ME 1010 Lecture 3

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ME 1010 Lecture 3

© All Rights Reserved

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Resolve Fh into

Vector F is Resolve F into rectangular

contained in the horizontal and components

plane OBAC vertical

Fx Fh cos

components.

F sin y cos

Fy F cos y

Fz Fh sin

Fh F sin y

F sin y sin

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 1

Spatial Components (Direction Cosines)

Spatial Components (Direction Cosines)

Fx F cos x Fy F cos y Fz F cos z

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

F cos x i cos y j cos z k

F

cos x i cos y j cos z k

is a unit vector along the line of

action of F; cos x , cos y , and cos z

are the direction cosines

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 3

Rectangular Components in Space

Direction of force F

Defined by location of two points

M (x1, y1 and z1) and N (x2, y2 and z2)

d vector joining M and N

d xi d y j d z k

d x x2 x1 d y y 2 y1 d z z 2 z1

F F

1

d x i d y j d z k

d

Fd x Fd y Fd z

Fx Fy Fz

d d d

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 4

Rectangular Components in Space

Example: The tension in the guy

wire is 2500 N. Determine: SOLUTION:

force acting on the bolt at A, points A and B, determine the unit

vector pointing from A towards B.

b) the angles qx, qy, qz defining the

Apply the unit vector to determine

direction of the force

the components of the force acting

on A.

Noting that the components of the

unit vector are the direction cosines

for the vector, calculate the

corresponding angles.

Rectangular Components in Space

Solution

Determine the unit vector pointing from A

towards B.

AB 40 m i 80 m j 30 m k

AB 40 m 2 80 m 2 30 m 2

94.3 m

40 80 30

i j k

94.3 94.3 94.3

0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k

Determine the components of the force.

F F

2500 N 0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k

1060 N i 2120 N j 795 N k

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 6

Rectangular Components in Space

Solution

Noting that the components of the unit

vector are the direction cosines for the

vector, calculate the corresponding angles.

cos x i cos y j cos z k

0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k

x 115.1

y 32.0

z 71.5

Product of 2 Vectors: Dot Product

Dot Product (Scalar product)

A.B = AB cos

A

Applications

Determination of the angle between two vectors

A.B = ABcos

Obtain

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 8

Product of 2 Vectors: Dot Product

Applications

Determination of the projection of a vector on a

given axis

A

B

PAB

A.B = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz

PAB = Acos = (A.B)/B

Product of 2 Vectors: Cross Product

Cross Product (Vector Product)

C=AB

C = AB sin

Product of 2 Vectors: Cross Product

Cross Product

Cartesian Vector

Product of 2 Vectors: Cross Product

Cross Product

Distributive property

C (A+B) = C A + C B

AB = (Axi+Ayj+Azk) (Bxi+Byj+Bzk)

= (AyBz- AzBy)i + (.)j + (.)k

= i j k

Ax AY AZ

BX BY BZ

Moment of a Force (Torque)

Moment of a Force (F) @ point A

Mo = r F

r = position

vector

directed from

O to any

point on the

line of

action of F

Moment of a Force

Magnitude of Moment

tendency of F to cause rotation of the body

about an axis along MO

M O rF sin F (r sin ) Fd

Moment of a Force

Characteristic

Moment arm (d = r sin) does not depend on the

particular point on the line of action of F to

which the vector r is directed

Sliding vector

Line of action same as the moment axis

Moment of a Force

Principle of Transmissibility

Two forces are equivalent

Same magnitude, direction and lines of action

Same magnitude, direction and equal moments

about a given point

Moment of a Force

Varignons Theorem

Moment of a force about a point is equal to the

sum of the moments of the components of

the force about the same point

Moment of a System of Concurrent Forces

Varignons Theorem

Moment of the resultant of a system of

concurrent forces about a point is equal to the

sum of the moments of the of the individual

forces about the same point

Rectangular Components of Moment

The moment of F about O,

M O r F , r xi yj zk

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

M O M xi M y j M z k

i j k

x y z

Fx Fy Fz

yFz zFy i zFx xFz j xFy yFx k

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 19

Rectangular Components of Moment

M B rA / B F

rA / B rA rB

x A xB i y A y B j z A z B k

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

i j k

M B x A xB y A yB z A z B

Fx Fy Fz

Moment of a Force About a Given Axis

Moment MO of a force F applied at

the point A about a point O,

MO r F

OL is the projection of the

moment vector MO onto the axis,

M OL M O r F

Moment of a Force About a Given Axis

Significance of MOL

Resolve into components

Moment of a Force About a Given Axis

Significance of MOL

MOL is a measure of the tendency of the F to

impart a rigid body rotation about the axis OL

M x yFz zFy

M y zFx xFz

M z xFy yFx

Moment: Example

Moment: Example

Moment of a Couple

Moment produced by two equal, opposite and

noncollinear forces is called a couple.

Magnitude of the combined moment of the two

forces about O:

M = F(a+d) Fa = Fd

Vector Algebra Method: M rA F rB F

Moment of the couple rA rB F

about point O: r F

M rF sin Fd

independent of the choice of the origin of the

coordinate axes, i.e., it is a free vector that can

be applied at any point with the same effect.

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 26

Moment of a Couple

Two couples will have equal moments if

Fd F d

1 1 2 2

the two couples lie in parallel planes, and

the two couples have the same sense or

the tendency to cause rotation in the same

direction.

Examples:

Addition of Couples

Consider two intersecting planes

P1 and P2 with each containing a

couple

M 1 r F1 in plane P1

M 2 r F2 in plane P2

Resultants of the vectors also

form a couple

M r R r F1 F2

By Varignons theorem

M r F1 r F2

M1 M 2

Sum of two couples is also a couple that is

equal to the vector sum of the two couples

ME101 - Division III Kaustubh Dasgupta 28

Representation of Couples by Vectors

and direction equal to the moment of the couple.

is not significant.

Couple vectors may be resolved into component vectors.

Couple: Example

Moment reqd to turn the shaft connected at center of

the wheel = 12 Nm

First case: Couple Moment

produced by 40 N forces = 12 Nm

Second case: Couple Moment

produced by 30 N forces = 12 Nm

If only One hand is used F = 60N

Same couple moment will be produced

even if the shaft is not connected at the

center of the wheel

Couple Moment is a Free Vector

L04

Equivalent Systems (Force-Couple Systems)

At support O:

WR = W1 + W2

(MR)O = W1d1 + W2d2

Equivalent Systems: Resultants

FR = F1 + F2 + F3

How to find d?

Moment of the Resultant force about the grip must be equal

to the moment of the forces about the grip

FRd = F1d1 + F2d2 + F3d3

Equilibrium Conditions

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