents are undocumented. They work in a

local restaurant and are paid under the table. They came to the United States from Mexico

because their hometown was very dangerous. At the time, they simply wanted to protect their

unborn child. As they sit down to say a blessing, there is a knock on the front door. Her father

answers it. Agents from Immigration Customs and Enforcement (ICE) are on the front step.

They take this girls parents into custody. She becomes utterly traumatized as she and her parents

are separated. Her mother and father go through the process of deportation and she is placed

with a foster family. This is all too common. Many children of undocumented families live in

constant fear:

Rosalba Pea, who works as an interpreter at Norcross High School [in the state of

Georgia], estimates that in the past three years she has seen an increase in the number of

children who . . . [feel anxious, depressed, and aggressive]. On average, she has served

about 40 students per year in these circumstances. I have noticed their depression, that

they feel completely helpless, they start failing their classes, they start slipping in their

attendance, Pea said. ("Living in the Shadows: An immigration system that breaks

hearts")
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 38

A former colleague of mine worked as a public middle school paraprofessional. Many of

his students parents immigrated to the United States from Mexico and were undocumented.

These students attended Title 1 schools. Few had concrete ambitions to complete high school or

attend college. They had older brothers implicated or killed in gang shootings. They served as

translator for their monolingual Spanish speaking parents and, consequently, were exposed early

to the serious challenges their families faced. A student once informed him of his sleepless

nights, triggered by twilight gunshots outside his window. Americas children, our sons and

daughters, deserve better than this. We must recognize the extent to which families, and even

whole communities, are detrimentally affected by current immigration laws.

A pathway to citizenship will benefit our national economy. If undocumented workers

are brought out of the shadows, their wages will increase and they will pay more in taxes. This

will boost our nations GDP and add jobs to the economy. We will become a more prosperous

nation, a general bipartisan desire that a certain majority of the American people support. Living

in the shadow of the law (About) takes a significant toll on millions of human beings who

simply want to succeed, to live in this country, and to care for their children. We have a moral

obligation to help these people. I urge the American voting population and our elected officials

to support legislation that offers undocumented immigrants a pathway to citizenship.











RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 39

Works Cited

About. (n.d.). Retrieved October 09, 2016, from http://hepg.org/her-home/issues/harvard-

educational-review-volume-81-number-3/herarticle/the-developmental-implications-of-

unauthorized-sta

Flournoy, M. (2015). Economic Growth Is a National Security Issue. Retrieved October 09,

2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/economic-growth-is-a-national-security-issue-

1432683397

Gallup, I. (2015). Immigrant Status Tied to Discrimination Among Hispanics. Retrieved October

09, 2016, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/184769/immigrant-status-tied-discrimination-among-

hispanics.aspx

Krogstad, J. M., Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2016). 5 facts about illegal immigration in the U.S.

Retrieved October 09, 2016, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/20/5-facts-

about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s/

H., & H. (n.d.). Latinos Are No Longer the Fastest-growing Racial Group in America. Retrieved

October 09, 2016, from http://fusion.net/story/318008/asians-fastest-growth-ethnic-group-in-

america/
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 40

(n.d.). Living in the Shadows: An immigration system that breaks hearts. Retrieved October 09,

2016, from http://www.centerforhealthjournalism.org/living-shadows-immigration-system-

breaks-hearts

The White House. (2013). Fixing Our Broken Immigration System. Washington, DC
































RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 41

Module 5 (continued)

Genre Analysis

Argumentative Research Paper Instructional Assignment

I will teach a genre best suited to advanced L2 writers: argumentative research paper.

My class consists of twenty undergraduate students at Busan University of Foreign Studies

(BUFS) in South Korea. These students are pursuing degrees in International Relations. I teach

their required English language composition course. Prior to constructing the course syllabus, I

performed a Needs Analysis a gathering and interpreting [of] information about a particular

client group in an educational setting (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 149). I learned from

students previous English instructor that my students require further instruction in drafting

research papers. I also asked students to complete a questionnaire on the first day of class. I

learned that a majority of my students have significant interest in United States immigration

policy.

In approaching genre instruction, I considered three distinct approaches. The first,

Directional Hypothesis, assumes that composing skills emerge as a result of establishing sound

reading skills, presumably through practice and abundant contact with print (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 96). The second, Nondirectional Model, asserts that instruction should

focus on constructing meaning in both reading and writing tasks (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014,

p. 96). The third, Bidirectional Model, holds that practice in writing promotes the development

of reading skills, just as improved reading proficiency can enhance writing skills [emphasis and

underline added] (H., & H). Each approach may inform an L2 instructors literacy and genre

instruction.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 42

According to Ferris and Hedgecocks interpretation, the Bidirectional Model views

composition instruction as an opportunity to build . . . students academic . . . professional,

social, cultural, critical, and digital literacies, which are multiple and which entail many kinds of

expertise (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 96). I believe that activation of each aforementioned

literacys schema is crucial to my L2 students education. I want to develop these

aforementioned literacies because they will benefit my students academic, professional, and

personal advancement as they engage critically with society and the world.

The Bidirectional Model, as aforementioned, emphasizes the importance of read-to-write

and write-to-read activities. Tasks tied to the former punctuate the importance of using texts to

inform writing. These writing assignments which may include reading journals and

summaries (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 102) are not used for the sole purpose of learning

text features. Students must also learn about the texts content. Write-to-read activities engage

students in representing meanings to themselves and others before (and sometimes while) they

read (p. 103). I appreciate the Bidirectional Models acceptance of both. Consequently, I would

attempt to employ at least one. I want numerous activities and styles at my disposal.

In teaching the argumentative research paper genre I will utilize Swales and Feaks

Create a Research Space (CARS) Model (see: Appendix A) (in addition to write-to-read and/or

read-to-write activities). The CARS model can effectively acquaint student writers with the

prototypical sequencing of information in introductory passages before and while they read

(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 116) research papers. In my class, students will learn proper

research paper construction. (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 116-117). My Needs Analysis

revealed that these students have no prior exposure to the CARS model.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 43

The first step (or Move 1) in the CARS model is to establish a research territory (Ferris

and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 117). In doing so, I will first show my class that a general research

area is important, interesting, problematic, or relevant (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 117).

Our territory of interest is United States Immigration Policy. During class discussion, I learned

that my students recently became aware that the fasting growing immigrant group in the United

States is Asians (H., & H). That conversation turned to the issue of national borders and

Americas relationship with Mexico. Students had sparse knowledge regarding this relationship.

After establishing this territory, I will introduce and review items of previous research in the

area (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 117). There is a wealth of information located in digital

libraries. I will select several relevant texts to briefly review with the class.

The second step (or Move 2) is to establish a niche (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p.

117) a gap in the existing knowledge base where new research would be helpful (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 117). To adequately explore this hypothetical situation, I would need to

research this prior to class. I would also contact former colleagues who work in this field and

could be of great resource. Ideally, there is some area of research regarding immigration that

students may expand on. This area would be identified in class.

The third step (or Move 3) is to occupy the niche (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 117)

outline [the] purposes of the present research (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 117). Finally, I

will reveal the structure of the assigned research paper (due date located in course syllabus). I

would introduce students to important linguistic and rhetorical features central to research papers

and enumerated in our textbook (see: academic features enumerated in Appendix B).

A classroom task that results from this lecture should require readers to extract,

understand, and interpret textual content while also drawing their attention to texts formal
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 44

features (e.g., rhetorical arrangement, prototypical grammatical patterns, lexical choices, and so

on) (p. 102). Our final classroom task a read-to-write activity reflects these requirements.

Students will pair up and receive a copy of Appendix A (in advance of receiving Appendix B

Assignment Sheet: Argumentative Research Paper). The text in this activity may be of

moderate difficulty. Crucial to research papers, as I will explain to students, is ability to

paraphrase. Doing so prevents textual borrowing and plagiarism. Student pairs will read the

four lines and then rewrite them using their own words. In doing so, they must consider each

lexical meaning. If there are words they do not understand they may use a digital or class

dictionary or thesaurus. They must employ their lexical and grammatical skills to rewrite these

sentences. Students will, in effect, practice paraphrasing.


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 45

Module 5 (contd)

Appendix A

Assignment Sheet: Argumentative Research Paper


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 46
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 47

Module 5 (contd)

Appendix B

Assignment Sheet: Argumentative Research Paper


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 48

Works Cited

H., & H. (n.d.). Latinos Are No Longer the Fastest-growing Racial Group in America. Retrieved

October 09, 2016, from http://fusion.net/story/318008/asians-fastest-growth-ethnic-group-in-

america/

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.


























RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 49

Module 5 (contd)

Genre Handout

One-Page Handout
(Front and Back)
Features Sample

Genre My research papers genre is Argumentative Research Paper. According


to the attached assignment sheet, argumentation is the most useful and
common rhetorical mode you will need in your academic and professional
career.

Topical focus The genre assignment sheet (attached) suggests this genres writer may
choose any arguable debatable topic that you desire. Moreover, writers
will likely find it . . . useful to identify a topic related to your graduate
studies. They do stipulate that if you are too new to your field you may
choose something else. My research paper concerns US immigration
policy, which not specific to writing composition but may affect L2
populations.

Location Location refers to where a paper may be accessed. For example, academic
journal articles may be found on online libraries (JSTOR or Google
Scholar). Informational news articles may be found in various newspapers
(print and online). My specific student-written research paper, like many
students, may be found on a student or instructors desktop folder, thumb
drive, or Google Driver folder.

Length The length of this research paper is three and one-half pages, as required by
the assignment sheet. According to the assignment sheet the maximum
number of pages is four.

Rhetorical Rhetorical arrangement may consist of macro-level and micro-level


Arrangement features. The former includes a papers inclusion of introduction, body,
and conclusion. My paper includes these three features. The latter includes
sentence structure, word choice, spelling, and mechanics (p. 114). This
papers syntax appeals to the audiences sense of logic and patriotic duty
(ex. [People] may be reticent to support a pathway to citizenship, but
doing so will strengthen our economy, and thusly, our country). It also
tries to appeal to their emotions by evoking our countrys most vulnerable
population (Americas children, our sons and daughters, deserve
better than this). According to the assignment sheet: much of what you
write and say formally can be seen as argument the need for you to
employ and coordinate evidence, logic, your own credibility, and your
emotions to convince your audience that your perspective is right.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 50

Participants Participants include agents, audience, and subject. Agents include


(agents, individuals involved in construction of this paper. This papers agent is its
audience, author, Andrew Hill, who is writing as if he were an L2 learner.
subject) Audience includes this papers targeted readership. This group includes
men and women eligible to vote in the US. Subject includes the who or
what this paper is written about. The subject is the population of
undocumented immigrants living in the United States with special attention
to these immigrants children.

Functions Research papers may serve a communicative function as opposed to


(social and social. The former, of which this paper is an example, attempts to
communicative) communicate information to a specified source, an argument (ex. policy
prescription) to an audience that may require persuasion. This paper does
communicate information, in an academic format.

Style and Style suggests approach to research and citation. This paper utilized APA
Register styling. Research papers written in different contexts may require varying
styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc). The term register refers to a
combination of field, [the] social activity taking place (p. 78), tenor,
[the] relationship among participants (p. 78), and mode, [the]
communication channel (p. 78). This papers field is argument made by
one participant (agent) to another (audience) in an effort to convince the
latter of a general policy prescription with regard to immigration.

Grammatical Grammatical features may include tense, number, and person. Portions of
Features this paper are written in present tense, stating the present situation (ex.
approximately 11 million undocumented immigrants reside in the United
States) and past tense (ex. politicians have been unwilling to draft and
pass necessary legislation). As far as number is concerned, we see plural
nouns abound as this paper targets and concerns whole swaths of people
(ex. men, women, children, immigrants, legislators, public, etc). This paper
is written in first person. I have written (as a student in this instance) an
argument and plea for immigration reform.












RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 51

Module 6

Application Activity 4.5: Writing Prompt Critique



Herein I assess the efficacy of four model writing assignments. Five factors identified

by Reid & Kroll (1995) measure efficacy. I have fused these factors with comparable elements

favored by Ferris and Hedgecock. I ascribe a value to each factor (within the context of the four

assignments): weak if it cannot be salvaged (i.e. need to be rewritten entirely), promising if it can

be salvaged (i.e. requires partial rewriting), or strong if it requires no salvaging (i.e. requires no

rewriting). I will reconstruct (or salvage) assignments with a majority promising factors. Stated

factors include:

(1) Socioliterate Context. In brief, an assignment must be contextualized and authentic

(Reid and Kroll, 1995, p. 20) and thus meaningful to students. It must characterize the

texts intended audience and audience expectations (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p.

127) and make explicit reference to the genre category (p. 127).

(2) Content. In brief, an assignments content must be accessible to all student writers,

culturally and otherwise (Reid & Kroll, 1995, p. 22). It must tap into writers

current schemata and competencies (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 127).

(3) Language. In brief, an assignment must be comprehensible [and] unambiguous

(Reid & Kroll, 1005, p. 22), syntactically simple and easy [for learners] to interpret

(p. 22).

(4) Rhetoric. An assignment may indicate required length and include a timetable for

drafts, feedback, self-evaluation, [and] final submission (p. 127). It may also explain

citation procedures.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 52

(5) Evaluation. An assignment must yield clear, specific, unambiguous [evaluation]

criteria (Reid & Kroll, 1005, p. 22) that echo course goals.

The first assignment is as follows: Do you believe in fate or free will? Explain. (Ferris

and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 139). Regarding socioliterate context: this assignment is weak. This

assignment lacks clear audience and writer roles. One may assume these roles are teacher and

writer. Still, clarification is advantageous. The assignment should state who the intended

readership is and who the writer may be writing as. Students may otherwise become confused. It

also fails to specify genre. Regarding content: this assignment is promising. Free will may be a

Western notion culturally alien to L2 students. Still, we may assume they have been introduced

to it in this class. Regarding language: this assignment is promising. It employs simple syntax.

There are no unnecessarily complex words. Its meaning, however, may prove difficult to decode

(barring familiarity). A student unfamiliar with predetermination may define each word with

ease but, absent context, fail to fathom its sum significance. Regarding rhetoric: this assignment

is weak. It fails to explain length, timetables, and citations. Regarding evaluation: this

assignment is weak. It has none. In light of these factors ascribed values, I deem this assignment

weak and unsalvageable.

The second assignment is as follows: In a short essay, describe tectonic plate movement.

Include a drawing (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 139). Regarding socioliterate context: this

assignment is weak. Like assignment one, assignment two lacks clear audience and writer roles.

It does, however, state genre: short essay. Regarding content: this assignment is promising. Its

material may be culturally accessible. Certain regions (and thus certain cultures) experience

earthquakes with high frequency. L2 students may originate from these regions. Tectonic shift

induced earthquakes are also a well-recognized phenomenon. Moreover, this course is described
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as an undergraduate geology course [emphasis and underline added] (Ferris and Hedgecock,

2014, p. 139). One can assume students will have studied tectonic plate movement in class.

Regarding language: this assignment is promising. It employs simple syntax. There is one

subject specific word tectonic that students likely encountered in class. This assignment may

not be engaging (class description does not indicate that students plan to pursue this field

academically or professionally). That said, it is relevant to their in-course learning. Regarding

rhetoric, this assignment is weak. It fails to explain length, timetables, or citations. Regarding

evaluation, this assignment is weak. It provides none. In light of these factors ascribed values,

this prompt must be redesigned and developed fully before it can be issued to students.

The third and penultimate assignment is as follows:

Write a five- to six-page biographical report on a 20th century chemist, physicist, or

astronomer who has strongly influenced an applied science such as genetics,

bioengineering, climatology, or computer science. Your paper must cite at least three

separate sources and be well-written. (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 140)

Regarding context: this assignment is weak. It does not reference audience or writer

roles. It does, however, state genre: biographical report. Regarding content: this assignment is

promising. Students likely studied this material in their undergraduate history of science course

[emphasis added] (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 140). This assignment instructs students to

research specific science-related field and professions. Specificity indicates this assignments

strength. Instructions too vague and broad may only complicate the students assignment

comprehension or research efforts. Regarding language: this assignment is promising. It

employs simple syntax and subject specific vocabulary students likely learned in class.
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Regarding rhetoric: this assignment is promising. It gives length requirements and asks students

to cite three sources. Regarding evaluation: this assignment is weak. It has none. In light of these

factors ascribed values, I deem this assignment promising and salvageable. I offer

reconstruction below (underlined).

Write a five- to six-page biographical report on a 20th century chemist, physicist, or

astronomer who has strongly influenced an applied science such as genetics, bioengineering,

climatology, or computer science. Your paper must cite at least three separate sources and be

well-written. In order to assist you with your research, I have placed several related books on

reserve at the university librarys front desk. Please use APA format. If you have questions

during your research and writing, please send me an email or schedule an appointment during

my office hours. Your completed final draft is due Friday December 20th.

You will be graded on the following:

Content: 40%

Presentation of ideas and correct sourcing

Mechanics: 40%

Use of syntax, spelling, and grammar

Organization: 20%

Title, thesis statement, body paragraph, and conclusion

The fourth and final assignment is as follows:

Argumentation is the most useful and common rhetorical mode you will need in your

academic and professional career. Much of what you write and say formally can be seen

as argumentthe need for you to employ and coordinate evidence, logic, your own
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credibility, and your emotions to convince your audience that your perspective is right,

and that they should do what you want them to do. Argument is how knowledge is

created. Writing a formal argument in an academic context is also a useful introduction to

many of the standards you will find throughout many academic and professional genres.

For this assignment, you will write a short argumentative paper on a particular topic of

your choice. You may choose any arguable, debatable topic that you desire; you will

likely find it more useful to identify a topic related to your graduate studies, but if you are

too new to your field, you may choose something else. Your writing must be supported

by a small amount of research. The final draft will be three and a half to four pages long.

Regarding socioliterate context: this assignment is promising. No specific audience or

writer roles are given, but there is an excellent description of this assignments genre:

argumentative essay. This assignment is thus contextualized and authentic (Reid and Kroll,

1995, p. 20). Regarding content: this assignment is promising. According to the assignment, a

student may select their own topic. This is perhaps too vague for some students. Consequently,

they must be informed that they can seek out guidance from the teacher. Another potential

problem: do these students truly understand the nuance of debate? For the purpose of this

assignment, I will assume that they have studied argumentation and that this assignment aims to

test their accumulated knowledge. Regarding language: this assignment is promising. It

employs relatively simple syntax and no subject specific words. Regarding rhetoric: this

assignment is promising. It includes required page length but fails to explain timetables,

feedback, or evaluation. Regarding evaluation: this assignment is weak. It has none. In light of

these factors ascribed values, I deem this assignment promising and salvageable. I offer

reconstruction below. Changes are underlined.


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Argumentation is the most useful and common rhetorical mode you will need in your

academic and professional career. Much of what you write and say formally can be seen

as argumentthe need for you to employ and coordinate evidence, logic, your own

credibility, and your emotions to convince your audience that your perspective is right,

and that they should do what you want them to do. Argument is how knowledge is

created. Writing a formal argument in an academic context is also a useful introduction to

many of the standards you will find throughout many academic and professional genres.

For this assignment, you will write a short argumentative paper on a particular topic of

your choice. You may choose any arguable, debatable topic that you desire; you will

likely find it more useful to identify a topic related to your graduate studies, but if you are

too new to your field, you may choose something else. Your writing must be supported

by a small amount of research. The final draft will be three and a half to four pages long.

Please write in APA style. Use three to five primary or tertiary sources.

Draft 1 will be due January 25th. I will review it (according to content and organization

see below) and meet with you to discuss ways to strengthen your draft. The final draft

will be due two weeks after that, on February 8th. Only the final draft will be graded.

You will be graded on the following:

Content 40%

o Presentation of ideas and correct sourcing

Mechanics 30%

o Use of syntax, spelling, and grammar

Organization 30%
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o Title, thesis statement, body paragraph, and conclusion

If you have questions during your research and writing, please send me an email or

schedule an appointment during my office hours.

If careful consideration is given to construction of an L2 writing assignment, each of the

factors explored in this paper will be satisfied. As Reid & Kroll (1995) assert: Faculty have a

right to expect competent writing But they cannot expect competent writing when the prompts

themselves are carelessly prepared (Reid and Kroll, 1995, p. 19). The nuance and thought

invested in a prompts construction are crucial.


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Works Cited

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Reid, J., & Kroll, B. (1995). Designing and assessing effective classroom writing assignments

for NES and ESL students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 4(1), 17-41. doi:10.1016/1060-

3743(95)90021-7































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Module 6

Activity 4.6: Writing Task Construction



Monthly Writing Test

10th Grade

Korea Poly School

Note: Please read these instructions carefully before you begin your test

Pretend that you recently discussed Koreas educational system with your high school classmate. This classmate told

you that they do not attend a private academy. They only attend public school. This classmate insisted that

academies, including Korea Poly School, do not improve students English language skills.

Think about the following questions:

A. Do you agree with your classmate?

B. If you agree, why? Think of three reasons.

C. If you disagree, why? Think of three reasons.

As you think, write and organize your thoughts in the graphic organizer on page 3. You will have fifteen minutes to

do so. Please listen for the timer. After you have organized your thoughts, write a short argumentative essay that

responds to your classmate.

An argumentative essays author presents an argument and then defends that argument using supporting

information. This topic of an argumentative essay is sometimes controversial. The writer attempts to convince the

audience of his or her perspective.

You will have twenty minutes to do so. Please listen for the timer. Write your essay according to MLA format. It

must be 2 to 3 pages in length. You may not use your Debate textbook during the test. Reflect on our excellent class

discussions instead. If you have a question during the test, please raise your hand.
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Your essay will be graded on the criteria below. Please refer to the attached rubric for a breakdown of each.

Content: 60%

Mechanics: 20%

Organization: 20%
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Monthly Writing Test

10th Grade

Korea Poly School

Rubric

A B C D

Content Ideas are superbly- Ideas are well- Ideas are supported There is no content.
developed. developed. but not completely
Arguments are Arguments are developed. Included
supported by supported by evidence but lacks
specific evidence, mostly specific specificity.
facts, and personal evidence, facts, and
experience. personal experience.
Mechanics Exceptional syntax, A few errors in Many errors in Consistent errors,
spelling, and syntax, spelling, and syntax, spelling, and student did not
grammar. grammar. grammar. proofread.
Organization Includes features: Good organization Some organization No organization.
title, introduction, and use of features. and weak use of
supporting features.
arguments, and
conclusion.
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Monthly Test Writing

10th Grade

Graphic Organizer


My Opinion








Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3















Conclusion












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Module 7

Application Activity 6.1: Holistic Essay Scoring Practice

Student Essay (Youngjoo) Analytic


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Comments Analytic Rubric


Content

You demonstrate topic understanding but your supporting reasons are underdeveloped. For
example, you write: Secondly, as improving the reading and writing skill, you can understand
and explain your idea in a better way. What is this better way? Your audience will want more
details. If the audience has these details, they may be persuaded to agree with you.

The importance of hidden meaning in paragraph two is unclear. Will finding hidden
meaning and understanding metaphors improve your reading and writing skills? How is this
critical to your success as a college student? Needs clarification.

Rhetorical Structure

Essay is structurally weak. To improve, add a title. An effective title may persuade your
audience. Your introductory paragraph is strong but your single body paragraph contains too
much information. Give each of your reasons its own paragraph. Then add a concluding
paragraph, a restatement of your thesis.

Grammatical Form

Few grammar errors. You wrote in a variety of full sentences.

Diction and Tone

Word choice sometimes awkward. For example: If you know the way of reason has different
purpose, you could save your time to read. This needs refining. Appropriate inclusion of
definite and indefinite articles will improve essays clarity as will subject-verb agreement.

Mechanics

Essay was mostly coherent. Problems with punctuation, capitalization, and spelling were
sometimes distracting. Your intro paragraph includes understating instead of understanding.
Similarly, your body paragraph includes grads instead of grades. Proofreading essay before
submission may reduce these errors. Overall, nice work!
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Scoring Sheet - Analytic Rubric


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(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 210)


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Works Cited

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.



































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Comments Holistic Rubric

Vocabulary

I liked your vocabulary use! Reading materials are overwhelming and literature class is
uncomfortable. These are great emotion words! You did use the words understating and
grads incorrectly, but I think you simply misspelled understanding and grades.

Supporting material

Both reasons are a little unclear. They require stronger final sentences that clearly link good
grades to academic success. For example, reason one could close with: Improved reading and
writing skills are critical to my academic success because they help me to achieve good grades.
I liked your inclusion of personal experience. This is important when persuading your audience.
Consider my suggestions and keep up the good work!

Grammatical errors

There are several grammatical errors. You refer to you and students interchangeably. Pick
one and use consistently. I recommend student instead of you when referring to this essays
subject. Doing so will strengthen your paper!

Spelling and punctuation

Your essay has spelling and punctuation errors that effect readers comprehension. In your first
paragraph you wrote understating. I think you meant understanding. In your second
paragraph you wrote grads. I think you mean grades. Your single punctuation error was
inconsistent comma use after introductory clauses. Please review. Nice work otherwise!

Coherence

Your single body paragraph contains too much information. Ive identified where this paragraph
should be separated into multiple paragraphs. Also, use transition words like: My first reason
is, and My second reason is. This is in keeping with best practices and will make your content
more coherent. You did use the word secondly, which was great! You are on the right track!











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Scoring Sheet Holistic Rubric






(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 205)













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Works Cited

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.





































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Note: These four student writers were all in the same first-year composition course at a

U.S. university. It was a mainstream course, not an ESL course. The texts were written

in 60 minutes as a diagnostic writing assignment during the first week of the term. The

writing prompt is shown in the first example.

Student 1: Youngjoo (international student from Korea) (366 words) Writing prompt:

Improving my reading and writing skills will be critical to my success as a college student.

I agreed with the statement: the reading and writing skills do important role for successful

academic life. The reading and writing are connected with every academic life. To learn

something new from the lectures, students have to read textbooks or paper, and to express your

understating, students have to write down on the answer sheets.

Having the improved reading and writing skills are great advantage to a college students because

you can be finished the lots of reading materials for lectures on time, and you can understand

better and express your idea effective. Once the quarter is started, the college students have to

read various reading materials. Those could be for their majors or general education classes.

However, the reading materials are sometimes overwhelming amount to read or difficult to

understands depend on your reading habit. However, if you know the way of reading which has

different purpose, you could save your time to read. For example, my major is engineering. I

have several thick text books each quarter. When I was freshman, I tried to read all books, every

single page in the text book. I spent many time to read them all expecting I would get good

grades. However, at the end of semester when I got a transcript for this quarter, my grads were
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not good as much as I expected. When I became a junior year and get used tostudy engineering

subject, I understood the way of using the textbooks and studying. Although I spend less time

than freshman I spend, my grads were improved. Secondly, as improving the reading and writing

skill, you can understand better and explain your idea in better way. When I took a literature

class for general education, I was uncomfortable to read the textbook. The structure of sentences

in the textbook was different compared with the major textbooks. The sentences of engineering

textbook are normally simple and clear. There are no metaphors and no hidden meaning.

However the literature reading had many hidden meaning in one sentence and I had to find the

hidden meaning and write the complex sentence about these. The literature class made me aware

of the importance of reading and writing skill.













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Differences

Your feedback may be given in oral conference. I think this is great. I rarely had the opportunity to speak
with my Korean students about their performance on specific writing assignments. The school and course
schedule simply didnt allow for it. A one-on-one (or small group) meeting regarding the students draft
may be of great benefit to both the student and teacher. I believe these meetings help to build student-
teacher rapport. They may also help the teacher to better understand student strengths/weaknesses.
We utilized different proofreading tools. As an EFL teacher, did you review with your students the
meaning of each marking early in the semester, prior to grading and returning writing assignments? I
utilized two distinct sets of proofreading tools (a traditional toolset for elementary, a simpler set for
kindergarten). I wondered if and how my proofreading tools contrasted with my students Korean
elementary school teachers. I should have asked!

Similarities

We both marked our rubrics (in complement to the markings on our student drafts and out typewritten
comments). I think doing so benefits the student by clarifying our feedback.
We both emphasize necessity of thesis. Youngjoo (my student) included while Luan (your student) did not.
My former L2 students struggled with this. Im hyper aware of its exclusion/inclusion. Both students
conclusions were also underdeveloped. This is clearly an area that requires improvement and practice.
You encourage Luan to fully explore his/her thoughts. I encouraged Youngjoo to do the same. It seems
that both students fail to fully develop their ideas. There exist great writing exercises that cultivate this
skill.
We praised our students strengths/efforts. According to F&H, praise of writer is consistent with holistic
(versus analytic). I think its important to praise student writing no matter the rubric. I often start my
feedback by giving one critique (an area requiring improvement) and concluding with one compliment (an
area of strength). Ideally, student will leave the document (or our meeting) feeling encouraged.

o You: I can clearly understand your points . . .


o You: You do a good job . . .
o You: But overall your ideas were clear . . .
o Me: Overall, nice work!
o Me: I liked your vocabulary use!
o Me: You are on the right track!

Final Thoughts

I appreciate your proofreading marks. As an EFL teacher, I utilized recommended marks I found online.
Im always in search of best practices, marks and methods that heighten effective communication with
students. Your numbering and bracketing of each paragraph is a great idea, something I think Ill adopt.
There were elements of each rubric that were unclear to me. For example, the holistic rubrics third band
suggests students vocabulary may be average for an intermediate-level L2 student writer. Ill chalk it up
to my inexperience, but Im uncertain as to what constitutes average vocabulary for this level writer. I
suppose we are missing some context here.
It appears that neither of us offered revised rubrics. I didnt feel prepared to tweak either, but thats
something Im still giving thought to. I think that once I have more experience teaching writing, using a
variety of rubrics, and become familiar with students strengths and weaknesses, I will have a better sense
of how to appropriately revise either of these rubrics.
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Module 8

Application Activity 7.3: Examining a Student Paper, Selecting Feedback Points, and
Constructing Commentary

Application Activity 7.4: Designing a Peer Response Task


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Teacher Commentary

Dear Student,

I enjoyed reading your first draft. Your inclusion of personal experience strengthens this essay.

Memories, even painful ones, can be powerful writing material. This emotional appeal may help

to persuade your audience. There are still several improvements you can make to your essay.

These changes described below will better develop your draft. Once your audience has

finished reading your revised essay, they may be better convinced by your arguments.

1 Your essays first paragraph the introduction plainly states that some lies are harmless

while other lies cause harm. Your examples of harmless lies were good but

underdeveloped. Please include personal experience that exemplifies why some lies are

harmless. J

2 Your essays final paragraph the conclusion is a little weak. Remember: A strong

conclusion restates an essays thesis. It does so in 2 to 3 sentences. Consider reminding

your audience that a persons lies must be within specified limits and boundaries. This

will strengthen your conclusion and, consequently, your entire essay. J

Your writing continues to improve! This essays inclusion of important sections an

introductory paragraph, body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph was a strong draft.

Consider my two suggestions. They will make your essay more coherent. Please include a cover

memo (explained in course syllabus) with your second draft. It is due next Friday (11/4). Please

email me if you have questions about my feedback. Keep up the good work!

Mr. Hill
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Analysis

Four principles identified and illustrated by Ferris and Hedgecock guided my critique of

the designated student essay. I underscore and expound each hereafter. I consider this essay a

first draft and critiqued it accordingly. I conclude with a concise reflection on my struggles in

commentary and concerns I have regarding effective response to future writing assignments.

First principle: Teachers may wish to prioritize comments about content over feedback on

language errors on different drafts of student papers (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 251). That

in mind, my feedback favors content over form. I pay mind to the students address of the

prompt (Did they understand what was being asked? Did they respond appropriately?) and the

drafts coherence (Is their content well-structured? Is it supported by personal experience?). I

also avoid grammatical errors and misspelled words (ex. perty instead of party). I will correct

these in my response to the second to last draft submission. This is in keeping with best

practices. As their drafts mature, student writers must be encouraged to edit, proofread, and

correct their work before it is finalized; teacher feedback on errors can facilitate this process

(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 249).

Second principle: Feedback should optimally include a balance of praise and constructive

criticism (p. 251). I recognized this principles import in my Module 7 writing assignment. An

imbalance (or excess) of negative feedback may neglect an L2 learners fragile language ego.

Instructors must blend appropriate praise with constructive criticism. The latter not only aids

students but is desired: Student writers appreciate and value a blend of encouragement and

constructive criticism, reporting that they are generally not offended or hurt by concrete

suggestions for improvement (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 240). This evokes the sandwich
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approach, which I exercise. I begin and end my note with encouraging remarks (the bread)

and [supply] two to four critical feedback points or suggestions in the middle (the filling)

(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 247). My end note commentary, like my marginal comments,

avoids unhelpful [words] such as vague, awkward, and unclear (Ferris and Hedgecock,

2014, p. 249). These may be vague(!), non-specific, and frustrating for student writers.

Third principle: Student writers should be given explicit permission to disregard suggestions

that they find unhelpful or with which they disagree (p. 250). Instructors must not appropriate a

students draft. Appropriation occurs when an instructors feedback, critique, or commentary

persuades a student to revise their essay at the expense of the students own unique voice.

Appropriation inhibits student agency. I encourage student voice and agency (mindful of

appropriations dangers) by using specific language within my commentary: I recommend you

make the following changes to your paper and consider my two suggestions. This language

seeks to reinforce an idea that I will hopefully have introduced in class. Students should heed my

advice only if they find it appropriate to do so. Action is not required and students grade will not

hinge on it.

According to Ferris and Hedgecock, an instructor may require students to include with

revisions a cover memo explaining how they have (or have not) incorporated their teachers

suggestions, and why (p. 251). A cover memo (referenced in my end note commentary) may

encourage students to sufficiently reflect on teacher feedback in addition to those aspects of

feedback they choose to implement (as well as the feedback they choose not to). A student

written cover memo will help me as teacher and evaluator to understand student decisions

(consequence of agency) that shaped the subsequent draft.


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I experienced no specific trouble in my efforts to respond to the designated student essay.

I did, perhaps impulsively, wish to take my green ballpoint pen and focus on the drafts

grammatical deficiencies (of which there were admittedly few). I instead exercised restraint.

Notifying the student of mechanical mistakes would merely distract from this drafts weightier

problems (to which I preferred to devote my time). It may be easier to focus on a drafts spelling

and grammar errors than it is to focus on structure, aspects of syntax, and overall coherence. As a

novice rater of writing assignments at my Korean hagwon, I relied on the exercise of basic

grammar correction when I had limited time, capacity, or capability of addressing other (perhaps

more important) problems. I truly believe, given past experience, that what will benefit me

tremendously is (in the context of what we have learned) is simply grading an abundance of

papers. This practice brings experience which will permit me to effectively evaluate essays.

These four guiding principles will serve me well from here on out.
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Works Cited

Hedgecock, J. S., & Ferris, D. R. (2014). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

































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Peer Response Activity


English Composition 101

What is a Peer Response (PR) Activity?


In a PR Activity, two students are partnered. They are asked to read and analyze each
others writing. They help each other, with support from the teacher, to write excellent final
drafts.

Why do PR Activities?
In past writing activities, I alone gave you written feedback. Now that you are familiar with
teacher comments, we will practice peer comments! Your peers can also provide meaningful
feedback. That is why this we will engage in PR Activities this semester.

PR Worksheet Instructions
Each student will be assigned a peer-partner. Each student will then receive a copy of their
partners Argumentative Essay and a PR Worksheet.

To successfully complete this assignment:


Carefully read your partners essay twice.
After reading, use the essay to answer six PR Worksheet questions.

This assignment will help:


You identify an essays features by assessing their inclusion in your partners essay.
Your partner to write a fully-developed essay!

You will have one week to analyze your partners essay and complete the PR Worksheet.
Your partners essay, attached to its PR Worksheet, is due Tuesday afternoon at 3:15pm.
Place it in our new PR Folder on my desk. It is color-coded green.

Ill return graded submissions Thursday. I will give each student one copy of the PR
Worksheet they submitted, and one copy of the PR Worksheet their partner submitted. Both
will include my comments. Your assignment grade will be based on completion and
thoughtful analysis of your PR Worksheet.


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< Exercise 1
Who is your peer-review partner?




Exercise 2 >

Who is the title of your peers essay?



< Exercise 3
Write the essays introduction here, using
your own words.

Also: Do you think your partners


introduction was well-written? If so, why?
If not, why not?


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Exercise 4 >

Write the first supporting
argument, in your own words, here.

Also: Do you think this argument


was well-written? If so, why? If
not, why not?





< Exercise 5
Write the second supporting argument, in
your own words, here.

Do you think your partners argument


was well-written? If so, why? If not, why
not?





Exercise 6 >

Write the conclusion in your
own words.


Also: Do you think your

partners conclusion was
strong? If so, why? If not, why
not?
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Module 9

Activity A

Wang Peng

The tTruth of nNational pParks

With the increasing demand of entertainment and the pursuing pursuit of a natural

environment, national parks play the a significant role in peoples life lives. The American

people have gradually focused on the improvement of park recreational facilities. An article

wrote written by Richard L. Worsnop discussed whether the parks should limit visitors or meet

the demand to provide support. And Thomas J. Mills made comments on Richards Wolsnops

opinion and support supported his idea that mainly talked the entry fees of national parks should

enhance be enhanced in order to improve the basic facilities of parks. From that article, the

author mainly talked about suggested that park concessionaires and other private interests should

pay higher fees to let government collect more money to support the development of recreation

facilities. Based on that topic, some people came up with an issue of national parks that studied

whether public visitors should pay more fees of entering to enter and using use a national parks

resources, also whether its fair or not to impose more money from publics higher fees on the
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public. This article is aimed at persuading publics the public to accept the higher fees of the

national parks and let people know the current problems of national parks and the way steps the

government wanted to take steps to solve problems and enhance the quality of national parks.

Although, Mills use of emotional attractor contributes less to his viewpoint, his arguments

overall are effective because the organization and logic are credible enough to persuade and can

tightly connect with the purpose that government and congress persuade visitors to pay more

entry fees.

Firstly, there is the strong relationship between the logical reasons and the purpose of

persuading. The argument made by Thomas J. Mills is clear for us to figure out the position he

held. People who read the article can easily extract the information about what that Mills wants

uses to argue and persuade. One sentence he used in the text: This commitment is a reasoned

response to a difficult situation (Mills, 1993). Before that sentence, it claims the content of

commitment and after stating this sentence, it helps us to figure out the logic and organization

that what he wants to mention later. As expected, the clearly organization gives two reasons to

explain why congress and the president made such that decisions later. Two reasons directly

match with support the purpose of that article. The first reason mentioned: On the one hand,
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demand for recreational opportunities is high and expected to grow substantially over the

foreseeable future (Mills, 1993). From tThis reason, it reveals that because of the rapid growth

of entertainment choices, government should collect more money to rebuild equipment in order

to meet the demand. It matches with the purpose of the article and provides reasonable reason to

persuade publics the public to pay more fees. The other reason states: On the other, available

resources are inadequate to maintain even the current recreation infrastructure as is evidenced by

the $449 million unfunded backlog of essential maintenance and repair of recreation facilities

(Mills, 1993). Because inadequate resources cant maintain the current infrastructure and the

park service should also support park repair, officials prefer to get more money to support the

normal circulation of park service. Based on two reasons provided by Mills, it aims at to

persuading persuade publics the public to pay more fees to national parks. From tThe logic of

that part, not only it tightly combines with their goals, but also the text provides a well-organized

and reasonable content. Another example said: Congress has recognized this dilemma and has

responded by raising appropriations for the Forest Service recreation program significantly in

recent years (Mills, 1993). For that evidence we can find in the text presented the reason

government eager to collect money. Because the promise to the Forest Service recreation
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 89

program of providing more fiscal subsidy, the congress made the commitment so that it would to

let citizens knew the current issue happened with national parks and then congress enhance the

entry fees.

After analyzing the logic of Mills statement, its it is worthy to dissect how the author uses

methods to persuade and convince people who often go to national parks to share the public

facilities. The ethos and audience work together to emphasize on how the author makes credible

of the difficulties faced by government. One example shows: In his report, A Vision of Change

for America, the president made clear his commitment to increasing revenues from users of

recreation facilities on federal lands. We cannot predict exact fee levels, but new entrance and

user fees will not exceed the $3 cap contained in the president's report (Mills, 1993). For In the

beginning of that his paper, Mills quotes President, commitment, revenues and federal lands to

attract readers attention and let publics the public believe the credibility for the commitment.

Because the choice of words is professional and formal, which are used in the government

commitment or the declaration, made by congress, readers can easily believe the credibility of

that event. Also, examples and experiences can greatly contribute to the credibility of an article,.

oOne part by Mills said stated: For example, in 1991, volunteers contributed work valued at $23
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 90

million in support of the recreation program. Additionally, we operate certain facilities under ...

permits [that] bring in private capital to maintain recreation facilities in national forests (Mills,

1993). For The example the author gave for the readers, it can let help readers them understand

more about this commitment that as well as the government and congress have tried many efforts

of government and congress to support the recreation program and allow personal facilities in

national parks. By revealing and analyzing the government actions, publics the public may have

intuitive feelings about the facticity by government. The example can support the authors idea

effectively.

The weakest relationship for Mills statement would be the position he held and the emotion

he wanted to convey. Mills held the a moderate attitude and represent presented a formal and

professional statement to readers. Its difficult for us to explore the relationship between position

for statement and emotion for people who entertain usually in parks. The reason I couldnt could

not find more evidence was that the author talked less about the emotional aspect than the other

aspects.

Overall, the author made a strong and believable supportive argument towards in the original

article. Mills used many methods to achieve his goals that were to persuade visitors to pay more
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 91

higher entry fees and inform publics the public of the obstacles government faced. The

government and congress should come up with more ways to develop public recreations and

improve the overall environment of national parks. For the article, the author can pay more

attention to his audience because the statement for audience can direct exert effects on the final

goals he wants to achieve.


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 92

Activity A
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Activity A

Analysis

I marked Wang Pengs essay based on Module 8s reading (and my personal beliefs regarding

marking in this given context) as I havent yet read Module 9. According to Ferris and

Hedgecock, feedback is most useful when provided at intermediate stages of the writing process

rather than after an assignment is finalized (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 241). According to

Activity A instructions, this essay is Wangs final draft. Consequently, I did consider the

effectiveness of my feedback. Its far too late in the writing process to ask Wang to reconsider

significant elements of his paper. Wang required relevant counsel in his first and second drafts.

Our direction mentioned no significant errors (content, structure, grammar) in previous drafts.

Perhaps problems were addressed by the teacher in previous drafts and perhaps Wang opted to

ignore them. According to Ferris and Hedgecock, teachers do not need to respond to every

single flaw or weakness on every single writing sample. Most experienced teachers prioritize

areas of concern on individual student papers and selectively respond to the most important

features (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 241). They also assert that grammatical errors should

receive attention in the final draft. This is what I have done here. I made a conscious choice to

identify and correct every single error . Using my own admittedly novice judgment, I do not
4

believe that his errors were so overwhelming that marking them would prove cognitively or

emotionally injurious. I also noticed that I tended to evaluate for style as well as grammar. This

is one of the things I need to do less of but that I am very particular about. I write in a very


4
I also consider the fact that I am not very skilled in grammar and may have misdiagnosed or
failed to identify a problem.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 95

particular voice and I fear that, through use of style, I may unintentionally appropriate my

students paper in some way.

I used a word processer to identify each error and then offer a correction. I did not provide

commentary as I did not interpret our directions as requiring it (I hope this was the case!). One

sentence in the instruction When you finish, go back and read the errors you marked and

categorize [them] made me believe we were being asked to simply identify each of Wangs

errors. Doing so may help us to form a strategy of correction.






















RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 96

Works Cited


Ferris, Dana R.; Hedgcock, John (2013-10-01). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice. Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.






































RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 97

Activity B

Application Activity 8.2: Analyzing Errors in a Student Text

Application Activity 8.3: Responding to a Students Language Errors

[See pages 95 113]


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 98

Activity B
Activity 8. 2
Error Correction Chart (Wang Peng)
Error Noun Verb Article Wrong Sentence Spelling Other
Number Ending Word Structure
1 J
2 J
3 J
4 J
5 J
6 J
7 J
8 J
9 J
10 J
11 J
12 J
13 J
14 J
15 J
16 J
17 J
18 J
19 J
20 J
21 J
22 J
23 J
24 J
25 J
26 J
27 J
28 J
29 J
30 J
31 J
32 J
33 J
34 J
35 J
36 J
37 J
38 J
39 J
40 J
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 99

Error Noun Verb Article Word Sentence Spelling Other


Number Ending Choice Structure
41 J
42 J
43 J
44 J
45 J
46 J
47 J
48 J
49 J
50 J
51 J
52 J
53 J
54 J
55 J
56 J
57 J
58 J
59 J
60 J
61 J
62 J
63 J
64 J
65 J
66 J
67 J
68 J
68 J
70 J
71 J
72 J
73 J
74 J
75 J
76 J
77 J
78 J
79 J
80 J
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 100

Error Noun Verb Article Word Sentence Spelling Other


Number Ending Choice Structure
81 J
82 J
83 J
84 J
85 J
86 J
87 J
88 J
89 J
90 J
91 J
92 J
93 J
Total 8 12 19 24 18 0 12
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 101

Error Correction Chart (John Doe)


Error Noun Verb Article Wrong Sentence Spelling Other
Number Ending Word Structure
1 J
2 J
3 J
4 J
5 J
6 J
7 J
8 J
9 J
10 J
11 J
12 J
13 J
14 J
15 J
16 J
17 J
18 J
19 J
20 J
21 J
22 J
23 J
24 J
25 J
26 J
27 J
28 J
29 J
30 J
31 J
32 J
33 J
34 J
35 J
36 J
37 J
38 J
39 J
40 J
Total 2 9 1 16 10 0 2
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 102

Activity 8.3

Wang Peng

The truth of national parks

With the increasing demand of entertainment and the pursuing of natural environment,

national parks play the a life. The American people have gradually focused on the

improvement of park recreational facilities. An article wrote by Richard L. Worsnop discussed

whether the parks should limit visitors or meet the demand to provide support. And

Thomas J. Mills made comments on Richards opinion and support his idea that mainly talked

the entry fees of national parks should enhance in order to improve the basic facilities

of parks. From that article, the author mainly talked about suggested that park

concessionaires and other private interests should pay higher fees to let government collect more

money to support the development of recreation facilities. Based on that topic, some people came

up with an issue of national parks that studied whether public visitors should pay more fees of

entering and using use a national parks resources, also whether its fair or not to impose ask

more money from the publics This article aimed at persuading the

publics to accept the higher fees of the national parks and let people know the current problems
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 103

of national parks and the way steps the government wanted to take steps to solve problems and

enhance the quality of national parks. Although, Mills use of emotional attractor contribute less

to his viewpoint, his arguments overall are effective because the organization and logic are

credible enough to persuade and can tightly connect with the purpose that government and

congress persuade visitors to pay more entry fees.

Firstly, there is the strong relationship between the logical reasons and the purpose of

persuading. The argument made by Thomas J. Mills is clear for us to figure out the position he

held. People who read article can easily extract the information about what that Mills wants to

argue and persuade. One sentence he used in the text: This commitment is a reasoned response

to a difficult situation (Mills, 1993). Before that sentence, it claims the content of commitment

and after stating this sentence, it help us to figure out the logic and organization that what he

wants to mention later. As expected, the clearly organization gives two reasons to

explain why congress and president made such that decisions later. Two reasons directly match

with support the purpose of that article. The first reason mentioned: On the one hand, demand

for recreational opportunities is high and expected to grow substantially over the foreseeable

future (Mills, 1993). From tThis reason, it reveals that because of the rapid growth of
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 104

entertainment choices, government should collect more money to rebuild equipment in order to

meet the demand. It matches with the purpose of the article and provide reasonable reason to

persuade publics pay more fees. The other reason states: On the other, available resources are

inadequate to maintain even the current recreation infrastructure as is evidenced by the $449

million unfunded backlog of essential maintenance and repair of recreation facilities (Mills,

1993). Because inadequate resources cant maintain the current infrastructure and the park

service should also support park repair, officials prefer to get more money to support the normal

circulation of park service. Based on two reasons provided by Mills, it aims at persuading the

publics to pay more fees to national parks. From tThe logic of that part not only it tightly

combines with their goals, but also the text provides well-organized and reasonable content.

Another example said: Congress has recognized this dilemma and has responded by raising

appropriations for the Forest Service recreation program significantly in recent years (Mills,

1993). For that evidence we can find in the text presented the reason government eager to collect

money. Because the promise to the Forest Service recreation program of providing more fiscal

subsidy, the congress made the commitment so that it would let citizens knew the current issue

happened with national parks and then congress enhance the entry fees.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 105

After analyzing the logic of Mills statement, its worthy to dissect how the author use

methods to persuade and convince people who often go to national parks to share the public

facilities. The ethos and audience work together to emphasize on how author make credible of

the difficulties faced by government. One example shows: In his report, A Vision of Change

for America, the president made clear his commitment to increasing revenues from users of

recreation facilities on federal lands. We cannot predict exact fee levels, but new entrance and

user fees will not exceed the $3 cap contained in the president's report (Mills, 1993). For In the

beginning of that Mill's paper, Mills he quotes President, commitment, revenues and

federal lands to attract readers attention and let the publics believe the credibility for the

commitment. Because the choice of words is professional and formal, which are used in the

government commitment or the declaration, made by congress, readers can easily believe the

credibility of that event. Also, examples and experiences can greatly contribute to the credibility

of an article,. oOne part by Mills said stated: For example, in 1991, volunteers contributed work

valued at $23 million in support of the recreation program. Additionally, we operate certain

facilities under ... permits [that] bring in private capital to maintain recreation facilities

in national forests (Mills, 1993). For example the author gave for the readers it can let readers
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 106

them understand more about this commitment that as well as the government and

congress have tried many efforts of government and congress to support the recreation program

and allow personal facilities in national parks. By revealing and analyzing the government

actions, the publics may have intuitive feelings about the facticity by government. The example

can support the authors idea effectively.

The weakest relationship for Mills statement would be the position he held and the emotion

he wanted to convey. Mills held a moderate attitude and represent a formal and

professional statement to readers. Its difficult for us to explore the relationship between position

for statement and emotion for people who entertain usually in parks. The reason I couldnt find

more evidence was that the author talked less about emotional aspect than the other aspects.

Overall, the author made a strong and believable supportive argument towards in

the original article. Mills used many methods to achieve his goals that were to persuade visitors

to pay more entry fees and inform the publics of the obstacles government faced.

The government and congress should come up with more ways to develop public recreations and

improve the overall environment of national parks. For the article, the author can pay more
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 107

attention to his audience because the statement for audience can direct exert effects on the final

goals he wants to achieve.


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 108

Activity B

Appendix 8 Sample Student Essay for Error Correction Practice

Note: This essay sample accompanies Application Activities 8.2 and 8.3. It was written by

college seniors during the first week of an advanced L2 writing course. Students had 50 minutes

to write in class on the topic, Are lies always harmful or are they sometimes helpful?

Today, in peoples daily life, they often lie to protect themselves, to fit into a specific group, to

make others feel better, or to help others in a different way. Yet, no matter what reason that

causes people to tell untruthful information, their purpose id to more on their

living. However, not all lies are harmful. They can be helpful in some appropriate situations. It

all depends how people view them. It is true that sometimes lies are harmful. They can cause

broken relationships, such as friendship between friends, husband and wife, or parents and

children. According to Goodrich, if one promise to do lunch when this person knew that they

will never get together. If later on the other person discovered the tellers purpose, their

relationship would not go along well suffer Also, Goodrich states that many parents

tell their children that Santa Claus will come on Christmas Eve. In this situation, although
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 109

parents say that is this to make the Christmas more enjoyable and make their children happier, as

the children grow up and find out the true on their own, they may not be very happy with their

parents attitude. Although the result may not terrible till broken their parents and children

relationship it may bring some negative parents value in childrens mind. In

this situation, lying is harmful to both parents and children. However, sometimes, tell telling a lie

can be helpful if people deal with it appropriate. I remember two friends of mine Jack and John

were best friends. They grew up together and went to school together. Yet, during their college

year, Jack was Major in accounting because he like business very much. On the other hand, John

was not interested in business much. He was having difficult time to chose

choosing his major. At the same time, he still wants wanted to be with Jack all of the time. Once,

when Jack asked John to major in business so they can could still go to classes together, John

responded by saying OK, even though he did not like business classes, John

found out he enjoyed being manager after his college graduation. Johns lie did not hurt him and

Jack. In fact, it helps helped him to choose his major while he did not know what to do. On the

other hand, Jack also got some help from John while their they studying studied. Therefore lies
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 110

can be beneficial sometimes. As a result, not all lies are wrong. Some are harmful while others

are helpful.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 111

Activity B

Analysis

Module nines application activities tasked us with marking two papers: One essay

written by first year L2 Wang Peng and a second drafted by an unnamed L2 college senior I will

refer to as John Doe. I used page 305s error correction chart to identify and tally both students

errors. Patterns quickly emerged. According to Ferris and Hedegcock, it is extremely important

for L2 writing teachers to take time to analyze [these] error patterns rather than [make]

assumptions about what all L2 writers need (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 285). Better to be

tactical in approach. I consider the patterns below.

I first identified each existing error (that I was able to) in Wangs essay. I categorized

each according to page 304s seven large categories. I then tallied and charted each error. Doing

so facilitated my assessment of Wangs paper. Category ones wrong word contained 24 errors.

Category twos article errors contained 19 errors. Category threes sentence structure

contained 18 errors. Category fours verb errors contained 12 errors. Category fives other

contained 12 errors. Category sixs noun endings contained 8 errors. Category sevens spelling

contained 0 errors. I chose to focus my efforts and limited time (a significant constraint on many

teachers) by counseling Wang on his top three challenge areas. These include: word choice,

articles, and sentence structure.

I next approached Does draft. I categorized, tallied, and determined the following.

Category ones wrong word contained 16 errors. Category 2s sentence structure contained 10

errors. Category threes verb errors contained 9 errors. Category fours other contained 2

errors. Category sixs noun ending errors contained 2 errors. Category twos article errors
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 112

contained 1 error. Category sevens spelling contained 0 errors. I chose to focus on Does chief

three challenge areas. These include: word choice, sentence structure, and use of verbs.

I then sought to determine the following: Would I mark (or address) each drafts every

error (comprehensive correction) or a select few (selective correction)? According to Ferris and

Hedgecock, selective correction is less overwhelming [and thus beneficial] to teachers and

students and allows for prioritization of the most serious, frequent patterns of errors made by

individual students (p. 285). Students may resist as some prefer comprehensive correction.

Moreover, some teachers may face pressure from pupils to mark exhaustively. In Korea (and

other Asian countries) students are steeped in high stakes testing. Each exam is cut and dry:

There are correct answers and incorrect answers. Students may not expect the complex nature of

a writing assignments evaluation. As composition instructor, I would be sure to clearly

communicate stated complexity and articulate the benefits of selective correction.

According to Truscott, the most interesting and most disturbing argument [for

comprehensive correction practices] found in the literature is that because students want

correction and believe it is helpful, we should continue the practice (Truscott, 1996, p. 359).

Truscott continues: The obligation teachers have to students is not to use whatever form of

instruction the students think is best, but rather to help them learn (p. 359). This in mind, I

gravitate toward selective correction. I also wish to consider both students language egos their

sometimes fragile L2 identities. Wang is new to his class. I do not wish to overwhelm him. John

Doe is similarly new to his writing course. As theoretical instructor (or rater), I must consider

and appreciate students academic wishes but I must also exercise independent and thoughtful

judgment.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 113

I next consider forms of feedback. According to Ferris and Hedgecock, the mechanics

and/or tools used by teachers may influence not only students reactions to feedback but also

their ability to understand and benefit from it (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 290).

Consequently, teachers must conscientiously evaluate each option. For each paper I prefer:

verbal rule reminders and/or verbal end comments. I do so for two reasons. First, I have prior

practice with the alternatives. I exercised direct correction as an EFL Teacher in Korea and

highlighting in my initial critique of Wangs paper. As I had never before offered verbal

commentary in an audio recording context I wanted and believed I could learn from that

experience. Doing so proved challenging! I found myself jotting down the precise comments I

planned to speak and record. This was a time-consuming endeavor. After recording, I input the

audio comments file into the word document. An image of a small speaker image appeared. If I

(or a student) were to click on the image the audio file comments would play. Unfortunately, I

had trouble dragging this image to the correct place in the text. These are certainly issues that can

be resolved, but they did prove challenging during my first attempt here. Another reason I used

audio comments was because I believe both students and instructors benefit from verbal

commentary. According to Ferris and Hedgecock, recent versions of Word allow the teacher

to audio-record comments rather than [write] them, embedding the audio file into the

students document (p. 291). Moreover, some teachers feel more comfortable providing

feedback orally, and some students are more auditory than visual learners, so this could be an

interesting alternative (p. 291).

Ferris and Hedgecock continue:

Teachers must think carefully about legibility and visual impact of comments and

corrections on a page of student text. It is tempting to assume that the affordances of


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 114

word-processing eliminate legibility problems in teacher or peer feedback, yet a page

cluttered with numerous in-text corrections and marginal notes may be confusing and off-

putting to a writer regardless of whether those marks are handwritten or digitally inserted.

(p. 290)

This fact also weighed on me as I chose to give each students verbal comments. I wish

that each of my hand-written graduate school assignments was perfectly legible. The fact is, they

are only legible only because I spend a painstaking amount of time perfecting each word. My

natural handwriting is often rushed and illegible. Intelligible and well-paced oral commentary

may be a better choice for my students and myself. Moreover, the use of electronic feedback

captures the teachers suggestions in permanent form so that they can be reviewed by the student

(and the instructor if desired), unlike handwritten comments on a hard copy that can be lost (p.

290). Each student has a distinct level of organizational skill. In my ideal environment, I would

be able to teach my students organizational skills (as I did so successfully with my kindergarten

students). That said, it would be neither reasonable nor fair of me to expect each of my students

child, teen, or adult to have a personal and effective system of organization. A digital copy of

my commentary stored on a students computer, a thumb drive, or the cloud may best serve

student needs.

There are several skills I must hone before I can effectively mark student writing. Like

many native English teachers, I have limited formal experience with pedagogical grammar. My

two years teaching was undoubtedly a beneficial introduction but I want and, quite frankly, need

more training. As I attempted to give oral commentary to each paper, I realized the challenge in

describing several of the students errors and how to correct them. Sometimes one necessary
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 115

correction may spark several more necessary change (it order to be keep the sentence

comprehensible and grammatically accurate). Consequently, I had to take a very nuanced

approach. I highlighted most of the top three errors but did not provide oral feedback to all. I take

current comfort in Ferris and Hedgecocks assertion that not all English language instructors are

well-versed in the nuances of pedagogical grammar (quite true!) and appreciate the fact that I

need not focus on each error a student may make. For now, I may focus on those areas I am

versed in.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 116

Works Cited

Ferris, Dana R.; Hedgcock, John (2013-10-01). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice. Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.

Truscott, J. (1996). The Case Against Grammar Correction in L2 Writing Classes. Language

Learning, 46(2), 327-369.




















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Activity C

Application Activity 8.4: Marking Errors Electronically

[See pages 115 to 127]


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Activity C
















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Wang

Nice work. This was a solid final draft. Your essay contained several grammatical errors. These

include: errors in noun ending, sentence structure, article use, and word choice. Ive marked

smaller grammatical errors as other. I added marginal notations that indicate the location of your

error but I do not provide you an alternative answer. Please review this paper and consider

corrections you might make. To help you, Ive included below several examples of each error

category.

Error Type Description

Noun Ending Plural or possessive ending incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary

Articles Article is incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary

Wrong Word Misused word, misspelled word, incorrect prepositions or pronouns

Sentence Structure Word order, omitted words or phrases, unnecessary words or phrases

Other Capitalization and punctuation

Mr. Hill
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 124

Appendix 8 Sample Student Essay for Error Correction Practice

Note: This essay sample accompanies Application Activities 8.2 and 8.3. It was written by

college seniors during the first week of an advanced L2 writing course. Students had 50 minutes

to write in class on the topic, Are lies always harmful or are they sometimes helpful?

Today, in peoples daily life, they often lie to protect themselves, to fit into a specific group, to

make others feel better, or to help others in a different way. Yet, no matter what reason that

cause people to tell untruthful information, their purpose id to more on their living. However, no

all lies are harmful. They can be helpful in some appropriate situations. It all depends how

people view them. It is true that sometimes lies are harmful. They can cause broken

relationships, such as friendship, husband and wife, or parents and children. According to

Goodrich, if one promise to do lunch when this person knew that they will never get together.

If later on the other person discovered the tellers purpose, their relationship would not go along

well. Also, Goodrich states that many parents tell their children that Santa Claus will come on

Christmas Eve. In this situation, although parents say that is to make the Christmas more

enjoyable and make their children happier, as the children grow up and find out the true on their
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 125

own, they may not very happy their parents attitude. Although the result may not terrible till

broken their parents and children relationship it may bring some negative parents value in

childrens mind. In this situation, lying is harmful to both parents and children. However,

sometimes, tell a lie can be helpful if people deal with it appropriate. I remember two friends of

mine Jack and John were best friends. They grew up together and went to school together. Yet,

during their college year, Jack was Major in accounting because he like business very much. On

the other hand, John was not interested in business much. He was having difficult time to chose

his major. At the same time, he still wants to be with Jack all of the time. Once, when Jack asked

John to major in business so they can still go to classes together, John responded by saying

OK, even though he did not like business classes, John found out he enjoy being manager after

his college. Johns lie did not hurt him and Jack. In fact, it helps him to choose his major while

he did not know what to do. On the other hand, Jack also got some help from John while their

studying. Therefore lies can be beneficial sometimes. As a result, not all lies are wrong. Some

are harmful while others are helpful.


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 126

John

Nice work. You made a strong argument for your audience. I identified this essays grammatical

errors. Verb errors are highlighted in yellow. Noun ending errors are highlighted in green.

Article errors are highlighted in blue. Wrong words are highlighted in pink. Problems in

sentence structure are highlighted in turquoise. Spelling errors are highlighted in red. Finally,

other errors are highlighted in gray. I did not provide you the correct answers. Please closely

examine your paper and attempt to make corrections independently. To help you,

Ive included below several examples of each error category.

Error Type Description

Noun Ending Plural or possessive ending incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary

Verb All errors in verb of tense form

Articles Article is incorrect, omitted, or unnecessary

Wrong Word Misused word, misspelled word, incorrect prepositions or pronouns

Sentence Structure Word order, omitted words or phrases, unnecessary words or phrases
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 127

Other Capitalization and punctuation

Mr. Hill
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 128

8.4 Analysis

In performing Application Activity 8.4, I graded Wang Pengs paper by employing marginal

notations via word processor. I corrected selectively. I planned initially to identify only three

error types: sentence structure, word choice, articles. According to Ferris (2006), these are

frequent errors among L2 students (as observed in a case study of ESL university students in

California). As for occurrence, they rank first, second, and seventh respectively. As I assessed

Wangs misuse of articles, I realized I would need to correct one or more noun ending errors tied

to article use. The publics is incorrect, yet the public is not. Consequently, I felt compelled

to mark beyond my original scope.

In Activity 8.3, I chose to offer Wang direct feedback. I identified errors, marked them, and

supplied a correction. That said, direct corrections play a productive role among lower-level

students who are unable to self-edit even when an error is called to their attention (Ferris and

Hedgecock, 2014, p. 287). Wang is a university student. Given this, I provided indirect feedback

in marginal notations in Activity 8.4. I indicated each error by ascribing error categories (see

page 303). Wang must exercise his own judgment, his own-self-editing skills, to address these

errors.

I approached Johns final draft like I did Wangs. I corrected a select number of each error

category. Unlike Wangs paper, however, I chose not to pen my feedback in the margins. It was

included in text. I created a color code. Each error type (see page 303) was ascribed its own

color. John, a university student like Wang, may have little difficulty self-editing. According to
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 129

Brown (2012), his students found the colors more noticeable and memorable than an error code

might have been (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 291). Even I was more engaged in the

feedback process as I selected specific error-colors and highlighted the students draft almost

like I was painting an error-laden canvas. Perhaps John and other students would feel

likewise. They may even experience greater buy-in to the process.

While I enjoyed color coding, I will need to practice it many more times before I feel fully

comfortable using it in the classroom. I am in the habit of providing direct feedback. I did so at

my Korean hagwon and I am admittedly somewhat anxious handing off a relatively unmarked

paper to students and expecting them to figure out the mistakes independently (although I

certainly understand the benefits of doing so5). I chose to provide selective and indirect feedback

to Wang but could have easily given him voluminous information regarding corrections. As

evidenced by the very first effort I made to correct Wangs paper in activity A, I had ample and

specific feedback. This direct feedback appears at the opposite of the spectrum from color

coding. Again, I simply require practice. After all, most experts agree that indirect feedback

clearly has the most potential for helping students to continue developing their L2 proficiency

and metalinguistic knowledge. When asked about error feedback preferences, students seem to

realize that they will learn more from indirect feedback (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 287).


5
Old habits die hard.
RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 130

Works Cited

Ferris, Dana R.; Hedgcock, John (2013-10-01). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice. Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.




RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 131

Activity D

Peer Discussion - Report

I enjoyed Module 9s independent and peer activities. We first assessed two student drafts, each

with its own environmental context, according to our own marking styles. I directly marked for

error and style and did so directly and comprehensively. The subsequent reading forced me to

reconsider my approach. I enjoyed initial use of a word-processors highlighting/strike-

through/insertion functions, but that method may be of limited benefit to students. Our authors

introduce myriad feedback tools. I particularly enjoyed color coding. I categorized each error,

assigned those errors a specific color, and then highlighted the problem areas according to those

colors. As students receive their draft, they have autonomy and responsibility to determine the

precise nature of each error and identify a solution. Moreover, the multicolored visual may

stimulate, and thus benefit, the students mind.

Audio commentary proved far more difficult to implement. I first needed to familiarize myself

with the technology (no easy task!) and then determine how to phrase my feedback. This took

time. I am usually very careful, perhaps more so than necessary, regarding word choice. I found

myself considering and reconsidering and writing and rewriting. I realized that simply writing,

and only writing, feedback may have been quicker. Consequently, audio commentary proved

most onerous. These difficulties do not necessarily dissuade me from this marking form but I

will need to carefully consider how and when I use it. I wish I had had the opportunity to employ

this approach with my Korean elementary school students.


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 132

I appreciated my exchange with Leticia. As mentioned in our Facebook post, she has

significantly more teaching experience (in-class and online) than I do. Thus, she has wisdom

worth sharing and contemplating. She expressed that a negative past experience with audio

commentary dissuaded her from using this tool. Our exchange regarding error correction charts

also proved valuable. She indicated in our correspondence and I noticed quite plainly during

our document exchange that I discovered far more errors as I marked than she did. I think this

is due in part to the fact I marked for style (something she also did when she first started

teaching). I dont know if this would have struck me so plainly had I not used an error correction

chart. In other words, using this chart not only helped me to evaluate my students writing but

own instinctive approach to grading. I intend to use error correction charts when time allows.

I also appreciated our exchange regarding track changes. Ferris and Hedgecock asserted that

their use is an inappropriate power move. Leticia and I seemed to agree that inappropriate and

poorly considered use of any tool may be tantamount to a power move. We should practice

sensitivity in any interaction with our students. This is not so dissimilar from our Rafoth reading

wherein the author suggests tutors (like teachers) should be careful to build constructive

relationships with their students.

Again, I appreciated both the independent and peer exercises in Module 9. We can learn a great

deal from each other and I believe that this occurred during my peer activity with Leticia.







RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 133

Activity E

Position Paper on Error Correction

I describe herein my approach to error correction with regard to high school EFL students in

Seoul, South Korea. Ill mark their writing assignments for error - morphological, syntactic,

and lexical deviations from the grammatical rules of a language (Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014,

p. 282) versus idiomatic style. My students have little desire or intent to visit majority native

English speaking countries. Style is thus of reduced importance. Grammatical competence will,

however, be crucial in students Sunseung college entrance exam. Ill frequently mark selectively

by using an error correction chart to tally and identify chief challenge areas. If I mark

comprehensively, it will be to give students practice addressing a full range of errors. They may

be asked to do so in other courses or in professional setting. Ill mark errors against broad and

predesignated categories. Non-specificity will encourage students to problem solve as they

independently identify their mistakes. My feedback will be both direct and indirect. The former

is a suggested correction (p. 287). The latter provides students with an indication that an error

has been made (underlining, circling, an error code, etc.) but requires the student to self-correct

(Ferris and Hedgecock, 2014, p. 287). I will correct lower level students directly and correct

higher level students indirectly. If my students submit typewritten assignments and I intend to

require that they do so Ill mark using a variety of tools (particularly color-code-correction and

marginal notation). As I mark handwritten assignments (using my own handwriting), Ill do so

legibly. Unclear handwriting will only confuse the student. I may also record in-text audio

feedback. Many parents may want their students to have additional exposure to an American

accent. This will achieve that end in addition to giving students increased opportunity to practice

their listening skills.


RUNNING HEAD: Teaching Portfolio 134

Works Cited

Ferris, Dana R.; Hedgcock, John (2013-10-01). Teaching L2 Composition: Purpose, Process, and

Practice. Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.