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Rectangular Components in Space

Resolve Fh into
Vector F is Resolve F into rectangular
contained in the horizontal and components
plane OBAC vertical
Fx Fh cos
components.
F sin y cos
Fy F cos y
Fz Fh sin
Fh F sin y
F sin y sin
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Spatial Components (Direction Cosines)

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Spatial Components (Direction Cosines)

With the angles between F and the axes,


Fx F cos x Fy F cos y Fz F cos z

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

F cos x i cos y j cos z k


F

cos x i cos y j cos z k

is a unit vector along the line of
action of F; cos x , cos y , and cos z
are the direction cosines
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Rectangular Components in Space
Direction of force F
Defined by location of two points
M (x1, y1 and z1) and N (x2, y2 and z2)


d vector joining M and N

d xi d y j d z k
d x x2 x1 d y y 2 y1 d z z 2 z1

F F
1
d x i d y j d z k

d
Fd x Fd y Fd z
Fx Fy Fz
d d d
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Rectangular Components in Space
Example: The tension in the guy
wire is 2500 N. Determine: SOLUTION:

a) components Fx, Fy, Fz of the Based on the relative locations of the


force acting on the bolt at A, points A and B, determine the unit
vector pointing from A towards B.
b) the angles qx, qy, qz defining the
Apply the unit vector to determine
direction of the force
the components of the force acting
on A.
Noting that the components of the
unit vector are the direction cosines
for the vector, calculate the
corresponding angles.

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Rectangular Components in Space
Solution
Determine the unit vector pointing from A
towards B.

AB 40 m i 80 m j 30 m k
AB 40 m 2 80 m 2 30 m 2
94.3 m
40 80 30
i j k
94.3 94.3 94.3

0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k
Determine the components of the force.

F F

2500 N 0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k


1060 N i 2120 N j 795 N k
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Rectangular Components in Space
Solution
Noting that the components of the unit
vector are the direction cosines for the
vector, calculate the corresponding angles.

cos x i cos y j cos z k

0.424 i 0.848 j 0.318k

x 115.1
y 32.0
z 71.5

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Product of 2 Vectors: Dot Product
Dot Product (Scalar product)
A.B = AB cos
A

Applications
Determination of the angle between two vectors

A.B = (Axi+Ayj+Azk).(Bxi+Byj+Bzk) = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz


A.B = ABcos
Obtain
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Product of 2 Vectors: Dot Product
Applications
Determination of the projection of a vector on a
given axis

A
B
PAB

A.B = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz
PAB = Acos = (A.B)/B

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Product of 2 Vectors: Cross Product
Cross Product (Vector Product)
C=AB
C = AB sin

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Product of 2 Vectors: Cross Product
Cross Product
Cartesian Vector

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Product of 2 Vectors: Cross Product
Cross Product
Distributive property
C (A+B) = C A + C B

AB = (Axi+Ayj+Azk) (Bxi+Byj+Bzk)
= (AyBz- AzBy)i + (.)j + (.)k

= i j k
Ax AY AZ
BX BY BZ

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Moment of a Force (Torque)
Moment of a Force (F) @ point A
Mo = r F
r = position
vector
directed from
O to any
point on the
line of
action of F

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Moment of a Force
Magnitude of Moment
tendency of F to cause rotation of the body
about an axis along MO
M O rF sin F (r sin ) Fd

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Moment of a Force
Characteristic
Moment arm (d = r sin) does not depend on the
particular point on the line of action of F to
which the vector r is directed
Sliding vector
Line of action same as the moment axis

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Moment of a Force
Principle of Transmissibility
Two forces are equivalent
Same magnitude, direction and lines of action
Same magnitude, direction and equal moments
about a given point

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Moment of a Force
Varignons Theorem
Moment of a force about a point is equal to the
sum of the moments of the components of
the force about the same point

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Moment of a System of Concurrent Forces
Varignons Theorem
Moment of the resultant of a system of
concurrent forces about a point is equal to the
sum of the moments of the of the individual
forces about the same point

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Rectangular Components of Moment
The moment of F about O,

M O r F , r xi yj zk

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

M O M xi M y j M z k


i j k
x y z
Fx Fy Fz





yFz zFy i zFx xFz j xFy yFx k
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Rectangular Components of Moment

The moment of F about B,



M B rA / B F

rA / B rA rB

x A xB i y A y B j z A z B k

F Fx i Fy j Fz k


i j k

M B x A xB y A yB z A z B
Fx Fy Fz

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Moment of a Force About a Given Axis
Moment MO of a force F applied at
the point A about a point O,

MO r F

Scalar moment MOL about an axis


OL is the projection of the
moment vector MO onto the axis,

M OL M O r F

Application of Scalar Product

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Moment of a Force About a Given Axis
Significance of MOL
Resolve into components

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Moment of a Force About a Given Axis
Significance of MOL
MOL is a measure of the tendency of the F to
impart a rigid body rotation about the axis OL

Moments of F about the coordinate axes


M x yFz zFy
M y zFx xFz
M z xFy yFx

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Moment: Example

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Moment: Example

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Moment of a Couple
Moment produced by two equal, opposite and
noncollinear forces is called a couple.
Magnitude of the combined moment of the two
forces about O:
M = F(a+d) Fa = Fd

Vector Algebra Method: M rA F rB F

Moment of the couple rA rB F

about point O: r F
M rF sin Fd

The moment vector of the couple is


independent of the choice of the origin of the
coordinate axes, i.e., it is a free vector that can
be applied at any point with the same effect.
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Moment of a Couple
Two couples will have equal moments if
Fd F d
1 1 2 2
the two couples lie in parallel planes, and
the two couples have the same sense or
the tendency to cause rotation in the same
direction.

Examples:

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Addition of Couples
Consider two intersecting planes
P1 and P2 with each containing a
couple

M 1 r F1 in plane P1

M 2 r F2 in plane P2
Resultants of the vectors also
form a couple

M r R r F1 F2

By Varignons theorem

M r F1 r F2

M1 M 2
Sum of two couples is also a couple that is
equal to the vector sum of the two couples
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Representation of Couples by Vectors

A couple can be represented by a vector with magnitude


and direction equal to the moment of the couple.

Couple vectors obey the law of addition of vectors.

Couple vectors are free vectors, i.e., the point of application


is not significant.
Couple vectors may be resolved into component vectors.

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Couple: Example
Moment reqd to turn the shaft connected at center of
the wheel = 12 Nm
First case: Couple Moment
produced by 40 N forces = 12 Nm
Second case: Couple Moment
produced by 30 N forces = 12 Nm
If only One hand is used F = 60N
Same couple moment will be produced
even if the shaft is not connected at the
center of the wheel
Couple Moment is a Free Vector
L04
Equivalent Systems (Force-Couple Systems)

At support O:
WR = W1 + W2
(MR)O = W1d1 + W2d2

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Equivalent Systems: Resultants

FR = F1 + F2 + F3
How to find d?
Moment of the Resultant force about the grip must be equal
to the moment of the forces about the grip
FRd = F1d1 + F2d2 + F3d3

Equilibrium Conditions

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