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Nanotechnology in Aerospace
Nanotechnology in Aerospace
www.nanoforum.org February 2007 Editor: Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation Authors: Janusz D. Fidelus, Witold Lojkowski, Laboratory of Nanocrystalline Materials, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Science; Małgorzata Lewandowska, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology; Dariusz Bielinski, Faculty of Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 2) Holger Hoffschulz, VDI-TZ GmbH; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 3) Aline Charpentier, CEA-LETI – Minatec; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 4) Kshitij Singh, Mark Morrison, IoN; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 5, 6) Ana Proykova, MCG, University of Sofia; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 7, 8) Acknowledgement: Reviewers: Thierry Jamin, CNES (chapter 4) Christien Enzing, TNO; Paul E. Rempes, Environmental Assurance, Boeing St. Louis, MO, USA (chapter 7), Patrick Lin, Nanoethics; Jürgen Altmann, University of Bochum (chapter 8).
This Nanoforum report is downloadable from the network Website at www. research. METU (Turkey).org About Nanoforum Nanoforum is a thematic network funded by the European Commission. Nanoforum comprises a consortium of leading European nanotechnology organisations led by the Institute of Nanotechnology (UK) and including VDI Technologiezentrum (Germany). BIT (Austria) and NanoNed (The Netherlands). No responsibility is assumed by Nanoforum for errors. This report content is based on information collected and supplied to Nanoforum in good faith by external sources believed to be accurate. Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands). The contents of this report are the responsibility of the authors. CEA-LETI (France). Please notify the editor in case any reference is missing. Nanoforum is an information source for the European Community that unites disciplines and countries. Spinverse (Finland). Unipress (Poland). aiming to promote and raise the standard of nanotechnology activities throughout Europe.Nanoforum is a thematic network funded by the European Commission's under the Fifth Framework Programme (Growth programme.nanoforum. grant number G5RT-CT-2002-05084). Sofia University (Bulgaria). inaccuracies or omissions. Nanoforum provides a resource for business. 3 . government and financial institutions across Europe. Care has been taken to include references to the original source for all information included in the report.
Nanoforum and European Commission: “Outcome of the Open Consultation on the European Strategy for Nanotechnology”. published in January 2007. published in July 2006. first edition published in June 2004. updated in December 2003 and April 2004. published online at www. • 2nd Nanoforum General Report: “Nanotechnology in the New EU Member States and Candidate Countries. • 7th Nanoforum General Report: “European Support for Nanotechnology Small and Medium Sized Enterprises”. published in December 2005. “Risk governance in nanotechnology”.org Series: Nanoforum General Reports: • 1st Nanoforum General Report: “Nanotechnology helps solve the world’s energy problems”. published in September 2006. • 4th Nanoforum General Report: “Benefits. “Funding and Support for International Nanotechnology Collaborations”. • 3rd Nanoforum General Report: “Nanotechnology and its implications for the health of the EU citizen”.” April 2003 4 . published in November 2006. published in March 2005. published in September 2004. first edition published in July 2003. published in January 2007.The present report is a publication of Nanoforum.nanoforum. Ethical. published in April 2006. • 8th Nanoforum General Report: “Nanometrology”. Other more specific Nanoforum publications: “Nanotechnology in the EU – Bioanalytic and Biodiagnostic Techniques”. updated in November 2003 and September 2005. “Intellectual property in the nanotechnology economy”. published in November 2006. “Human enhancement from different perspectives”. “Education in the Field of Nanoscience”. updated in July 2006. Series Socio-Economic reports: • “VC Investment opportunities for small innovative companies. published in December 2005. “Nanotechnology in Consumer Products”. published in December 2005. • 5th Nanoforum General Report: “Education Catalogue for Higher Education in Nanotechnology”. “Nanotechnology and Construction”. Risks. published in July 2005. • 6th Nanoforum General Report: “European Nanotechnology Infrastructure and Networks”. first edition published in December 2003. published in October 2006. “Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food”. updated in October 2005. Legal and Social Aspects of Nanotechnology”. first edition published in July 2003. Who’s who and research priorities”.
2006. • “Nano-Scotland from a European perspective”. July 2003.• • “Socio-economic report on Nanotechnology and Smart Materials for Medical Devices”. • Report from the ‘Nano and the environment’ workshop. December 2003. Series background studies to policy seminars: • “Nanotechnology in the Nordic Region”. published in May 2006. Brussels. 30 and 31 March. November 2003. 5 . October 2004. “SME participation in EU research programmes”.
Carbon Nanotube reinforced polymers are investigated for aerospace applications because of their good strength to weight ratio. nanofibre / carbon nanotube filled polymer composites.Chapter 1 Executive summary and introduction This 9th Nanoforum General report presents a concise introduction and contribution to the expert debate on trends in nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for applications in the civil aeronautics and space sectors in Europe. This chapter is written from the perspective of materials scientists and includes information on trends in materials and production processes. and experts involved in setting the strategic R&D agenda in this field. Nanometals are investigated for their hardness and suitability in hard coatings. Our target audiences are twofold: non-experts of an academic level with a general interest in the potential of nanotechnology for aerospace applications. and high performance polymer nanocomposite resins. these materials must find application by 2009 in sectors other than those of high value. Layered silicate polymer nanocomposites are investigated for a wide range of applications including flame retardant panels and high performance components in aerospace. There are three relevant types of polymer nanocomposites: layered silicate (clay). Aircraft companies are investigating new 6 . Relevant projects are ongoing. Much research is still needed before real applications in aerospace can be expected. flame and vibration resistance. national governments. This chapter may be most interesting for materials scientists or those who intend to apply nanomaterials in aerospace applications. and public and private R&D labs aiming to set priorities in R&D or funding programmes. This chapter should be helpful to decision makers in the EU. We explicitly exclude any military R&D and applications. Chapter 3 presents a review of the state of the art of nanotechnology for aeronautics applications and analysis of future trends. as this falls outside the mandate of Nanoforum. The focus is on Carbon Nanotube reinforced polymers. such as aerospace. this production technology must be developed further before it can be applied in industrial production. Aerospace applications of high performance polymer nanocomposite resins need the successful incorporation of the nanoparticles in thermoset resins. For cost-effective production. The new nanometal production technology Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) promises higher strength. metallic materials and polymer nanocomposites. corrosion and wear resistance and other benefits of nanometals compared to other metals. We limit ourselves to civil aviation and airplanes. Carbon nanotube filled polymer composites are still in the research phase but are seen as promising for aerospace applications. Chapter 2 reviews current trends in materials R&D on some selected materials for applications in aeronautics and space. However. antistatic and electrical properties.
Two developments in space are driving technology developments. electronics and energy supply for future spacecraft. coatings. Spacecraft electronics can benefit from the fast innovation in the electronics industry sector. conservative attitude in the industry and need for industrial scale production processes contribute to a longer time to market than in other sectors. science payloads and futuristic visions such as the space elevator. Foreseen benefits include cost reduction. Nanomaterials are being investigated for their thermal. Nanotechnology is currently not incorporated in aircraft. Uptake of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics in aircraft may be slower than in other sectors. sensors.materials for application in airplanes to accommodate the expected growth in passenger numbers of 5% per year for the coming 20 years and taking into account more stringent legislation including environmental. electrical and optical characteristics as well as strength and cost effectiveness. reduced environmental burden and enhanced passenger comfort. rockets. Nanotechnology can be applied in new materials. The stringent safety requirements. extreme and varying temperatures and improved engines. Commercial activities making use of space require cost and weight reduction. in electronics may be especially attractive for space applications. but is expected to enter the market in the coming years. health and safety regulations. Nanomaterials and nanoelectronics can be applied in airframes and components. Space research is more focused on applied electronics such as sensors. and smart materials. The space sector deals with all technologies needed for travelling outside the earth atmosphere. This includes satellites. These trends impose the objective of developing lighter materials with equal or improved robustness as current materials used in aerospace (corrosion resistance. They are being investigated for uptake in aircraft on a large scale. electrical and electronic components and hardware and other applications. National ambitions to explore outer space drive the quest for more autonomous systems as well as better life support for astronauts. but there is clear interest from the industry. Leading companies including Boeing. international space station and planetary missions. Technologies are also being developed for existing issues such as radiation protection. Efficient energy generation and storage is very 7 . ability to be repaired). damage tolerance. This chapter may be most interesting to researchers and policy makers in nanotechnology and in aeronautics research. Chapter 4 presents a review of the state of the art of nanotechnology for spacecraft applications and analysis of future trends. thus incorporating carbon nanotubes which are relatively radiation resistant. Onboard electronics must in addition be radiation resistant. Research focuses on nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for mixing into polymers and composites. engines. A bottleneck for the uptake of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics in spacecraft is the need to develop efficient characterisation and modelling tools for testing the materials and devices. Airbus and British Aerospace are collaborating with universities and research centres on projects to develop nanotechnology for aerospace.
The focus is on gaps in current research and needs for technical performance of available materials and devices which are critical enablers of future aeronautic and space systems. Satellites can be used for scientific observation of the earth or universe and for communication. Life support is becoming more important due to longer manned missions and space tourism. 5-10 and 1015 years in space devices. novel space missions. Applications are foreseen in 0-5. Autonomous systems such as satellite swarms and nanorobotics may one day be used in exploring other planets. Relevant onboard nanotechnologies can be applied in airframes. propulsion. The main trend in research is the quest to build more integrated and smaller nano/pico satellites. subsystems and systems. Nanotechnologies can improve the existing energy generation and storage technologies. systems and equipment. aircraft avionics. nanosensors. safety and air transport efficiency. New research needs for nanotechnology applications in space include nanomaterials for spacecraft structure and energy production and storage including solar cells. Nanotechnologies are attractive for the space sector as they enable a reduction in costs. To identify technical needs for future aeronautics. processing and transmission. Chapter 5 summarises expressed needs for future R&D for nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for aeronautics and spacecraft. nanoparticles for imaging instruments and quantum information. testing of new technologies in space and futuristic visions. These technical requirements address quality and affordability. Relevant nanotechnologies include carbon nanotube based sensors. On a general level. controlling temperature. fuel cells and hydrogen storage. Futuristic visions include the space elevator based on a long cable spun from carbon nanotubes and space colonisation. Nanotechnology may be applied in aircraft some twenty years after the technologies have been validated for airworthiness. waste water treatment and sensors. security. there is a need to educate sufficient numbers of qualified scientists and engineers to work in R&D for the aerospace sector in Europe. This chapter may be most interesting for researchers and policy makers in nanotechnology and in the space sector. SMEs in the supply chain will have to implement performance enhancing practices. air humidity and the health of the astronauts can benefit from nanotechnologies applied in gas storage.important for rockets as well as other spacecraft. fuel cells. batteries and accumulators and capacitors. and nanomaterials and thin films for 8 . Another general issue is the lack of cooperation between companies and research organisations in aerospace and in nanotechnology. maintaining a clean water supply. environment. and batteries. solar cells. These technologies are mainly developed for the electronics and medical sectors and adapted for application in space. life support systems. Keeping the air breathable. the goals set by the advisory council for aeronautic research in Europe in their Strategic Research Agenda are taken as reference. Other nanotechnology research needs are in data storage. including propellants.
while the European public funding is only 25% of US public funding. This chapter may be most interesting for decision makers on future research priorities in nanotechnology and in aerospace. Space exploration and exploitation are seen as major goals for many countries. engine components. The European Technology Platform ACARE states that the investment in R&D by the private sector in Europe is comparable to the US. the space elevator.3% per year until 2023. The US aims for space exploration are in manned missions to the moon and Mars. the US will decline and Asia will increase its market share.601 new passenger aircraft. in smaller aircraft in the EU market and larger ones in Asia Pacific. Several EU funded projects support SME’s in the aerospace sector. Chapter 6 consists of an economic analysis of the European aerospace sectors. Brazil. Of these patents. Russia still launches the most spacecraft.48 trillion. the gossamer spacecraft and space solar power.spacecraft. 23 are registered in the USA and 17 in European countries. Keeping sufficient qualified human capital and industrial companies in Europe requires a coordinated effort by the EU and member states. Visionary applications of nanotechnology in space include molecular nanotechnology and electronics for space. SMEs provide services and additional expertise in R&D to major corporations. 9 . The R&D is expected to take a decade before being implemented in spacecraft. It is negotiating with Russia and the EU about space collaborations. Europe’s market size is expected to remain constant. and electronics. They have developed a strategic research agenda to accomplish this. and homeland security and defence. China has put a person in space. The global market for airline passenger traffic is expected to increase 5. batteries. The major manufacturers for aviation are Airbus in Europe and Boeing in the US. Airbus expects a need for 16. with other important global players in Russia. new architectures and to explore technologies to reinvent the design of space missions. The European Space Agency intends to use new systems. Budgets amount to billions of euros per year. 2002) aims for a strong competitive position of Europe’s aerospace industry and for combined public and private funding for civil aeronautics of €100 billion by 2020. and wants to send missions to the moon. The expected market size is €1. This chapter may be most interesting for industrialists and economic and innovation policymakers. Choices of priorities in nanotechnology R&D for space must be based on the technological readiness and applicability. Canada and Ukraine. and intends to develop a new. Japan and India also have space policies. reusable spacecraft and collaborate with the EU on satellite navigation and science and technology. nano and pico satellites. The European Commission’s Aerospace policy (STAR21. surface treatment and coatings. propellants. Research in nanotechnology for aerospace applications has already led to 62 patented inventions in materials.
This chapter may be most interesting for nanoscience & society experts and policymakers in nanoregulation and public dialogue. The debate on these aspects of engineered nanomaterials specific for applications in the aerospace sector is only just emerging. Education and outreach must include information and debate about ethical. This chapter may be most interesting for risk assessment specialists and policymakers on nanoregulation. In the very long term. space exploration may also be enabled by miniaturisation and nanotechnology. better implementation strategies must be developed. the review of these issues in the framework of this report is very partial. The ethical. To enhance the likelihood of positive impacts. legal and social implications of unmanned air and spacecraft need to be discussed. 10 . Chapter 8 analyses the ethical.Chapter 7 analyses the environment. developments in aerospace and in nanoscience and nanotechnology enable new activities and systems which were not possible before. On the one hand. the current international treaties and national legislation governing the aeronautics and space sector impose boundaries on the nanoscience and nanotechnology research which can be done for aerospace applications. legal and social aspects of nanotechnology in aerospace. These “nanorisk” research projects which are starting now must be complemented with specific life-cycle analyses and exposure scenarios for applications in aircraft and spacecraft. Potential benefits of nanotechnology in aerospace for the environment. General toxicology of engineered nanomaterials and occupational nanosafety issues are also applicable to the aerospace sector. health and safety aspects of nanotechnology for aerospace. Further research is needed which is not restricted to civilian applications. However. Small satellites in earth orbit can be applied in telecommunication and earth observation for peaceful as well as security applications. On the other hand. legal and social aspects of nanotechnology for civilian aerospace. and also investigates the legislative framework for aeronautics. health and safety are also being discussed.
autonomous nanorobot swarm (ch4) Quantum devices for information management (ch4) 5-10 years More stringent regulations incl. EHS regulations require (nano) innovations in aeronautics (ch3) >10 years Global & national aims: space exploration & exploitation (ch6) Aircraft passenger numbers will increase by 5%/year until 2023 (ch3. Level of integration Societal boundary conditions for nanotechnology in aerospace 0-5 years Current treaties and regulations guide nanotechnology R&D (ch8) Nanotoxicology and occupational nanosafety research ongoing (ch7) Impact of nanotechnology in aerospace on society Need to start life cycle analysis & exposure scenarios for aerospace applications of nanomaterials (ch7) Need action to stimulate EHS benefits of nanotechnology for aerospace (ch7) Nanotechnology applications in aerospace will enable new activities and require changes in legislation (ch8) Economic factors affecting nanotechnology uptake in aerospace Space budgets amount to billions of euros per year (ch6) EU stimulates SMEs in space sector (ch6) Technical system Nano/picosatellites (ch4) Russia: new reusable spacecraft (ch6) European public and private aeronautic R&D funding €100 billion by 2020 (ch6. NASA 2001) Space elevator. market size €1. CNT based electronic noses. architectures & technologies to reinvent design of space missions (ch6) Aircraft weight half of current conventional (ch3. autonomous satellites swarm (ch4) Technical subsystem Black box using nanosensors. CNT based lab on a 2015: fuel cells for onboard aircraft systems (ch3.601 new aircraft needed. Boeing.6) Nanotechnology applications in aerospace will enable new activities and require changes in legislation (ch8) Satellite on chip.1 summarising trends in the whole report. EU STAR21) 2023: 16. ch4) 11 . Airbus) ESA: new systems. colonisation.48 trillion (ch6.Table 1.
CNT based imaging instruments (ch4) Industrial scale Severe Plastic Deformation process for metallic nanomaterials? (ch2) Need for lighter. Lux 2006) 2006: 62 patented inventions of nanotech for aerospace (ch6) Clay-polymer nanocomposites for flame retardant panels and high performance components in aerospace (ch2) Nanoparticles reinforcing polymers and composites. value $2 billion (ch2. 2006) 2020: 40% of nanoclay/CNT polymer composites will be applied in aerospace (ch2.4) CNT reinforcing coatings. MRAM (ch4) High performance polymer nanocomposite resins (ch2) Smart textiles (ch4) Material / component 2009: apply metallic materials in mass markets (ch2. stronger materials for aeronautics (ch3) CNT filled polymer composites (ch2.chip/biochip (ch4) Battery using nanoelements. drug delivery. quantum dot solar cells. nanoparticles in propellants (ch 4) 2020: over 163 million kg nanomaterials in composites. bio memory (ch4) 12 . 2006) Smart materials. CNT based memory. Freedonia. CNT in transistors. Freedonia.
.......................... 30 3....................................................................... 43 4.... 54 4....................1........................................... 21 2...................... Life support ...................................................................................................................................... Electronics . 49 4................ 22 2....2.... 36 3...........................Table of contents: Nanotechnology in Aerospace ........ 39 3......................................................... Nanoelements .....................................7................3.........................................3.....2 Nanofibres/carbon nanotube in polymer nanocomposites .................. 49 4....1 Layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites ..2....................................................................................... 26 Chapter 3: Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Aeronautics.........6.4........7............ 56 4.................................2...7......3....................................... 16 2......4.......... 58 4........ Global life support................. Others ................................... 6 Chapter 2 – Nanomaterials in Aerospace........................................................ Nanostructured metals .................3......................7.................................................2 Materials .......................................3 Classification .......................2 Memories / Data storage.................. Materials using nanoelements ....................... 59 4............ 17 2.................................... Airframe and components....................................1 Introduction ......................1. 59 13 ...6 Publications and Conferences ...................... Batteries ........ 45 4............ Energy generation and storage...... 22 2.3 high-performance PNCs resins .........2 Definitions ........... 19 2......................4........................................................................................1........ 34 3............5........................3......... 58 4.1............. 37 3.......... 2 Chapter 1 Executive summary and introduction ..................4................... 42 4..........2.... 20 2..... Engines ......4......5 Energy conclusion .. Electrical/electronic components and hardware ..2 Materials conclusion .....3.........................3.........2 Advancement of Nanotube-Reinforced Composites..4................................................................ 16 2............7................................. 40 4................................................ 20 2....... 40 4.............................................................................. 23 2.....................4 Electronics conclusion............. 21 2......... 51 4...........4 The advancement of severe plastic deformation ............................................................... 38 3...... 54 4............ 16 2..................1 Introduction........1.......... Solar cells .....................2..........................4....................................5 The projects related to aircraft company business ............................................3...... Conclusion ... 28 3. 53 4............................5............................... Sensors..7 Polymer Nanocomposites....3..................1...................................... 50 4..........3.........................7..............5.................................................. 39 Chapter 4 Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Spacecraft ...........................................4........................1 Carbon nanotubes for transistors ....... 55 4... 18 2............... Fuel cells ................ Propellants ... Coatings..................................1 Introduction......................................7..........
.........1........................ 80 5..........................6 Safety and Security... 86 5................................... 94 5.......................................1............................. Satellites / Science payloads ................................. 72 4.............6 Life support systems ..2................ 63 4.......................................................................9 Future concepts for Guidance & Control ..........2................ 92 5......10 Current Research ....... 111 6...... 88 5. Medical systems ..... Futuristic visions ...................... 90 5......2.................. 68 4.......................... 80 5........... 86 5............................ 100 5.............13 Policy............1........................... 99 5.......................8 European Air Transport System .............1...4 How can Nanotechnology Impact on these Strategies? .......................................... 82 5.1 Introduction.........2.......................1................4 Futuristic visions conclusion .. Satellite subsystems............. 89 5..1...........................5 Environment................. 60 4...............3.............. 89 5..........................................1........ 107 6......................................................... 95 5........1 Global markets in the aviation industry................4...1.7...........................2.........6..........................2....... 72 4..........................................5.............16 Conclusion ......... 90 5......... 105 6........................................3 Space ........................................................... Textile .......... Space elevator....3 Satellites / Payloads conclusion: ........................1.......................................................7................................................ 86 5.......................... 64 4........... 83 5..............8 Visionary Applications.......12 Funding and investment..............1....................................................2..............1......6............1...............5...... 81 5.....................14 Education and Training ......7....1 Aeronautics . Space colonisation ......................................................... 77 4............4..1.......... 89 5.....4 Data Storage......3...................................................1..... 75 4..............................5.......................................2 Nanomaterials for space craft structure .............................. 84 5......... 81 5..................... 67 4..... 74 4.............................. 105 6..2 Aviation........ 114 14 ................................... 73 4.................... 98 5............. 77 Chapter 5: Summary of Needs in Aerospace Research .................................1........................11 Aeronautics application in other industries.................7 Quality and affordability...............................................................15 SME ..............5 Sensors ....2............6................. 90 5..... 114 6...................9 Conclusion .....................2.................. Autonomous systems ....... 63 4............ 105 6....1.....................................................................................................6..............................3 Energy Production and Storage.....4 Life support conclusion ....................2...8 Conclusion ...3 Propulsion .................7 Nanomaterials and thin films for spacecraft .................2...................... 90 5.1.............4 Aircraft avionics.....1 Patenting of Nanotechnology Advances that have Applications in the Aerospace Industry ....................2................................................... 85 5.............................. 101 5......... systems and equipment.................. 103 Chapter 6: Economic Aspects .......2......2 Airframes ........................ Science payloads ...2 Statement of needs for Research and Development in Space .....................................7................7....... Processing and Transmission.............................................................1 Introduction .........
.................1 Introduction............................. 8........................................................ 8............... Chapter 8: Ethical.....................4 Health benefits.................................................................................................... Legal and Social Aspects ............................................................................................ 7... 7. References......................................................... 7....................... 118 118 120 120 121 123 123 123 125 125 125 127 129 129 130 133 135 137 15 ........ 7......................................................6 EHS Regulation ...................................2.......................................................................................2 EHS risks.. Health and Safety Aspects.... 7...................................................................5 Safety benefits ..............6...2..................5 Role of SMEs............. Chapter 7: Environment............................................................................1 Introduction.2 Regulations................................................ Legal and Social Aspects ...... 7....................... 7..................... 8................................................3 Ethical............................................ 7.........2 Safety risks ......................1 Health risks..........................................7 Conclusion ..................3 Environmental benefits.4 Conclusion ..........................6 Conclusions ....................... 6..... 7............................................ 8..........................
high toughness. carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites may provide a unique 16 . lacquer safety and polymer matrix composites. the possibility of obtaining improved mechanical properties by the conventional methods of cold working. changeable conductivity and the specific tensile strength of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) makes them eminently suited as reinforcing elements in macroscopic composites. the timelines for possible industrial applications. 2.. transparent windshield. Also included in the report are the projected cost and market evolution of each material’s technology. it focuses on carbon nanotube-reinforced polymers and materials produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD).Chapter 2 – Nanomaterials in Aerospace 2.2 Advancement of Nanotube-Reinforced Composites The extraordinary stiffness. The development of new materials with tailored properties is a primary goal of today’s materials science and engineering. precipitation hardening. has been almost exhausted. However. The 6th EU Framework Project ‘NanoRoadSME (Nanomaterial Roadmap 2015)’ has published a report entitled “Overview on Promising Nanomaterials for Industrial Application”. there is a great need for new materials which exhibit improved mechanical properties. and a list of companies and institutes actively involved in aerospace nanomaterial R&D. solution hardening. The state of the art of polymer nanocomposite research is also reviewed. This report identifies the following trends in materials for automotive and aerospace applications: lighter and stronger materials.1 Introduction This chapter identifies some of the technical challenges and the key research efforts in the field of nanomaterials for aerospace applications. Materials possessing high strength at a reduced mass and size make lighter aircraft with lower fuel consumption. In the aerospace industry. higher than that of diamond (ten times higher than that of any other available material). etc. Selected European projects and world conferences related to aerospace are included. The current trend is to integrate intelligence and multifunctionality into the varied components of aerospace systems and vehicles. With a potential high strength-to-weight ratio and multifunctionality. Specifically.
Minute amounts give polymers antistatic properties. there are a number of research efforts underway that address these and other concerns. The intimate relationship between the electrical and mechanical properties of these composites enables them to exhibit smart capabilities (Chipara. such as landing gear and construction equipment such as drill bits and bulldozer blades. 2006). Nature Materials. their use can be hampered by their increased brittleness and complex processing requirements. While carbon nanotubes typically have very high aspect ratios. Functionalisation and irradiation of polymer-embedded nanotubes and nanotube fibres also have been shown to enhance dispersion and strengthen nanotube-matrix interactions. 2006. much additional R&D is still needed to realize the full potential and implementation of these advanced composites (Taczak. Nanostructured metals Nanostructured metals have nanosized grains. Despite these efforts.3. 2. transfer of interfacial stress. Their use can enhance a material’s ability to resist vibration and fire (Nano letters. useful for applications including aerospace components. Moreover. 2005). their absolute lengths are still low. currently preclude the development of composite structures that could supplement or replace conventional aerospace components. a good dispersion. while concentrations as low as 1% total weight trigger electrical conductivity. However. while others are focusing on combining shorter CNTs into longer and more useable composite fibres. 17 . Investigators worldwide are in pursuit of advanced synthesis processes to facilitate large-scale production of CNTs of macroscopic lengths. A recent review article identified four critical requirements for effective fibre reinforcement of composite materials: a large aspect ratio. 2006). allowing for further improvement of the mechanical properties of CNT-reinforced composites. which gives them greater strength and hardness. and alignment (Advanced Materials. which makes them difficult to manipulate and process. the high cost and relatively short lengths of CNTs combined with an inability to effectively disperse and align them within a host matrix. 2005). Nanostructured metals can provide very hard coatings that are resistant to corrosion.option for the aviation industry. Heralded as alternatives to toxic materials like chromium for coatings and for structural applications.
Other papers reported increased high cycle fatigue life. precipitation hardening. Nanomaterials can be produced following bottom-up methods (such as inert gas condensation. it can be concluded that for some cases SPD in processed materials may exhibit very high strength combined with acceptable ductility. According to the well known Hall-Petch relationship. solution hardening.or nanoscale structure by the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD). for real success there is a need to start establishing customers in other areas by 2009 (Lux. Grain refinement down to the nanometre scale thus offers good prospects for a new generation of high strength materials. consolidation of nanopowders. enhanced charging capacity and diffusion rate of hydrogen. 2006). However. (iii) there are no toxicological issues involving the use of nanopowders. and high-end sporting goods are largely driving the development of nanostructured materials. (ii) conventional materials are used as precursors. nanocrystalline materials. improved corrosion and wear resistance. 2. SPD processed nanometals are thus prospective materials for many structural and functional applications in the aerospace industry. Thus. but it is only possible to produce small items of such materials. 18 . electro deposition or crystallization from an amorphous state). Such a concept consists in the transformation of metals or alloys possessing a conventional grain size into bulk materials with a submicron. With the growing experimental evidence. One can expect that intensive grain refinement down to the nanometre scale will lead to a rapid increase in strength. etc. Therefore.Low volume. usually with a diameter and length no greater than a few millimetres. the development of new processing methods is necessary.4 The advancement of severe plastic deformation The possibility of improving the properties of metallic materials by the conventional methods of cold working. Such excellent properties cannot be achieved using conventional fabrication techniques. research in this field has attracted the attention of numerous scientific groups throughout the world including representative European institutions.. The advantages of the SPD methods are: (i) a 100% dense nanostructured material is obtained. the yield strength is a linear function of the inverse of the square root of grain diameter (d-1/2) which implies a 10 times higher grain boundary strengthening when the grain size is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude. has been almost exhausted. In some cases superplastic behaviour was observed. it is probable that only a topdown approach can offer good “technological” prospects. high margin applications for the aerospace and defence industries. To produce such high strength.
Chemistry. pressure bulk heads. etc. The project entitled: “Nano-Structured and Reinforced Composite Materials” is being undertaken at Imperial College London (2006). will need a major research and development effort in order to fully explore and understand the specific properties of SPD materials and to optimize the processing route for particular applications. UK also collaborates in the project. mature and robust solutions are mandatory. The global aims of VIVACE are to reduce the time to market. One of the routes to ease these restrictions is offered by a modification of existing SPD techniques. although nanotechnologies promise significant benefits for aerospace applications. The Value Improvement through a Virtual Aeronautical Collaborative Enterprise (VIVACE) consortium is a €70 Million European Project which is led by Airbus. Another route aims at the development of new methods. and includes 50 partners. and CNT reinforced thermoset resins. QinetiQ of Farnbourough in Hampshire.5 The projects related to aircraft company business Airbus Industries and the MITRE Corporation’s Centre for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) (O’Donnell) are focused on obtaining the highest performance. However. there are some limitations to their wider use which result from the current restrictions on the cost and size of SPD processed elements. a ‘maintenance-free’ airframe and environmental friendliness. CNT-grafted carbon fibres. However.There is clearly a great potential for bulk nanostructured materials. the Airbus Industry in Stade is interested in manufacturing some composite parts (vertical stabilisers. an increased integration of the supply chain and substantial reduction of the operating costs. For this purpose. 2. it must be stated that to introduce products having a nanometal structure into the market. cooperation with external suppliers and strategic partners is essential. and Chemical Engineering. all of which are well recognised names in the aerospace and IT industries. including CNT-reinforced polymer fibres. Finally.) for all types of aircraft. The research also includes micromechanical modelling of CNT reinforced composites and feasibility studies into future exploitation routes. particularly in the aerospace industry. Polymer) Matrix Composites” is taking place at universities in the Netherlands to develop 19 . This project pursues a range of approaches to nano-reinforcement of polymer composites. The project is collaboration between three departments within the College – Aeronautics. The project entitled: “Self-Healing Intermetallics (Metal. For example. in order to meet future challenges and to incorporate worldwide best state-of the-art technological solutions.
though both aim to stimulate the understanding and application of such systems (Shaffer & Kinloch. This conference series has since been renamed Nanomaterials for Defence Applications and the latest meeting was in Virginia Beach. polymer) matrix remains almost uncharted territory. and why carbon nanotubes still remain prohibitively expensive. In 2003. Texas. the 1st annual Nano Materials for Aerospace Symposium was held in Corpus Christi.6 Publications and Conferences CNT-NET and NANOCOMP are two networks funded by the European Union that address the subject of nanotube and nanofibre polymer composites from different perspectives. manufacturing (scale-up). if and when nanotubes will replace carbon fibre. 2. “Nanotubes for the Composites Market. which exhibit selfhealing properties. recently published a report entitled. and certification of MMCs (Metal-matrix composites) a number of key applications are now a well established reality for aeronautical applications.7 Polymer Nanocomposites 20 . The possibility of integrating intermetallic phases. design. CA. 2005-2007) aims to develop new nanocomposite materials for the production of sliding bearing sleeves used in the (A380) AIRBUS aircraft air conditioning system..g. e. Also included are a market analysis. a prospectus covering the years 2005 to 2010 and an extensive worldwide list of nanotube suppliers. 2004). in May 2006. Owing to increased efforts in the areas of materials and process development. 2.new concepts in design and to apply self-healing mechanisms in the context of intermetallic alloys and intermetallic-based composite materials. The next meeting will occur in May 2007 in San Diego. it certainly constitutes a very fine engineering modelling system of potentially great relevance for aeronautical applications. an international nanotechnology consulting firm. A very obvious motivation in introducing MMCs into aeronautical systems is the optimal balance of specific strength and stiffness compared with other competing structural materials. Cientifica.” This report addresses carbon nanotube applications for composites. Virginia. However. The INTAS project “Nanocomposite sliding bearings for air bleed valves” (NANOBLEBUS. yield stress anomaly (YSA) or the formation of an oxygen diffusion barrier (OBD) into a (metal.
In contrast to the conventional systems. Eventually.7. elastomers) using fillers. USA. plus the harsh and varied conditions they face will put even the best materials to the test. driven by their improved barrier. whether inorganic or organic. 2. will dominate the market. aircraft is a key market for nanoclay. Similarly. accounting for nearly 40% of demand in 2020. will be used to produce nanocomposites. with demands for nanotubes alone exceeding $1 billion (Freedonia Group. Advances will be fuelled by declining prices of nanomaterials and composites. the amount of energy needed to propel an object into space means that spacecraft must be even stronger and lighter.2 Definitions Polymer nanocomposites .and nanotube-polymer composites. 22-23rd of February. such as polypropylene. where the reinforcement is on the order of microns.PNCs (or polymer nanostructured materials) represent an alternative to conventional-filled polymers or polymer blends. strength and conductive properties. While nearly all of the current demand is in thermoplastic resins. Polymer nanocomposites are expected to penetrate a number of applications. This is all down to the fact that researchers are always looking for ways to reduce the amount of fuel needed for flights and a key way of achieving that is by reducing the weight of the aircraft itself. Up-to-date information on polymer materials (among them nanocomposites) for aerospace applications is currently provided by RAPRA. Apart from packaging and motor vehicles. an international conference “The Future of Nanoplastics” has been organised. yet remarkably lightweight and so they are leading the field in aerospace applications. 21 . By 2020. polyethylene and PVC. is common in the production of modern plastics. as well as reduced weight. 2006). nanocomposites based on thermosets will grow to over 20% of the market by 2020. possibility to increase production speed of parts and to replace higher-priced materials. as nanomaterial additives will increasingly enhance or replace glass fibre-reinforced materials in a number of applications. nanocomposites based on commodity plastics. Unsaturated polyester will become the primary thermoset used in nanocomposites.1 Introduction The reinforcement of polymers (thermoplastics. Over the near term.2. valued at $2 billion. growth will be the fastest in higher-priced resins such as engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers as much of the initial demand will be in higherend applications.7. 2007 in San Antonio. however. more than 163 million kg of nanomaterials. as production levels increase and technical issues concerning dispersion of nanoadditives in compounds are overcome. It will remain important through the end of the next decade. thermosets. Polymer composites are strong. PNCs take advantage from unique effects of the addition of nanometre-sized inorganic materials to a polymer matrix. Texas.
Due to their efficiency. carbon nanofibres/nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Researchers developed two main PNCs fabrication methodologies: in-situ routes and exfoliation. 2. nanofillers can be used in small quantities (less than 5% by weight). The attractive characteristics of layered silicate nanocomposites already suggest a variety of possible industrial applications for layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites. two-dimensional platelets and porous materials. without sacrificing the inherent processability and mechanical properties of the resin. blend or composite attempts at multifunctional materials require a trade-off between desired performance.3 Classification In general. from both a commercial and military perspective. 2. thermal. government. and academia worldwide are heavily investigating exfoliation of layered silicates.7. they can significantly reduce flammability and maintain the transparency of a polymer matrix. mechanical properties.3. and unprecedented morphologies such as interpenetrating networks. reduction of wear and flammability.7. it comes from providing value-added properties not present in the neat resin. The constituent inorganic additives can be applied in a form of particles. researchers in industry. are driven not only by the small size but unusual shapes and aspect ratios (L/h > 300) of the additives and include extraordinarily high interfacial areas or highly aligned phases of the additive. optical transparency. including flame retardant panels and high performance components for aerospace.1 Layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites These minerals considerably increase the mechanical and thermal properties of standard polymers. barrier to diffusion. Rather. the value of PNCs technology is not based solely on mechanical enhancements of the neat resin. styrenics. offering improvements over conventional composites in mechanical. Their application brings improvements in mechanical strength and aging resistance. cost. Loading levels of 2-5% by weight result in mechanical properties similar to those found in conventional composites with 30-40% of reinforcing material. depending on the form of nanoparticles being used: layered silicate or nanofibres / carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites and high-performance PNCs resins. electrical and barrier properties. polyamides or 22 . Traditionally. polymer nanocomposites fall into three categories. Currently. The special properties of clay-polymer nanocomposites expand the use of resins and blends based on polyolefins. tribological. and highperformance PNCs resins (AFRL Horizons). However. and processability. Furthermore. tubes and wires.These effects however.
These range from small molecules ionically associated with the nanoparticle surface for layered silicates to chemically bound small molecules or physi-absorbed polymers for nanotubes. but are not compared to continuous fibre reinforced composites. or serve as anchoring points for the matrix and thereby improve the strength of the interface between the polymer and inorganic. The key to any of fabrication processes is the engineering of the polymernanoparticle interface where researchers commonly use surfactants. chirality. purity. they should not be considered a potential one-for-one replacement for current state-of-the-art carbon-fibre reinforced composites. However. the nanocomposite properties discussed are generally compared to unfilled and conventional-filled polymers. Fig. Other PNCs are also based on thermosets. including epoxies. MWNT).7. 2006): The properties of nanotube / polymer composites depend on a multitude of factors that include the type (SWNT. and the interfacial adhesion between the nanotube and 23 . defect density. nanotube loading. However. initiate polymerizations.1 Layered silicate nanocomposite (IMI. Although PNCs may provide enhanced. Furthermore. demonstrating substantial improvements in mechanical and physical properties. the choice of the optimal modifier is at best empirical to date. The following points are evident about nanotube / polymer composites (Moniruzzaman & Winey. unsaturated polyesters and polyurethanes. These surface modifiers mediate interlayer interactions by effectively lowering the interfacial free energy. 2. they may serve to catalyze interfacial interactions. DWNT.polyesters.3. AFRL) 2. multifunctional matrix resins.2 Nanofibres/carbon nanotube in polymer nanocomposites A literature search provides many examples of PNCs. dispersion state and alignment of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. and dimensions (length and diameter) of the nanotubes.
2006). Quantifying nanotube dispersion in polymers (and solvents) is an inherently challenging problem because it involves a range of length scales. interpreting. so as to take advantage of the high thermal conductivity of individual nanotubes in a polymer composite system. such as a fluorescence method to non-destructively detect isolated SWNT in a polymer matrix. Nanotubes have clearly demonstrated their capability as conductive fillers in polymer nanocomposites. Fortunately. These factors should be taken into account when reporting. Functionalisation of nanotubes provides a convenient route to improve dispersion and modify interfacial properties that may in turn improve the properties of nanocomposites. New panel material for use in bulkhead and structural flooring in aircraft. and thereby multiple experimental methods are required. 2006). especially mechanical properties. new experimental methods are applied to the problem. it remains a challenge to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance of these nanotube networks. The effects of fibre orientation and total composite thickness on shielding effectiveness were examined by electrical measurements and theoretical modelling and the dominant mechanism of electromagnetic interference shielding identified as absorption (Abdalla et al. using glass reinforced polymer faced sheets with a foam core and a Kevlar 24 .the polymer matrix. where the percolation threshold depends on both concentration and nanotube alignment. mode of their incorporation into the epoxy resin and magnetic orientation on mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were examined (Burghardt et al. The influence of nickel nanostrand loading level. and comparing results from nanotube / polymer composites. Unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced epoxy straps were also proposed as fatigue crack growth retarders for aircraft construction (Colavita et al. The physical properties of nanotube /polymer composites can be interpreted in terms of nanotube networks. Further advances with respect to electrical conductivity in nanotube / polymer composites are likely if only (or predominantly) metallic nanotubes could be used in the nanocomposites. The shielding effectiveness and electrical conductivity of carbon fibrereinforced epoxy composites were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches are actively being pursued in SWNT materials: modify the synthetic route to preferentially produce metallic nanotubes and sort the existing nanotubes. The significant progress in nanotube functionalisation chemistry in recent years ensures that this approach will become more prevalent. The nanotube network provides electrical conduction pathways above the percolation threshold. The nanotube network also significantly increases the viscosity of the polymer and slows thermal degradation. In contrast. 2006). which are readily detected by electrical and rheological property measurements. Nickel nanostrands were mixed or infused into Hysol 9396 aerospace epoxy resin and the mechanical and electrical properties of the nickelcontaining epoxy resin investigated.
toxicity in fires. energy harvesting. the resistivity of coatings should be reduced without altering their thermo-optical properties. The nanofibres bring an entirely new property to fibreglass and other polymer composites – the ability to conduct electricity – which opens the door for new applications for lightweight but strong materials that are inherently not conductive (a deflective “skin” could be applied to aircraft to prevent damage from a lightning strike). were evaluated for their fire resistance. The range of parameters can serve as a guide to consolidate carbon/PEKK laminates for high performance aerospace applications (Salek et al. 2004. a high emissive. Optimum properties for the laminates have been established.ohionanosummit. structural components with improved electrical / thermal conductivity (such as aircraft engines that can burn hotter and thus more efficiently). Panels infiltrated with a fire retardant resin. Conductive multifunctional polymer nanocomposite “NanoSphalt” is a carbon nanofibre and fibreglass composite material (www. France) has elaborated a cold coating version by using a polysiloxane deposit on a metal substrate (such as polished aluminium or vacuum deposited silver). 2005). Several methods have been studied. with the objective of attaining a high transparency. a thermal control of the spacecraft is necessary using cold. In orbit. The Materials and Coatings Laboratory of the Thermal Control Services at CNES (Toulouse. which has a high electrical resistivity. 2005). The effects of processing parameters (compression moulding) on the mechanical properties of carbon/polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) thermoplastic composite laminates have also been studied. Researchers working for aircraft industry try to find a way to replace copper wiring with 25 . protective coatings for satellites. can accumulate implanted charges that can give rise to electrostatic discharges and damage the neighbouring electronic systems. mechanical strength and ballistic resistance according to National Institute of Justice and ASTM standards (Cohen et al. processing. SEM was used to observe the different microstructures arising from various processing conditions. and an antistatic resin (Hidden et al. chemical and physical treatment of various forms of carbon may have direct-end uses or may be further continued in order to produce polymer nanocomposites for: low-wear resistance aircraft brakes. polysiloxane. 2006).net). Other potential applications are: electrically conductive adhesives. The material was demonstrated at the Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering’s annual conference in May. superior insulating materials capable of heat-storage and transfer. Fabrication. such as the incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles in the polysiloxane matrix.ballistic resistant backing has been described. To ensure reliable operation of their on-board systems and equipment. To prevent any electrostatic discharge problems in geostationary orbit. In geostationary orbit. satellites are exposed to significant thermal variations. when researches lit a 75-watt bulb by running current through the model bridge. in particular the low solar absorptivity and the high emissivity for cold coatings. neutral or warm coatings. novel batteries etc.
polymer wiring made with electrically conductive carbon nanofibres. 4). 2. Scientists from University of Dayton Research Institute (OH. It can be additionally shaped by heat (High Performance Plastics. May 2006. which combines low outgases properties required for space applications with consistent bond thickness. Theoretically. 1). which will positively impact the range and fuel efficiency of the aircraft. an abrasion-resistant PU elastomer permanent primer layer containing a chromium-free corrosion inhibitor. The new film adhesive is comparable to a low outgas liquid adhesive and is considered suitable for various applications common to satellite manufacturing. 3M AF3070 FST" is a new halogen-free. It is believed that shape-memory polymers will be used in practical applications within 5 years. BASF AG of Germany reported a variant of its "Basotect" heat-insulating and sound-absorbing melamine resin foam "Basotect TG" . and toxicity regulations (EUREKA. intended to assist aircraft interior manufacturers in cutting their production times. June 2006. NanoSperse in Akron (OH. one-part benzoxazine resins for use in the manufacture of large fibrereinforced plastic parts for aerospace applications. which consists of a commercial chromiumfree.7.3 high-performance PNCs resins Many potential aircraft applications depend on successful incorporation of the nanoelements in thermoset resins. USA) is now in full production of nanomaterial-reinforced polymers that are lighter. replacing that wire with conductive polymer will bring the wiring weight alone down to well below approximately 454 kg. 2006). making it particularly suitable for the construction of parts for aircraft interiors (High Performance Plastics. e. According to information from a wiring company. In the same place. USA) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have developed plastic that after being deformed. stronger and more durable than other composite polymers – as well as being thermally and electrically conductive. smoke. electricity and infrared light (published in the February 2004 issue of Nature Materials). have a long pot-life. The feasibility of developing a sprayable Chromium-Free Permanent Primer (CFPP) coating system. 2006). Henkel KGaA of Germany has commercialised a range of low-viscosity. 26 . in large structures that need to be packed for launch and unfurled later. New silicone film adhesive. June 2006. and also in meeting increasingly strict fire. The resins are stable at ambient temperature. can spring back into shape when heated. and are easy to process (High Performance Plastics. Mixing carbon nanotubes with polymers creates “shape-memory” polymers that respond to heat. a Boeing 747 has approximately 225 km of wire weighing approximately 1600 kg.which is 30% lighter than standard Basotect. functional conversion coat. 3).3.g. has been reported (Riegler et al. low-density adhesive film from 3M.
has been demonstrated. it seems likely that Vibra-Tite is able to cold-flow to fill all the void spaces in a threaded assembly. To simulate conditions in space. radiation. Attempts were made to modify polybenzimidazole (PBI) by high-energy radiation and low-pressure plasma treatment to permit the preparation of composites with the same polymer. All threaded fasteners tend to loosen under vibration. and then be hard enough and have enough friction to prevent the slide slippage of the threads that causes loosening. the joints were exposed to cryogenic (-196 °C) and high temperatures (+300 °C) for 100 hrs. Vibra-Tite has been used on assembly screws on the treadmill on the International Space Station and other applications (Dunn. alkalis. pliable nature. Microscopic examination of fractured surfaces of the joints showed that the surface-modified polymer essentially failed cohesively within the adhesive (Bhowmik et al. the surface of the PBI was ultrasonically cleaned in acetone and modified by high-energy radiation for 6 hrs in the pool of a nuclear reactor that produced a mixed field of thermal and epithermal neutrons. This CFPP coating system exhibits higher abrasion resistance against plastic media blasting than the topcoat. Because of its soft. and gamma-rays at a dose rate of 37 kGy/h. The adhesive had a service temperature range of -260 to +370 ºC and was highly resistant to acids. A further significant increase in joint strength occurred when the polymer surface was initially modified by exposure to low-pressure plasma followed by exposure to high-energy radiation. 2006). Before preparing the composite. The topcoat may be selectively stripped off when required and a fresh topcoat reapplied. The PBI composites were prepared by using an ultra-high-temperature-resistant epoxy adhesive to join the two polymer sheets. allowing adjustment of fasteners and reuse after disassembly. and fire.56MHz radio-frequency glow discharge for 120 s at 100 W power with nitrogen as the process gas. Vibra-Tite is a solvent solution of acrylic polymers that is brushed onto the threads and dries within a few minutes. Vibra-Tite does not adhere strongly to the fasteners. making the aircraft ready to fly again (Kovar et al. 2006). Alternatively. It permits selective stripping of the topcoat without removal of the primer or conversion coating.which forms chemical bonds with the conversion coat and a conventional aircraft topcoat. 27 . energetic electrons. the polymer was subjected to low-pressure plasma treatment with a 13. A considerable increase in the joint strength was observed when the polymer surface was modified by either process. 2006). Vibra-Tite from ND Industries (Loctite Corp.) is a unique threadlocking and sealing product. Joints exposed to these conditions retained about 95 % of their strength. and protons. solvents. corrosives.
In the aviation industry engine improvements are also under investigation. In addition. increased globalisation. impact resistance. and population growth (see chapter 6). but to a smaller extent compared to space applications. the materials should be corrosion resistant. The main driving force towards lighter materials is the fact that transport costs decrease by a factor of $300 per pound of reduced weight in commercial aircraft transport. 28 . although these developments are mainly driven by other application fields such as the automotive or information and communication sector. Main reasons are GDP growth. long lifetime. stiffness. The main objective is to reduce the weight of the airframe. Reduced weight leads to lower costs and better ecological compatibility due to reduced fuel consumption. There is also a need for new sensors and miniaturised electronic components. Main drivers are • increased safety • reduced emissions • reduced noise • increased capacity • increased range • enhanced payload • higher speed • lower operating and maintenance costs • better overall management of the aircraft and its use Most important for reaching these aims is the development of a new generation of lighter materials. ductility and lightness. 2002) The most important properties addressed by aerospace materials are strength. (Plano. On the other hand. so that the development of new materials is mainly driven by the space industry. The results obtained in these sectors can be transferred easily to aircraft when the technologies are ready for industrial use. damage tolerant and repairable as often as necessary. toughness.Chapter 3: Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Aeronautics The global passenger traffic is expected to increase steadily over the next 20 years by an average growth rate of about 5%. the need for lighter materials is even stronger in space applications. This affects not only the main aircraft body and blades but also polymer components used in the interior. This value is 100 times as high as it is in the automotive sector. To satisfy these expectations aircraft companies are looking for new technologies.
The main reason for this is the need for mature and robust solutions in aerospace applications. In addition. (Pritchard. Carrying passengers puts extreme demands on the 29 . (EADS. making aircraft more efficient and able to fly faster. 2007) British Aerospace has also begun to build up a basic nanotechnology capability. the ‘maintenance-free’ airframe and environmental friendliness. 2005) Airbus is following its airframe philosophy which focuses on highest performance. Researchers at the Corporate Research Centre (CRC) in Ottobrunn and Suresnes are working in projects to use nanotechnology for this airframe philosophy. In addition. Such novel materials would be extremely flexible allowing the wings to reshape instantly and remaining extremely resistant to damage at the same time. 2004) Although nanotechnology seems to be promising for the aeronautics industry and breakthroughs are expected within the next few years. (NASA. The high strength-to-weight ratio of these nano-materials could enable new vehicle designs that can withstand crashes and protect the passengers against injury. These are the reasons why the aeronautics industry is actively researching the exploitation possibilities of micro and nanotech. these materials would have “self-healing” functionality. Current R&D is looking at improved macroscopic materials using nanomaterial additives which show the same promising properties on the macroscale as on the nanoscale. functionality and reliability can be enhanced by improved functional materials and sensors. (Boeing. In futuristic scenarios aircraft could weigh as little as half of a conventional aircraft manufactured with today's materials. making it difficult for nanotech applications to be integrated into new products. the Boeing Company has formed an alliance with Ford and Northwestern University to conduct nanotechnology research on projects of mutual interest and potential benefit to the companies' current and future products. The aeronautics business remains extremely conservative and risk averse. For example. 2006) and this can also be assumed for Boeing aircraft.Revolutionary new nanocomposites have the promise to be 100 times stronger than steel at only 1/6 of the weight. Application opportunities are much broader in astronautics. This is even more prominent for civil aircraft makers. 2001) Nanotechnology can contribute especially to reducing operating costs through lightweight and strong structural materials with the resulting weight and energy savings. Lightweight structural materials are the main focus for applications of nanomaterials in civil aviation. there are no nanotechnology applications in current Airbus aircraft (Oger.
3. the sector will stay a niche market for nanotechnology applications because of the small numbers of aircraft and the associated cost intensive development. the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymers in civil aircraft. (Oger. Please note that. a production process suitable for an industrial scale and a reasonable price/performance ratio is mandatory. but simultaneously to enhance its strength by 35%. for the Airbus A400M fibre-reinforced blades are planned also with an increase of the polymer amount to 30%. 2006) it is not sufficient to reduce the density of a material. the Airbus A380. Boeing’s concept for the new 787 Dreamliner includes an amount of more than 50% polymers measured by weight and much more than 50% by volume.qualification process of new technologies. but also its durability. Recently. According to a study of Lockheed (cited in Bader & Stumpp. In current aircraft of around 20% by weight of reinforced polymers are used. for the engine.1.g. stronger and safer aircraft. has lead to a competitive advantage for the European aerospace industry. Mainly carbon fibres with diameters of a few micrometres are used for reinforcing. 2006. the aspects of nanotechnology applications in the airframe. whereby the physical properties are maintained under extreme conditions and on a long-term basis. as coatings. 30 . new sensors. and in the electrical system are discussed in more detail. When reducing the weight of an element by 10% it is necessary to reduce its density by 10%. none have yet been realized in civil aviation. In addition. Airframe and components The drivers are for lighter. its stiffness by 50% and its damage tolerance by 100% Current aircraft are composed of different materials. Higher potential for lighter structures have the use of fibre-metal composites like glare (a laminate of aluminium and glass fibres) and fibre-reinforced polymers. as described above. in the Airbus A380 this value will be enhanced to 25%. NanoroadSME) Although the requirements of the aerospace sector are a driving force for improvements in nanomaterials. magnesium and aluminium has strongly increased in the past. the following descriptions and examples are possibilities. Fibre-reinforced polymers have the potential to reduce weight by up to 30% compared with aluminium parts and 50% compared with steel structures. Besides conventional metals like steel the use of lighter metals such as titanium. In the following sections. e. The material has not only to prove its supremacy.
can lead to a weight reduction of 60-70% compared with current fibre-reinforced polymers.3. The feasible reduction of the weight of aircraft components using composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be as large as 60-70% compared to existing carbon fibre reinforced polymers (Fig.A further improvement can be expected by substituting micrometre fibres in these composites by fibres in the nanometre range. Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer (CNTFRP) and NanotubeReinforced Aluminium (CNT/Al) Composites compared to an advanced carbon fibre reinforced polymer (IM7 CFRP) composite (Boehm) The major hurdles preventing a broader use of CNTs (not only in the aerospace sector) are the 10. wear resistance and resilience • thermal shock. multi walled carbon nanotubes) layer(s) of graphite. 31 . Fibre-reinforced polymers • Carbon Nanotubes (CNT): Hollow tubes of one (SWCNT. Advantages of nanomaterials are: • ultra high strength to weight ratio • improved hardness. reinforced with carbon nanotubes. single walled carbon nanotubes) or more (MWCNT.1). Figure 3.000-fold increase in price compared to standard fibres and the lack of an appropriate industrial-scale production method.1. Estimations are made that aluminium. Technical problems include a lack of methods to achieve spatial alignment of CNTs. fatigue and creep resistance • enhanced anti-microbial activity • multi-functional materials can reduce weight by reducing the number of components Nanomaterials can enhance the properties of almost every material used in aircraft building. good adhesion to the polymer matrix and achieving a high loading rate.
Composites • Glare –a laminate made of aluminium and glass fibres – is as strong as aluminium but lighter and corrosion-resistant. Metals can be strengthened by ceramic fibres such as silicon carbide. ultimate tensile strength. However.g. aluminium oxide or aluminium nitride. and hardness. a low density. strength increases. The use of SiO2 nanoparticles leads to an improvement of 64% in tensile modulus. Advantages of these so-called MMC (Metal matrix composites) are a high thermal stability. Nanocrystalline materials are characterized by significant increases in yield strength. (Bader. it is much more expensive. The bonding between the metallic sheets and fibres can be enhanced by nanoparticles. • • Ceramics • Nanophase ceramics show an enhanced ductility and strength. clay-like mineral montmorillonite) to synthetic resin is being studied to improve material strength. the fatigue lifetime can be increased by 200-300 % by using nanomaterials with a significant reduction of grain size in comparison with conventional materials. and a controllable thermal expansion.• • The addition of nanoparticles (e. but suffer from delamination under load. For example. particularly aluminium and titanium alloys can improve the mechanical properties and enhance corrosion resistance. 2007) Carbon-fibre reinforced polymers have a greater potential as a lightweight design than aluminium alloys. 2006) Metals • Properties of metals are governed by the Hall-Petch relationship – as grain size decreases. and a reduced sinter temperature. high strength. (Nanovic) Applications 32 . These materials can be used as thermal and oxidation protection for fibre-reinforced construction materials. MMC have the potential to substitute magnesium and aluminium parts in the future. (EADS. Nanostructured metals. 25% more strength and 90% more impact resistance. high thermal conductivity.
g. so it can allow a higher onboard pressure.Applications where nanomaterials can contribute to aircraft construction are mainly in the airframe structure but also in the interior to a minor degree: • The airframe is the main target for the use of nanomaterials. Keeping the cabin pressure at ground level. and could allow onboard pressure to be increased further. making them prohibitively heavy. With the right coating. the aircraft’ aluminium bodies would have to be much thicker. Another reason for using stronger materials is to enhance passenger comfort. equivalent to being outside at 6. (Robbins. Visionary ideas include fault tolerant and self-healing materials. but the onboard air is still much thinner than on the ground — typically the cabin atmosphere is equivalent to an altitude of 8. Although these examples are not focused on aircraft applications. It has been shown that nanoparticles dispersed throughout a material can migrate to cracks. For example. Aircraft safety and security is also being increased through the use of new materials in the interior. The MaxPlanck-Institut für Eisenforschung is working on filled nanocapsules in zinc coatings for self-healing on cut-edges. As mentioned above. the nanoparticles automatically migrate toward cracks in the silicon oxide. the results should be transferable. It is expected that as a result passengers will be far less tired.000ft altitude. nanotechnologies might enable further improvements or tailoring (e. nanomaterials could give rise to even stronger composite materials than those made with traditional carbon fibres. (Physorg. • • • • • 33 . potentially giving rise to self-healing composites (if sufficient migration occurs to seal cracks). 2006) Substituting stronger material of the same weight can increase the impact resistance of aircraft skin material. the cabins of airliners are pressurized to avoid the need for oxygen masks. aiming at a weight reduction and therefore decreased fuel consumption and costs because of the strength of nanomaterials as described above. High strength and lightweight composite laminates (incorporating carbon nanotubes in a variety of resins) are being investigated for use in ballistic protection and novel damping materials. The new Boeing 787 will be built from a stronger carbon fibre composite. the cockpit door. For example experiments have been undertaken with spherical particles of about five nanometres underneath silicon oxide. gradients) of mechanical properties well beyond more conservative chemical or metallurgical approaches. 2006) With regards to structural materials.000ft. One example is the development of bullet proof materials for sensitive parts. e.g.
which use nanoscale silver particles to eliminate undesirable odours and kill airborne health threats. so that a viable alternative is urgently needed.• An important aspect for the interior of an aircraft is the need for fire retardant materials. (AzoNano. Filtration systems are on the market.7% of influenza viruses.2. but magnesium alloys are strongly susceptible to corrosion. 2004) • 3. 2002) 34 . 2004) The Boeing 787 concept not only includes a higher cabin pressure but special filters to maintain a higher air quality. so a detailed analysis of nanoparticles used in aircraft is necessary. The aim is to meet the stringent specifications demanded of materials used in aircraft interiors more cheaply and effectively than with the costly specialised polymers currently used. It has been shown that such nanofilters kill 99. Coatings The trend is to substitute metals by reinforced polymers. (FhG-IFAM. but their cost is too high for mass production. which can be supported by nanomaterials. In addition to the use of nanomaterials for improving material properties of structural materials. magnesium – which is one third lighter than aluminium and 80% lighter than steel – has been used increasingly in the past. harder and have better wear properties than conversion coatings. 2003. One example is the development of coatings for landing gear as a replacement for environmentally problematic chrome coatings. On the other hand nanoparticles can also act as fire accelerant. The EU-funded NANOMAG project aims to provide an alternative by developing clean and environment-friendly nanocomposite coatings based on silicon oxide thin films that will be more economical while also offering superior resistance to corrosion and abrasion. Plano. but the hexavalent chromium involved is both carcinogenic and a hazardous air pollutant. It has been shown that the introduction of nanoparticle additives to 5 % can lead to a huge reduction in fire risk. Up to 98% of odours were eliminated and another nano-filter eliminated all noxious volatile organic compounds. The application of durable anodic or conversion coatings typically provide protection against such effects. but other applications are also under discussion. • For example. (NANOMAG. Chromate-based conversion coatings are cheaper. (Integran) The main target for nanocoatings is the protection of metals against corrosion. metals can also been made more durable by applying nanostructured coatings. Anodic coatings are tougher.
Their use is now being investigated for aircraft cabins. refrigerators. 2005) • • For repairing corrosion damage. carbon nanotube filled resins are under development. Specific surface properties could be designed in order to open new functionalities. Each single de-icing procedure of an aircraft can cost of up to 10. (TPC. are nanoscale boron oxide (Shuihu. Hard compound nano ceramic films are being investigated for the protection of propeller-blade surfaces. can be used for tribological coatings of aircraft platforms operated at higher temperatures. insulator coatings for heat and chemicals. nano Teflon. In principle it should be possible to remove ice from the aircraft body by an electrical current flowing through a thin conductive layer. and bio-nanomaterial coatings to keep airplane surfaces clean and free of micro-organisms. (Qinghai. metals and ceramics. Nanocomposite polyurethane paints and fluorocarbon paints have been patented for use in aircraft. Anti-bacterial coatings using nanoscale silver are available in the clothing industry. High performance nanocomposites of polymers. and washing machines. Research is underway for their use in aircraft windows.Other anticorrosive materials used in aviation. as for instance self-cleaning or self-healing properties. (Nanovic) Additional coating applications are more durable paints allowing aircraft to be repainted on a less regular basis. These paints should show greater durability than current paints. 2002) • • • • • • • • 35 . Nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorous coatings are also being developed to provide superior sliding wear resistance and a lower friction coefficient. This technique is currently under investigation for removal of dew and ice from automotive headlights (Hella. 2003) and nano-crystalline cobalt-phosphorous coatings. Nano paint (nano graphite. 2001). nano talc powder) has also been patented for reducing friction of ship and aircraft surfaces (allowing faster speeds to be achieved). The advantages should be a very high lubricating and self-lubricating performance.000 € (3sat. Scratch-resistant nanocrystalline coatings are already available on the automotive market. 2006).
shortened burn times resulting in more complete combustion. and chemical processing. Fuels used at present can be improved by the addition of nano-sized energetic particles. turbine engines. Nano-phase ceramics are being tested for use as thermal barrier coatings (TBC). If successful. replacing inert or low-energy gellants. Fuel combustion has been reduced in the past by aerodynamic improvements. a shortened ignition delay. • 36 . 2006) The enhanced creep. However. Engines Engines are still fuelled by hydrocarbons. Improved TBC protective coatings have wide application in aircraft engines. which allow a higher combustion temperature. faster energy release rates. • • • Because of the high surface area. higher fuel efficiency can be reached due to longer lasting TBCs that do not peel off. and a rapid energy release. the cost of aviation fuel is still a major part of airplane operating costs and further improvements in the efficiency of aircraft engines are required. by weight reduction and by more fuel-efficient engines and systems. nanoparticles can act as very efficient catalysts. Both layers are made of perovskite oxide ceramic layers. lower engine weights. (Navy.3. deposited on an underlying strain-resistant layer that can deform without cracking. a greater flexibility in designing new energetic fuel/propellants. aero-structures. fatigue and sulphidation resistance of grain boundary engineered components is expected to significantly increase the time between engine overhaul/refurbishment.3. Research is ongoing to manipulate the properties of the coatings down to the molecular level making them adhere more firmly to the surface of the metal blade and allowing the engines to run hotter. higher pressures and increased rotor operating stresses. Iron oxide nanoparticles can act as a catalyst for solid propellants. • The application of high temperature nanoscale materials to aircraft engines may lead to an increase of the thrust-to-weight ratio of up to 50 percent and fuel savings of 25 percent for conventional engines. The coating system consists of an outer layer that is chemically resistant. Nanomaterials are being applied as coatings on aircraft engine blades. Improvements in aircraft engine efficiency can be reached by materials which allow higher operating temperatures. • Aluminium nanoparticles are used with liquid jet and rocket fuel to increase the propulsion energy. even for liquid and solid aerospace engine fuels.
(Kuo. Nanomaterials are being widely investigated for their ability to store hydrogen and other gases and liquids because of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Gyroscopes are used to track an airplane’s position. Examples under discussion are hydrogen or cryogenic fuels. Sensors In addition to chemical and optical sensors. Nanocrystal films of iron-germanium can work as magnetic sensitive material for Hall elements for the measurement of angles and elongations. • The conductivity of wires with diameter of a few nanometres is very sensitive to small changes in electrochemical potential. Cleaner and alternative fuels may help in reducing harmful emissions. The vision is based on superconducting energy-storage systems. Problems are a suitable industrial production technique of hydrogen and suitable storage technologies. Microscopic structures are now being built into chips that perform the same function at far less weight and space. A more revolutionary vision is the use of electrically powered propellers. There is still much to learn about the correlation between physical and chemical properties and measured combustion performance.4.• Nano-sized energetic metals and boron particles possess desirable combustion properties such as a high combustion temperature and fast energy release rates. temperature. It could be imagined that nanostructures can lead to further reductions in weight and space. 2006). Nanosensors can be used for the early detection of fires in the cargo compartment of aircraft. Advances in nanotechnology could enable superconductive materials to eventually be manufactured at a cost that could justify their application in airliner propulsion. Because of this. they can be used as very sensitive sensors for different gases. High-density energy-storage technologies are needed to make this a reality. 2003) A comprehensive understanding of the important characteristics of nanosized particles to reach a desirable performance and ease of processing is still not available. • 37 . (Valentine. The sensors are based on nanoparticles of metal oxides. acceleration. and flow properties. position. Aircraft turbine engines are very flexible in the kind of fuel that they can burn (Valentine. Similar sensors can be used for the detection of biological and chemical toxins. 2006) 3. further sensors are needed in aircraft for measurements of velocity.
like eddy current testing. Electrical/electronic components and hardware Nanoelectronic systems are being developed for the Information and Communication sector. Again. the aviation industry is not the main driver and applications in astronautics are much more ambitious because of stronger weight constrictions and a harder radiation environment. 2004) • 3. A research project. For example. improved flat screens and miniaturized and energy-saving data storage systems would be helpful. (CANEUS. cannot be used for insulating materials. For entertainment systems. • The main driver in the aviation sector is an improved comfort for passengers. Airbus for example is exploring piezoelectric paint made of a lead-zirconate-titanate nanopowder. defects or impacts on an aircraft surface. flat screens utilising carbon nanotubes have been developed. For identifying damage within advanced composite materials. and for long term monitoring applications are discussed for future aircraft/spacecraft health monitoring systems.• The enhanced use of composite materials leads to the need for a structural health monitoring system. led by the Boeing Research and Technology Centre in Madrid is aimed at exploring the use of fuel cell technology for future aerospace applications and for providing auxiliary power .for things 38 • • • • . because traditional methods for testing metallic structures. In this context systems for miniaturized power sources and wireless communication are also required. Integrated nano-electronic systems will allow the opening of “the office and home in the sky”. Advanced concepts using networks of interoperable micro and nanotechnology sensors for accurate event detection and identification. This paint could work as a very precise sensor for information about vibrations. The results can be used also for applications in aircraft. Weight savings could not only be reached by savings in the aircraft frame but also by replacing heavy copper wires in aircraft by nanotubeimproved plastic wires. however this is still at a laboratory stage. Nanotube-enhanced conductive plastics can be used for electrostatic dissipation in electronic devices and electromagnetic-wave shielding. which have lower energy consumption. a broader viewing angle and a lighter display compared with LCD displays.5. which detects damages by a reduction of the network conductivity. a network of carbon nanotubes or other nanowires can be used.
reduced environmental burden and enhanced passenger comfort. For a reduction of process times of composites. 2005) • • • • 3. active noise control techniques may benefit from new knowledge on micro and nanotechnologies and could allow aircraft noise to be reduced further. nanomaterials and nanoelectronics are being investigated for uptake in aircraft on a large scale. but are made from electro chromic glass.7. 2004) The windows in the Boeing 787 will not have blinds. Ceramic nanoparticles are included in fibre composites.such as air conditioning and lighting on its aircraft by 2015. 2006). 39 . which is a large value considering that one Boeing 777 uses about half a million kilograms of fuel every year. (Robbins. which dims at the touch of a button. Conclusion To conclude. better lubricants and safer nano-fluids are being developed. OLEDs also allow new lighting and display devices for aircraft cabins. (ACARE. In the ceiling. Others • For hydraulic uses. 3. In the longer term. (Diehl. Foreseen benefits include cost reduction. Uptake of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics in aircraft may be slower than in other sectors. The application of fuel cells has the potential to save up to 1% of jet fuel. but there is clear interest from the industry. The aim of these lighting effects is to adjust the body clock to the time of day at the destination. or a starry night sky. with the aim of increasing strength and surface quality.6. Further advantages are cost and weight savings and the opening of new application fields. new technologies are making use of microwaves to decrease the time needed for curing. the colour and brightness of hundreds of LEDs can be adjusted to give a sense of daylight.
So far only low earth orbit (LEO) stations are implemented. rockets are usually used to launch satellites or other payloads. A shuttle is also a vehicle used to transport humans into space. also known as orbital stations. In the period from 1957 till 2005. Non-orbital spacecrafts called ‘probes’ are used for deep exploration of the universe.1 Introduction The space sector deals with all the technologies associated with travel outside the earth atmosphere. Spacecrafts are also developed for both military and civilian applications. The spacecrafts have been classified as: A rocket is a vehicle that obtains the thrust from the ejection of fast moving fluid of a rocket engine. A satellite is an unmanned spacecraft used for several scientific applications such as earth observation and planetary exploration. Other than military applications. Different types of spacecrafts exist to achieve specific goals in space exploration. 6376 spacecraft have been launched at an average of 133 per year.Chapter 4 Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Spacecraft 4. A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans living in outer space. There has been a decrease in the number of spacecrafts launched in the recent years with 40 . This section will cover civilian applications. The importance of the space sector can be emphasised by the number of spacecrafts launched. A shuttle can be used to transport humans from the earth to an orbital space station or can be a manned mission where astronauts have to live in the shuttle. The satellite is also used for commercial applications such as communication and GPS.
• The development of commercial space applications will be faced with the problem of decreasing costs.gov/pdf/142303main_2006_NASA_Strategic_Plan_sm. health management knowledge have to be developed to meet the challenges of harsh environment in space. life support. Mars manned flights. Titan or Pluto exploration and extreme heat of atmosphere re-entry) Facing mechanical constraints of launching by suitable engines and structures. between the extreme cold of Mars. 1674 communication or weather satellites were also launched1.qc. extra solar system exploration2). As spaceflights become common.g. Energy generation and storage sub systems. http://www.g. commercial applications are expected to present colossal potential opportunity for communication. energy).sciencepresse. Space exploration is the oldest human dream and the present national space programs are very ambitious (e.html NASA strategic plan.8% were military spacecrafts and 43. Of the 6376 launches. • As nanotechnologies cover all the scientific fields implicated in spacecraft enhancements (materials. This goal will require the development of autonomous spacecraft and in the case of manned mission consider technical developments to sustain life in space. Facing extreme temperatures and temperature variation (e.nasa. The following factors are considered to be pushing new technology development in space• The ambition of national space programs to enhance their space knowledge such as that of NASA to push human frontiers to the moon and beyond by longer exploration. electronics. The space sector has been a strategic field for all the industrial nations.78 launched in 2005.pdf 41 .2% were civilian.ca/clafleur/spacecrafts-index. 56. studying them for 1 2 The spacecraft encyclopedia. Technological improvements can bring solutions to achieve those objectives. GPS and space tourism companies. http://www. research will be required on commercial application based on decreasing both structure and payloads weights by the use of lighter materials and integrated systems such as Nano and Pico satellites. But new technologies are also being developed to face traditional space constraints – • • Facing high levels of radiation with suitable materials and electronics. As costs are considered proportional to weight. The remaining spacecrafts launches have been exploration missions. 245 manned missions have been launched in this period.
Nanotechnology is the development at the atomic.spacecraft applications makes sense in order to understand tomorrow’s spacecraft. As nanotechnologies are still an emerging field. devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size3.The fourth part outlines manned flights and the potential applications of nanotechnologies for on-board life support management. http://www. These new properties represent an important interest in spacecraft applications because they address the design constraints in achieving the space goals. The objective of this chapter is to describe nanotechnologies state of the art for spacecraft applications and to analyse future trends in the coming years.The fifth part describes satellites and science payloads and the potential of nanotechnologies in making them more efficient.jsp 42 .100 nanometre range. 4. 3 NSF definition. . . their use is very limited in space but after analysing space agencies research. .The three first parts will describe innovation that could find applications in all the spacecraft such as nanotechnologies for materials.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/omb_nifty50. the analysis of the use of nanotechnologies in spacecraft field will be done by technology: .nsf. chemical. optical and magnetic properties for a variety of applications. electronics and energy. to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures. publications and reports it appears that several advanced researches are focused on nanotechnologies for short-term applications (expected by 2008). molecular or macromolecular levels.And final part is a review of the potential of nanotechnologies for futuristic visions like the space elevator. • New optical properties can increase radiation protection of space structures. As the different technologies developed can find applications in various missions (commercial / scientific) and on various spacecraft (lighter materials are important for satellites as well as for rockets). mechanical. in the length scale of approximately 1 . • New mechanical properties can bring solutions to mechanical constraints of launching.2 Materials Most of the progress in nanotechnology has happened due to the discovery of many novel nanostructured materials and the subsequent characterisation of their electronic. electromechanical. electrochemical.
electrical isolations or fire protection applications. creation of specific optical properties with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. or with nanotextured. Several new sensors such as infrared sensors. gas and pollutants sensors can also be created. Nanoparticles Nanoparticles were the first discovered nanoelement and so their engineered processes are the most controlled.g.g. According to the control of their engineering. New electronic properties can allow building materials with integrated sensors (e. Nanoelements The nanomaterials considered are in fact nanoelements such as nanoparticles or nanotubes incorporated into different kind of materials (polymer. Nanoscale engineered materials built with basic nanoelements such as nanoparticles. shuttle.1. nanoparticle reinforced polymers. the tire industry has been using SiO2 nanoparticles in order to improve mechanical and thermal properties for a few years. The nanomaterials with new properties may be used in spacecraft (rockets. nanoparticles are already used in mass production materials like in automotive industry. as heat protection material. nanoporous 3D specific network can present interesting characteristics for spacecraft applications. coating). Finally materials nano structured can allow the construction of lighter structure and the development of nanocomposites. not only for the structure but also for components. housings of solid-propellant rockets. Due to their high mechanical strength and resistance against heat and radiation. to detect materials cracks) or materials for electronic components. Indeed. They can be used in several devices (as bulk or surface) for materials or electronics. composites.2.• • • New thermal properties can solve the problem of extreme temperature variation. The early applications are already emerging 43 . because at that level the wall of temperature is a very stringent factor. have potential applications in various components in space as lightweight structural materials. That’s why a rapid description of the two main elements found in nanomaterials for space applications seems important. nanotubes. They bring new properties to existing materials e. 4. satellites) and most of the applications described here concern structural materials.
Despite the exceptional value for spacecraft technology. It also has links with NASA. Carbon nanofibres are cylindrical nanostructures with graphene layers arranged as stacked cones. 2003). sensor technology. cups or plates.in the space sector. among other things within the ranges of space structures. This development aims to facilitate formability of materials through super plasticity generated by reducing the melting points and sintering temperatures to 30% (VDI Technology centre. The carbon nanotube is the emblematic element of nanotechnologies because it is the most promising. Carbon nanotubes A carbon nanotube is a sort of carbon nanofibre. which represents one of the main goal of futures spacecraft. nano-crystalline aluminium alloys were developed for space applications by the company DWA Aluminium Composites in co-operation with different US-American aerospace companies. 2003). A substantial part of the nanotechnology programme of the main space agencies (NASA. According to the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes. thermal control devices. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. the changes of the mechanical properties of the material can be indicated through changes of the electrical resistance and so possible damages could in principle be easily detected by simply monitoring the electric conductance of the material (VDI Technology Centre. Due to their unusual properties (elasticity. Indeed nanotubes and other structural materials discussed above are not yet being produced in large enough quantities to be cost effective for bulk applications (the 4 Aerospace Corporation is an independent US research centre for United States Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office.2 gigapascal for high-carbon steel). In particular there is a huge potential for mass savings in space structures. Aerospace Corporation4. In a SBIR project of NASA. carbon nanotubes possess numerous application potentials in space. Carbon nanofibres with graphene layers wrapped into perfect cylinders are called carbon nanotubes. stiffness: about 1 terapascal. compared with about 10 gigapascal for conventional carbon fibre and 1. electronics. Air Force laboratories and California State 44 . ESA) is based on the development and application of carbon nanotubes based material improvements. the related structural applications of multifunctional nanotubes are to be expected rather in a medium term time horizon due to their high price and problems with the scalability of production processes. Another further advantage of carbon nanotubes based materials is the possibility of creating monitored materials. gas storage and biomedicine.
The second problem is concerning the transfer of the molecular properties to macroscopic materials are still unsolved. carbon. decrease permeability. reinforced polymers.1. Nanoparticles can be introduced in polymer to improve their electrical.1. Such composite materials can provide significant enhancement in the 45 . Materials using nanoelements 4.1.2. or monomers. fullerenes in polymer. so that the loading rate of carbon nanotubes is limited to a little weight percentage and problems of viscosity appear at high loading rate. e. NASA has numerous research programmes based on an optimization of the carbon nanotubes production process and also on the functionalisation of those nanotubes to integrate them in components. nylon. Nanoparticle reinforced polymers is being developed by NASA through the SBIR program.2. thermal or mechanical properties. is the alignment and the adhesion of the carbon nanotubes in the matrix. e. connected by covalent chemical bonds. Composites Composite materials are being produced by mixing nanotubes. or metal matrices. moisture and chemical resistance.2. Carbon nanotubes tend naturally to agglomerate.2. suitable nanoparticles such as silicates (in particular montmorillonite clay).g. According to VDI. polyphenole or polyimide can be used as polymer matrix.1. 2006) will allow NASA to benefit the high rate carbon nanotubes production (50g per hour) to develop next generation metals.1. The properties of composites that can be significantly improved are thermal and flame resistance. ceramic. POSS (Polyhedral Oligomeric SileSquioxanes) are under consideration. nanoparticles. But carbon nanotubes have the potential to revolutionize several space technologies. Another problem with the production of carbon nanotubes composites.average price is about $500 per gram and the average quantity production is about 100g per day).1. polymers and ceramics. 4. dissipation and conductivity. Epoxide. nanowires. the dispersion of carbon nanotubes but also of any other kind of nano charge (more specifically when they are hydrophobic) in composite matrices or spinning of carbon nanotubes to macroscopic fibres. A partnership between NASA and Idaho Space Material (ISM) (NASA.1. NASA has conducted the initial qualification tests of nanoparticles reinforced polymers for space application. Polymers A polymer is an assembly of large molecules consisting of repeating structural units. 4.g. composites. charge.
CANEUS concept paper and Aerospace Corporation activities. NASA investigates carbon nanotubes integration in polymer in its laboratory TIIMS5.edu/research/nanomat. 5 Texas Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles: http://tiims. (VDI. Carbon nanotubes / nanofibres in polymer: Most of the research on composites is based on the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into polymer matrix. aluminium oxide or aluminium nitride can be potentially used in spacecrafts. radiation absorption. These materials will optimize considerably space travel by increasing functionalities in spacecraft systems and vehicles while reducing mass. SiO2 can reduce the sintering temperature and the consolidation time of ceramic material. self-healing and stress smart sensing systems. Material such as silicium carbide. super plasticity and a better resistance against material fatigue can be obtained in comparison to conventional metal matrix composites (VDI. and structural reinforcement capabilities. Research aims at purifying and functionalizing carbon nanotubes to enable new nanotube polymeric and ceramic composites that have electrically conductive. Nanostructured ceramic composites can provide thermal and oxidation protection for construction material.tamu.thermal conductivity. the strength of metal matrix composites could be increased up to 25% through nanostructuring and beyond that. Major reductions in the overall system mass are possible with the use of nanostructured thermal protection and radiation structure materials. Different research activities can be noticed in the frame of the SBIR programme of NASA. Further development of nanocomposites will be to make them tuneable. 2003). 2003) Ceramic fibres reinforced metals can replace magnesium and aluminium in different structure. size and power consumption. The use of nanopowders of oxide nanopowders Si3N4. fracture toughness. directional anisotropy. Nanoparticles and nanopowders as reinforcing composites: Thermomechanical properties. including nanoshells (spherical core of a particular compound surrounded by a shell with a thickness of a few nanometres).html 46 . As has been reported. SiC. TiCN and non-oxide nanopowders Al2O3. High strength transparent bulk ceramics for applications as external surfaces and skins for spacecrafts and window is also under development. switchable molecular properties. fracture toughness and formability can be improved by using nanoscale ceramics. adaptive.
Experiences show that the insertion of nanotubes into the polymer matrices increases the thermal expansion coefficient of the material by 40 to 60 percent above glass transition temperature.1. as opposed to the bare polymer matrices. Experiments have shown that when carbon nanotubes are fully dispersed in cyanate-ester resin. A variety of micro-nanotechnologies-based sensors and actuators are embedded within these composites.. Investigations are also made in the frame of a CANEUS project to build smart composites. The use of carbon nanofibre as nano-sensors for the damage detection within the matrix material of the CFRP is investigated. Another research axis is the introduction of carbon nanofibre in carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP).3 Coatings 47 . CANEUS is also investigating this field since 2004 with possible applications in 2007 in the frame of the project “Nanofibre Composite Materials for Load Bearing Structural applications”. are expected to be useful during the processing steps above glass transition temperature. Enhancing thermal properties can be useful to protect structure of space extreme temperatures. Its application is non-destructive damage detection in CFRP during mechanical loading that is a key parameter in space structure (Kostopoulos et al.Aerospace Corporation shows that cyanate ester trimers interact strongly with the surface of the single walled carbon nanotubes. the modulus of the cured polycyanurate matrix is approximately doubled. Numerous potential applications exist for such multi-functional structures or failure monitoring. This nanoreinforced resin can improve the resin-dominated properties such as shear strength of carbon fibre polycyanurate composites used in space hardware for stiff. “smart” materials.2. 4. creating multifunctional. Carbon nanotubes thermal characteristics have also been tested to create new polymer properties. 2002).5 percent by weight. This also enhances the thermal diffusion coefficient by about 30 percent (CANEUS. The mechanical strength and stiffness characteristics of the polymer matrices are also found to increase by about 30 to 50 percent on mixing of 5 to 10 percent of nanotubes at room temperature. at concentrations of only 0.1. These characteristics of the composite. Mechanical and electrical properties of the CFRP are enhanced proving their efficiency in ultra lightweight loadbearing structures for harsh environmental conditions. lightweight structures. 2005). Carbon nanofibre doped epoxy mixtures are used as a matrix material for the preparation of unidirectional CFRP. The mechanical characterization of the doped CFRP showed remarkable increase in the fracture energy of the laminates and also higher elastic and storage modulus in comparison with the non-doped CFRP.
using a high density of nanometre-sized contacts. Most of the research on coatings is currently focused on the enhancement of electrical and thermal properties of existing structures. Nanostructures have the unique property of being small enough not to significantly impact optical properties in small concentrations (<1%). Conductive nanostructures could be used as dopes within the plasma sprayed white ceramic optical coatings. Transparent films of carbon nanotubes can also be used as a conductive coating over the ceramic coating to mitigate charging effects e. 48 . 2005). on the heat shield (Kao. optical properties. Electrical conductivity of thermal blankets used on most spacecraft surface is a key point of a rocket structure because it prevents the build-up of electrostatic charges that could lead to potentially harmful discharges. and the number of contact points is increased dramatically that generates thermal conductance improvements over both metal-metal contact (Sample. They now investigate the use of fluorinated polyaniline in the fluorinated host material polyimide conducting to create polyaniline nanofibres in order to improve optical transmittance. The use of carbon nanotubes as coating can also enhance thermal conductance of metal-metal contacts by increasing the number of contact points. 2006). This task can be accomplished by coating one of the interfaces with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. When pressed against a solid material. The conducting indium-tin-oxide coatings typically used on blankets can crack and oxidize which reduces their conductivity and can create electrostatics charges.Coatings are used in spacecraft as structure protector or to enhance some properties of the material structure. That’s why a transparent polymer blend with sufficient bulk conductivity and environmental stability to mitigate surface charging on satellites was developed by Aerospace Corporation. The material polyaniline or polyimide blend could eliminate hundreds of straps used to ground the conductive front surface of the blankets to the spacecraft. Thus. thermal electrics isolating. Nanotechnologies allow the building of a lot of new coatings like smart coatings or with attractive new properties like hardwearing.g. a percolate network of conductive nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes or conductive oxide nanowires can be incorporated into the coatings to improve conductivity. many of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes make contact to the material.
4. It controls all the vital systems of the vehicle (orbit. Before any material can be specified for a space application it must endure rigorous testing and analysis to determine optimal processing conditions and ensure reliable performance and security in the hostile space environment. ++: strong interest . The following table summarizes the different nano applications for materials in space under study: Technology Nanoparticles reinforcing polymers Nanoparticles reinforcing composites Carbon nanotubes reinforcing composites Carbon nanotubes reinforcing coatings Smart materials Characteristic Improve thermal. one of the key factors of futures applications of nanostructured materials for spacecraft will be the elaboration of efficient characterisation and modelling tools. flame.2.2 Materials conclusion Nanoscale materials represent a major stake for spacecraft because of the opportunity they bring to build new structures with specific thermal. electrical.4. This research will find applications in the longer term than nanoparticles integration. optical characteristics. Secure modelling processes and rigorous tests ensure crew security in the case of manned flights and decrease the financial risks of a failure in space (Kao. 2006). +++ : very strong interest 49 . Electronics Electronics is everywhere on a spacecraft. charge dissipation Improve thermo mechanical properties Improve thermo mechanical properties. Major space agencies are engaged in research concerning nanomaterials with new properties and some of them can nearly find applications. stronger and cheaper structure. allow creation of electric properties like failure detector Integration of electronic component to create new functions Interest6 ++ + +++ +++ ++ Perspective Short term (in test) Short term Middle term Middle term Long term Notice: research on carbon nanotubes integration seems the most promising but carbon nanotubes manufacturing and integration into an existing structure is still not totally controlled. attitude determination. decrease permeability. This is all the more true with nanoscale materials because of their small size and specific characteristics. resistance. communication between the 6 +: normal . radiations resistant Improve thermo mechanical properties.3. Finally.
proton irradiations have no effects on the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes based field effect transistor.different parts of the vehicle. The electronics industrial sector is a very innovative sector with a huge market potential and so the study of nanotechnologies incorporation into electronics devices represents a real stake for its actors. Thus nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft electronics are essentially spin off from ground electronics sector because they pursue the same goals: decreasing price. For this specific aspect the best technologic answer is carbon nanotubes that show natural high radiation resistance properties. Big advances were made by the implementation of MEMS in several sub-systems and even though NEMS are in development they are not very relevant for the mass saving in big spacecraft. Nevertheless it is important to note that nanotechnologies in spite of their prefix “nano” don’t represent a huge potential for miniaturization. A recent study of Prof.1010 – 4.3.1012 cm-2 that is comparable to the space environment. Secondly. And nanotechnologies show promises to achieve these goals by the use amongst others of carbon nanotubes. Experiences were made with carbon nanotubes based field effect transistors exposed to 10-35 MeV proton beams with a fluency of 4. energy transformation) and all the science payloads.1 Carbon nanotubes for transistors Carbon nanotubes have potential to become the base of almost electronics devices for spacecraft. Not only do they present exceptional conductive characteristics but they also have a non-negligible advantage for space use: their radiation resistance. Kwanwoo Shin at Sogang University showed that: First. electronics device became more radiation tolerant when their dimensions are reduced. Indeed nanotechnologies promise enhancement of actual electronics devices properties reducing their size. increasing performances. It is all the more important as electronics devices use nanotechnologies because some characteristics they engender are not foreseeable. It will be useful to detect and anticipate failures due to space harsh conditions. is the exposure to highs rates of radiation. None of the 50 . Finally an important aspect of nanoelectronics for spacecraft as well as for nanomaterials will be modelling and characterisation of electronics devices. 4. The only specific constraints of spacecraft that can influence the development of space specific nanotechnologies for electronics.
” (VDI. 4. Zettacore Company is currently 51 . 2006). But electronics devices containing only carbon nanotubes are difficult to build and cost effective.2 Memories / Data storage With the increasing number of on-board analysis systems coupled with the lengthening of space flight.3. 2003) ferroelectric (FRAM memory based on the ferroelectricity of certain crystals). which will compete in the future with conventional memory chips like DRAM. biological memories. So the current most advanced researches concern hybrid Si approaches in merging carbon nanotubes based devices and structures with traditional siliconbased technology. mechanical constraints. extremes temperatures. Porphyrin is another molecule that can be used as memory. DNA).devices that were fabricated for the experiment exhibited any significantly altered electrical changes before and after proton irradiation (Hong et al. radiations. At present efforts are made on genetic mutations of bR in order to stabilize individual configurations of the protein for increasing the data stability. “Nanotechnologies offer potential in the development of new non volatile working memories for computer systems. Biological memory Memories can be realized by making use of biological molecules (proteins.e. 2003) Even expected dimensions of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) are to be 45 nm by the year 2010 and 18 nm by 2018 (Ives et al.. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is one of the molecules intensively examined for memory applications. carbon nanotubes based memory and magneto electronic (MRAM) storage technologies. memories have to increase their storage density decreasing mass memory. 2005) a range of concurrent technologies are in development “like Millipede (micromechanical device with an array of nanoscale read/write/erase tips based on scanning probe technology developed by IBM).” (VDI. They also have to face space constraints like others electronics components i. The three lasts represent the main potential applications for spacecraft. Moreover the quality control for the carbon nanotubes fabrication and the large contact resistance are two major issues that will remain problematic in the coming years..
pdf 52 . 2003) The use of spintronics in this field represents conception advantages and potential size decreasing.nantero. Nantero is developing this technology and announce in 2006 the routine production of carbon nanotubes for their memory applications7. visualization. (VDI. New and innovative uses of advanced analytical techniques are needed that allow imaging. the process of cutting and imaging can be repeated at nanoscale increments until the entire 7 See: http://www. NRAM has the potential to serve as universal memory replacing all existing forms of memory. 4. This structure increases data quantity stored by 107.developing this technology. and detailed examination of every part of the features of interest at the nanoscale. NRAM NRAM is carbon nanotubes based memory.3 Nanocharacterisation Impacts of defects on electronics devices geometries are always critical and the effect at the nanoscale is amplified and more difficult to detect with respect to manufacturability and reliability of these devices. This innovation involves using the change of SEM image contrast and brightness caused by removal of surface carbonaceous deposit as an end point.com/pdf/Press_Release_11_06%20. such as DRAM. Even if applications are expected in a middle-term carbon nanotubes based memory represent a huge potential of spacecraft applications because of their space radiations resistance. That’s why The Aerospace Corporation created an innovative tool for failure analysis at the nanoscale. highdensity non-volatile Random Access Memory. Experiments were also made with data storage on diamonds with Fluorine and Hydrogen atoms on its surface. MRAM This magneto electronic storage technology presents several advantages for space application such as low energy consumption. SRAM and flash memory. This NANO-3DI technique is a special FIB milling technique that can remove material in slices less than 2 nm thick using a standard ion beam roughly 30 nm in diameter. inherent radiation resistance and suitability for high temperature application.3. Thus.
Finally modelling and characterisation is the most active sector of space research in electronics because it represents a relevant stake to pursue the “zero failure” objective of main space missions.3. data storage increase Interest +++ ++ ++ + Perspective Middle term Middle term Middle term Long term Space research is more focused on applied electronics like various sensors that are developed in their own parts. 53 .html A complementary approach is to prevent geometrical defects by performing simulation software. data storage increase Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations). Aerospace Corporation http://www. 2005).org/publications/crosslink/fall2005/03. Figure 4.structure containing the features of interest is physically deconstructed.1 : NANO-3D. As electronics is not the most current strategic aspect of space researches evolutions in nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft will mainly depend of progress made in the terrestrial electronics sector. The following table summarize the different nano applications for electronics in space under study: Technology Carbon nanotubes for transistors Carbon nanotubes based memory MRAM Biological memory Characteristic Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations) Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations).aero. data storage increase Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations). It can then be digitally reconstructed from the images taken after each cut (Ives et al..4 Electronics conclusion Nanotechnologies in electronics components are not yet available for space missions even if they promise several applications especially in facing space radiation. 4.
The energy problematic is common to all the spacecraft. The American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics as well as SNPE8 are currently exploring ways to improve those using nanoparticles of Aluminium.4. energy storage. This subsystem is a key component for current space stakes because smaller energetic systems. Propellants usually used for space launching are ammonium per chlorate (NH4ClO4). Nanotechnologies applications in the range of electrical power and energy storage can improve batteries and fuel cells as well as photosensitive materials for high-efficient solar cells.1. The most common formulation is aluminium nanoparticles mixed with molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) or bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3). Propellants Propellants are typically a power source essential for rockets or shuttles. All spacecraft also need efficient energy storage and conversion systems during flights for their orbiting and their other on board subsystems.snpe. Energy generation and storage Spacecraft electrical power subsystem (EPS) typically provides four basic functions: power source. with better outputs can allow spacecraft to be more autonomous and so to stay in space for farther missions. Weight and size decrease with efficiency increase to avoid self heating of electrical power subsystem also make cheaper vehicles. Nanotechnologies can also be used to optimize energy generation boosting current propellants or for electric propulsion where they can be used as cold cathode to emit electron to neutralize flux of charged particles. Rockets and shuttle need huge propulsion energy for launching using propellants. 4.asp 54 . power distribution and power regulation and control. http://www.4. Autonomy improvement is also very important in the case of emergencies situations and can be determinant to save a mission. Combustion wave speeds in excess of 1km/s with an under 8 SNPE is a chemical group specialised in explosives. As propulsion subsystem is an energy liberation component.4. Nanotechnologies can be used to enhance current propellants essentially with the introduction of nanoparticles. its characteristics are the need of a huge energy generation in a very short time that implies optimized energy storage and a high discharge rate. and satellites need adapted propulsion systems smaller with high energy conversion rate.com/uk/index. The aluminium particles sizes range between 60 and 120 nm and experimentally measured combustion wave speeds varied between 420 and 460 m/s. energetic materials.
At present the most efficient solar cells for space applications are based on III/V-semiconductors such as GaAs and InP and have a conversion efficiency that can reach 40% with triple junction cells. 2003) The principle is to incorporate a layer (or layers of different sizes) of quantum dots that absorb in a region outside that of the usual 55 . Aluminium powder has been used as an additive to propellant and explosives for decades. Conversion efficiencies of over 50% may be possible with such compound semiconductor solar cells (Aroutiounian et al. Others research is turned to ion thrusters like Boron Argon or Xenon. Solar cells Solar cells appear to be one of the most promising energy production systems. 4. 2001). At the same time significant progress has been made toward understanding of the unique combustion processes of nanoaluminium and its various formulations such as Metastable Intermolecular Composites (MIC also called superthermite or nanothermite.4.2. But they are still expensive and versatile which limit their use. 2003) Researchers from Georgia Tech are working on ways to mimicking lotus self-cleaning coatings. the issues of volume production.pressure of several hundreds atmosphere. economics and quality control have reached a level of maturation such that the companies are now offering standard product.. Recent advances in particle synthesis technology have allowed aluminium nanoparticles to be produced in commercial quantities. Thus. (VDI. Technology is quite well known but progress has to be made in the range of energy conversion and durability of the collectors under space conditions (radiation. Anti-reflective or self-cleaning coatings and collectors can also improve the efficiency of converting solar energy to electric power. The conversion efficiency of solar cells may be improved by using semiconductor quantum dots. it refers to an important subset of nanoenergetics). The use of nanomaterials is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of solar cells. (VDI. 2006). heat and corrosion resistance). Results indicate that burn rate increased with decreasing particle size. It is more and more envisaged for mars return mission to use carbon dioxide (most abundant component in Mars atmosphere) as an oxidizer for metal nanoparticles (Al). With NASA they are developing a way to use carbon nanotubes bundles to create the surface bumps needed to prevent dust accumulation on the surface of photovoltaic cells that can decrease the energy conversion rate (Toon. that is why nanoparticles of aluminium appears to be a promising alternative to traditional aluminium powder.
By modifying the size of the particle.” (VDI. quantum mechanical dot devices represent an alternative to multi-junction devices. their integration in an exogenous structure and the potential toxicity they represent during their manufacturing. Figure 4.html Organic solar cells can be potentially used in spacecrafts.grc. Fuel cells “Fuel cells represent an efficient method for chemical energy conversion and possess substantial application potential in space and moreover reusable spacecraft due to their clean operation and their compactness. Each nanocrystalline dot behaves as a potential well with energy levels that are quantized and inversely related to the size of the well. This method of device improvement relies upon the physics of the quantum mechanical "particle in a box".2 : Intermediate-band gap solar cell. they do not require current matching. the absorption energy of the dot can be tuned to a region where it will be complementary to the existing cell properties (NASA. Theoretically studies have predicted a two-fold improvement in efficiency over conventional device structures (Luque and Martí. The main disadvantage at this stage is the low efficiency of the device. Research on different types of organic solar cells including the Graetzel cell continues.3.4. in particular within the ranges of 56 .photovoltaic device. The advantage of organic solar cells is the low cost of manufacturing as compared to conventional solar cells. 2003) The only constraint of solar cell is the necessity of sun exposure to generate energy. It implies increasing research in efficient capacitors to store energy that can be released during a night phase. 1997). As the quantum dots synthesis process is still not well controlled. Although the quantum mechanical dots contribute to cell output by providing an intermediate band.gov/pvsee/programs/thinfilm/tfg_nano. In this respect. 4. NASA Glenn research centre http://powerweb. 2003) Nanotechnologies offer different possibilities to increase the conversion efficiencies of fuel cells. Capacitors like “nanocaps” could be realized by metallic nano-electrodes with ultra thin pseudo capacity or nanoporous carbon aerogels. 2002). the problems of quantum dots integration in solar cells are both the synthesis of quantum dots.nasa. (VDI.
inexpensive molecule: Ethylene could become the future of H2 storage. The critical problem with hydrogen fuel cells is hydrogen storage that prevents the use of hydrogen fuel cells power sources. NASA) investigated the use of carbon nanotubes to enhance current hydrogen storage system. Carbon nanotubes can also be used as anode materials. Another hollow tubular structure. But several problems appear with the creation of this kind of materials like with securing bulk amounts of small-diameter nanotubes. The other type of fuel cell is hydrogen fuel cells. As the U. This can be improved by the use of metallic nanoparticles or ceramic nanopowders.S. Indeed due to their hollow tubular nature. Different nanomaterials were tested for hydrogen storage due to their increased active surface area but their energy storage is still inferior to that of carbon nanotubes. But tube diameter and helicity are currently difficult to control and so manufacturing problems still exist. The poisoning of the catalyst by carbon monoxide is one of the main obstacles. Fuel storage is also considered to be a problem in implementing fuel cells (VDI.. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are one platform for generating energy. 2006). 57 . solid polymer electrolyte additive.catalysts. active cathode material. Scientists from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) and Turkey’s Bilkent University predict that a well-known. Department of Energy specified that about 7-10 percent by weight storage should be sufficient for commercial viability for both ground and space transportation applications titanium ethylene can be an easy inexpensive solution for H2 storage. DMFC used a catalyst to convert methanol fuel to hydrogen. membranes and hydrogen storage. 2003). They provide higher power density and double conversion efficiency compared to DMFC. bipolar plate interconnect in both hydrogen and direct methanol fuel cells. Their calculations show that titanium atoms attached to an ethylene molecule can drastically increase H2 storage to reach 14 percent of the weight of the titaniumethylene complex (Durgun et al. The use of carbon nanotubes allows facing the high price of platinum and also the problem of radiation degradation. Moreover carbon nanotubes didn’t appear as cost relevant as it promised. That’s why various alternatives are studied in laboratories. BCN (Boron Carbon Nitride nanotubes) shows promise because of its possibility for tuning nanostructures electrical properties by B/N concentration variation. carbon nanotubes have a relatively good hydrogen retention rate (4-5% under very low temperature < 100°K) that is why several space agencies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Aerospace. which in many cases is critical for the employment of fuel cell technology in space.
2004 cited in VDI. Ultracaps (kind of battery where electric energy is directly stored as positive or negative charge without any reaction on the electrode surfaces) with mechanical storage with kinetic wheel are also developed for pulsed and power driven applications and are planned for Space or Lunar station.4. That is why powerful and miniaturized batteries are needed to improve portative tools autonomy.4. are currently investigated as well as Li and K intercalation in single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and/or multiwall nanotubes. vanadium oxide or LiCoO2-particles and anode with Sn/Sb oxides. nanoparticles of cobalt nickel and ferric oxides in the electrode material (Poizot et al. carbon nanotubes. Other experiments report increasing energy density with MnO2 or poly (o-anisidine) (POAS). Nickel hydrogen or nickel metal hydride batteries are essentially used in small sized elements like for extra vehicular activity (EVA) suit devices and experiments. whose dimensions and power density can be adapted to the respective chip components. 2003) 4. Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes therefore provide an alternative to current anode fabrication technology with graphitic carbon. A significant improvement in both the current Ni/H and Li/C battery technologies with respect to the current storing capacity and discharging efficiency is expected. with nanomaterials TiO2 as cathode.. Nanotechnologies have the potential to improve their achievements. (VDI. 2003). reducing their size and so their costs. The increasing miniaturization of electronic components requires flexible batteries that can be integrated into circuits. a polyaniline derivative. Nanostructured materials offer improvements power density and durability by controlling the charge diffusion and the oxidation state on a nanoscale level (Khullar et al. offer numerous advantages for space applications. Carbon nanotube anodic layers around metal cathodes. such as Cu. 2000) can increase reversible charge capacity by 600%. Batteries Space power systems used high performance batteries such as lithium ion or nickel metal hydride accumulators for powering devices..5 Energy conclusion Various types of energy generation and storage already exist.4. In lithium ion batteries. Those applications are explored for both ground and space sectors but space research is more focused on 58 .4. The lifetime and efficiency of charging and discharging cycles in these batteries is critically dependent on storage and/or intercalation properties of the anode material. Cathode material can be built with carbon aerogels. Thin film batteries (in particular Li ion batteries).
pressure monitoring.5. air cleaning and filtration. filtering.1. There are numerous applications of nanotechnology within life support. heat absorption and rejection. hygiene.5. decrease volume needed Improve energy conversion rate Improve fuel cells efficiency Improve H2 storage rate and in the case of carbon nanotubes is radiations resistant Improve existing battery efficiency Interest ++ +++ ++ +++ + Perspective Short term Middle term Short term Middle term Short-Middle term* *Notice: It depends of the nanoelement used. Gas sensors: The electronic nose based on gas sensors is used for monitoring air quality and to detect fire warning. Nanotechnologies can bring technological solutions to astronauts’ daily problems. ventilation. health monitoring.those topics because energy is a key point for future spacecraft according to the increasing need of autonomy. carbon nanotubes integration is more a middle term vision because of the difficulties for its manufacturing. The following table summarize the different nano applications for energy in space under study: Technology Nanoparticles into propellants Quantum Dots reinforcing solar cells Nanoparticles for fuel cells electrolytes Nanotubes for H2 storage (essentially Carbon nanotubes) for fuel cells Nanoelement for battery Characteristic Improve their efficiency. Global life support As long travel mission for human far exploration are seriously engaged. enhancing on board life management become a necessity. (VDI. Various types of metal oxide and ceramic nanopowders can be used to improve the performance of electrochemical sensors. wastewater treatment and sensors. decontaminating. 2003) 4. The important life support tasks have been summarised by VDI as oxygen supply. control of air quality and humidity. (VDI. nanotechnologies can find potential application in gas storage. avoiding moistures. According to NASA. waste water treatment. Life support Life support is becoming a key research axis in space sciences. monitoring of water quality. 4. 2003) 59 . monitoring the life on the International Space Station or in shuttles is a real challenge. Nanotechnology is expected to improve the selectivity of these gas sensors. CO2 removal. With the development of longer manned mission and space tourism.
. 2004). which can change colours when appropriately formulated. Figure 4. Efficiency was proved for H2. The resulting molecule would have the desired properties of both biosensor and biocide (Russell et al. 2003) 4. Argonide is developing nano-porous ceramic filter membranes for the sterilization of treated water in a NASA SBIR project.5. such as E.3 : Nanomix sensor http://pubs.pdf Water cleaning: Pollutants and germs can be effectively removed from water using Nano-membranes. with a hydrocarbon diacetylene. Researchers from NASA’s jet propulsion laboratory developed a nanocarpet. This unique structure is a carpet of self assembling carbon nanotubes that can be used for trapping microscopic particles or micro organisms (e. inorganic particles.g. known for its ability to disrupt cell membranes and cause cell death. has recently demonstrated efficiency and selectivity of electronics noses base on carbon nanotubes in the frame of a SBIR phase II program (Star et al. They integrate multiple sensor elements consisting of isolated networks of single walled carbon nanotubes decorated with metal nanoparticles (for chemical selectivity). CO and H2S. Its function is first trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis (Noca et al. University of Pittsburgh researchers enhance nanocarpet to create one that not only traps particles but also kills bacteria and others pathogens.. The advantage of Nano-membrane is reduced pore blockage as compared to conventional membranes.acs. (VDI.NASA researches are focused on the topic of miniaturized sensors. Indeed a particular nanocarpet combines a quaternary ammonium salt group. Medical systems With the development of deep space living flights. coli.org/cgi-bin/article. CH4. Unlike other nanotubes structures. spores). with just a jab to its cell membrane. 2004). As critical risks for astronauts. Nanomix. these tubes display sensitivity to different agents by changing colour and can be trained to kill bacteria. But another function of the nanocarpet can be cleansing. the following should be mentioned among other things: 60 . pollen..cgi/jpcbfk/2006/110/i42/pdf/jp064371z. 2006).2. enhancing medical system is becoming a key point of longer manned mission. bacteria. a company devoted to the build of nanosensors.
To produce that kind of device. A CANEUS project is currently working on the future of this technique integrating micro fluidics with nanofabrication. for gene analysis) that allows simultaneous detection of different analytes. This biochip is build on a basis of multi walled carbon nanotubes array used to collect electrochemical signals associated with the target bio molecules. bio molecular imaging.g. 2001). UCLA has developed in partnership with NASA a lab-on-a-chip for blood testing that can allow direct on board tests (Amudson. 2003) They aim to apply nanotechnologies to achieving space medical systems. NIH) or industrial partners. which are specifically bonded to the 61 . miniaturized diagnostics and autonomous therapy. thus combining both top-down and bottom-up paradigms. performance loss. (VDI. Another key point is the miniaturization of medical devices in order to adapt them to space transport. The main objectives include minimal invasive.g. as well as small and compact test kits. methods of early diagnosis in particular of cancer. muscle. In this field NASA is developing “Ultra sensitive Label-Free Electronic Biochips Based on Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectrode Arrays” that allow fast detection of gene mutation which is the major causes for the development of cancer and genetic diseases and also the main risk of radiation exposure. of the immune system. This technique seems to be the most promising method of large scale nanoelectronics production that will be necessary for its routine use in manned mission. radiation damages. efficient and mobile detection systems. . the most promising method is the Fountain Pen Nanolithography. Applications of nanotechnologies can be identified in: .bone. semiconductor nano-crystals (quantum dots) or also magnetic nanoparticles. DNA) like gold nanoparticles. .Nanoparticles use for the detection of molecules (proteins. heart and blood circulation problems. distortion of the sense of balance. 2006).Oligonucleotide biochips (e.Miniaturized analytical devices for medical diagnostics like lab-on-achip-systems that allow complex analysis sequences by individual controllable micro valves and channels. high speed analyses. Nanotechnologies will not decrease significantly their size but can bring new functionalities that can gather various functions in a same device like with lab-on-a-chip systems. Numerous research programs of NASA focus on life sciences in co-operation with other federal institutions (e. insufficient methods for on-board medical therapy and diagnostics (Stilwell. Substantial progress was made in this field by the conception of MEMS based medical devices.
molecular probes covalently attached to the end of the multi walled carbon nanotubes. The probe molecules could be designed as specific biomarkers such as nucleic acids or proteins (NASA, 2006).
Figure 4.4 : NASA biochip
Drug delivery realized in principle from nanoscale cage molecules (e.g. liposomes, fullerenes or other cage molecules such as dendrimers) or by coupling with nanoparticles. The most advanced devices are miniaturized testers for bio molecules and diagnostics. Applications for nanoparticles or drug delivery seem to be expected in a longer term like for ground applications. With the help of nanotechnological therapy procedures a distinct progress in the autonomous self-diagnostics and medication of astronauts is expected in the future that is an important prerequisite for the realization of long manned space missions outside of the earth orbit. During a manned Mars mission, which is considered as a long term objective both for NASA and ESA, there would be no possibility of external medical supply of the astronauts for a period of up to three years, apart from capabilities of telemedicine which will be developed until then. A CANEUS project is also under development on this topic: “Astronaut health monitoring”. This 3 years project goal is building a new generation of miniaturized biomedical devices for astronauts for 2009. The sensor-on-a-chip for human health monitoring developed in the frame of this project consists of fully integrated microelectronics, micro fluidics and bio functionalized sensors on a single chip format using Polypyrrole bio functionalized electrodes. Polypyrrole is a selective conducting polymer adapted to detect glucose, cholesterol and a host of other blood molecules as well as volatile liquids and gases for environmental sensing. NASA is also preparing in-vivo test for a nanosensor to monitor space radiation exposure (Flinn, 2005). It is a molecule size sensor, built using dendrimers, which could be placed inside the cells of astronauts to warn of health impacts from space radiation. Researchers group set out to develop biosensors for real-time monitoring of radiation-induced biologic effects in space. They sought to develop cellular biosensors based on dendrite polymers, using nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter as the basis for the biosensors. To make use of this nanotechnology, an astronaut would inject a clear fluid, placed with nanoparticles, into his bloodstream before a space mission. During flight, he would put a small device shaped like a hearing aid into his ear. This device would use a tiny laser to count glowing cells as they flow through capillaries in the eardrum. A wireless link would relay the data to the spaceship’s main computer for processing. This scenario is at least 5-10 years away; 62
however most of the important research is being conducted in the laboratory. The researchers are trying to fix nanoparticles on lymphocytes and the answer can be induced by detection of suicides enzymes produced by the cell when it is irradiated.
Nanotechnologies can also be developed to improve astronauts comfort and protection with textile innovations by creating space clothes more efficient and more adapted to harsh space conditions. Various textile technologies are under development not only for astronauts but they can find applications in spacecraft. Sensatex, a developer of integrated smart textile systems, has announced in 2006 the beta launch of its Smart Shirt System. The system makes it possible to remotely monitor a wearer's movement, heart rate, and respiration rate in real-time through a conductive fibre grid that is seamlessly knit into the material of the fully washable shirt. Early research for the Smart Shirt System was funded by the DARPA9 and the Technical Support Working Group. This kind of device combines nanotechnologies enhancement for textile and improvement of health self monitoring. The same is possible by addition of core shell nanoparticles. They improve electrical, magnetic, optical properties and so can serve as diagnostic coating for astronauts’ suits. Others nanoparticles can be used to improve space textiles functions like silver nanoparticles that can provide antibacterial and anti fungal functions (nanoroadSME, 2006). Other developed products like Nano-Tex Coolest Comfort fabric or klimeo fabric can be used for space applications because of the new properties they provide: prevent moisture apparition, regulate internal temperature according to the external one. It appears more like comfort applications for astronauts but can become a critical point in the case of long manned mission.
4.5.4 Life support conclusion
As enhancement of life management in space is a key topic of the future years, several space studies are focused on it. They take advantage of the electronics and medical researches achievements and fit them for space applications. That is why the most advanced devices for life management containing nanotechnologies are sensors for gas detection or other medical applications. The following table summarize the different nano applications for life management in space under study:
US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Technology Nanocarpet Carbon nanotubes in gas sensors Carbon nanotubes in Lab on a chip / Biochip Drug delivery Smart textile
Characteristic Particles detection, space radiation resistant Improve their sensibility; harsh space conditions resistant Improve their sensibility; harsh space conditions resistant Enhance health management More adapted to space conditions, health monitoring
Interest +++ +++ +++ +++ ++
Perspective Short term Short term Short term Middle term Middle term
4.6. Satellites / Science payloads
Satellites are very small-unmanned spacecraft, which were first designed for scientific analysis (observation / particles detection of earth, other planets, universe) and for several years have been used for commercial applications such as communication or GPS. Others functions of satellites take place in military applications but this field will not be treated. To achieve their missions, satellites are equipped by science payloads that are functional devices allowing scientific analysis, data collection and transmission. Technological needs will be different according to the function of the satellite. Scientific satellites are launched by national or international space agencies to enhance the knowledge about space. It includes various missions like earth observation; planet, universe exploration and so have various functions like observation; atmosphere, planet surface particles collect and analysis (bio, chemical or physical properties detection). In the case of non-orbital mission one speaks more about probes. The needs identified for this kind of missions are for one part development of more autonomous systems in order to increase missions’ duration and on the other hand the miniaturization of satellites to decrease their weight and so decreasing launching costs. As probes are often used for deep space exploration (e.g. asteroid belt) problems of miniaturization and autonomy are all the more important. Companies that use the potential of satellites for business have launched commercial satellites. The two main commercial applications for satellites are: communication (e.g. cell phones, TV) and GPS. The need identified for commercial applications is clearly costs reduction and for that mass and size saving. Thus the evident technological trend for satellites is miniaturization (even if there are some exceptions like in telecommunication where certain 64
satellites can reach several tons). Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957 (84 kg), satellites weights have decreased to reach a ten kg for current satellites in orbit. Researches are currently focused on the nano and pico satellite development. Prefix used to qualify those satellites doesn’t express the size of the satellite itself but a class of weight (1 to 10 kg for nanosatellite, 0.1 to 1 kg for picosatellite). They most express an average range of size components. The ultimate goal of satellite miniaturization is the construction of a satellite-on-a-chip which represents the idea of a completely functional satellite built as a monolithic integrated circuit. Expected dimensions are: 216 cm² total design space, less than 5mm thick, lass than 100g mass, 100 mW peak power (Barnhart et al., 2005). In addition to the economic potential of nano/pico satellites represent, miniaturized launches can also be very useful for technological improvements and testing of new nanotechnologies. Aerospace is not a very innovative sector in the sense where space launches are very expensive and failure zero is needed. A co-founder of CANEUS, Thomas George said “technologies flying in space are 10 years behind what is state of the art terrestrially” (CANEUS, 2002). So the use of well-known technologies is safer in the same time for astronauts in the case of manned missions and for space agencies budgets. But the revolutionary potential of nano/pico satellites to make small, light and cheap satellites can change the use of emerging technologies like nanotechnologies in spacecraft. If satellites are cheaper, quantity launched can be increased at equal costs. It means that some of them can be lost without serious financial consequences. So space agencies can consider the use of their satellites not only for space mission but also for nanotechnologies testers in order to improve both their space and technological knowledge. Thus, nanotechnologies development follows a kind of virtuous spiral due to satellites potential:
Thus within the main space agencies program, industries are involved in the satellite miniaturization race which includes a part of enhancement in
5M $0. communications and control. 10 See: http://ilrs.0M $0.4M Figure 4. By this way student improve their spacecraft knowledge and space agencies can take this opportunity to test their new technologies like nanotechnologies in space conditions (e.0 M $100.0M $2.0M $62. attitude and stationkeeping.2M $0.5 : CANEUS http://www. To achieve the goal of on board testing. ST5). Delft University of Technology and Systematic. OPAL mission.nu/activities/recap/060509/caneus. TECH SAT 21).gsfc.the on board nanotechnologies integration.g.1-1 kg $1. several engineering schools build satellite programs for their students. Delphi C3. data management.1M $0.csba. • Optimise structure and function of various payloads that will be described in this part. They are also implicated in test research program called Space Test Program (SPT) to test various new technologies directly on board satellites (e.000 kg Sat 1-10 kg $3.8M Nano Sat Pico Sat 0. 2005) Target Costs for Satellite Classes Show 100x improvement! Total Cost $316 M $4. Several examples can be quoted: The NPS CANEUS program goal is to transform satellite from a prohibitive tool to a consumer good and consider launch of a satellite including advanced nanotechnologies for 2009 in those components: Thermal management control. autonomous navigation (in 2011).0 M Large >10. On the other hand they can bring solutions for various satellites stakes: • Improve satellites autonomy for deep space mission using technologies developed in the part dedicated to energy.cgi?order=&sat_code=STA3&sat_name=Starshine3&tab_id=general 66 .nps. coordinated formation flying (in 2011) (Delft University of Technology and Systematic.nasa.g.g. nanotechnologies will not revolutionize the miniaturization process because MEMS technologies have already allowed significant weight reductions.pdf NASA has several missions already including micro technologies on nano or picosatellite (e.gov/cgibin/satellite_missions/select. power management.0M Target Costs ($ million) Satellite Mass Group (including Manufacturing Launch Insurance fuel) $154. 2005 and Star shine 3 Satellite10) Thus.
67 . All the nanotechnologies potentialities in this field were described in the part dedicated to energy. Nanotechnological developments relevant to this area include both detectors to monitor spacecraft dynamics and devices to control those dynamics. electrical power subsystem is a strategic point for them.1. It receives. 4. Tools used in those subsystems (e. responsible for several jobs.g. micro nanotechnologies star mappers).So satellite miniaturization has the potential to accelerate introduction of advanced nanotechnologies not only in satellites but also in all the spacecraft. several advances were made in the field of quantum computing. the mains are summarized here: Electrical power subsystem: As satellites are often autonomous spacecraft. Even if it is a longterm application. This sub-system implies both use of advanced software and hardware. payloads or other subsystem. Satellite subsystems Satellites are divided in various subsystems. We can note that power wires are developed by Rice University under a NASA contract. decodes and distributes commands from the ground.g. Data handling subsystem: The data handling subsystem is basically the on-board computer for the satellite. Large technical issues must still be resolved. 2001). a gyroscope) have to be more efficient and secure and on the other hand have to be as light as possible. validates. magnetometers (to determine attitude with respect to the geomagnetic field) and MEMSbased sensors to determine the rate of angular motion (NASA. (VDI. Attitude and orbit determination / control subsystem: Attitude determination subsystem (ADCS) and orbit control subsystem (OCS) function is to keep the spacecraft pointed in a desired direction to meet mission requirement. The detectors can include optical detectors (e.and three-quit quantum computers capable of some simple arithmetic and data sorting. Nanotechnologies applications for electronics can contribute to the protection against space radiations but another nanotechnology application could enhance data handling performances. It also gathers processes and formats spacecraft housekeeping and mission data for downlink or use on board. These include building two. 2003) The main potential advantage quantum computing represent is still its potential to secure data transmission by efficient information encoding.6.
The geometric factor of a detector sets the number of particles it will collect and thus the instrument’s ability to count statistically significant numbers of particles. nanocrystals to enable wavelength-selective emission. planet atmosphere composition).2 of the present report according to their functions.2.Propulsion subsystem: Because non-ideal forces can make a satellite move from its trajectory.6. So the limiting factor of sensor miniaturization is to measure a critical flux and sensor size can be reduced only where it does not compromise measurements at that level (Aerospace America. imaging tools) in the case of scientific mission and the communication instruments in the case of commercial satellites. 2005). 2005)) were achieved but a CANEUS project is currently focused on research for low mass. In this case sensor miniaturisation will reduce this ability and thus may compromise measurements.g. They can be used to detect biological components (e. Several studies were conducted to study the feasibility of miniaturized propulsion subsystems. 68 . 4.2. Sensors Sensors will use electronics technologies developed in part 2. Science payloads Science payloads are anything that a spacecraft carries beyond what is required for its operation during flight. three main kinds of payloads have been identified: • Sensors • Imaging instruments • Communication systems 4. Various technologies are being developed to make sensors based on nanotechnologies such as quantum dots. 2005). Even if there are several different payloads according to their mission. or physical components.1. high energy density storage systems and micro-nanotechnology based batteries for providing adapted solutions of miniaturized propulsion system according to the kind of space mission. carbon nanotubes.2. This includes the instruments for analysis (sensors. Today only MEMS or micro propulsion effort (this technology embeds discreet amounts of propellant in an array of sealed capsules on a silicon substrate (Barnhart et al.. propulsion subsystem is needed to mitigate this effect.g. nanophotonic waveguide potentially suitable for interconnections needed to build “photonic chips” (Aerospace America. chemical components (e. bacteria).6.
This array will be used for the identification of genes. NASA's future replacement for the shuttle. It can improve reliability and safety of crewed vehicles and aid in planetary exploration. bio molecules that can found on the Mars surface (NASA. Terahertz frequencies are contained in cosmic radiation and so can be used to have more information about the birth of star systems and planets. it is considered as the real first nano object used in spacecraft. Nanosensors are used to gather data such as temperature or pressure about flights vehicles re-entering earth atmosphere to validate thermal protection systems for human missions. Researchers from NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Centre are working on the adaptation of ground lab-on-a-chip for space mission and more especially for Mars exploration. A prototype test was envisaged for summer 2006 aboard an expendable Delta II rocket but as the rocket was not launched the prototype was not tested. DNA. Nanosensors would be packed into small spheres to be used with the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). expected soon. if everything goes fine. First tests on earth atmosphere are planned for 2008. 69 . Even if some nano applications in energy or materials are very soon available. 2004). The NASA black box or Re-entry Break-up Recorder (REBR) weights about 1 kilogram.Sensors can be used to detect energetic particles specific for space (solar protons. auroral electrons). This CEV will be shown in a demonstration flights by 2008 and manned flights are expected for 2014 (NASA. Sensors can also be used to detect bio molecules on the principle of ground lab-on-a-chip. This black box containing nanosensors will be attached to a main spacecraft and will separate from it when it re-enters the Earth's atmosphere. radiation belt electrons. The most advanced structure containing nanosensors is “black box” developed by NASA in collaboration with Aerospace Corporation. represents a big step in nanotechnologies application for aerospace. to help reduce the hazards of re-entering debris. This black box flight. Moreover NASA has plan to rapidly use nanosensors systematically in mission to Mars and the moon. routine use of nanosensors is planned for around 2025. 2005). A nanosensor based on niobium nitride was built by a team of Delft University of Technology and Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) to detect terahertz frequencies.
gov/centers/ames/multimedia/images/2005/blackbox. In the long-term these could prove important because 70 . Even if power data transmission will be different according to the distance to transfer and the kind of mission. photometers for both visible.6. altimeters.6 : REBR. Concerning instruments themselves. no nanotechnologies applications have been identified except the possibility to introduce carbon nanotubes based electronics in instruments.nasa. This latter can be build with carbon nanotubes as it investigates by NASA for antenna at optical frequencies.6. between earth and spacecraft.2. infrared. radars (to collect information of the inside of the planet).html 4. spectrometers. For example. MEMS-based phased-array antennae are also investigated.2. Communication Nanotechnologies can contribute to the enhancement of data handling. the Aerospace Corporation http://www. some imaging instruments can be used to identify space components at the nanoscale like scanning probe microscopes and secondary ion mass spectrometers that have a resolution to the nanometre. Imaging instruments Imaging instruments include cameras. A communication system is often made by an antenna to receive and/or emit data.3. technologies developed find applications in all the communication structure. Except this future application.2. 4. a carbon nanotube based X-ray diffraction spectrometer has been developed and would be ready for NASA Mars missions 2009-2010 in order to study rocks and soil. communication intra satellite. ultra violet. inter satellite.Figure 4.
Photonic crystals are a further example of nano-optoelectronic components with application potential in optical data communication. 71 . Infrared sensors offer an alternative way of making optical data communication. The centre for space microelectronics technology at NASA is developing GaAs quantum well infrared sensors (VDI. quantum well or quantum dot lasers and photonic crystals. A team of researchers from Cambridge University showed that a “cold cathode” is possible using carbon nanotubes that can directly generates electrons at microwaves with an economy in weight and size of almost 50% (Teo et al. Optical satellite telecommunication can be enabled by the application of nanostructured optoelectronic components. Quantum information may potentially enable a strong safe information encoding. However nanoscale infrared sensors are not available as yet.g. 2003). These include e. intensified efforts are made for the development of threedimensional photonic crystals. developed since 2000 at the NASA Glenn Research Centre could also solve the ongoing problem of how to communicate with. 2005). a nanoscale electromechanical systems (NEMS) device. quantum wires or quantum dots through miniaturisation and improved band gap selection. New metamaterials for antenna arrays are also planned. the need of payload weight saving is a priority for satellite competitiveness. The infrared sensors can benefit from the use of quantum wells. Long distance transmissions are based on microwaves but traditional microwaves amplifier are heavy (1 kg). The current microwaves amplifier used in space are based on “hot cathode” technology. Three-dimensional photonic crystals would open up new possibilities in optical data communication (light could be guided and branched to arbitrary directions) and offer in principle the potential for the realization of purely optical circuits (optical computing). or otherwise extract information from. Quantum technology.of the critical need for real-time data downlink to support some kind of missions such as the space weather satellite (Kraft. Twodimensional structures can be routinely manufactured with high precision. At present. optoelectronic transducers and photonic components.. This technology will be used in the future to develop optical communications protocols and components applicable for nanorobots. Carbon nanotubes can also be used as mass saving for microwaves amplifier. As a kilogram payload roughly costs € 15 000 on a satellite. 2005) The communication system is made up of a transmission data system using most of the time optical data communication that include nano optoelectronics diffractive optical elements.
NASA has an institute devoted to those questions: the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC11) has the mission is to promote forward-looking research on radical space technologies that will take between 10 to 40 years to come to fruition.esa.6. This topic has identified the main activities in nano and pico satellites.edu/ See: http://www. 4. harsh space conditions resistance First nanointegrated object for space. Indeed as flying was considered as science fiction two centuries ago.usra. ESA also explores what can be space future with a collaborative project called Ariadna12.3 Satellites / Payloads conclusion: The most spectacular scientific improvements in the satellites and payloads topic are the progress made to build more integrated smaller devices. their applications have a huge potential to achieve some very old human dreams. some space dreams that currently appear like science fiction may be achieved one day and surely with the help of nanotechnologies.Finally it is important to notice that not only traditional optical data transmission are improved by nanotechnologies but also nanotechnologies allow the building of materials with innovative properties that can play a role in data handling. As an example aerospace scientist continued to explore the use of nanoscale glass ceramic that enhances internal communication via photonics. The following table summarize the different nano applications for satellites and science payloads in space under study: Technology Carbon nanotubes based sensors Black box using nanosensors Nanoelements for imaging instruments Quantum information Characteristic Sensor sensibility improvement.niac. Futuristic visions If in the near future applications of nanotechnology seem possible for traditional missions.htm 72 . 11 12 See: http://www. Small device integrating several sensors resisting to harsh space conditions Improve their efficiency. To promote scientific researches for space futuristic vision like space elevator or space colonisation.7. harsh space conditions resistant Enhance security of information Interest +++ +++ Perspective Short term Very short term (available) Middle term Long term + +++ 4.int/gsp/ACT/ariadna/index.
4.7.1. Space elevator
In the most basic description the space elevator is a 37,786 km cable that would stretch into space from a floating platform in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Satellites or other payloads would be loaded onto climbers which would ascend the paper-thin cable by squeezing it between sets of electrically driven rollers or electromagnetic forces13 14. Even if it looks like a science fiction objective, scientists are seriously thinking of its implementation because of the big advantages it represents. The current problems space scientists encounter with traditional launching pad are: • The huge energy consumption needed to launch a spatial object • The weight constraints that it generates • The associated risks (fire, rocket destabilization) Thus the main advantages that a space elevator could allow are – • • The weight is not a problem anymore, therefore the number of payloads onboard is no longer restricted Launches are definitely cheaper
All of this could call into question the current advanced technologies because of the weight and price constraints that would be partly removed. Thus a researcher from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bradley Edwards, has been credited with giving the most rigorous thought to the components and technical breakthroughs that would be needed to build a space elevator (Aerospace America, 2006). The main conclusions of his research are that the main components in the construction of a space elevator will be carbon nanotubes. Though the technology is not going to be ready for this application soon. There has been some promising research performed by Yuntian Theodore Zhu, who built a 4cm nanotube. The challenge remains in constructing a cable that is 37, 786 km. Another important aspect is the cable security. Some smarts materials could be used to address this security challenge. The use of nanoscale sensors could be made for detecting damage. Such smart materials do not exist but research should be further conducted on it. Another constraint is the management of the power supply to launch a satellite or a rocket with the elevator. A potential solution may be by using light sensitive cells. Laser light may be projected on gallium arsenide receptors that transform it to electrical energy providing propulsion.
See: http://www.isr.us/Downloads/niac_pdf/contents.html See: http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast07sep_1.htm
In order to address the technical barriers that scientists are facing with, the NASA organizes a design contest every year to address these space challenges. There are two parts to the challenge, the beam power and tether15. There have been other concerns voiced such as terrorist attacks, hacking risks and other environmental catastrophes it could bring. There has also been concern about sharing the costs and risks internationally.
4.7.2. Space colonisation
These are exciting times for human space exploration with several countries contemplating and planning manned missions to “Moon, Mars and beyond.” Indeed, space agencies such as NASA, ESA, JAXA and the Chinese Space Agency are planning a series of robotic and manned missions that could culminate in the establishment of permanent habitats on the Moon and possibly Mars. With these ambitious goals in mind, there have been large-scale efforts to design new crew vehicles, as well as powerful boosters and habitats to facilitate interplanetary human spaceflights. Nanotechnologies can find several applications for those requirements such as facing the huge constraint of space radiation with the use of carbon nanotubes for living structures. They can be incorporated into structures, electronics to allow sustainable constructions or in inhabitants’ suits to enhance human protection and health management. But the main problem they will have to confront is the need for improved monitoring of the human body. Humans on such missions would have to confront microgravity, weak magnetic fields, ionizing radiation and other cosmic hazards. Space agencies are involved in program dedicated to enhance space life monitoring e.g., NASA invested 10M$ in 2006 in a program called “NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap”. The main problem will be to monitor astronauts’ health: several devices are in development as it is described in part 4 but the long term effects of radiation are very difficult to control. But one of the projects of NIAC is the use of bio-nanotechnologies to build molecular machines / bio nano robot to create a sort of "second skin" for astronauts to wear under their spacesuits that would use bionanotech to sense and respond to radiation
penetrating the suit, and to quickly seal over any cuts or punctures (NASA, 2005).
Figure 7 : Bio/Nano robot, NASA Institute for Advanced Concept
However, even if those developments are expected in a quite long term, the International Space Station can already serve as a test bed for conducting research that will benefit long-range space exploration.
4.7.3. Autonomous systems
The ultimate goal pursued by spacecraft researchers is the building of a complete autonomous system able to make its own analysis, store and send the data, to communicate with other systems, capable of self repairing. It can be spacecraft like satellites as well as advanced robots. Satellites Swarm To achieve autonomous goal, researches are focused on satellites systems called cluster of satellite or swarms. As the main stakes of this kind of formation are secure communication and autonomy (energy generation, storage), researches are being conducted in sparse aperture signal processing, micro propulsion, formation flying, collaborative control, spatial ionosphere effects, MEMS/NEMS and software intelligence. Launch of formation satellites has already done to test and improve those technologies: o TechSat 21, launched in 2003 is a flight experience of three micro satellites to experimental concepts for clusters very low costs, lightweight satellites in close formation. o Space technology 5 (ST5) consists of three 20 kg satellites that will demonstrate the feasibility of 100 or more sparsely distributed nano satellite to make spatial and environment measurements. Satellites are highly integrated with miniaturized electronics, extendable booms and antenna, subsystems for communication and attitude control, miniaturized thrusters and instrumentation. o Orbital Express (OE) is a project sponsored by DARPA. It contains an Autonomous Transporter and Robotic Orbiter (ASTRO) which is an on orbit servicing vehicle designed for spacecraft diagnostic, repairs and restocking (CANEUS, 2002).
collecting surface chemical / biological samples or data. NASA is currently working on a project called ANTS (Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm) which is 12 tetrahedrons (a pyramid with 3 sides and a base) made of 26 struts (thin.nasa. and communicating with the carrier spacecraft and the earth control station. metal rods) for Mars exploration application containing nanotechnologies like advanced nanosensors. sensors. but also greatly increase the number that can be packed into a rocket because tape and nanotube struts 76 Figure 4. Traditional motors were replaced with Micro. A robot called "TETwalker" was tested in 2005 to join the NASA swarm project. It will recognize obstacles and figure out how to get around them. devices. so it will not require instruction from a whole team of scientists to complete a simple task.gsfc.g. quantum information) Nanorobotics A nanorobot could be defined as a robotic system capable of motion and steering in a complex environment. The struts was replaced with metal tape or carbon nanotubes that not only reduce the size of the robots. As research on component materials. To confirm this trend. It is the most complex of all the systems conceptualized so far. information safety has to be maintained (e. and applications is already in progress in laboratories. because they may include the integration of all the above technologies plus extremely well-developed motors. extendable. It has a huge advantage over wheeled rovers because it does not require flat ground to operate properly. and steering systems to operate in extreme or rough environmental conditions.and Nano-ElectroMechanical Systems.Nanotechnologies can serve for the components quoted previously and more generally for: • Size and weight decrease of the structure by advanced materials using nanotechnologies (part 1) • Advanced electronics devices (part 2) • Lighter and more powerful energy system (part 3) • Advanced communication devices because with the increase of communication between the different satellites. it will be autonomous. The advantage in space exploration will be to carry hundreds or thousands of such robots on each mission and to explore vast areas of a remote planet in each mission.html . Unlike the current wheeled rovers.8 : NASA TET walker http://gsfctechnology.gov/Fea tured. it is possible to envisage nanorobots in the quite near future.
allowing the pyramid to shrink to the point where all its nodes touch. Some nano applications can be considered as short term perspective (e. 4. when joined together in "swarms. nanosensors) and other are more visionary (e.4 Futuristic visions conclusion Al those perspectives are in a long-term future and will may not be the most appropriate in this future. reducing costs Allow serious technological improvements necessary for the development of novel space missions (manned mission to Mars) Create breakthroughs that can revolutionize space sector by making it more innovative than it is currently by the possibility to test new technologies in space conditions and by reaching futuristic visions like the space elevator.g. molecular electronics). These miniature TETwalkers.7. The swarm has abundant flexibility so it can change its shape to accomplish highly diverse goals. the space sector has known several technological enhancements allowing more and more scientific explorations and the development of commercial applications. But what is sure is that space agencies. All systems are being designed to adapt and evolve in response to the environment. Nanotechnologies already find a lot of applications in futuristic vision because of the new technical opportunities they offer but with the enhancement of “nanoresearch” in the following years we can imagine that they will be the key for the achievement of those “science fiction” projects. It is important to note that most of those applications are middle or long- 77 . 4. the following scheme shows several applications developed in space laboratory according to their potential time to market. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that just begin to find applications in ground devices.g.are fully retractable. and companies are engaged in the development of nano applications for spacecraft because they are convinced that those emerging technologies have the potential to: • • • Help them to face space constraints. This is the NASA first step to completely autonomous robots.8 Conclusion Since 1957 and the launch of the first spacecraft. So to summarize potential nano applications in the space sector in a chronological vision." will have great advantages over current systems. So it explains why nanotechnologies for space applications are more a perspective than a reality.
But nanotechnology development is a long process and in some cases priority can be given to the development of new space missions integrating well-known technologies to the detriment of a focus on new technologies.term vision and so are dependants of the technological improvements in all the sectors concerned by nanotechnologies. Nanotechnologies have the potential to enhance spacecraft. improving space knowledge and have also the potential to be improved by the space sector. Another key aspect will be the priority that will be given by space agencies to those technological improvements. This choice is more strategic than scientific and is available for both sciences and commercial applications. Summary of the main nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft according to their time to market 78 .
Autonomous nanorobots swarm Space Systems Autonomous satellites swarm Nano/pico satellites Satellite on a chip Space elevator Space colonization CNT based lab on a chip / biochip Space subsystems CNT based electronics noses Black box using nanosensors CNT based imaging instruments Drug delivery Quantum Dots solar cells Fuel cells using nanoelements Quantum devices for information management Battery using nanoelements Smart textile Space devices Nanoparticles in propellants CNT based memory MRAM CNT in transistors Nanoparticles reinforcing composites Nanoparticles reinforcing polymers Short term 0-5 years CNT reinforcing coatings Bio memory Smart materials Long term 10-15 years CNT reinforcing composites Middle term 5-10 years Legend: Materials Electronics Energy Living suport Science payloads Futuristic vision This figure is inspired by VDI Technology Centre report “Applications of Nanotechnology in Space Developments and Systems”. It summarizes the main nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft on a time to market scale. This summary is only conclusions of what was said in this report and under the only valuation of the author. 79 .
further and faster to aircraft that are more affordable to travel in. Figure 5. Security Zero successful hijacks Goals for European Aeronautics Air Transport Efficiency Enabling the Air Transport system to accommodate 3 times more aircraft movement by 2020 compared with 2000 Reduction in time spent by short haul passenger to 15 minutes and long haul to 30 minutes . The Advisory council for aeronautical research in Europe has set a strategic agenda for research that addresses important issues such as environmental pollution. and an efficient air traffic management system. The need in aeronautics research objectives has changed from a generation ago from being higher. The educational policies should be framed to ensure adequate scientists.1: Goals for European Aeronautics set by the Advisory Council for aeronautical research in Europe 80 . Quality - and Affordability Reducing Travel Charges Increasing passenger choice Transforming Air Freight Services Creation of a competitive supply chain that reduces time to market by half Safety Five fold reduction in average accident rate for global operators Reducing impact of human error Higher standard of training for aircraft operators. The creation of a new framework that assist organisations to work more effectively in achieving industrial priorities is one of the goals for supporting the growth of the industry.1 Aeronautics Aeronautics is a thriving sector in Europe with two million people employed in manufacturing. The maximum value from funds has been envisaged by facilitation of a European national and private research programs. maintenance and disposal of aircraft and related products. New standards of quality and effectiveness have been identified as goals to accomplish in order to make European aerospace more competitive. operations and airports. maintenance and air traffic operations Environment Reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50% Reduction in perceived noise by 50% Reduction in NOx emission by 80% Reduction in environmental impact of the manufacture. quality and affordability. safety. 2004-1). safer and cleaner for the environment and quieter for residents around airfields. security. engineers and other skill sets are available for the aeronautics sector (ACARE4Europe.Chapter 5: Summary of Needs in Aerospace Research 5.Enabling 99% flights to arrive and depart within 15 minutes of departure time in all weather conditions.
Low environmental impact materials and manufacturing techniques for the airframe. Enhancement in acoustic measurement and testing technology has been envisaged to meet customer needs (ACARE4Europe. Composite materials such as Metal RubberTM are reported to be non-toxic with applications in aircraft structures (Nanosonic. 2004). Research in nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube composites for weight reduction and reduced fuel consumption is also expected to make air transport highly cost efficient. Plasma generating arcs reduce the turbulence in engines thereby reducing the noise generated by aircraft. New solutions can be harnessed from the disruptive technology for application in the aeronautics sector. Nanotechnology surface application research would lead to friction reduction thereby reducing the environmental impact. Silicon carbide sensors are used for monitoring aeronautical propulsion systems 81 .5. The solutions in aero structures are expected to bring benefits for green air transportation by using lightweight materials and processes for the airframe (ACARE4Europe. 5. Nanotechnology could prove effective in dealing with unsteady aerodynamics problem such as drag reduction using electromagnetic technologies. combustors and turbine are considered as key to enhancing engine performance thereby reducing the environmental impact. The use of green coolant for manufacturing is another environmentally friendly measure that is being encouraged.3 Propulsion High temperature materials and coatings for compressors.1. Morphing airframes have been regarded as emerging technology for aircraft providing a structure that would also reduce drag and vibration control thereby improving aircraft performance (University of Bristol). 2004-2). Research in the use of non-toxic material with enhanced functionality such as non-inflammability is would also contribute to the environmental objective. Noise reduction using MEMS devices for active control of noise is considered important for residents living around airports. Research is needed in alternative lift mechanisms to derive lift by design of novel aerostructures using nanomaterials.5 Another technology assisting the development of ultra green air transport system is the high-lift engine airframe. 2004-2). Noise shielding through developing the right configuration and acoustic panels require further development.1.2 Airframes Nanoscience and Nanotechnology provide a new method for solving old problems. engine and other equipment is expected to reduce the environmental impact. Development is further required in ultra-high temperature alloys for aircraft engines.
data fusion and signal processing for pattern recognition would make the new aircraft ultra secure. hydrogen from the sea. Thrust reverser technologies for weight reduction are also being developed as a key technology for achieving environmental objectives (ACARE4Europe. radar and infrared is expected to help achieve the security goals. Increase re-uses of systems. Enhanced communication systems with high performance air-ground data link would improve the air traffic management and highly customer oriented air traffic system. 5. (Covered in section 5. Utilizing new forms of energy are being considered such as solar power.4 Aircraft avionics. 2005). Lightweight architecture and materials for engine rotors and structure have also been considered an important requirement in aircraft engine design. New nacelle design development is needed for air breathing propulsion that is expected to reduce the environmental impact. 2004-2). beam energy devices using laser or microwaves and ground powered energy forms. (Covered in section 5. nuclear energy.1. lasers for detection.2) The search for a novel solution leading to a more sustainable energy consumption that is affordable. Research and development in warning systems such as missile attack sensors and missile defence are expected to provide enhanced security for air travel. optronics. Development in sensor integration for detection using laser. Another key development required is the design of components with reduced thermo mechanical distortion and effective sealing for turbo machinery for an environmentally friendly air transport system.are being researched (Ohio Aerospace Institute. practical and complimentary fossil fuel is underway. New materials should be considered for a maintenance free 82 . systems and equipment Enhanced airborne display development in the cockpit for routing and traffic monitoring is expected to make the transportation system highly efficient providing customers with high value addition. components and new repair methods have been identified to make aircraft more cost effective. Coating and improved sealing solutions need to be developed to increase the lifetime of aircraft thereby making them more cost effective and environmentally friendly. Alternative propulsion designs for future aircraft are being conceptualized. New combustion solutions are to be considered for the existing configuration that may reduce the emission produced by conventional engine.2) Development of smart maintenance systems for condition monitoring of airframes and structures are expected to increase the interval for servicing thereby making the air transportation systems more cost effective. Camera and sensor technology research based on optics.
In addition particulate emissions such as water vapour and soot have also added to the impact that affects the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere. Emerging technologies such as application of fuel cells for on board electrical energy generation during cruise and on ground should be developed further for implementation achieving cost efficient and environmental goals. Strategies for combating climate change have been suggested such as combining routes of large aircraft.1. 2004-2). Goal Environment Research Challenge Drag reduction through conventional and novel shapes Fuel additives Noise reduction New Propulsion concepts Emission reduction Environmentally friendly production. lower cruise speed. encouraging short haul flights.5 Environment The impact of carbon dioxide and Nox emissions from the aircraft has added significantly to the greenhouse gas effect. In order to accomplish environmental goals the development of oil free systems and replacement of polluting hydraulic fluid with more electrical technologies (for e.g. braking system) in hydraulic power generation should be under further consideration. maintenance and disposal Better aircraft/engine integration Table 5. 2004-2). 5. Development of enhanced fire protection system by use of fire retardant material is considered as an important goal in achieving an ultra secure transport system (ACARE4Europe. The change in the atmospheric chemistry is complex and not understood very well.1: Relating environmental goals and research challenges 83 .system that is expected to drive down costs significantly (ACARE4Europe. Further research in the new low drag wing-body blended aircraft design is expected reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50%. reducing taxi time and eliminating circling.
1. New engine designs such as the ultra high by pass ratio. Automatic collision detection and deviation from flight plan are important technology solutions to be considered and implemented. weight reduction and efficient engine. landing gear faring and acoustic panels should be further developed. Protection against electromagnetic threats and secure communication data link are essential for the aircraft. Research in low noise component design. using heat signature reduction while providing detection and jamming facilities. Protection against missile attacks on passenger aircraft should be developed. Noise produced by aircraft is another problem that is being addressed by better design of aircraft.6 Safety and Security Post 9/11 the security of the aircraft and passengers is considered of paramount importance. Micro-nanotechnologies are expected to provide novel concepts to reduce the noise in the aircraft. The need for measuring techniques for boundary layer. The environmental impact is reduced by design of vehicles that take into consideration all factors from manufacturing to the end of the life cycle disposal. The use of biometric controls for pilot identification. Research in lean combustion should be considered in order to meet the goals. bio fuels. The Nox emissions are dependent on the take off weight and range of the aircraft. enhanced video monitoring of passengers are some measure to be further considered. New combustion technology and injection systems should be developed to achieve an 80% reduction in Nox. 84 . development of non-lethal devices for terrorist neutralization. Development of on-board explosive detection systems equipped with high sensitivity sensors and alarm systems. 5. geared fan and contra fan have been developed to reduce noise but complete elimination cannot be achieved without a radically new design. 2004-2). Development of designs in more adaptive structures would reduce the need for additional control surfaces. synthetic fuels and liquefied natural gas are should be considered for further development (ACARE4Europe.Research in other strategies such as reduction in emission by reducing fuel burning has been proposed by aerodynamic improvements. acoustic measurement under cryogenic condition and combustion are required for improved aircraft design. engines with reduced complexity and weight thereby reducing the fuel consumption. Nox control remains a main problem that is not addressed even by reducing carbon dioxide emissions by improving thermal efficiencies. Development of laminar flow design is needed for aerodynamics though innovation is required to reduce the complexity. Alternative fuels such as liquid hydrogen. 2004-2). are expected to deliver higher standards of security for aircraft (ACARE4Europe.
3 below.Goal Safety Research Challenge Flight hazard protection Advanced avionics Probability and risk analysis Computational methods Human error checking systems Table 5.3: Research needs from Strategic Quality and Affordability goals translating to research challenges 85 .7 Quality and affordability Improving the quality of the flying and the flight experience has been an important driver. The research challenges that relate to the quality and affordability have been stated in the table 5.1.2: Relating Goal and Research Challenge for Safety and Security 5. Strategic Goal Quality and Affordability Research Challenge Permanent trend Monitoring Flexible cabin Environments Passenger services Anticipatory maintenance Systems Integrated avionics Air Transport management related airborne Systems Novel materials and structural concepts Lead-time reductions Integrated design manufacturing and maintenance systems Advanced design methods System validation through modelling and simulation Concurrent engineering Table 5.
airborne and space systems Rotorcraft integration in ATM systems High-density traffic systems capability in all weather conditions Airport capacity and advanced management Increased use of airspace capacity Table 5.4. 5. missions and collaborations. Strategic Goal European Air Transport System Research Challenge Innovative ATM operational concepts Advanced. application needs and requirements. 86 . reliability and packaging. intelligent and integrated ATM ground.1.10 Current Research The research can be broadly divided into 5 themes in the nanotechnology sector: structure and materials.9 Future concepts for Guidance & Control Enhanced avionics and automation have been envisaged for future aircraft where computers manage the entire flight from landing to takeoff.8 European Air Transport System Europe is aiming to integrate the air transport system by improving management of air transportation.4: Relating European Air Transport System relation with Research Challenges 5. Improvements in computing power are also expected to bring benefits to robotics leading to the development of independent robots controlling specific tasks.1.5. systems and sub systems. The table below gives the overview of some of the associated research challenges in Table 5.1. Enhancement in the computing power with the application of nanotechnology to transistors is expected to greatly enhance centralized and dispersed operations.
2006). The Boeing Company is investigating the enhancement of conductivity in composite materials using nanotechnology (Caneus. Politecnico di Milano has been researching MEMS integrated electro-fluid-elastic modelling for aerospace applications. The Northwestern Polytechnic University is investigating the use of MEMS in aerodynamic flow control. Design and fabrication of Non-powered MEMS trajectory sensors are being developed by CEA. DAM and CNAM in France. Airbus has investigated the requirements for airframe enhancement using nanotechnologies (Caneus. Monolithic silicon based micro thrusters for orbital and altitude control. Structures and Materials Carbon nanotubes are one of the most important nanomaterials being developed for aerospace applications.CNRS.Laboratori Nazionali de Frascati. Presens has been studying silicon MEMS pressure sensors for aerospace applications. University of Minnesota has been investigating layer-bylayer self-assembly of carbon nanotube patterns and interconnections. 2006). Novel surface-micro machined micro mirrors for optical MEMS beam manipulators are being investigated by University of Toronto for aerospace applications. Studies are being conducted in the use of carbon nanotubes for aerospace applications by University of Rome and INFN.a. 2006). Application needs and requirements ASRC aerospace and NASA have jointly collaborated to investigate the application of sensors in space vehicles. Other research in carbon nanotube for space applications is being conducted at NASA investigating multifunctional characteristics of embedded structures with carbon nanotube yarn. Systems and sub-systems There is a significant amount of work being done in MEMS for aerospace applications. The Tokyo University of Science is involved in developing application of MEMS technology to a Light wave antenna for communication in space and aeronautics. Minnesota State University has been evaluating the shear properties of polymer nanocomposites (Caneus. Molecular dynamics modelling of thermal conductivity of engineering fluids and its enhancement by inclusion of nanoparticles is being studied by the National Institute of Technology. b. Damping properties and dynamics of nanoparticles for reinforced damping material are being researched by NAS of Belarus. MEMS based one-shot electro thermal switches for system reconfiguration is being developed by LAAS. Colibrys have developed standard MEMS capacitive accelerometer for harsh 87 . Kyushu University in Japan is studying the contemporary technology and applications of the MEMS rocket. c. are fabricated using the MEMS technology by Carlo Gavvachi Space and CNR IMM.
Swedish Space Corporation in collaboration with Nanospace AB is developing MEMS based components and sub-systems for space propulsion. New technologies for a space launcher telemetry system are being developed by Astrium Space Transportation. EADS in collaboration with Albert Ludwig University is also developing low maintenance MEMS packaging for rotor blade integration. disc braking for cars and trains and anti-lock braking system. CNES and Nova MEMS are involved in hermiticity assessment of MEMS packaging –leak rate measurements based on Infrared spectroscopy. EADS is developing high temperature MEMS pressure sensors including reusable packaging for rocket engine application. The National research council in Canada has been researching micro fibre optical sensor interrogation systems for aerospace applications.environments. Design of packaged RF MEMS switching on alumina substrate is being developed by Xlim. Thermo elastic damping in vibrating beam accelerometers has been studied using a finite element approach by University of Liege and ONERA. d. Packaging and reliability testing Magma Space technology is involved with developing. software systems for displays. 2006). EADS CCR is developing a MEMS sensor to design a life consumption monitoring system for electronics (Caneus. LAAS-CNRS has been investigating the development of optical micro resonators used for stabilisation and miniaturisation of high spectral purity microwave sources for space applications. Bio Inspired micro driller for future planetary exploration is being researched by ESA and University of Surrey. manufacturing and verifying micro-electro mechanical louvers. 5.1. The example are aerodynamic design of cars. The EADS micropak project is developing a novel modular system for packaging integrated Microsystems for future applications. CNES is conducting research in spacecraft control and command. materials for artificial limbs. 2006). Nanosensors for gas detection in space and ground applications are being developed by ASRC aerospace. 88 .11 Aeronautics application in other industries Novel solution developed for aerospace applications has benefited other industries as well. The Surrey Space centre has been researching satellite on a chip development for future distributed space missions. MEMS reliability studies such as accurate measurement of beam stiffness using nanoindentation techniques. The fabrication and performance testing of miniature electro thermal thrusters using microwave-excited micro plasmas has been developed by Kyoto University (Caneus. composite materials. Design and performance of quartz inertia micro sensors has been investigated by ONERA.
Reviewing the research needs ACARE has recommended an increase in funding by 65% over a 20-year period that is being invested currently.1. Indirect benefits through lifestyle and the way business is being done has been estimated to be 10% of the GDP.thermal imaging camera’s for rescue and police work and advanced business project management.000 additional human resources would be required to fulfil the need to research goals. 2004-1). 5.14 Education and Training Employment in all aspects from manufacturing to air traffic control is at 3 million at the moment and set to rise to 5-7 million by 2020.6% of the GDP to the individual member states. The investment is in accordance with the Barcelona European Council aims that would need to be met by public and private sources in a ratio of twothird private and one third public (ACARE4Europe. A skills shortage is expected in the aerospace sector partly due to demographics and reduced attractiveness of the aerospace sector. Contrasting the initiative to the American effort where 87% of the known airliners are being built. the demand for specialists with good fundamental knowledge of aerospace is set to rise.1. The annual turnover and number of people employer in US in this sector is more than twice of that by EU. open mindedness and cultural awareness is required. It has been estimated that public funding in US is three times that of the European Union and its member states. The benefits from the sector are creation of 3 million jobs and 2. Measure to increase the production of research output is required as opposed to importing the research outputs.13 Policy The new investment in research and development programme would become successful only when organisation would conduct their research in Europe thereby retaining their bases. In addition 50. 5. There has 89 . 5.1. 2004-1). Similarly the amount of US export in the aerospace sector is also known to be twice of the European Union (ACARE4Europe.12 Funding and investment Aerospace and aviation is considered an important sector for Europe. Another trend observed with graduating students is the fall in the number of students being recruited by the technology supply chain. With the falling level of graduates taking up science and technology education. A multi-disciplinary approach to training with excellent communication skills.
1.been an alignment between courses offered at Universities and aerospace employers needs. Greater research is required in the development nanotechnologies for aeronautic applications. A strong need to develop a permanent forum for dialogue between Universities and aerospace companies has also been voiced to ensure appropriateness and quality of education provided. North America and Asia has revealed that 74% of research is being conducted in research institutions (illustrated in figure 1).2.16 Conclusion Aeronautics and aviation is an important sector for the European industry. these companies have been presented with a choice of suppliers across the world putting the pressure on the small and medium size businesses in the supply chain. There is also an imminent need to increase communication between research communities in aeronautics research and nanotechnology research.2 Statement of needs for Research and Development in Space 5. With the increased global competition.1. This would require development of lean practices that improve the performance of the SME.15 SME The supply chain orientation is so that large companies play a central role in integration. An exhaustive survey of 384 organizations in Europe. 5. Therefore it maybe reasonably expected that the implementation of present nanotechnology would take another 20 years after the concepts and components have been thoroughly validated for airworthiness. development and implementation of nano-scale technologies in aeronautics would increase the global competitiveness of this industry. The SME business in the supply chain would need to implement global best business practices and leverage industrial alliances to become more competitive. The identification. The need for a pan European accreditation has also been beginning with a voluntary system in the aeronautical discipline has been made. The implementation of emerging technologies in aeronautics lags a decade or in some cases even more. 5. 5. 90 . The technological development has also spurred activity that has been beneficial for terrestrial applications as well.1 Introduction The exploration of the vastness of space has driven the active development of space programmes in various countries.
The high research and development costs associated with applications in energy. Improved spin off products enabled by nanotechnology are also expected for terrestrial applications. presented at ESA.Research in the space industry is being driven by a desire to reduce the mass and volume of payload lifted into space. This is expected to slow implementation of research in Europe. temperature changes and high cyclic loading of structure in take off and re-entry.2: Nanotechnology Research around the world. Reduction in the size and energy consumption of electronics on board for data processing and control systems is another important driver for research.ESTEC 2003. Enhanced services such as GPS. rockets. Figure 5. Financial investment will determine the development of lightweight and energy saving satellites. The solutions developed for terrestrial applications in nanotechnology are more likely to be adapted for space in Europe as compared to the US. GIS and communications are expected from these commercial satellites placed in orbit. A significant research goal is to increase the autonomy of spacecraft by improving altitude and orbit control. and the lack of communication between communities involved in space and nanotechnology research. The barriers to the implementation of nanotechnology research and development range from economics factors to the readiness of the concept. This summary of research needs has been compiled by reviewing the problems and challenges faced by various nanotechnology applications in 91 . Other barriers to implementation of research are likely to be extreme conditions in space such as high radiation. and infrastructure for space stations. Adapted from the presentation of Nanotechnology in future space mission by Miland Pimpprikar et al. health monitoring and payload monitoring. electronics and nanobiotechnology solutions may hinder development in the long-term future. The development of space programmes has also driven scientific discovery such as micro gravity research and commercial applications such as satellite communication. The need to reduce costs is further pushing commercial off the shelf technology into space applications.
com). 5. Nanomaterials research could contribute to the successful achievement of these goals. uniform dispersion of CNTs in the matrix of the composite material. Production issues have limited the use of CNTs in reinforced polymers.space. New research is required in light nanocomposite materials.nanocompositech. These include: development large-scale production methods (www. design impact resistance space stations or astronaut suits. alignment and adhesion of carbon nanotubes in reinforced polymers (www. Applications based on CNTs are expected only in the long term. The integration of nanoparticles into components such as airframes has to be researched further before the excellent mechanical and heat resistance properties of CNTs can be put to useful application. applied research. 2003).space. Materials such as metals reinforced with ceramic fibres such as silicium carbide. However further research is required to develop macroscopic components that may translate into applications (Zweck & Luther. Further research is required for the successful demonstration of their reinforcing properties. CNT yarns could be potentially used for weaving larger fibres that may have applications in electromagnetic shielding. Reduction of costs is also an important parameter for space missions. proof of concept and validation. and improving safety and flexibility of space missions. and production of CNTs of a uniform size and in high volume (Science Daily. strength. aluminium oxide and aluminium nitride are being examined for application in various airframe structures of spacecraft. 2003). Each of these research needs or concepts is considered of some strategic importance to the space objectives. Metal matrix composites have excellent properties such as high heat resistance.2. 92 . The various technology solutions are at different stages such as fundamental or basic research. Other properties such as changes in mechanical properties that can be detected by changes in electrical resistance make them excellent candidates for sensors (Zweck & Luther. miniaturized cooling loops and heat exchangers. 2005).com). thermal conductivity. thermal expansion and low density. thermal control elements. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a distinct advantage as lightweight materials and are regarded as one of the core materials in bringing nanotechnology benefits to space. Nanoparticles such as silicates (montmorillonite) and POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) are also being considered for reinforcing polymers.2 Nanomaterials for space craft structure Space research has been driven by the goal to reduce the lift-off mass of spacecraft.
optoelectronic components and space structures. Magnetic fluids are currently used as sealing and damping media. Nanocrystalline metals and their alloys such as that of aluminium also offer excellent thermo mechanical properties. Nanostructured ceramic composites. affecting communications. as they are light and less prone to embrittlement by hydrogen (Zweck & Luther. electrical and thermal properties of magnetic fluids for thermal control for miniature electronics.However such materials require further research into their thermo mechanical properties before application as heat shields. NASA is considering nanostructured ceramics such as silicon carbide for exceptional heat and radiation resistance properties (AZoNano. Ceramic fibre composites offer excellent thermal barriers for components such as nozzles and rocket combustion chambers or as heat shields used in re-entry. This is dependent on the nanostructure of the material that can be controlled using nanopowders.like-carbon as corrosion resistance. Research is needed in controlling the grain growth of ceramics during the sintering process that would improve the density and thereby the firmness of spacecraft components (Zweck & Luther. information processing and control of the space craft. 2003). such as carbon fibres coated with boron nitride. Diamond-like carbon also provides corrosion resistance to oxygen over a wide range of temperatures. 2003). Proof of concept studies are required in the application of these nanostructured materials as sensors. 2003). Enhanced thermal protection for spacecraft can increase re-usability of the vehicles thereby reducing costs. Nanomaterials such as diamond-like carbon have a high thermal conductivity (4 times that of copper) and have been used for thermal monitoring in nanosatellites. Further applied research is required in application of diamond. however they could be utilized for thermal protection of control systems for miniaturized electronic components or as self-lubricating bearing for micro mechanical components. Space missions have to endure extreme conditions including dramatic temperature changes. 93 . With further research they may replace titanium components in liquid rocket engines. stiction and wear properties make them an excellent candidates for use in moving mechanical assemblies (Milne. Further research is required in utilizing the viscous. Electronic equipment in space crafts is sensitive to large variations in temperature. act as a thermal and oxidative protection for construction material. Therefore thermal protection is a very important area. One of the most promising areas of research are MEMS structures where their friction. 2005).
direct methanol fuel cells face the problem of carbon monoxide poisoning of the catalysts.2. membranes and hydrogen storage. Fuel cells Fuel cells combine hydrogen (fuel) and oxygen (from air) to produce water and an electric current. and overcoming this is the focus of much current research. However. Research on the nanoporous layer of titanium dioxide and novel dye molecules is aimed at increasing this efficiency (Institute of Nanotechnology. to enhance proton transfer and therefore efficiency. Other areas that require further development include the proton exchange membrane. The main disadvantage of such dye-based solar cells is the low conversion efficiency (10% maximum efficiency in experimental systems). Fuel cells are considered as an alternative to batteries in space applications. Fuel cells with the exception of direct methanol fuel cells require hydrogen. thin films and membranes with nanometre dimensions are applicable in a range of energy generation and storage devices such as fuel cells. At present research is focused on III-V semiconductors such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide. Current research on ceramic nanopowders such as yttrium stabilised zirconium aims to improve their ionic conductivity and thermal stability for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells.5. Solid oxide fuel cells operate at a much higher temperature and are more efficient. 94 . or Graetzel. b. Solar cells Nanomaterials have tremendous potential for increasing the efficiency of solar cells.3 Energy Production and Storage Nanomaterials. silicon/beryllium or tellurium/selenium. solar cells. solar cells are also the subject of much research due to a low manufacturing cost. Quantum dot solar cells have also been considered as an alternative solution. super capacitors and batteries. Basic research is required in engineering the band-gap of these solar cells so that longer wavelengths of light can be converted to electrons thereby increasing efficiency. however they require ceramics that are stable at high temperatures. Nanotechnology research in this sector is focused on improving efficiencies by enhancing the performance of catalysts. Areas that require research include anti-reflective coating and collectors. 2006). This section will examine the technical challenges that need to be overcome before these technologies can be used in spacecraft. Methanol is easier to store. Organic dyebased. a. however. the optimum material combinations need further exploration for example from the III-V semiconductors or combinations of silicon/germanium.
With the increasing miniaturisation of electronics. Other electrode materials that need further research are nanoscale spinel structures such as magnesium aluminates. 5.2. The performance of these batteries can be improved further by using nanostructured materials. carbon nanotubes. however the results were not reproducible. and vanadium oxide for cathodes and tin/antimony for anodes. Materials that are being developed include carbon aerogels. Increased research is needed to investigate the role of nanocrystalline metal hydrides such as magnesium nickel alloys for high temperature storage and lanthanum nickel alloys for low temperature storage. This implementation of this technology is expected to be another 6 – 8 years away (Space daily). also known as nanocaps. Alternative materials such as carbon aerogels are also being investigated for electrodes due to their large internal surface area. Further research is required to produce higher power density and durability by controlled charge diffusion and oxidation state on a nanoscale level. Capacitors Super capacitors. for example. d. 2002). c. controlled pore distribution and pore diameter (Pröbstle et al. Further research is required to have reproducible results in hydrogen storage with carbon nanotubes or alkali metal doped graphite. Nanotechnology applications can enable highly integrated avionics. 95 . Increasing the electrical conductivity is being investigated through the incorporation of nanoparticles of. One of the main issues is integrating super capacitors with highly dense circuitry for microchips.Hydrogen storage has been considered one of the most critical problems in the successful implementation of fuel cells. Research and development would be required in thin film deposition techniques for development of such devices. Research at present is being conducted in using self-assembled electrically charged polymer layers as electrolyte. the development of thin film batteries is seen as an important step. The use of carbon nanotubes as electrode in nanocaps increases the surface area leading to a boost in the charge. alkali metals. are expected to increase power density significantly. Thin film batteries can also be integrated with thin film solar cells. Processing and Transmission Data processing and systems control are an important area for spacecraft. Batteries and Accumulators Lithium ion batteries and nickel metal hydride accumulators have been implemented within the power supply of space systems.4 Data Storage. High absorption capacity has been reported for carbon nanotubes.
Research is also required into the selection of materials as silicon or silicon-germanium alloys are expected to integrate well with current silicon circuits. including: amplifiers. smaller component size and higher efficiency leading to lower cooling requirements. Tunnelling components such as the resonant tunnelling diodes (RTD) use fast quantum mechanical tunnelling. They have applications in space structures and electrode material for solar cells. Research needs for some of these applications have been elaborated. High electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) are nanotechnology enabled high-speed electronic components. are transparent and allow high electrical conductivity. and are expected to be in use earlier than other applications.wireless data communication and state of the art sensors. The first logical circuits have been developed but more research is required in their production and processing. increased operating voltage. silicon circuits. Several technical problems need to be solved for RTD to become more practical. Anti-static coatings made from a dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix. RTDs are used in high frequency oscillators. Soft magnetic nanomaterials are used in transformers and 96 . a. micro mechanical and micro fluidic systems. such as that of polymer or silicates. The problem faced in RTD production is ensuring the geometry of components on which the property depends. Research is required in wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride that will form the basis of future transistors. optoelectronic switches and photo detectors that have applications in digital electronics for satellite communication. Electronics There is a range of nanotechnology applications in electronics for spacecraft. One area that has been highlighted for new research is a quantum device for applications in ultra sensitive detection. There is research being conducted at NASA for data processing and communication systems that need minimum energy. With a high signal to noise ratio these transistors are used in microwave receivers and transmitters for radar and communication systems. The research is also being conducted in highly integrated nanodevices to be used in miniaturized space systems. Further development would be required in integrating of such systems into miniaturization of satellites. Magnetic nanocomposite materials are made up of nanoscale magnetic crystals in an amorphous or crystalline matrix. analysis and communication. These materials offer features such as high power density. diodes. At the moment the focus is in providing a proof of concept and validation in spacecraft.
highly integrated CCD. Research and development is required using these properties in energy saving antennas. acceleration. However for quantum dot lasers to be realized in space applications. significant basic research is required for photonic transistors before they can be put to practical use. Further areas include quantum wells. Magneto electronic sensors and memory chips are based on the magnetic resistance effect (Magneto Resistance) that occurs in magnetic multilayer systems. 2000). For space applications. high resolution optics.16 Photonic crystals are expected to be used in optical satellite communication. and laser systems. it will require specification of the laser. inductors. Such sensors and memory chips are consist of ultra-thin layers of metals and insulators up to 1 nm thick. Such optical inter-satellite links have been demonstrated by ESA on the ARTEMIS mission. Research is also needed for nanostructures that can be used for applications such as optical satellite telecommunication. quantum dot lasers. integration into spacecraft sub-systems and qualification. and rotation. and high resolution CCD. high precision processing is essential for components such as those used in optical satellite communication or for earth observation and astronomy. Photonic crystals can also be used for optical data communication. whereas hard magnetic nanomaterials are used in energy storage. Optical Transmission Nanotechnology applications for optical space components include X-rays mirrors. Quantum dots provide the freedom to cover the entire spectrum from ultraviolet to infrared and production methods are now well characterised. Research in optoelectronics enabled by nanostructures can lead the way for diffractive optics. and photonic crystals. b. optoelectronic transducers. sensors and data memories for various space applications. With further research they could be developed as sensors for measuring position. However. infrared sensors. A problem that needs to be addressed is the limited operating temperature range for space applications. Improvements are also needed in optical wireless data links for intersatellite communication. data storage and sensors. Lateral nanostructures can be used in improving optical data communication by enhancing the performance of diffractive optical elements. High costs of manufacturing equipment 97 .inductors. Research is required in three-dimensional crystals that will open up new possibilities for optical data communication. and photonic components. plastic optics. Such nanocomposites have the advantage of high sensitivity to changes in magnetic field and a wide operating temperature range (Wincheski & Namkung. potentially leading to purely optical circuits.
Further research and development is required in the ultra precision finishing of surface figuring of coil substrates of X-ray mirrors (Zweck & Luther. but material fatigue is a considerable disadvantage.5 Sensors Sensors play an essential role in monitoring the health of astronauts and control systems of the spacecraft. 2003). The different gas sensors used for space applications are Schottky diodes based on silicon carbide. Ferroelectric RAM (FRAM) and Magneto electronic RAM (MRAM) are nanotechnology enabled memory chips that are non-volatile and are being considered as replacements for DRAM. resistive sensors based on 98 . radiation resistance and high temperature operating range. measuring oxygen in the upper atmosphere and monitoring air quality in manned space flight. Data Storage for spacecraft Nanotechnology enabled solutions for data storage systems under consideration are based on thermo mechanical. high storage capacity (1 Terabit / sq in) with application in mobile devices and space. 2003). MRAM uses the principle of magneto electronics and is also considered as a replacement for CMOS based memory. Nanomaterials are expected to enhance the functionality of these sensors. writes and erases data using the scanning probe technique. Sensors are used to accomplish a wide variety of functions in space. The advantage over DRAM is a reduced time lag and energy dissipation. it still requires validation for space applications.2. optical or holographic principles. The features of this technology are the low voltage consumption. FRAM can retain data for over 10 years. Though FRAMs are commercially manufactured and used in Smart Cards. MRAM is considered better than other non-volatile memories (EEPROM.and low throughput rates. However. is a limiting factor for such applications. 5. X-ray mirrors (composed of a thin single mirror and mirror foil with a nested design) play an important role in astronomy. However. Another area that has been highlighted for further research is the use of 3 dimensional arrays of quantum dots in optical data memory (Zweck & Luther. The millipede memory being developed by IBM is a micro mechanical device that reads. Flash and FRAM) for aerospace applications due to its low energy consumption. further research and development is necessary if the technology is to be applied in space. Gas sensors are used for detecting hydrogen leaks in rockets. Basic research is being undertaken to prove the feasibility of the concept. further demonstration of this is required. c. Silicon on insulator (SOI) and phase change memories (PC RAM) are also considered as alternatives.
pressure monitoring. Quantum well IR sensors have been developed based on gallium arsenide fabricated using molecular beam epitaxy. 5.6 Life support systems NASA is researching bio-inspired. Research is required in realizing these sensors for long wave infrared radiation.Ann Harbor to develop nanosensors based on nanoparticles that will monitor the effect of radiation in space. Therefore research is being undertaken to monitor.2. research of the atmosphere. Sun sensors based on nanoporous silicon are expected to benefit from nanomaterials research. Nanotechnology may potentially offer solutions for supporting life functions such as oxygen and nitrogen storage. Space applications of sensors may have terrestrial applications. One of the main problems faced on long flightmanned mission is that of radiation from space. Research is required in validating the use of Schottky diodes and increasing the sensitivity. assessment and therapeutic delivery for medical autonomy. Schottky diodes are used for detecting hydrogen or hydrocarbons under extreme conditions. astronomy. Further research is required in integrating electrochemical sensors with CMOS circuits. Research is required in improvement of sensors based on quantum wells. Research is also needed on nanopowders used as coatings on sensors for improved sensitivity and robustness. especially in the automotive industry. ventilation. Infra-red (IR) sensors are used for satellite-based observation of the earth.polymer films and electrochemical sensors based on tin oxide. reducing weight of heat exchangers by using nanomaterials. Although the spacecraft shield will protect the craft. Bimolecular nanotechnology is another area in which NASA is actively developing a biological-geological-chemical laboratory for life detection and science. on 6 month long mission to mars the most advanced heat shield will may not be able to protect the astronauts. 99 . Research is required in decreasing quantum losses and improving quantum yields of the nanoporous silicon. Research is also ongoing in the area of nanoscale sensing. adaptable and self-healing systems for extended missions. Further research is also required in integrating the sun sensors into spacecraft such as satellites. NASA is working in collaboration with University of Michigan. 2005). quantum wires and quantum dot nanostructures. The absorption of gas molecules on the surface of the diode produces a change in the electrical conductivity. navigation and optical data communication. prevent and treat these effects (AIAA.
via several routes (such as inhalation) is another important area of research for longduration space flights. air cleaning and filtration.10 Further research is required in developing nanomaterials. This will also require more effective lab-on-a-chip systems where both the measuring and analysis unit are combined. They have a high internal surface area and low density. they require further development to improve characteristics such as brittleness and mechanical stability (Zweck & Luther. 2003). type and strength of chemical bonds determine the development of MEMS components. and friction partners behave differently in high vacuum space than terrestrial conditions (Zweck & Luther. and have applications in electrode materials for capacitors or batteries. carbides and nitrides as well as carbon material are taken into consideration for research. monitoring of water quality by using electronic nose sensors. thermal. coolers for liquid hydrogen and thermal control layer for nanosatellites. blood chemistry. hygiene. control of air quality and humidity. 100 . Material selection for solid lubricants and mechanical protection such as chalcogenide. by conducting basic research in the above mentioned areas for space travel.waste water treatment using regenerative membranes. coverage layers. Nanostructured layer have applications in heat insulation of rockets. 5. disease or radiation load. NASA research has envisaged the creation of high strength to mass ratio material that can be used for aerospace and space vehicles. including autonomous self-medication. mechanical and other properties. Solid films developed at a nanoscale are important for space as friction and reducing layers. Areas which will be important (particularly for the planned long duration manned spaceflights to other planets) are the development of sensors capable of measuring physiological parameters such as bone density. and which allow the concurrent and rapid analysis of different analytes.2. Research has also been envisaged for embedded sensing to ensure reliability and safety. chalcogenide composites. Intermediate layers such as lubricants. fatigue resistance. Aerogels are made up of a highly porous three-dimensional network of nanoparticles such as silicates. Drug delivery. The tribological properties such as relative hardness. carbon dioxide removal.7 Nanomaterials and thin films for spacecraft Nanomaterials and thin films have applications in various areas of space. 2003). and thermal isolation. Material research is also required in materials with programmable optical. Although they have been used in the Mars Rover and NASA Stardust missions. Research is needed in applications such as low friction and lubricant free bearings.
Biomimetic material development is required to realize enhanced functionalities such as selforganization. a bio-inspired approach based on viruses and bacteria could pose a hazard to human health. 5. and it is essential that they are developed with rigorous fail-safes to ensure safe application. Intelligent sensing requires research in areas that combine novel material properties such as optical. at most. further research is required to improve the level of current obtained from molecular electronic devices (Globus. thermal and mechanical. molecular connections are among the main problems to be solved before molecular computing at femto second can become a reality. For example. Finally. One of the main challenges for the bio-inspired approach is the extreme environment of space where there are high temperatures. evolve. vacuum and high pressures.8 Visionary Applications Visionary applications are. mirrors and antennas. Artificial self-replicating systems are considered to be in their infancy. heal and replicate in response to changes in the environment.2. The heat insulating layer of rocket engines are required to be temperature stable. strain tolerant and have high adhesion strength. However. high radiation. An approach inspired by bottom-up nanobiotechnology may provide a novel solution. self-healing and self-replication. a. 101 . Molecular Nanotechnology and electronics for space NASA is aiming to develop structures and systems that can adapt. and require several technological solutions before they can be reliably applied in space. at the basic research stage. Feasibility studies are required in visionary applications such as solar sails for interplanetary spacecraft and extremely light solar generators for solar powered satellites. Problems in synthesizing such molecules have also been reported. Other applications where thin film technology can be usefully applied are – large telescopes.Thermal protection layers are used in the re-entry to act as heat shields and for thermally insulating the rocket engines. Research is needed in manufacturing processes such as pulse laser deposition that ensures high precision and reproducibility. 1999). robust. Research is also need in intelligent multi-functional structures that can be used for active control. Organic molecules such as benzene have potential in future nanoelectronic circuits. as they can act as building blocks.
Micromachined devices can provide improved integration in propulsion. However. infrared and solar) based on optical fibres or MEMS.b. The increased integration of nanotechnology is expected to lead towards satellite on a chip. 1996). 102 . Carbon nanotubes have been proposed as a suitable material as they has the right strength to weight ratio. size and power consumption of smaller satellites. Research is required in areas such as high strength nanocomposite plastics and biomimetic structures to reduce weight.1 kg) and the satellite on a chip (less than 100g) concept. Nanotechnology can play an important role in reducing the weight. corrosion. turbulence in weather. 2006). Nanotechnologies that have potential application in nanosatellites but require further integration studies are sensors (magnetic.1. Monitoring the health and safety of the constellation has been regarded as another major challenge for such nanosatellite systems. a suitable propulsion technique (potentially electromagnetic propulsion). One of the main research challenges for the constellation of nanosatellites is the information systems that will require very high processing speeds and nanoelectronics may be able to provide solutions. Space Elevator The Space Elevator is a novel concept that has been proposed to transport mass into space from the earth using a cable or ribbon. communication. c. Among other solutions needed are tether technology for the cable. and here nanosensors can play a very important role (Johnson et al. such a system would require research and development of an extremely high strength-to-weight ratio material. and development of supporting infrastructure before this concept can be turned into reality (NASA. Further development is required of smart components with built in sensing capabilities and load monitoring.12 The desired strength for a space elevator is 62 GPa with carbon nanotubes having a stiffness (Youngs modulus = 1 TPa and tensile strength = 200 GPa). For picosatellites technical breakthrough is required in areas such as microfuel cells. Research has to be achieved in adaptive structures with skins for improved thermal control.10 kg). navigation and energy generation. Research is further required in spinning of composite fibres (carbon nanotube reinforced) that will be able to stand the extreme stresses of the earths atmosphere. picosatellite (0. micro-thrusters and nuclear-batteries (Simonis & Schilthuizen. Nano and Pico satellites Constellations and swarms of miniaturized satellites and probes have been envisaged such as the nanosatellite (1. and vibrations created by the flowing winds. 1999). and the development of dedicated integrated circuits for communication systems (Torres et al. There is also a need for improved propellants such as those based on nano-dispersed aluminium. 2000).
Space Solar Power NASA and several academic institutions in the United States are considering the development of a concept called “Space Solar Power” to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to the fact that future applications in space are expected to be high volume markets. 2003). and in integrating other equipment such as telescopes and mirrors for detecting planets outside the solar system on unmanned missions (Zweck & Luther. The development of such a light and foldable structure requires an airframe inspired by nature and an energy generation system such as those based on thin film solar cells. e. 2003). 5. Such concepts are also beginning to be considered in Europe and Japan. Other important criteria for assessing deployment are the market potential for terrestrial applications. 2003). is a major barrier. The programme envisages the deployment of large space solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbits to potentially delivering 10-100 TW of energy to world markets. NASA is encouraging the participation of private companies to conduct their research through their financial investment in space. Research would also be required in thin film technology that can be used to develop phased array antennas for communication. Increasing dialogue 103 . Among other problems that need to be solved are the development of optical concentrators.d. light and selfunfolding with integrated subsystems. Energy would be transferred by means of high power density microwave. To realise this vision would require intensive research in multi-band gap solar cells with high efficiency and low cost of production. and development of solid state devices for wireless power transmission. the programmes must be based on the economic value of the application to the space industry. however. economic benefits of the application and the potential barriers to the development. such as that by NASA JPL (2000).2. Utilizing space infrastructure for research and development is becoming an important issue. Considering the high cost of the development of nanotechnology. The high prohibitive cost of space transportation. Gossamer Spacecraft Gossamer Spacecraft have been envisaged to be very large. and the multi-functional integration of sub-systems (Mankins. as opposed to the current niche markets driven by telecommunication and information services. radiation resistance thin film material. The time frame of implementation of this concept is estimated to be more than 25 years (Zweck & Luther. Alternative fuel-less propulsion research needs be conducted in laser and microwave propelled sails.9 Conclusion The research and development of nanotechnology applications has to be based on the level of technology readiness and contribution to space objectives.
such research and development is expected to take nearly a decade before it is implemented in space crafts.between space and nanotechnology research communities is essential for the continued development of nanotechnology applications for space. 104 . In any event.
globally. prosperity and security. To ensure that the aerospace industry in the EU continues to succeed. because of its nature. European aerospace must maintain a strong competitive position if it is to play a full role as an industrial partner in the global aerospace marketplace. The European Commission (EC) has recognised the central importance of the aerospace industry to innovation. 2004-1) the European air transport industry directly 105 .Chapter 6: Economic Aspects 6. the result of the efforts of an advisory group with members from industry. To achieve these goals it recommends that combined public and private funding for civil aeronautics in the EU should reach a total of €100 billion by 2020.2 Aviation The aerospace industry is a significant contributor to economic wealth worldwide. security and quality of life. Aerospace is vital to meeting Europe’s objectives for economic growth. the EC and the EU parliament. and influenced by a broad range of European policies such as trade. Europe must remain at the forefront of key technologies if it is to have an innovative and competitive aerospace industry. It is directly associated with. and in 2002 published a Strategic Aerospace Review for the 21st Century (STAR 21). According to the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE. ensuring that adequate training schemes are established (that also take account of continued education and training). 4. 6. and the role that SMEs will play in this. but also. A strong. and that long-term R&D goals are well defined. the report highlights the need for evaluating and harmonising competition policies and tax incentives amongst member states. The STAR 21 report recommends four governing principles for Europe’s aerospace industry: 1. transport. environment and security and defence. globally competitive industrial base is essential to provide the necessary choices and options for Europe in its decisions as regards its presence and influence on the world stage.1 Introduction This chapter describes the economic impacts that the aerospace industry has in the EU in particular. that worker mobility between Member States is supported. It concludes with a presentation of patents utilising nanotechnology that are applied to the aerospace industry. It discusses the impacts on civilian aviation and space exploration. 3. 2. and the strategies that are being developed by the various sectors to ensure economic success.
oldest Russian aeronautics company. Ilyushin. but with plans to increase its percentage of civilian aircraft manufacturing from 13% to 45% over the next 10 years.the largest Russian aircraft manufacturer (both military and civil) with a reported 14% of global output of aircraft products (25% for military aircraft).ru/ENG). (Napier.manufacturer of the famous MiG fighter planes. The new company. and that this will increase to 5 to 7 million by 2020.tupolev.primarily involved in military aircraft design. but also produces small civil aircraft (www. In the US. • • • • Brazil The Brazilian company Embraer manufactures small to medium sized passenger aircraft that are used by a number of global airlines. As of April 2007 these are to be merged into one company by the Russian government. is being established in an effort to streamline operations and improve the Russian aviation industry’s global competitiveness (Russian Minister.ru/English). Mikuyan. Air transport alone is estimated to account for approximately 18% of all international trade. Tupolev OKB.6%) in 2004. Toulouse and Hamburg (both Airbus). The most important sites for the global civil aerospace industry are Seattle (Boeing). Brazil. Yakovlev. It had sales of €468 million in 2004 (www. 106 . It has over 17. but with several small to medium size civilian aircraft (www.6 billion). with Airbus commanding slightly over half of the global market share.ilyushin.embraer. Civil aircraft orders are of the order of €780 million per annum (www.org/eng). with profits of $11 billion (€8. it is estimated that total employment within the industry in Europe is some 3 million.87 billion). However.manufactures both military and civil aircraft (www. United Aircraft Building Corporation (UABC). the aerospace industry generated $170 billion (€133 billion) in sales during 2005. In 2005 it had revenues of 3. Manufactures both military and civil aircraft (www. • Irkut. A. 2006) The major manufacturers in the industry are Airbus in the EU and Boeing in the US.000 employees (www. and taking into account ancillary business. Canada.68 billion USD (€2.irkut.ru/eng). Furthermore.yak. other important global players are located in Russia.com/en).primarily a military aircraft manufacturer.S. 2006).org/en). an estimated 10% of GDP.com/english/content/home).sukhoi. and Ukraine: Russia There are 6 manufacturers of civilian aircraft in Russia. The 6 individual companies are: • Sukhoi.contributed €220 billion to European GDP (or 2.migavia.
Although this loss in the US market is largely a result of decreased passenger numbers in wake of September the 11th. will require an estimated 16.2. The market share on a regional basis looks quite different. since 1992 it has also manufactured small to medium sized civilian aircraft (www. Challenger.48 trillion). EU airlines have seen net profits of between 1 and 2 billion USD in the same period (IATA).1 Global markets in the aviation industry According to the Airbus “Global Market Forecast 2004-2023” world passenger traffic is expected to increase by 5. with Europe expected to have the largest demand in terms of aircraft numbers. one of the other key issues is the relative cost of fuel to the airlines.Canada Bombardier Aerospace manufactures 3 families of small civilian jet aircraft.7 billion USD in 2006). Airbus forecasts that the number of passenger aircraft in service will double from a fleet of 10. By 2023 it is expected that air 107 . Over the next 17 years Europe is expected to retain its share of the market at 32%.Learjet. It has a global workforce of 26.com). however in product value terms this is almost 75%. This buoyant mood is also felt by airlines within the EU. In monetary terms this equates to some 1. falling to an estimated 1.3% per annum over the period 2004-2023. At present approximately 40% of exports by weight from Asia to North America and Europe are delivered by air. while operators in the Asia-Pacific will focus more on large capacity aircraft (such as the Airbus A380) and so will have the greater share of seat capacity.9% per annum.800 and profits in 2005 of 8.com/index.601 new passenger aircraft. and Global.759 in 2023.9 trillion USD (€1. Air cargo is also expected to expand over the next 17 years at a rate of 5. Despite staggering net losses in the US market over the last 6 years (13 billion USD in 2001.3 billion) (www. Typical maximum life-spans for aircraft range from 37 years for small jets to 35 years for others. while the US is expected to fall from 33% to 26% and Asia-Pacific increase from 25% to 31%. Airbus forecasts that only 15% of today’s passenger aircraft will still be in service with their current operators in 2023. contributing 26% to operating costs in 2005 (compared with 14% in 2003). This increase in demand. 6.antonov. Ukraine Antonov ASTC originally designed military aircraft for the former Soviet Union (and famously the largest aircraft ever built: the An-225 Mriya transport).bombardier.838 in 2003 to 21. In many cases large passenger aircraft are “recycled” as cargo aircraft before this point. However.html).1 billion USD (€6. combined with the need to renew older aircraft.
This favours hub based routing for the major airlines. of the 47 routes opened between secondary or tertiary cities. point-to-point flights link secondary or tertiary cities. It has been estimated that two-thirds of new aircraft will be single aisle with between 100 and 210 seats (the size favoured by the low cost airlines). The success rates speak volumes: of 75 routes opened during the past twenty years between a primary city in Asia and a primary city in Europe. and it is estimated that increased productivity across the industry will contribute approximately 0. ACARE has set goals of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50%. with Europe favouring point-to-point. One issue now is that packaging of such high-value goods takes up relatively more of the cargo space. larger aircraft. As part of its strategy. Passengers. In contrast. Routes.improving the air traffic management systems will allow shorter flight times (as a result of less time in holding patterns on approach to airports) and less time spent taxiing or on stand.cargo from Asia to North America will be greater than Europe to North America. Aircraft size. This essentially means linking major destinations together by larger aircraft. hub-based flight patterns are the most economical and long-lived. almost 90% have proved successful and are still in operation today. 108 . 10 of these cities will be in the AsiaPacific region.new regulations on greenhouse gas emissions will have a major impact on the air traffic industry. and offer greater convenience to passengers. Conversely. reducing NOx emissions by 80% and decreasing noise pollution by 50%. The remainder will be met by increasing passenger numbers through more aircraft. intra-regional flights while Asia-Pacific has a larger demand for hub flights. smaller versatile aircraft for point-to-point.there needs to be continued development of different aircraft sizes: large aircraft for hub-based flights.8% of the yearly growth in RPKs. Air Traffic Management.there are two airline strategies in place for connecting destinations: hub and point-to-point. Regulation.it has been determined from several independent surveys that the most important issue to passengers is price rather than convenience (as evidenced by the growth of low-cost airlines). and increasing the frequency of flights. The industry metric is revenue passenger kilometre (RPK). such that there is greater demand for larger capacity aircraft. The future forecasts for world population growth indicate that by 2020 16 cities worldwide will have more than 20 million inhabitants (compared with 5 today). Within different regions the preponderance of the two types of strategy varies. Of the two. only 40% have been lucrative enough to survive. What are the strategies that the industry sees as necessary to ensure continued growth? Both efficiency and capacity increases are required. with passengers connecting via these and flying on to their final destination by smaller regional aircraft. As a result aircraft turnaround will be faster and passenger capacity will increase. which will further increase the demand for hub flights and underlines the need for larger aircraft to service this region.
To ensure that this is achieved will require coordinated efforts by each member state and not just the centralised EU administration. engineers and technologists into the industry. certification and qualification. education and improving trans-European research. it is not only financial investment that is required. and the level and quality of publicly funded research. and policy changes that will ensure that European companies retain their presence within Europe and do not migrate to North America. technology or engineering. In this regard there is also the need for the large organisations in particular to move away from the “perpetuation of self-interest”.Investment in R&D. ensuring that standards are met and improving the mobility of graduates. specialist companies.” Improved collaboration both within the EU and with other regions (in particular the US) to ensure that R&D efforts are not duplicated. export credit guarantee schemes. the supply chain. the funding available in the EU from the private sector is comparable to that in the US. EU-wide coordination • • 109 . This could be through “low corporation tax rates. In contrast to other sectors. In addition. This will also require the enthusing of young people to embark on a career in science. To reverse this trend there needs to be continual assessment of university curricula (aligning it more with the needs of the industry). • Recognition that the industry also depends on the expertise and service from tens of thousands of smaller. However. it will be essential that new policies encourage business to retain their centre of operations within the EU. risk-sharing equity funds. and thus continue to re-invest in the EU R&D market. R&D tax credits. and strengthening links between the aerospace industry and higher education. however ACARE has recommended that 65% more funding is required over the period to 2023 to ensure that the projected growth in the industry is maintained. and that companies must cooperate to maximise the outcomes of the limited pool of finance and expertise within the EU to achieve R&D goals. Policy changes at the European level that will improve European research infrastructure. and the means to coordinate their activities and those of the larger players. while it is the public finance in aerospace R&D that is lacking (25% that in the US). ACARE has proposed a strategic research agenda (SRA) to meet these goals: • As with many technical sectors the aerospace industry is facing a shortage of suitably qualified and experienced personnel.the industry already has significant investment in R&D (approximately 12% of turnover). There are issues in attracting sufficient researchers. This will require the establishment of cross-stakeholder groups to identify the necessary research infrastructure. What is lacking is a coherent map of these companies and their expertise.
increased security threats. the Highly Time Efficient Air Transport System. One mechanism could be the development of roadmaps for the industry and the establishment of a technology watch. While commercial collaboration is unlikely to be achieved with the US. These are seen as “technology pools” which will each contribute to the changing face of air transport over the coming decades. aimed at “developing international standards that promote customer service and confidence. ACARE sees collaboration in two ways: context and commercial. 110 . establishment of networks centres of excellence. the Highly Cost Efficient Air Transport System. is a more achievable goal. 5 High Level Target Concepts (HLTC) are identified in the ACARE Vision 2020 report that will play a role in shaping the future of air transport: the Highly Customer Oriented Air Transport System.activities (such as ERA net). context collaboration. the Ultra Secure Air Transport System. etc. The drivers for these changes will be external e.g. or increase society acceptance”. the Ultra Green Air Transport System. continued support through the FPs. increased air travel restriction as a result of environmental impact.
3 Space Despite a decline in the commercial market for space since 2000. According to the ESA website 111 .9 billion set aside for proposals for new activities in Earth Observation Applications. ACEP (Ariane 5 Consolidation and Evolution Preparation).covering topics in the following areas “what are the conditions for life and planetary formation?”. The Technology Transfer Programme (TTP) focuses on commercialising new technologies through the support of new startups and the creation of “European Space Incubators” in ESA centres. The specific projects attracting funding are: Envelope programme. Ariane 5 ARTA. The Technology Research Programme (TRP) looks at developing cross-cutting technology developments. Telecommunications. Russia. According to Dario Izzo of ESA’s Advanced Concepts Team (ACT).8 billion). To achieve this will require both “discovery and competitiveness”. Vega VERTA. ELIPS 2. In addition. including those from outside the space sector.supports the Earth Observation programme including the participation of Third countries. “how did the Universe originate and what is it made of?” • The General Studies Programme (GSP) continues to develop basic science. Russia. ARTES programme. Space Exploration. launchers. The Technology Transfer Programme has been very successful not only for the aerospace industry but the wider economy. In the EU. space exploration and exploitation is seen as a major goal for many different nations. it has a budget of €1. new architectures and exploring technologies to reinvent the design of space missions”. The Earthnet Programme. “what are the fundamental laws of the Universe?”.6. and Launchers. human spaceflight and exploration.1 billion in the following areas in the period to 2010: • The scientific programme (€2.development of space education offices to provide support for young students and graduates. Education. earth observation. The leaders in space technologies at present are: the US. with an increase in public spending in the USA. "the future of space flight is in using new systems. and China (although other countries such as Japan and India have established Space Agencies and programmes). “how does the Solar System work?”. • • • • The level of investment for the Optional Activities is even higher (€3. CSG (Guyana Space Centre) Resolution. The Mandatory Activities have a budget of €3. EU. China and India. telecommunication and navigation. ISS Exploitation.1 billion) for basic R&D. 2005). the European Space Agency (ESA) has set forth an ambitious plan for development split into two areas: Mandatory Activities and Optional Programmes (ESA.
esa. Examples of inventions that have applications in other industrial sectors include: airbags. The primary commercial agency for fulfilling the EU’s space aspirations is EADS SPACE. carbon brakes. around 1500 jobs created yearly. the Columbus laboratory and the ATV cargo vessel for the International Space Station. • • • • • • • over €800 million cumulative turnover generated in both space and non-space sectors. insulation. however the partners will only receive this money if 112 . over 30 new companies established as a direct result of exploiting technologies. more than €30 million attracted in venture capital and funding. In 2008 the ESA’s Columbus laboratory will be launched to the International Space Station (ISS). it has resulted in: • more than 200 successful transfers of space technologies to nonspace sectors. Astrium. NASA is investing in commercial space transportation by opening up a competitive tender for supply to the International Space Station (ISS). a portfolio of over 450 active space technologies available for transfer and licensing. propulsion systems and space equipment. navigation systems.html). atmospheric re-entry vehicles. Galileo (a joint programme between the ESA and the EC) finally moved towards becoming a reality with the launch of its first satellite (GIOVE-A) on the 28th December 2005. Recently. develops and produces Ariane launchers. is responsible for the design and manufacture of satellite systems for both civilian and military telecommunication and Earth observation purposes. Two industrial partners (Space Exploration Technologies [SpaceX] and Rocketplane-Kistler [RpK]) will each share approximately 500 million USD to achieve this goal. while the Department of Defence had 18. It designs.int/SPECIALS/Technology_Transfer/SEMZ5TRMD6E_0. some 36 incubators within the European Space Incubator Network (ESINET).000 people.3 billion. which employs over 11. In the US even larger budgets are available: in 2004 NASA had a budget of 16 billion USD.(www. cooling systems and many more. vibration damping. Formula 1 has utilised advanced technologies developed within the aerospace industry to design lighter cars. ballistic missiles for France’s nuclear deterrent force. In 2004 it had revenues of €2.6 billion with an order backlog of €11. Another company within EADS SPACE.6 billion USD. EADS SPACE is a wholly owned subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) and is the European authority on civil and military space transportation and manned space activities. some 15 start-ups within the European Space Incubator (ESI).
China is one of only 3 countries to have put a person in space (in 2003 using the Shenzhou spacecraft) (China. send missions to one of the two moons orbiting Mars. The EU and Russia are also engaged in a dialogue on space cooperation. and satellite systems for telecommunications and earth observation. and is in negotiations with Russia over joint missions to the moon and Mars. The Indian Space Research Organisation was established in 1972 and has developed launch vehicles (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. It plans to develop a new re-usable spacecraft called Kliper (although a suitable contractor has yet to be identified). 2005). Japan established its own space agency. the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL). China has plans to send unmanned and manned flights to the moon. The EU is also collaborating with Canada and the USA on a bilateral basis and in the International Space Station.9 billion) over the first 10 years of the strategy. The Chinese Space Programme contracts most of its work to the state-owned China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). The Russian Federal Space Agency is responsible for space science research.isro. 2006). JAXA’s vision comes with large investment.000 people and has a budget of approximately €550 million. and then to Mars) and the use of space in support of homeland security and defence. India aims to put an astronaut in space by 2014 (a programme that is estimated to cost €1. Russia still remains the one launching the greatest number of spacecraft. On 10 March 2006. stimulating agreement between the Russian GLONASS and the European Galileo satellite navigation systems. JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) on the 1st of October 2003 with the merger of 3 organisations: Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautic Science (or ISAS). the EU and ESA signed a cooperation agreement on space. and Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).org). including science and technology. and has plans for human spaceflight and exploitation of the moon.5 billion from 2006 to 2015 (Forbes. two new launching pads.1 billion USD (€860 m) and employs 110. It aims to achieve a leading global position in reliability and capability for both launch vehicles and satellites. Turnover in the EU is also 113 . with a budget of some €12. www. Of all the countries involved in space exploration.000 people. which has registered capital of 1. and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) for its own use and those of international customers. The US is focused on 2 priorities: space exploration (particularly a manned mission to the moon. One of the major challenges to the EU space industry is the fact that in the US over 75% of funding for R&D comes from the Department of Defence and NASA (while in the EU it is 50%). It employs 20. around 258-280 billion yen p. (€1.a.they are successful (payments will be made in stages based on achieving targets). Russia. and double the number of earth orbiting satellites to 70.7-1. In the interim it has plans nearer to earth. It is also looking to collaborate more closely with the EU after the US blocked closer cooperation with the ISS (BBC).to develop a supersonic aircraft capable of flying at Mach 5 that would cut the flight time between Japan and the US to a few hours.7 billion.
The distribution of these patents by search term is shown in Figure 1 and by country in Figure 2. that many of these patents will have potential applications in the aerospace industry. approximately a four-fold increase from FP6 (European Commission FP7 fact sheet).g. In contrast.en. As described above. sensing or actuating”. This inevitably puts EU industry at a competitive disadvantage.000 results for nanotechnology in total. pollution and noise pollution. The title and abstract for each patent is given in Table 1. such as decreased ability to form or retain ice (e.com/access/index. 1999 figures).115 entries for “nanotechnology for materials and surfaces”. 27. Nanomaterials in engine components could also improve fuel efficiency.024 entries for “nano-optics”. heatresistant coatings) and electronic sub-systems. on aircraft wings). although not explicitly stated. advances in nanotechnology with applications to these areas are expected also to be spun-out into other industries. In this respect FP7 funding for space related R&D is €1. 10. 18.4. as well as delivering alternative future propulsion systems. 16 See www. and more than 100. structural materials for launch vehicles (e. In space applications.significantly lower than the US (€5 500 million compared with €33 700 million.g. On closer inspection of each patent’s abstract and description only 46 of these appear to be based on nanotechnology applications.090 for “nanomagnetics”.4 billion from 2007 to 2013. 6. The impact will be on fuel economy. the worldwide patent database contains approximately 28.4 How can Nanotechnology Impact on these Strategies? The aerospace industry is already making use of composite materials to reduce the weight of structural components.espacenet.172 entries for “nanotechnology for information processing.htm 114 .1 Patenting of Nanotechnology Advances that have Applications in the Aerospace Industry A total of 62 patents were identified using the European Patent Office (EPO) web portal (which also provides information on other patent offices)16 using search criteria for nanotechnology with keywords related to aerospace applications (see Figure 1). and 16. It is likely. 6. and will require continued and concerted action at the EU level. storage and transmission”. In the future it is envisaged that nanocomposites will offer not only enhancements in strength and reduced weight but also added functionality.960 entries for “nanotechnology for interacting. nanotechnology is expected to impact on fuel and energy systems.
“aircraft”.” “spacecraft”. A-G: numbers of patents in the category “nanotechnology” using the search terms: “aerospace”. aviation. “rocket”. cosmonautics and nano* Figure 6. No results were returned for “nanotechnology” plus “space exploration”. The patent landscape for nanotechnology applications in aerospace is dominated by the US (23 of the patents) followed by Germany (9 patents) and France (6 patents) see Figure 2.Numbers of Patents in the Nanotechnology Section using different key word searches 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E F G H 4 17 15 7 5 1 1 1 A B C D Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Nanotechnology and and and and aerospace aircraft satellite spacecraft E F G H Nanotechnology and rocket Nanotechnology and airplane Nanotechnology and aeronautic* Aircraft. aviation. H: numbers of patents in the category Aircraft. “airplane”. There were 5 duplicated results between the searches giving a total of 46 patents. or “apparatus for. or methods of. 115 . “aeronautic*”. “satellite.1. “extraterrestrial” or “aviation”. winning materials from extraterrestrial sources” and “nano*”. cosmonautics using the search term “nano*”.
2.com/) with applications stated for the aerospace industry. adapted to the respective media Cabin window arrangement for an aeroplane Toilet system. adhesive. surface treatment and coatings.1.Global Nanotechnology Patents with Application to the Aerospace Industry 2 2 1 1 1 1 6 23 US Germany France Japan Canada Italy Sweden China Korea 9 Figure 6. casting composition.espacenet. etc includes changing surface roughness measured perpendicular and in CA CA CN DE DE 1 1 1 1 1 DE DE DE DE DE DE FR 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 116 . components for engines. automobile finishing. electronics. micro powder produced by the method and its application Epoxy resin having improved flexural impact strength and elongation at rupture Preparation of nano composites by organic modification of nano filler useful as a paint. propellants. Nanotechnology patents listed through EPO website (http://gb.or nanometre structuring. particularly for vehicles Surface treatment for aerospace applications. especially for transportation vehicles Body contacting media has surfaces with micrometric. electronics. Patent Country Number of times filed Article comprising a fine-grained metallic material and a polymeric material Object identification using quantum dots fluorescence allocated on Fraunhofer solar spectral lines Method for preparing micro powder containing antiagglomerated nanometre silver. in aircraft construction. and as a parquet flooring lacquer Freshwater system in a commercial aircraft Waterless vacuum toilet system for aircraft Toilet system with reduced or eliminated flushing requirement. Table 6. Number of nanotechnology patents with applications in the aerospace industry by country. The patents fall into a number of different categories including: materials. batteries.
and organized powders thus obtained Metal/metalloid nitride/carbide ceramic powders prepared by flash pyrolysis Ammunition or ammunition part comprising a structural element made of energetic material Method to manufacture X ray mirrors with thin film multilayer structures by replication technique Magneto static wave device Quantum wire structure Carbon nano particles having novel structure and properties Reactor for decomposition of ammonium dinitramide-based liquid monopropellants and process for the decomposition Reinforced foam covering for cryogenic fuel tanks Self-cleaning super hydrophobic surface Novel carbon nanotube lithium battery Electrically conductive polymeric foams and elastomers and methods of manufacture thereof Systems and methods for modifying ice adhesion strength Dark field. aircraft and the like Improved lighting system lamp units used on airport taxi-ways. takeoff and landing runways Exposing process for electronic beam Device and method for detection of aircraft wire hazard Dry cooled jet aircraft run-up noise suppression system Tilt-tester Method and apparatus to produce ions and nanodrops from taylor cones of volatile liquids at reduced pressures Smart docking surface for space serviceable nano and micro satellites Power sphere nanosatellite Light shield for an illumination system Dual spectrum illumination system Method for producing extreme microgravity in extended volumes Nano-G research laboratory for a spacecraft Country ES FR JP US US US US US US US US US US Number of times filed 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 117 .plane of surface before applying adhesive or decorative material Space and time modulator for X-ray beam Process for producing organized powders by spraying from at least two sets of particles. photon tunnelling imaging probes Broadband light-emitting diode Aluminium matrix composite and method for making same Electromechanical memory cell ESD coatings for use with spacecraft Uncooled tunnelling infrared sensor Embedded nanotube array sensor and method of making a nanotube polymer composite Transparent composite panel Magnetorheological nanocomposite elastomer for releasable attachment applications Nanocomposite layered airfoil Oya computerized glider Spacecraft sculpted by solar beam and protected with diamond skin in space FR FR FR FR IT JP JP KR SE US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Entries found using the search terms that contain no obvious nanotechnology applications: Patent Turbofan or turbojet arrangements for vehicles craft.
It both networks aeronautical SMEs and allows prospective project coordinators to identify “researchintensive SMEs”. which are largely dominated by the US. satellites).02. devices may be subject to incorporation. It is a joint activity between the AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) and the EC. 6. which can further compound the competitive disadvantage of EU industry. AeroSME is one of the main instruments that have been set-up to aid the involvement of SMEs in EU-funded projects in aerospace. Romania.6 Conclusions Europe is in a relatively strong position as regards its current market share in aviation technologies. Ensuring that SMEs can engage effectively in R&D with each other and other organisations is therefore a key element for the future success of the European aerospace industry. or the final product validated. However. On the website is a database of over 1000 SMEs which can be searched by country. Norway.06 for 30 months.de).nanocraft. Iceland. Using “nano” as keyword search term however identifies only two SMEs: Bekaert Dymonics NV (www. technology or keyword. Ultimately this means that an EU manufacturer may not be able to include US technology if the final product (e.g. SCRATCH is another EU-funded project that supports SMEs in the aeronautics industry to establish consortia and submit project proposals to the EC. Furthermore. Much of this can be attributed to the high level of public funding for aerospace research in the US (particularly for space) through the Department of Defence and NASA. aircraft or satellite) is sold to a country with which the US has trade restrictions.bekaert.5 Role of SMEs As described above. Israel.com/dymonics). by the US manufacturer or 118 . plus Bulgaria. SMEs are seen as a crucial component of the aerospace industry as they provide both services and additional expertise in R&D to that of the major corporations. as certain technology developments in the US are subject to restrictive trade agreements. Other initiatives to support SMEs include: European Communities Aeronautics REsearch+ (ECARE+) which is funded under FP6 from 01. The NAVOBS+ project which supports the participation of SMEs in R&D projects in the field of Space infrastructures (e. this is not the case for space technologies. which specialises in surface treatment technologies and NanoCraft (www. and includes 32 countries: the 25 EU member states. to maintain the stated US objective of “supremacy in aerospace”. there is significant overlap in aerospace R&D for civil and military purposes.6. which specialises in coatings and material analysis and characterisation. and Turkey.g. In other cases. Switzerland.
sensors and electronics. ductility. In the longer term. In the absence of a comparable EU technology this has the potential to severely restrict markets.g. and decreasing environmental impacts. and increasing their functionality (e. To achieve this and to ensure that critical technologies will be developed by EU R&D requires the ongoing support of large-scale collaborative projects through the Framework Programmes. wear resistance. nanotechnology enabled systems should provide novel energy production and storage.approved organization. Other applications include communication and navigation. engineering antifouling surfaces). 119 . The involvement of appropriate authorities such as ACARE and the ESA is essential to ensure that this funding is targeted to the best projects to achieve the long-term strategic goals. Through advances in nanotechnology it is expected that the aerospace industry will be able to address issues of improved and novel propulsion systems. etc) thus reducing fuel consumption. Advances in materials will be through decreasing the weight required for structural components (through increased strength.
2006 International Conference on Nanotechnology Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety (NOEHS). 2006) and projects started in the last few years to assess the toxicity of different kinds of nanomaterials and to develop exposure scenarios for humans. in polymer matrix composites. in most cases. the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanoscale materials for all applications constitute a great concern for policy makers worldwide.org for an overview of recent developments and publications. 120 . the nanoparticles will be fixed in a matrix and potential health and environmental risks may be mainly expected during production and in waste processing or recycling. It is uncertain how the size and surface to volume ratio of materials with particle sizes between 1 and about 100 nm influence toxicity as compared to the bulk materials. Most concern is focused on free engineered nanoparticles which may be released in the air. Nano workplace health & safety issues. As demonstrated in earlier chapters.The postulation that these abrading processes will not release free engineered nanoparticles will be challenged. will be addressed early on before shop floor production is considered.nanoforum. Therefore. Battelle 17 See e. With nano modified composites.g. as required. The aerospace production shop floor will be one of the first locations affected by potential release. Nanoforum. 2005 and click the button “safety and environment” on top of the page www. drilling. EHS will be used as shorthand for the three fields.17 In the USA.1 Introduction Applications of nanotechnology in the aeronautics and space sectors are rather new in themselves. For applications of nanomaterials in aerospace. At the Dec. will certainly be applied. little research has been done on Environment. airborne nanoparticles in the cabin or released from the plane or spacecraft in the air are likely to constitute the biggest potential hazards.g. cutting. In many cases. a considerable variety of nanostructured materials and nanodevices are aimed at incorporation in aeronautics and aerospace in the future. "Best practice" engineering controls and PPE (personal protective equipment). Maynard et al. a universal issue involves standard shop floor processing (sanding. EU and its member states and other countries.Chapter 7: Environment. During normal use.g. research strategies have been developed (e.). animals and the environment. Health and Safety aspects of nanotechnology in aerospace. such fixed nanoparticles may be released in the environment due to wear (abrasion) or by accident. water or soil. e. Health and Safety Aspects 7. On the one hand. etc.
we summarise the available literature and come up with suggestions for further research. This exposure risk study was thought to be one of the first to evaluate. A review of this debate goes beyond the scope of the present report.acunu. Aerospace applications which may lead to EHS impacts in 20052010 include the following18: Application: Nanoparticles in fuel as additives Potential EHS impact: Inhalation by staff but also by the population in general 18 Source: AC/UNU Millennium project : « Environmental and Health Hazards resulting from military uses of nanotechnology. 7. Safety may be improved by applying fire retardant nanomaterials. In this part of the report. remote sensing applications and other nanomaterials and devices. under controlled conditions. introducing nanomaterials or nanodevices such as sensors into aeronautics can also bring environmental. filters for purifying air and water etc.2 EHS risks Environment. Health benefits can arise from incorporating nanosensors monitoring on board air and water quality. The focus is on response to engineered nanoscale materials explicitly intended for application in the aeronautics or space sectors. the possibility of free engineered nanoparticle release from standard shop floor processing.org/millennium/nanotechrd2.doc 121 . health and safety benefits. Health and Safety aspects of nanomaterials in different applications including aerospace applications were the topic of a Delphi study carried out in the AC/UNU Millennium project (Glenn and Gordon. The general debate about EHS aspects of engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is also relevant to aerospace industry.Toxicology Northwest presented results of a release comparison study of simulated Boeing shop floor sanding a "control" composite versus a nano modified composite. round 2 : www. On the other hand. integrating nanosensors networks in composite materials to monitor structural integrity of the hull. 2005). Relevant news and publications can be found elsewhere at the Nanoforum site or through other media. Environmental benefits include less use of energy and materials.
(Boeing. fruits etc). first in landing gear components. The EHS risk potential of nanotechnology applied in aeronautics outlined by Boeing reflects the general global nanosafety research agenda. humans and animals. stealthy Erosion of these nanoparticles make them inhalable by staff but also by the general population Nanopollution in the environment and contamination of the environment (vegetables. Boeing Phantom Works and several subcontractors are working on a composite recycling project for carbon fibre composites from aircraft since 2003. such markets were identified and it became interesting for Boeing to develop recycling schemes. Carbon fibre composites have been applied in aircraft since the early 1990s. Lux Research (2006) does not see indications of any EHS issues with nanostructured metals.” (Garner. These composites do not contain nanomaterials.Nanoparticles as surface coverage to make it harder. but a similar recycling process could perhaps eventually be found useful for carbon nanotube composites. Industrial sectors such as Aerospace and Automotive have articulated similar needs as the Chemical industry on “joint nanotechnology research needs which would enable the correlation and prediction of nanostructure and properties from synthetic conditions. Health and Safety implications. smoother.03 responsible for Nanotechnology Environmental & Occupational Health & Safety. but were not recycled due to a lack of a market for the scrap materials. Boeing is represented by their Environmental Assurance group on the ASTM International Subcommittee E56. Since the late 1990s. The contamination can also infect drinkable water and fish Boeing (2005) expects future nanotechnology applications in aeronautics and aerospace in 10-15 years and considers now a good time to investigate Environment. 2005) Nanostructured metals have been applied in aerospace since the 1990s. The life cycle should be assessed to be sure. An aerospace and defence company was the first to be audited. 2006) The general research agenda for EHS aspects of engineered nanomaterials is also applicable to applications in aerospace. Lux Research and a toxicology consultant are offering an EHS audit service aiming to raise awareness among nanotech start ups and other companies of these issues. because only the grain size of crystals inside a metal matrix is of nanodimensions. 2006) 122 . (Thayer.
cabin staff and passengers don’t spend more than some hours at a time in a commercial aircraft. Modifications of the surface of nanomaterials can alter biochemical reactivity and should be reflected in calculations of absorbed and effective dose. not chronic exposure. including the need for global monitoring of environmental conditions and better understanding and calibration of 123 . satellites or other objects in earth orbits which may fall out of orbit or collide with each other in space.1 Health risks Health impacts of nanomaterials are the most pressing concern in spacecraft. and new in vitro tests may be necessary to predict novel in vivo behaviour.3 Environmental benefits Applications of nanotechnology in aerospace are expected to lead to potential benefits for the environment. Standardized dosing protocols have yet to be established. the need for specific studies on the human response to nanomaterials highlights another research challenge: the limited availability of well-characterized material in sufficient quantity. and duration of exposure.2. because astronauts can spend months inside a spacecraft. 2004).. and assesses acute exposure.7. Any surface modification has the potential to strongly influence the material’s reactivity.. whereas pilots. The last factor is the main source of chronic adverse health effects. 7. complexity. The magnitude of the protective response is generally proportional to the magnitude. Studies have shown that modifying the surface of nanomaterials with surfactants or biocompatible polymers (e.2. not in vivo. Piotr Tucholka (2002) presented some “Major challenges for environmental studies”. These findings indicate there may be many ways to reduce the health risk for astronauts who are expected to spend considerable lengths of time in a spacecraft. most current research is performed in vitro. In general.. Development of new test methods to evaluate novel behaviour of nanomaterials in vivo. These benefits include reduced fuel consumption. Consequently. In the past. polyethylene glycol) reduces the toxicity in vitro (Derfus et al.g. accidents caused by re-entry of satellites have been reported occasionally.2 Safety risks Potential risks may in the long term occur due to more futuristic applications of nanotechnology in aerospace such as accidents with the proposed space elevator. 2004) and alters the half-life and tissue deposition in vivo (Ballou et al. 7. more environmentally sound coatings and on-board environmental control sensors.
2006) An important aspect is the environmental control.g. including waste and air emissions reductions. The Canadian government is investing $3. the use of POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes) may result in zero volatile organic compound (VOC) coating development. However. this potential environmental benefit may be limited by rebound effects. Spacecraft have closedloop environments with the ability to reclaim air and wastewater. No details are disclosed. (Ellen et al. 2006). The company Integran will develop nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorous coatings and deposition process technologies as an environmentally friendly alternative for the current hard chrome plating process used for coating landing gear and jet engine components. lower energy consumption due to nano-surface treatment for environmental benefits. like those used in petroleum well monitoring are adapted or adaptable to environmental problems…” Light and strong nanomaterials (e. 2005) Boeing (2005) foresees EHS benefits due to applications of nanotechnology. Dastoors. if the lighter planes.g. 2005) Airbus is also interested in nanotechnology for enhancing the environmental friendliness of their airframes. in turn. Environmental sensors distributed throughout the ship keep track of contaminants in the air and water (Meyyappan. carry a heavier load of passengers and cargo. 124 .4 million in development of new nanotechnology based coatings for aerospace. “Dave Whelan. commented he believes that it will make possible: ‘Specialised coatings so that planes don’t need repainting’.space based observations and their relation to parameters of the objects. He believed “nano. (at that time) Boeing Phantom Works General Manager. (CCN Matthews. (Woelcken et al. Several already existing applications.and micro technologies are well-suited to provide significant improvements in these applications.” Other advantages mentioned are not specific for the aerospace sector. 2003) This may help reduce aircraft fuel consumption. along with other materials such as carbon-fibre reinforced plastics or alumina-based materials. Also. Some other beneficial applications have already been mentioned in earlier chapters such as alternative energy sources for aircraft and spacecraft. advancing more environmentally sound technologies. (Mulcair. e. polymer nanocomposites) may be applied to produce lighter aircraft.
Carbon nanotubes embedded in composites can be used as an artificial nervous system. Embedded micro and nanosensors for measuring structural integrity can be included in future generation aircraft structural components. 125 . Safety of people on the ground and the environment can profit from improved disaster management by earth observation and satellite communication. 2006) and other MNT-based sensors (Blue Road Research. nanosensors and smart materials can improve safety for the people on board considerably. By running an electrical current through the web of nanotubes. Health and Safety aspects of nanomaterials and nanodevices for aerospace applications will have to be part of the existing legislative framework for the aeronautics and space sectors. 2006) 7.5 Safety benefits Nanomaterials and devices are expected to enhance the safety of aircraft and spacecraft. micro cracks in the material can be detected. The nanotubes make up only 0. These sensors incorporate dendrimers. 2006).15% of the material and are evenly distributed through the composite. (Thostenson. Especially on commercial aircraft. The existing relevant European Union policies and legislative framework is summarised below. or in the form of life support systems in spacecraft and possibly also aircraft.7. Solutions include cantilever-based MEMS (Waitz.6 EHS Regulation Regulating Environment.4 Health benefits Health benefits can occur if nanomaterials can replace toxic materials currently applied in aerospace. (Flinn. Scientists at Michigan University Ann Arbor’s Centre for Biologic Nanotechnology are developing nanosensors for monitoring the health impact of space radiation on astronauts. Safety of people on board can profit from application of vibration and flame resistant nanomaterials and nanosensor networks embedded in composite materials. 2005) Katrin and Harald Kneipp of Harvard University have proposed nanosensors for astronaut health monitoring based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (Kneipp & Kneipp. also Kneipp et al. The ultimate vision for nanotechnology in astronaut health management is to provide a quality of medical care regardless of the duration of the space mission. 2006) 7.
The EC is in favour of developing green aircraft according to the thematic strategy on air pollution (EC. “aeronautical products should be subject to certification to verify that they meet essential airworthiness and environmental protection requirements relating to civil aviation… in line with standards set by the Chicago Convention”. There is currently no formal cooperation between the two ISO committees ISO/TC 229 for nanotechnologies and ISO/TC 20 for 126 . A broad set of common safety standards is enforced with the help of the European aviation agency EASA.” (EC. 2007-2012) and proposing legislation to include the aviation sector in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (end of 2006). 2006. Air transport accounts for 9% of EU oil consumption. and will likely apply also to aerospace. On 19 October 2006. It includes strategies to stimulate higher energy efficiency of aviation through the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research project (SESAR. In the Dutch standards committee dealing with nanotechnology. The EC aims to reduce this dependence on oil supplies through innovative energy efficiency and alternative energy solutions. 2005).The European Commission has reviewed and updated its Transport policy mid 2006. it is necessary to develop aircraft designs which better protect the safety and health of passengers. making engines more efficient. The EC wants to reduce environmental impacts whilst maintaining the competitiveness of the sector. The EU aims to be a world leader in sustainable transport solutions. “Although airlines have reduced fuel consumption by 1-2% per passenger-kilometre in the last decade and noise emission from aircraft has declined significantly. by innovation. The aviation industry is consolidating at European level. p 8) The EU is a major world player in air transport equipment. intelligent transport systems and engine technology providing increased fuel efficiency and promoting the use of alternative fuels. the overall environmental impact of civil aviation has increased due to buoyant growth in traffic… greenhouse gas emissions from air transport have grown by over 4% per year in the last decade. Currently. This is the general situation. no representatives of aerospace participate. EU innovation policy under FP7 includes the greening of air transport. the EC has presented an Action Plan on energy efficiency. This action plan builds upon the EC Communication on Climate Change and Aviation (2005) including proposals to give research into ‘greener’ technology the highest priority in FP7 and working in ICAO on developing more stringent technical design standards to reduce aircraft emissions at the source. “In order to respond to increasing concerns over the health and welfare of passengers during flights. safety and security in transport. too little is probably known about the impacts of nanotechnology to determine if current regulations are sufficient.” (EC regulation 1592/2002) In 2006.
policies and codes of practice. Their implications and effectiveness will be discussed. (Source Ivo van der Werff.aerospace. results will be published at http://www. Ways in which existing legislation is applied to the macroscale counterparts of nanoparticles will also be examined. The discussion about nanotechnology is starting in aerospace norms and standard setting circles. In the EU funded NANOTOX–project. and Dutch companies are involved in it. The European debate takes place in ECSS. Potential specific EHS risks of nanotechnology applied in aerospace must be addressed in toxicology research and the development of specific exposure scenarios for the aeronautics and space sectors. which have been put in place or are under development.” 7. for the safe production and use of nanoparticles will be produced. at international and European level. ethical issues.org/impartnanotox/nanotox_summary.impartnanotox. international and European standards. policies and codes of practice. NEN.7 Conclusion To conclude. the discussion and investigation of EHS risks and benefits of engineered nanomaterials and nanodevices in aerospace is barely getting off the ground. policies. These are currently focused on general toxicology and exposure scenarios in the workplace and exposure of the environment and the human body. Exposure 19 This project runs from 1 February 2005 until 31 January 2007. ethics. will be assessed and reviewed. and codes of practise. Current research agenda’s for risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials intended for application in aerospace are relevant.19 This implies the following: “Standards. It is not yet clear if there will be a need for nanospecific norms. legislation. October 2006). There seems to be a need for complementing these plans with additional life cycle analysis of the materials intended for use in aerospace applications. legislation.” “All potential impacts revealed by this Specific Support Action (SSA) will be documented in the final report and disseminated via the specialised web pages on the NANOFORUM web site. legislation. these are likely to be applied also to individual sectors including aerospace. Guidelines and recommendations for the institution of future European standards.html 127 . health and safety related to nanomaterials for applications in all sectors including aerospace are framed. ethical issues.” The project aims “to survey national. There is a need for identifying the main possible concerns and opportunities. When the first nano-norms appear. personal communication.
pilots. between the relevant ISO Technical Committees. may be accompanied by increased environmental. e. 128 . scenarios must be developed and used to decide on research priorities and regulation. health and safety benefits of nanotechnology in aerospace. Whether international regulations could ever prevent potential future disasters is problematic. Specific for aerospace applications. Relevant regulations should not be limited to airworthiness criteria. health and safety risks. cabin personnel and passengers must be developed. To obtain the optimal environment. but also promote the use of Best Available (environmental) Techniques under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control policy of the EU. Safe usage of engineered nanomaterials in aerospace requires employing strict control on atmospheric nanoparticle release from aircraft in the atmosphere because the nanoparticles could easily be distributed widely over the Earth’s surface. health and safety is urgently needed. which. a lighter weight aircraft might be admired for its lower fuel consumption but it could also be considered a potential risk source if its nano modified materials should in any way release free engineered nanoparticles. The novelty of nanoscale materials arises from the fact that with the size decrease the properties of the materials change. The public acceptance of some EHS aspects of nanotechnology in aerospace may be ambivalent. however.g. For example. This is true for all applications of engineered nanoscale materials including aerospace and is being addressed worldwide. Development of instruments and methods for nanomaterials characterisation considered crucial for testing impacts on environment.scenarios due to release of engineered nanomaterials in the air at high altitudes and in the cabin environment are also needed. as well as life cycle assessments of the nanomaterials applied in aircraft and spacecraft to identify possible environmental exposure scenarios. exposure scenarios of astronauts. Communication between parties involved in standardisation of the aerospace sector and of nanotechnology also needs improvement.
Nanotechnology is one of the first emerging technologies where policy makers and researchers have initiated a deliberately constructed. because they can enable activities which were not possible or too expensive before. Legal and Social Aspects 8. which can be used on a larger scale for earth monitoring. as has been demonstrated in many case studies in the field of Science. we will not review all the literature on ethical. E.1 Introduction Society and new technologies mutually influence each other’s development. 129 . or autonomous systems for exploring other planets. as discussed in chapter 7. since space travel and commercial uses of outer space in satellites. Or nanotechnology may enable better life support systems in space stations and spacecraft. space tourism and other activities are more recent than large-scale air travel and transport. stimulating longer astronauts’ missions. Issues like the use of outer space and ownership claims are still not regulated and the potential risks of human activities and the deployment of human-made technologies in outer space are highly uncertain and not addressed in any systematic way. most developments focus on reducing the environmental burden of air travel and on improving on-board safety and health. Legal and Social Aspects or Implications of a new science and technology area in an unprecedented early phase of development.org for an overview of relevant developments and publications. legal and social aspects of nanotechnology in general. microsystems and nanotechnologies can enable small satellites.g.20 In this chapter. In the aeronautic sector. large scale systematic research programme on Ethical. Technology & Society (STS).nanoforum. but focus on the relevant issues and regulatory framework for nanotechnology applications in aeronautics and especially outer space.Chapter 8: Ethical. Most of the issues and discussions are likely to focus on outer space. nanotechnology will change current practices and norms and values governing the air transport and space sectors. The development and eventual uptake of aerospace applications of nanotechnology is influenced on the one hand by the parallel development of the regulatory framework for the space and also the air transport sectors in general as these nanomaterials and devices will have to conform to these more general regulations. 20 See Nanoforum (2005) or click the button “More” followed by “Society Issues” on top of the webpage www. On the other hand.
the rights of observed countries vs. . b) Interest of manned flights.phpURL_ID=6353&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201. d) Risks of abuse of dominant position by space actors.g. property).The 1979 agreement about the moon and other celestial bodies. (UNESCO. e) Responsibility in case of catastrophe. .21 21 See UNESCO website: http://portal.International cooperation (1996). .unesco. 8.The 1975 convention on registration of space objects. .satellite TV (1982). . The UN assembly declarations cover the following aspects: . The treaties are: .use of nuclear devices (1992). We conclude with some suggestions for further research. UNESCO proposes to incorporate ethical guidelines in the existing framework of UN outer space treaties and declarations.The 1972 convention on international liability for space damages.legal principles (1963). . UNESCO highlights some new issues which need to be discussed in particular: a) Motivation and interest of space conquest. iv) Determination of the status of data (e. Scientific and Cultural Organisation’s (UNESCO) World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology is working on an international instrument on the ethics of outer space.remote sensing (1986). including the moon and other celestial bodies (outer space treaty). ii) limits of outer space. In general.org/shs/en/ev. See also Detlev Wolter (2006). Then we review some early literature exploring potential ethical. . iii) Arbitrage between confidentiality and collective security (related to info-ethics). legal and social implications of nanotechnology applied in outer space and aeronautics.In this chapter. p 12) Some of these treaties are limiting arms and military uses of outer space.html 130 . we first review current developments in European and international regulations governing the space sector which are relevant for nanotechnology. c) How to decide on ethical questions regarding outer space: i) Nuclear power in space. .The 1968 treaty on return and rescue of astronauts.The 1967 treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space.2 Regulations The United Nations Educational. 2004.
The European Union (EU) is developing a European Space Policy. but that “export of sensitive or advanced technical data. The EU space policy includes international collaborations including “aspects of international trade ‘fair competition’ and market access through the regulatory environment (WTO. systems. export controls.html 131 . national space agencies and other organisations. shall be approved only rarely.23 The US President established the White House’ new National Space Policy on 31 August 2006.europa. The communication envisages at least five scenarios for developing a legal framework and recommends assessing all of them. implying that technologies which are or will soon be available on the world market can be exported freely. in which the current principles of governance in space can evolve. which seem to imply that the US reserves the right to protect their own national security in space.eu/enterprise/space/themes/inter_cooperation_en. technologies and components. legal and technological components of space affairs. the roles of EU.europa. allocations of frequencies and orbital slots within the International Telecommunications Union).html See: http://ec. They are also developing a regulatory and institutional framework. The European Commission has published a Communication on European Space Policy – Preliminary Elements in May 2005 (European Commission. China and Israel. They declare the conduct of US space programs and activities a top priority. guided by a number of principles. At the same time they will oppose the development of new legal regimes. other restrictions or arms control agreements restricting US activities.”22 The EU is coordinating a common European – United Nations position on the political. The scenarios deal with who should take the lead in managing and funding regulations and space activities. the United States (US). member states. ESA. licensing. the strategic benefits of space can be recognised and ESA can be maintained as Europe’s pole of excellence. These items include systems engineering and systems integration capabilities and techniques or enabling components or 22 23 See: http://ec. As part of the strategy they do intend to encourage international cooperation with foreign nations and/or consortia on space activities that are of mutual benefit and that further the peaceful exploration and use of space as well as US national interests. 2005). while denying adversaries the use of space capabilities hostile to the US national interests.eu/enterprise/space/themes/inter_cooperation_en. The aim is to develop a strategy for space technology development coordinating the activities of the EU. on a caseby-case basis. The policy includes effective export policies. European Space Agency (ESA) and EU Member states as well as other countries including Russia.
ESTP proposes to continue this ECI and develop similar “buy European” programmes for other critical space components. Flight Opportunities. in particular concerning extrapolations into the future. guiding visions. The current developments of international and national space policies as described above are of course on the table of the politicians and are not easily influenced by researchers working on nanotechnology. Also who is responsible for space debris is not settled. these political developments determine the boundaries in between which the researchers have to do their work on developing nanotechnology for applications in aerospace. export policy restrictions. a short course has been held on “International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) – Intergovernmental agreements. Researchers must be aware of their responsibility. which apply to satellite technology and all electronic and other space components or subassemblies. René Oosterlinck (2006). 2006. ESA has started a European Components Initiative in 2004. The current legislation is ambiguous on several aspects including mineral exploration on asteroids and intellectual property rights for research in space. 5% from other countries and 35% are made in the EU. as demonstrated by recent discussions at the CANEUS 2006 conference in Toulouse. About 60% of the electronic components and equipment needed for a typical satellite are imported from the US. This is the case since 1999. The Strategic Research Agenda of the European Space Technology Platform (ESTP. Standards. 2006) Among the goals of expert control policies for sensitive goods is to block or slow down access to militarily relevant equipment. On the other hand. explained developments in space law. such as in the International Space Station. France. The EU has since developed a strategy of “non-dependence”: having unrestricted access to any required space technology from European or other suppliers. The EU is party to many such arrangements. which aims for standardisation of small 132 .technologies with capabilities significantly better than those achievable by current or near-term foreign systems. when the US Congress transferred responsibility for satellite technology from the Commerce department to the State Department. During this conference. aiming to reduce substantially the dependence on components subject to US export restrictions. Safety. Environmental. while maintaining the quality of the European technologies.” The main focus was on US expert restrictions on defence related technologies as applicable to Microsystems and Nanotechnologies for aerospace. etc. ESA director of external relations. Researchers do exert some influence on policy makers. p 37) also mentions these ITAR restrictions. During the abovementioned CANEUS 2006 conference an NPS industry working group was installed.” (US White House. He pleads for a review.
The second group is a very long term concern. in the case of sending out autonomous “thinking” systems to other planets and who is responsible for what they do there. Legal and Social Aspects Most Ethical.3 Ethical.wtec. as opposed to air travel and terrestrial policies. 25 October 2006. The first group is a more immediate concern. Smith includes several positive opportunities of nanotechnology for outer space exploration.5 on “Social. Legal and Social issues are related to outer space. and nanotechnology can only be a factor in making them smaller. These implications should be viewed in the context of decades.g. legal and social issues is reviewed below. security and safety of humans and our earthly society and environment. starting with the question of the adaptation of humankind to outer space. using other planets as quarantined nanotechnology test beds. treaties and legislation to govern human activities in outer space as has been reviewed above. There is also largely an issue of risk. carrying out risky experiments in outer space or attempts at terraforming other planets.Societal. 2) Ethical implications of applications of nanotechnology in planetary and outer space exploration.org/loyola/nano/NSET. because the earth observation and communication satellites are already there. We show progress in the discussion by briefly summarising relevant literature in chronological order. Societal implications of nanotechnologies and studies needed are outlined in section 6.pdf 133 . including reduction of the payload to energy ratio which may enable new missions. How we structure nanotechnology related outer space use today will influence development for decades. The more detailed discussion of how the uptake of nanotechnology in aerospace may lead to new ethical.Implications/nanosis65. and the determination of the possibility of contamination either of or 24 http://www. Ethical and Legal Implications of Nanotechnology” of the US National Science Foundation (NSF) report on Societal implications of nanotechnology (Roco & Bainbridge. 2001). The first meeting has been in Montreal. 2006) 8. The international community is currently in the process of developing ethical declarations. UNESCO mentions Nanotechnology explicitly as a bioethical issue in its work on the ethics of outer space: “Specific bioethical issues may be raised by experiences in outer space. e. (Caneus.satellites. cheaper and increasing their use.24 Richard H. These issues can be divided in two groups: 1) Implications for privacy. but nevertheless discussed already by proponents as well as opponents. and considering terraforming other planets.
this might apply to small satellites.Autonomous “thinking” spacecraft . if used for anti-satellite attack.” “Exceptions should be strictly defined and narrowly limited … they could concern exploration of celestial bodies. affordable aviation . 2004. (UNESCO. Jürgen Altmann (2006) proposes preventive arms control on nanotechnologies which may be used for military applications. 2006) One can imagine that the potential development of autonomous “thinking” spacecraft invokes ethical concerns. 2006. He proposes a “general prohibition of small mobile (partly) artificial systems below a certain size limit (0. p 10-11) The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Grand Challenges for nanotechnology in Aerospace are: . The debate about ethical aspects of human enhancement.or micro robots for exploration of the moon. much of military as well as civilian R&D takes place in the same institutions and firms. p 167) foresees the deployment of mini. He includes explicitly civil nanotechnology developments in aviation (aeronautics). “With respect to Nanotechnology. in the military and the civilian sector. (Altmann. “In aviation. with knowledge flowing in both directions.5 metres) in all media. 2006. would counteract the general ban on space weapons that the international community has striven for since decades. p 136) He warns for two military uses of swarms of small satellites: observation and detection of targets on earth guiding attacks. There is a need for a comprehensive ban on space weapons. “cheap production of hundreds or thousands could lead to diffusion to uses on earth”. The compatibility of life science experiments in outer space and their return to Earth should also be studied.Safe. This has been demanded nearly unanimously by all recent UN General Assemblies. If “swarms of centimetre size flying or crawling robots for moon and planet investigation” were developed. p 139-140) Altmann (2006.Human exploration and colonisation of outer space . planets and asteroids. human-machine interactions and artificial life is in general emerging. a significant number could be allowed for civil Earth monitoring or space research if subject to intensive licensing and inspection procedures while military satellites would be strictly limited. 134 . or attacks to other satellites in orbit. 2006.” (Altmann.” He proposes technical limitations and licensing procedures to prevent misuse.” He proposes to prevent misuse of civilian R&D for military purposes by strong verification rights.from outer space.” (Altmann. This issue is also linked to the ethical concerns raised by nanotechnology”. p 132) “Small and/or more autonomous satellites.Evolution of Universe and Life (NASA. allowing independent inspectors to control compliance on site.2 to 0.
Security measures are inherently ambiguous. The uptake of nanotechnology in outer space is in the short time likely to strengthen the urgency of existing ethical concerns such as privacy. In the long term nanotechnology may lead to new ethical concerns caused by new human initiated activities on other planets or even outside our solar system. We propose some suggestions for further research: Current and proposed projects on Ethical. He predicts that applications of nanotechnology in space may enable such a new colonialism and land-grab. as miniaturisation will lead to cheaper and more abundant satellites orbiting earth. therefore we had to make this distinction in the present report. security and safety of people and the environment on earth. The way out of this dilemma is agreed international limitation with verification of compliance. Legal and Social Aspects of science or on Ethics of Science focusing on nanotechnology and on aerospace (aeronautics as well as outer space) should be further reviewed to explore issues in the boundary area between them which are currently overlooked. The debate on such longer term but not unprecedented developments is barely emerging.4 Conclusion Current developments in international and national politics and negotiations on international treaties and declarations are in progress in small parts of especially the space sector. 8. Researchers in nanotechnology for aerospace are forced to take these boundary conditions into account in planning their research and in selecting partners in other countries. 135 . Such additional research should not distinguish between military and civilian research as this distinction does not really exist in the aerospace sector. it often decreases the security of others. administration and security. Even though he mentions nanotechnology. Patrick Lin (2006) explores potential ethical issues of space exploration. While carried out in the interest of one’s own security.25 Subsequently. the argumentation is more general space ethics. including the rationale to explore space in the first place. new 25 The Nanoforum contract precludes covering military activities. but the development and uptake of nanotechnology in aerospace is fenced in and guided by these global political developments. These developments are only to a limited extent influenced by nanotechnology. such that these developments should be regulated from the start to avoid conflicts related to fundamental property rights. leading to arms races and decreased stability (security dilemma).
These are becoming available first in military. aerospace applications and social. Educational programs at schools and universities are needed which combine nanosciences. legal and ethical aspects.- - research projects should be initiated which focus on newly identified issues of major concern to society. but may also be appropriated by terrorists in the longer term. The first type of programmes should educate the nanotechnology and aerospace workforce. Two types of programmes should be developed. Mini.and micro-aircraft are becoming available for military uses. An inventory of regulations on aeronautics should also be prepared in addition to the list of outer space treaties. nanotechnologies. and later in civilian air traffic. 136 . The second type of outreach activities should enhance public awareness of the potential benefits and risks of nanoscience and technology including those specific for aerospace applications. A main new topic for nanotechnology use in air traffic could be crewless aircraft.
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