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Nanotechnology in Aerospace
Nanotechnology in Aerospace
www.nanoforum.org February 2007 Editor: Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation Authors: Janusz D. Fidelus, Witold Lojkowski, Laboratory of Nanocrystalline Materials, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Science; Małgorzata Lewandowska, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology; Dariusz Bielinski, Faculty of Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 2) Holger Hoffschulz, VDI-TZ GmbH; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 3) Aline Charpentier, CEA-LETI – Minatec; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 4) Kshitij Singh, Mark Morrison, IoN; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 5, 6) Ana Proykova, MCG, University of Sofia; Ineke Malsch, Malsch TechnoValuation (chapter 7, 8) Acknowledgement: Reviewers: Thierry Jamin, CNES (chapter 4) Christien Enzing, TNO; Paul E. Rempes, Environmental Assurance, Boeing St. Louis, MO, USA (chapter 7), Patrick Lin, Nanoethics; Jürgen Altmann, University of Bochum (chapter 8).
This Nanoforum report is downloadable from the network Website at www. government and financial institutions across Europe. METU (Turkey). Please notify the editor in case any reference is missing. No responsibility is assumed by Nanoforum for errors.nanoforum. grant number G5RT-CT-2002-05084). Spinverse (Finland). The contents of this report are the responsibility of the authors. Nanoforum provides a resource for business. Nanoforum is an information source for the European Community that unites disciplines and countries. Care has been taken to include references to the original source for all information included in the report.org About Nanoforum Nanoforum is a thematic network funded by the European Commission. 3 . Sofia University (Bulgaria). Malsch TechnoValuation (Netherlands). aiming to promote and raise the standard of nanotechnology activities throughout Europe. research. Unipress (Poland). BIT (Austria) and NanoNed (The Netherlands). Nanoforum comprises a consortium of leading European nanotechnology organisations led by the Institute of Nanotechnology (UK) and including VDI Technologiezentrum (Germany).Nanoforum is a thematic network funded by the European Commission's under the Fifth Framework Programme (Growth programme. CEA-LETI (France). This report content is based on information collected and supplied to Nanoforum in good faith by external sources believed to be accurate. inaccuracies or omissions.
“Nanotechnology in Consumer Products”. • 6th Nanoforum General Report: “European Nanotechnology Infrastructure and Networks”. Ethical. • 8th Nanoforum General Report: “Nanometrology”. “Human enhancement from different perspectives”. published in December 2005. • 3rd Nanoforum General Report: “Nanotechnology and its implications for the health of the EU citizen”.nanoforum. published in January 2007. Risks. • 7th Nanoforum General Report: “European Support for Nanotechnology Small and Medium Sized Enterprises”. “Education in the Field of Nanoscience”. first edition published in June 2004. “Risk governance in nanotechnology”. Series Socio-Economic reports: • “VC Investment opportunities for small innovative companies. updated in December 2003 and April 2004. • 5th Nanoforum General Report: “Education Catalogue for Higher Education in Nanotechnology”.The present report is a publication of Nanoforum.org Series: Nanoforum General Reports: • 1st Nanoforum General Report: “Nanotechnology helps solve the world’s energy problems”. published in July 2006. published in July 2005. published in December 2005. published in December 2005. published in September 2004. Other more specific Nanoforum publications: “Nanotechnology in the EU – Bioanalytic and Biodiagnostic Techniques”. • 4th Nanoforum General Report: “Benefits. updated in July 2006. “Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food”. published in September 2006. first edition published in December 2003. “Nanotechnology and Construction”. published online at www. Who’s who and research priorities”. published in November 2006. published in January 2007. “Funding and Support for International Nanotechnology Collaborations”. published in April 2006. first edition published in July 2003. published in March 2005. “Intellectual property in the nanotechnology economy”.” April 2003 4 . • 2nd Nanoforum General Report: “Nanotechnology in the New EU Member States and Candidate Countries. first edition published in July 2003. published in November 2006. updated in October 2005. Nanoforum and European Commission: “Outcome of the Open Consultation on the European Strategy for Nanotechnology”. published in October 2006. updated in November 2003 and September 2005. Legal and Social Aspects of Nanotechnology”.
30 and 31 March. Series background studies to policy seminars: • “Nanotechnology in the Nordic Region”. October 2004. • “Nano-Scotland from a European perspective”. • Report from the ‘Nano and the environment’ workshop. November 2003. Brussels.• • “Socio-economic report on Nanotechnology and Smart Materials for Medical Devices”. December 2003. 5 . 2006. “SME participation in EU research programmes”. July 2003. published in May 2006.
and high performance polymer nanocomposite resins. metallic materials and polymer nanocomposites. This chapter is written from the perspective of materials scientists and includes information on trends in materials and production processes. The focus is on Carbon Nanotube reinforced polymers. as this falls outside the mandate of Nanoforum. Aircraft companies are investigating new 6 . We explicitly exclude any military R&D and applications. Our target audiences are twofold: non-experts of an academic level with a general interest in the potential of nanotechnology for aerospace applications. this production technology must be developed further before it can be applied in industrial production. nanofibre / carbon nanotube filled polymer composites. and experts involved in setting the strategic R&D agenda in this field. Chapter 3 presents a review of the state of the art of nanotechnology for aeronautics applications and analysis of future trends. antistatic and electrical properties. This chapter should be helpful to decision makers in the EU. national governments. Relevant projects are ongoing. Carbon Nanotube reinforced polymers are investigated for aerospace applications because of their good strength to weight ratio. There are three relevant types of polymer nanocomposites: layered silicate (clay). and public and private R&D labs aiming to set priorities in R&D or funding programmes. corrosion and wear resistance and other benefits of nanometals compared to other metals. Much research is still needed before real applications in aerospace can be expected. The new nanometal production technology Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) promises higher strength.Chapter 1 Executive summary and introduction This 9th Nanoforum General report presents a concise introduction and contribution to the expert debate on trends in nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for applications in the civil aeronautics and space sectors in Europe. Chapter 2 reviews current trends in materials R&D on some selected materials for applications in aeronautics and space. flame and vibration resistance. these materials must find application by 2009 in sectors other than those of high value. For cost-effective production. We limit ourselves to civil aviation and airplanes. Layered silicate polymer nanocomposites are investigated for a wide range of applications including flame retardant panels and high performance components in aerospace. such as aerospace. Nanometals are investigated for their hardness and suitability in hard coatings. Aerospace applications of high performance polymer nanocomposite resins need the successful incorporation of the nanoparticles in thermoset resins. Carbon nanotube filled polymer composites are still in the research phase but are seen as promising for aerospace applications. This chapter may be most interesting for materials scientists or those who intend to apply nanomaterials in aerospace applications. However.
This chapter may be most interesting to researchers and policy makers in nanotechnology and in aeronautics research. conservative attitude in the industry and need for industrial scale production processes contribute to a longer time to market than in other sectors. The space sector deals with all technologies needed for travelling outside the earth atmosphere. National ambitions to explore outer space drive the quest for more autonomous systems as well as better life support for astronauts. Nanotechnology can be applied in new materials. in electronics may be especially attractive for space applications. Onboard electronics must in addition be radiation resistant. but there is clear interest from the industry. Two developments in space are driving technology developments. electronics and energy supply for future spacecraft. Technologies are also being developed for existing issues such as radiation protection. Airbus and British Aerospace are collaborating with universities and research centres on projects to develop nanotechnology for aerospace. science payloads and futuristic visions such as the space elevator. Nanotechnology is currently not incorporated in aircraft. health and safety regulations. Leading companies including Boeing. Uptake of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics in aircraft may be slower than in other sectors. extreme and varying temperatures and improved engines. coatings. Spacecraft electronics can benefit from the fast innovation in the electronics industry sector. international space station and planetary missions. They are being investigated for uptake in aircraft on a large scale. thus incorporating carbon nanotubes which are relatively radiation resistant. sensors.materials for application in airplanes to accommodate the expected growth in passenger numbers of 5% per year for the coming 20 years and taking into account more stringent legislation including environmental. Chapter 4 presents a review of the state of the art of nanotechnology for spacecraft applications and analysis of future trends. These trends impose the objective of developing lighter materials with equal or improved robustness as current materials used in aerospace (corrosion resistance. electrical and optical characteristics as well as strength and cost effectiveness. engines. Commercial activities making use of space require cost and weight reduction. Nanomaterials and nanoelectronics can be applied in airframes and components. rockets. ability to be repaired). Efficient energy generation and storage is very 7 . damage tolerance. This includes satellites. Space research is more focused on applied electronics such as sensors. Nanomaterials are being investigated for their thermal. Foreseen benefits include cost reduction. electrical and electronic components and hardware and other applications. reduced environmental burden and enhanced passenger comfort. Research focuses on nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes for mixing into polymers and composites. The stringent safety requirements. but is expected to enter the market in the coming years. A bottleneck for the uptake of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics in spacecraft is the need to develop efficient characterisation and modelling tools for testing the materials and devices. and smart materials.
The main trend in research is the quest to build more integrated and smaller nano/pico satellites. subsystems and systems. there is a need to educate sufficient numbers of qualified scientists and engineers to work in R&D for the aerospace sector in Europe. Satellites can be used for scientific observation of the earth or universe and for communication. and batteries. 5-10 and 1015 years in space devices. processing and transmission. These technologies are mainly developed for the electronics and medical sectors and adapted for application in space. safety and air transport efficiency. SMEs in the supply chain will have to implement performance enhancing practices. These technical requirements address quality and affordability. propulsion. Autonomous systems such as satellite swarms and nanorobotics may one day be used in exploring other planets. On a general level. Applications are foreseen in 0-5. air humidity and the health of the astronauts can benefit from nanotechnologies applied in gas storage. Nanotechnologies are attractive for the space sector as they enable a reduction in costs. novel space missions. To identify technical needs for future aeronautics. Relevant onboard nanotechnologies can be applied in airframes. Other nanotechnology research needs are in data storage. including propellants. Relevant nanotechnologies include carbon nanotube based sensors. Nanotechnologies can improve the existing energy generation and storage technologies. Another general issue is the lack of cooperation between companies and research organisations in aerospace and in nanotechnology. life support systems.important for rockets as well as other spacecraft. Nanotechnology may be applied in aircraft some twenty years after the technologies have been validated for airworthiness. nanosensors. systems and equipment. fuel cells and hydrogen storage. solar cells. and nanomaterials and thin films for 8 . The focus is on gaps in current research and needs for technical performance of available materials and devices which are critical enablers of future aeronautic and space systems. Chapter 5 summarises expressed needs for future R&D for nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for aeronautics and spacecraft. aircraft avionics. controlling temperature. Keeping the air breathable. fuel cells. New research needs for nanotechnology applications in space include nanomaterials for spacecraft structure and energy production and storage including solar cells. environment. maintaining a clean water supply. the goals set by the advisory council for aeronautic research in Europe in their Strategic Research Agenda are taken as reference. nanoparticles for imaging instruments and quantum information. Life support is becoming more important due to longer manned missions and space tourism. testing of new technologies in space and futuristic visions. security. waste water treatment and sensors. batteries and accumulators and capacitors. Futuristic visions include the space elevator based on a long cable spun from carbon nanotubes and space colonisation. This chapter may be most interesting for researchers and policy makers in nanotechnology and in the space sector.
Choices of priorities in nanotechnology R&D for space must be based on the technological readiness and applicability. The US aims for space exploration are in manned missions to the moon and Mars. propellants. with other important global players in Russia. the gossamer spacecraft and space solar power. The European Commission’s Aerospace policy (STAR21. Brazil. nano and pico satellites. Canada and Ukraine. SMEs provide services and additional expertise in R&D to major corporations. the space elevator. engine components. the US will decline and Asia will increase its market share. Chapter 6 consists of an economic analysis of the European aerospace sectors. The major manufacturers for aviation are Airbus in Europe and Boeing in the US. Airbus expects a need for 16. Space exploration and exploitation are seen as major goals for many countries.3% per year until 2023. The R&D is expected to take a decade before being implemented in spacecraft. batteries. This chapter may be most interesting for decision makers on future research priorities in nanotechnology and in aerospace. They have developed a strategic research agenda to accomplish this. Keeping sufficient qualified human capital and industrial companies in Europe requires a coordinated effort by the EU and member states. The European Space Agency intends to use new systems. Of these patents. The European Technology Platform ACARE states that the investment in R&D by the private sector in Europe is comparable to the US. Budgets amount to billions of euros per year.48 trillion. Research in nanotechnology for aerospace applications has already led to 62 patented inventions in materials. Russia still launches the most spacecraft. This chapter may be most interesting for industrialists and economic and innovation policymakers. 9 . The global market for airline passenger traffic is expected to increase 5. Europe’s market size is expected to remain constant. while the European public funding is only 25% of US public funding. and homeland security and defence. and intends to develop a new. reusable spacecraft and collaborate with the EU on satellite navigation and science and technology. The expected market size is €1. and electronics. surface treatment and coatings. Several EU funded projects support SME’s in the aerospace sector. new architectures and to explore technologies to reinvent the design of space missions. Visionary applications of nanotechnology in space include molecular nanotechnology and electronics for space.spacecraft. 2002) aims for a strong competitive position of Europe’s aerospace industry and for combined public and private funding for civil aeronautics of €100 billion by 2020. China has put a person in space. and wants to send missions to the moon. It is negotiating with Russia and the EU about space collaborations. Japan and India also have space policies. in smaller aircraft in the EU market and larger ones in Asia Pacific. 23 are registered in the USA and 17 in European countries.601 new passenger aircraft.
developments in aerospace and in nanoscience and nanotechnology enable new activities and systems which were not possible before. Potential benefits of nanotechnology in aerospace for the environment. the review of these issues in the framework of this report is very partial. Small satellites in earth orbit can be applied in telecommunication and earth observation for peaceful as well as security applications. legal and social aspects of nanotechnology in aerospace.Chapter 7 analyses the environment. The ethical. 10 . The debate on these aspects of engineered nanomaterials specific for applications in the aerospace sector is only just emerging. Chapter 8 analyses the ethical. legal and social implications of unmanned air and spacecraft need to be discussed. This chapter may be most interesting for risk assessment specialists and policymakers on nanoregulation. In the very long term. This chapter may be most interesting for nanoscience & society experts and policymakers in nanoregulation and public dialogue. and also investigates the legislative framework for aeronautics. space exploration may also be enabled by miniaturisation and nanotechnology. Education and outreach must include information and debate about ethical. Further research is needed which is not restricted to civilian applications. These “nanorisk” research projects which are starting now must be complemented with specific life-cycle analyses and exposure scenarios for applications in aircraft and spacecraft. health and safety aspects of nanotechnology for aerospace. better implementation strategies must be developed. General toxicology of engineered nanomaterials and occupational nanosafety issues are also applicable to the aerospace sector. legal and social aspects of nanotechnology for civilian aerospace. the current international treaties and national legislation governing the aeronautics and space sector impose boundaries on the nanoscience and nanotechnology research which can be done for aerospace applications. However. health and safety are also being discussed. On the other hand. To enhance the likelihood of positive impacts. On the one hand.
architectures & technologies to reinvent design of space missions (ch6) Aircraft weight half of current conventional (ch3. EU STAR21) 2023: 16. CNT based electronic noses. EHS regulations require (nano) innovations in aeronautics (ch3) >10 years Global & national aims: space exploration & exploitation (ch6) Aircraft passenger numbers will increase by 5%/year until 2023 (ch3.6) Nanotechnology applications in aerospace will enable new activities and require changes in legislation (ch8) Satellite on chip. colonisation. Level of integration Societal boundary conditions for nanotechnology in aerospace 0-5 years Current treaties and regulations guide nanotechnology R&D (ch8) Nanotoxicology and occupational nanosafety research ongoing (ch7) Impact of nanotechnology in aerospace on society Need to start life cycle analysis & exposure scenarios for aerospace applications of nanomaterials (ch7) Need action to stimulate EHS benefits of nanotechnology for aerospace (ch7) Nanotechnology applications in aerospace will enable new activities and require changes in legislation (ch8) Economic factors affecting nanotechnology uptake in aerospace Space budgets amount to billions of euros per year (ch6) EU stimulates SMEs in space sector (ch6) Technical system Nano/picosatellites (ch4) Russia: new reusable spacecraft (ch6) European public and private aeronautic R&D funding €100 billion by 2020 (ch6.48 trillion (ch6. Boeing.Table 1.1 summarising trends in the whole report. market size €1. NASA 2001) Space elevator. autonomous nanorobot swarm (ch4) Quantum devices for information management (ch4) 5-10 years More stringent regulations incl. Airbus) ESA: new systems.601 new aircraft needed. CNT based lab on a 2015: fuel cells for onboard aircraft systems (ch3. ch4) 11 . autonomous satellites swarm (ch4) Technical subsystem Black box using nanosensors.
CNT in transistors. MRAM (ch4) High performance polymer nanocomposite resins (ch2) Smart textiles (ch4) Material / component 2009: apply metallic materials in mass markets (ch2. value $2 billion (ch2.4) CNT reinforcing coatings. Freedonia. 2006) 2020: 40% of nanoclay/CNT polymer composites will be applied in aerospace (ch2. 2006) Smart materials. bio memory (ch4) 12 . CNT based imaging instruments (ch4) Industrial scale Severe Plastic Deformation process for metallic nanomaterials? (ch2) Need for lighter. CNT based memory. Freedonia. Lux 2006) 2006: 62 patented inventions of nanotech for aerospace (ch6) Clay-polymer nanocomposites for flame retardant panels and high performance components in aerospace (ch2) Nanoparticles reinforcing polymers and composites. drug delivery. stronger materials for aeronautics (ch3) CNT filled polymer composites (ch2.chip/biochip (ch4) Battery using nanoelements. nanoparticles in propellants (ch 4) 2020: over 163 million kg nanomaterials in composites. quantum dot solar cells.
........................................................... 54 4.............................................................7..............................6....................... 2 Chapter 1 Executive summary and introduction .... Nanoelements ...................4.....................2 Nanofibres/carbon nanotube in polymer nanocomposites ..... 40 4............1 Introduction........................2....................... 40 4.......2...........................1..............7........ 28 3................................................................................2 Advancement of Nanotube-Reinforced Composites.......................... 21 2........... 58 4......................3....5...7 Polymer Nanocomposites........................................ Airframe and components..........................5 The projects related to aircraft company business ..........1 Layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites ........................ 42 4...... 53 4.................................................................1............................... 18 2......2 Definitions ...............4.............................. Materials using nanoelements ......................................5.......................2......................... 50 4. 38 3..........4...................3........... Conclusion ....1.................3 high-performance PNCs resins ................3................1 Introduction......... Global life support. 39 3..7...... Life support ........................4.. 16 2..........................................................4 The advancement of severe plastic deformation ...................................... Coatings... Solar cells .... Electronics .............................. 22 2.....3.................................................................. 39 Chapter 4 Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Spacecraft ... 58 4.................... Energy generation and storage..................................................... 56 4.............. 37 3..3...................... 21 2................. Electrical/electronic components and hardware ..................... 16 2....7.........2 Materials . 34 3... 49 4.....3........................6 Publications and Conferences ............................ 22 2.......4.................................................. 36 3...............................................2. 23 2......... 20 2............................................................. 51 4................................................... Others .......... 19 2................................................................7................5.......... 59 13 .................. 55 4................................3.............. 43 4...4........... 6 Chapter 2 – Nanomaterials in Aerospace....................................................................5 Energy conclusion . 26 Chapter 3: Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Aeronautics....3............... Engines ..............3...................................... 30 3.... 49 4........................... 16 2.................................................1.......... 59 4............................................................1 Introduction .................................................1........... 45 4.......Table of contents: Nanotechnology in Aerospace ...... 17 2.......................................................................4........................... Sensors...7........................................................... Propellants .......2 Memories / Data storage..... Nanostructured metals ......................3 Classification .....2 Materials conclusion ...................7..................2.............................4 Electronics conclusion...........................3. Fuel cells ....... 20 2..................................1 Carbon nanotubes for transistors ............... 54 4....... Batteries ....1..4....
. 86 5.................... 68 4...............1...5 Environment..........12 Funding and investment.................5................................ 63 4........................ Space colonisation .................................................. Medical systems ...... Futuristic visions .......3............4 Data Storage.................... 86 5..9 Conclusion ................................................1.5......................1....7......................1.............. 86 5....... 85 5................................. 72 4.............................2...................... 80 5..... 100 5.......13 Policy.....................................6 Life support systems ............2. 111 6............ 81 5.................................................................... 80 5....9 Future concepts for Guidance & Control ......1..........1...............................................................................2..7 Quality and affordability.......2 Airframes ......................1 Aeronautics ................................ 81 5...................................... 74 4.........................................................................................15 SME .. 114 14 ....2. 89 5.....5 Sensors ..... 64 4................................. 105 6.......................................... Satellites / Science payloads ......3 Propulsion ..... 92 5..... 67 4. 83 5.............................................2..6...............6 Safety and Security............. 95 5............ 90 5.............2.....4. 75 4.......................... 77 Chapter 5: Summary of Needs in Aerospace Research ... Autonomous systems ....................................................1............4 Aircraft avionics.....................2............... Science payloads ............2..................................4 Life support conclusion .......... 103 Chapter 6: Economic Aspects ...7..1..........1 Introduction ................................................5.1.........................................1 Patenting of Nanotechnology Advances that have Applications in the Aerospace Industry ................... 101 5.... 105 6...1................................................... 105 6.....................2 Nanomaterials for space craft structure ............... 90 5...................................................................7............3.....2............................. 77 4..1 Global markets in the aviation industry................... 89 5.................................................................2.. 99 5...............2... 94 5.........................................................................3 Energy Production and Storage......................1.............................................1..................... 90 5.. 60 4..................14 Education and Training ..................2 Aviation..................... 107 6........................................2.............. 90 5............................1..... Space elevator.................. Textile ..... 89 5..................................1.............................10 Current Research ........ 84 5..7............................. Satellite subsystems.............................. 73 4.........6..............8 Visionary Applications............................................3 Satellites / Payloads conclusion: .............................................2.......................11 Aeronautics application in other industries....4 Futuristic visions conclusion ....7 Nanomaterials and thin films for spacecraft ................ 72 4........6....................1........... 63 4.....3 Space .......1 Introduction.................4 How can Nanotechnology Impact on these Strategies? . 114 6..........................8 Conclusion .............................4......................... 88 5..7...............................1.....................6..........................1...........8 European Air Transport System .2 Statement of needs for Research and Development in Space ................ 98 5..........16 Conclusion ...................... 82 5....... Processing and Transmission.............................. systems and equipment...................
................................................. 7..... 8..... Chapter 7: Environment...................2.......4 Health benefits.....................................................................................7 Conclusion ....... 6..................6........................................................................2 EHS risks..........................................5 Role of SMEs....... 7......1 Health risks..... References.........1 Introduction. Legal and Social Aspects . 7..................................................................4 Conclusion ....................................................1 Introduction.......................6 EHS Regulation ..................... 118 118 120 120 121 123 123 123 125 125 125 127 129 129 130 133 135 137 15 .............................................................................................................2 Regulations............... 7........................................ 8................. 7.........................5 Safety benefits ......................................................2..................................3 Ethical.................. 7................................................................ Legal and Social Aspects ... 7.........................6 Conclusions ................2 Safety risks ............................ Health and Safety Aspects.............. 7....... 7..............................................................3 Environmental benefits................................................................................................................ 8..................... 8............................. Chapter 8: Ethical.........
there is a great need for new materials which exhibit improved mechanical properties.. the timelines for possible industrial applications. changeable conductivity and the specific tensile strength of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) makes them eminently suited as reinforcing elements in macroscopic composites. Specifically. lacquer safety and polymer matrix composites. carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites may provide a unique 16 . higher than that of diamond (ten times higher than that of any other available material). Selected European projects and world conferences related to aerospace are included. However. Materials possessing high strength at a reduced mass and size make lighter aircraft with lower fuel consumption. The state of the art of polymer nanocomposite research is also reviewed. it focuses on carbon nanotube-reinforced polymers and materials produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD). With a potential high strength-to-weight ratio and multifunctionality. and a list of companies and institutes actively involved in aerospace nanomaterial R&D. This report identifies the following trends in materials for automotive and aerospace applications: lighter and stronger materials. transparent windshield. The development of new materials with tailored properties is a primary goal of today’s materials science and engineering.2 Advancement of Nanotube-Reinforced Composites The extraordinary stiffness.1 Introduction This chapter identifies some of the technical challenges and the key research efforts in the field of nanomaterials for aerospace applications. solution hardening. the possibility of obtaining improved mechanical properties by the conventional methods of cold working. 2. In the aerospace industry. precipitation hardening. The current trend is to integrate intelligence and multifunctionality into the varied components of aerospace systems and vehicles. The 6th EU Framework Project ‘NanoRoadSME (Nanomaterial Roadmap 2015)’ has published a report entitled “Overview on Promising Nanomaterials for Industrial Application”. high toughness.Chapter 2 – Nanomaterials in Aerospace 2. has been almost exhausted. Also included in the report are the projected cost and market evolution of each material’s technology. etc.
their absolute lengths are still low. Investigators worldwide are in pursuit of advanced synthesis processes to facilitate large-scale production of CNTs of macroscopic lengths. Functionalisation and irradiation of polymer-embedded nanotubes and nanotube fibres also have been shown to enhance dispersion and strengthen nanotube-matrix interactions. which gives them greater strength and hardness. 2006). Nature Materials. A recent review article identified four critical requirements for effective fibre reinforcement of composite materials: a large aspect ratio. and alignment (Advanced Materials. useful for applications including aerospace components. Heralded as alternatives to toxic materials like chromium for coatings and for structural applications. However. 2006. Nanostructured metals Nanostructured metals have nanosized grains. their use can be hampered by their increased brittleness and complex processing requirements. Minute amounts give polymers antistatic properties. Their use can enhance a material’s ability to resist vibration and fire (Nano letters. the high cost and relatively short lengths of CNTs combined with an inability to effectively disperse and align them within a host matrix. much additional R&D is still needed to realize the full potential and implementation of these advanced composites (Taczak. such as landing gear and construction equipment such as drill bits and bulldozer blades. a good dispersion. 2. transfer of interfacial stress. there are a number of research efforts underway that address these and other concerns.3. 17 . 2005). While carbon nanotubes typically have very high aspect ratios. Nanostructured metals can provide very hard coatings that are resistant to corrosion. while concentrations as low as 1% total weight trigger electrical conductivity. 2006). while others are focusing on combining shorter CNTs into longer and more useable composite fibres. currently preclude the development of composite structures that could supplement or replace conventional aerospace components.option for the aviation industry. allowing for further improvement of the mechanical properties of CNT-reinforced composites. which makes them difficult to manipulate and process. Despite these efforts. The intimate relationship between the electrical and mechanical properties of these composites enables them to exhibit smart capabilities (Chipara. 2005). Moreover.
research in this field has attracted the attention of numerous scientific groups throughout the world including representative European institutions. The advantages of the SPD methods are: (i) a 100% dense nanostructured material is obtained. (iii) there are no toxicological issues involving the use of nanopowders. Nanomaterials can be produced following bottom-up methods (such as inert gas condensation. for real success there is a need to start establishing customers in other areas by 2009 (Lux. One can expect that intensive grain refinement down to the nanometre scale will lead to a rapid increase in strength. improved corrosion and wear resistance. consolidation of nanopowders. Such a concept consists in the transformation of metals or alloys possessing a conventional grain size into bulk materials with a submicron. Thus. Grain refinement down to the nanometre scale thus offers good prospects for a new generation of high strength materials. (ii) conventional materials are used as precursors. Such excellent properties cannot be achieved using conventional fabrication techniques. the yield strength is a linear function of the inverse of the square root of grain diameter (d-1/2) which implies a 10 times higher grain boundary strengthening when the grain size is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude. Therefore. and high-end sporting goods are largely driving the development of nanostructured materials. With the growing experimental evidence. precipitation hardening. enhanced charging capacity and diffusion rate of hydrogen. SPD processed nanometals are thus prospective materials for many structural and functional applications in the aerospace industry. 2006). solution hardening.Low volume. it is probable that only a topdown approach can offer good “technological” prospects. the development of new processing methods is necessary. electro deposition or crystallization from an amorphous state). usually with a diameter and length no greater than a few millimetres.4 The advancement of severe plastic deformation The possibility of improving the properties of metallic materials by the conventional methods of cold working. but it is only possible to produce small items of such materials. has been almost exhausted. According to the well known Hall-Petch relationship.or nanoscale structure by the application of severe plastic deformation (SPD). etc. To produce such high strength. 2. it can be concluded that for some cases SPD in processed materials may exhibit very high strength combined with acceptable ductility. Other papers reported increased high cycle fatigue life. high margin applications for the aerospace and defence industries. nanocrystalline materials. In some cases superplastic behaviour was observed.. 18 . However.
2. One of the routes to ease these restrictions is offered by a modification of existing SPD techniques. particularly in the aerospace industry. pressure bulk heads. UK also collaborates in the project. including CNT-reinforced polymer fibres. a ‘maintenance-free’ airframe and environmental friendliness.) for all types of aircraft. all of which are well recognised names in the aerospace and IT industries. This project pursues a range of approaches to nano-reinforcement of polymer composites. However. the Airbus Industry in Stade is interested in manufacturing some composite parts (vertical stabilisers. Chemistry. it must be stated that to introduce products having a nanometal structure into the market. although nanotechnologies promise significant benefits for aerospace applications. an increased integration of the supply chain and substantial reduction of the operating costs. and Chemical Engineering. mature and robust solutions are mandatory. The global aims of VIVACE are to reduce the time to market. and includes 50 partners. there are some limitations to their wider use which result from the current restrictions on the cost and size of SPD processed elements. Polymer) Matrix Composites” is taking place at universities in the Netherlands to develop 19 . The project is collaboration between three departments within the College – Aeronautics.5 The projects related to aircraft company business Airbus Industries and the MITRE Corporation’s Centre for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) (O’Donnell) are focused on obtaining the highest performance. For this purpose. The research also includes micromechanical modelling of CNT reinforced composites and feasibility studies into future exploitation routes. Finally. cooperation with external suppliers and strategic partners is essential. etc. will need a major research and development effort in order to fully explore and understand the specific properties of SPD materials and to optimize the processing route for particular applications. Another route aims at the development of new methods. The project entitled: “Nano-Structured and Reinforced Composite Materials” is being undertaken at Imperial College London (2006). in order to meet future challenges and to incorporate worldwide best state-of the-art technological solutions. and CNT reinforced thermoset resins.There is clearly a great potential for bulk nanostructured materials. QinetiQ of Farnbourough in Hampshire. CNT-grafted carbon fibres. The project entitled: “Self-Healing Intermetallics (Metal. For example. However. The Value Improvement through a Virtual Aeronautical Collaborative Enterprise (VIVACE) consortium is a €70 Million European Project which is led by Airbus.
Cientifica.new concepts in design and to apply self-healing mechanisms in the context of intermetallic alloys and intermetallic-based composite materials. Also included are a market analysis. However. 2004). recently published a report entitled. 2005-2007) aims to develop new nanocomposite materials for the production of sliding bearing sleeves used in the (A380) AIRBUS aircraft air conditioning system. an international nanotechnology consulting firm. in May 2006. manufacturing (scale-up). a prospectus covering the years 2005 to 2010 and an extensive worldwide list of nanotube suppliers. e. 2. the 1st annual Nano Materials for Aerospace Symposium was held in Corpus Christi.g. “Nanotubes for the Composites Market.” This report addresses carbon nanotube applications for composites. yield stress anomaly (YSA) or the formation of an oxygen diffusion barrier (OBD) into a (metal. The INTAS project “Nanocomposite sliding bearings for air bleed valves” (NANOBLEBUS. it certainly constitutes a very fine engineering modelling system of potentially great relevance for aeronautical applications. 2. though both aim to stimulate the understanding and application of such systems (Shaffer & Kinloch. CA.6 Publications and Conferences CNT-NET and NANOCOMP are two networks funded by the European Union that address the subject of nanotube and nanofibre polymer composites from different perspectives. In 2003. The possibility of integrating intermetallic phases. This conference series has since been renamed Nanomaterials for Defence Applications and the latest meeting was in Virginia Beach. design. The next meeting will occur in May 2007 in San Diego. Virginia. Owing to increased efforts in the areas of materials and process development. A very obvious motivation in introducing MMCs into aeronautical systems is the optimal balance of specific strength and stiffness compared with other competing structural materials. and why carbon nanotubes still remain prohibitively expensive.. Texas. which exhibit selfhealing properties. and certification of MMCs (Metal-matrix composites) a number of key applications are now a well established reality for aeronautical applications. if and when nanotubes will replace carbon fibre.7 Polymer Nanocomposites 20 . polymer) matrix remains almost uncharted territory.
nanocomposites based on commodity plastics. By 2020. accounting for nearly 40% of demand in 2020.and nanotube-polymer composites. an international conference “The Future of Nanoplastics” has been organised. PNCs take advantage from unique effects of the addition of nanometre-sized inorganic materials to a polymer matrix. Over the near term. growth will be the fastest in higher-priced resins such as engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers as much of the initial demand will be in higherend applications. Apart from packaging and motor vehicles. however. aircraft is a key market for nanoclay. Eventually. 2006). 22-23rd of February.2 Definitions Polymer nanocomposites . as nanomaterial additives will increasingly enhance or replace glass fibre-reinforced materials in a number of applications. with demands for nanotubes alone exceeding $1 billion (Freedonia Group. is common in the production of modern plastics.1 Introduction The reinforcement of polymers (thermoplastics. will dominate the market. 2. Texas.7.7. driven by their improved barrier. will be used to produce nanocomposites. more than 163 million kg of nanomaterials. whether inorganic or organic. such as polypropylene. strength and conductive properties. This is all down to the fact that researchers are always looking for ways to reduce the amount of fuel needed for flights and a key way of achieving that is by reducing the weight of the aircraft itself. 21 . plus the harsh and varied conditions they face will put even the best materials to the test. USA. Similarly. possibility to increase production speed of parts and to replace higher-priced materials.2. Advances will be fuelled by declining prices of nanomaterials and composites. as well as reduced weight. While nearly all of the current demand is in thermoplastic resins. elastomers) using fillers. valued at $2 billion. It will remain important through the end of the next decade. Polymer composites are strong. Unsaturated polyester will become the primary thermoset used in nanocomposites. the amount of energy needed to propel an object into space means that spacecraft must be even stronger and lighter. 2007 in San Antonio. yet remarkably lightweight and so they are leading the field in aerospace applications. thermosets. Up-to-date information on polymer materials (among them nanocomposites) for aerospace applications is currently provided by RAPRA. Polymer nanocomposites are expected to penetrate a number of applications. In contrast to the conventional systems. polyethylene and PVC.PNCs (or polymer nanostructured materials) represent an alternative to conventional-filled polymers or polymer blends. where the reinforcement is on the order of microns. as production levels increase and technical issues concerning dispersion of nanoadditives in compounds are overcome. nanocomposites based on thermosets will grow to over 20% of the market by 2020.
3 Classification In general. and academia worldwide are heavily investigating exfoliation of layered silicates. Furthermore. researchers in industry. Rather. The special properties of clay-polymer nanocomposites expand the use of resins and blends based on polyolefins. thermal.These effects however. electrical and barrier properties.7. and highperformance PNCs resins (AFRL Horizons). offering improvements over conventional composites in mechanical. barrier to diffusion. the value of PNCs technology is not based solely on mechanical enhancements of the neat resin. 2. carbon nanofibres/nanotube-polymer nanocomposites.1 Layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites These minerals considerably increase the mechanical and thermal properties of standard polymers. styrenics. it comes from providing value-added properties not present in the neat resin. nanofillers can be used in small quantities (less than 5% by weight). they can significantly reduce flammability and maintain the transparency of a polymer matrix. including flame retardant panels and high performance components for aerospace. are driven not only by the small size but unusual shapes and aspect ratios (L/h > 300) of the additives and include extraordinarily high interfacial areas or highly aligned phases of the additive. from both a commercial and military perspective.7. tubes and wires. The attractive characteristics of layered silicate nanocomposites already suggest a variety of possible industrial applications for layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites. government. Loading levels of 2-5% by weight result in mechanical properties similar to those found in conventional composites with 30-40% of reinforcing material. Their application brings improvements in mechanical strength and aging resistance. polyamides or 22 . Researchers developed two main PNCs fabrication methodologies: in-situ routes and exfoliation. However. Currently. 2. depending on the form of nanoparticles being used: layered silicate or nanofibres / carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites and high-performance PNCs resins. blend or composite attempts at multifunctional materials require a trade-off between desired performance. Traditionally. tribological. without sacrificing the inherent processability and mechanical properties of the resin. Due to their efficiency. polymer nanocomposites fall into three categories. two-dimensional platelets and porous materials. and unprecedented morphologies such as interpenetrating networks. The constituent inorganic additives can be applied in a form of particles. cost. reduction of wear and flammability.3. optical transparency. mechanical properties. and processability.
The following points are evident about nanotube / polymer composites (Moniruzzaman & Winey. initiate polymerizations. purity. and the interfacial adhesion between the nanotube and 23 . 2. and dimensions (length and diameter) of the nanotubes. dispersion state and alignment of nanotubes in the polymer matrix. defect density. they should not be considered a potential one-for-one replacement for current state-of-the-art carbon-fibre reinforced composites. unsaturated polyesters and polyurethanes. including epoxies. but are not compared to continuous fibre reinforced composites. demonstrating substantial improvements in mechanical and physical properties.polyesters. These surface modifiers mediate interlayer interactions by effectively lowering the interfacial free energy. multifunctional matrix resins.2 Nanofibres/carbon nanotube in polymer nanocomposites A literature search provides many examples of PNCs. nanotube loading. Fig. DWNT. chirality. MWNT). These range from small molecules ionically associated with the nanoparticle surface for layered silicates to chemically bound small molecules or physi-absorbed polymers for nanotubes. However. the nanocomposite properties discussed are generally compared to unfilled and conventional-filled polymers. 2006): The properties of nanotube / polymer composites depend on a multitude of factors that include the type (SWNT. Although PNCs may provide enhanced. However. The key to any of fabrication processes is the engineering of the polymernanoparticle interface where researchers commonly use surfactants.1 Layered silicate nanocomposite (IMI. Furthermore. the choice of the optimal modifier is at best empirical to date. AFRL) 2.7. Other PNCs are also based on thermosets. they may serve to catalyze interfacial interactions. or serve as anchoring points for the matrix and thereby improve the strength of the interface between the polymer and inorganic.3.
The effects of fibre orientation and total composite thickness on shielding effectiveness were examined by electrical measurements and theoretical modelling and the dominant mechanism of electromagnetic interference shielding identified as absorption (Abdalla et al. In contrast. which are readily detected by electrical and rheological property measurements. so as to take advantage of the high thermal conductivity of individual nanotubes in a polymer composite system.the polymer matrix. it remains a challenge to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance of these nanotube networks. Unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced epoxy straps were also proposed as fatigue crack growth retarders for aircraft construction (Colavita et al. where the percolation threshold depends on both concentration and nanotube alignment. The significant progress in nanotube functionalisation chemistry in recent years ensures that this approach will become more prevalent. Quantifying nanotube dispersion in polymers (and solvents) is an inherently challenging problem because it involves a range of length scales. The nanotube network also significantly increases the viscosity of the polymer and slows thermal degradation. Functionalisation of nanotubes provides a convenient route to improve dispersion and modify interfacial properties that may in turn improve the properties of nanocomposites. and thereby multiple experimental methods are required. and comparing results from nanotube / polymer composites. 2006). Nanotubes have clearly demonstrated their capability as conductive fillers in polymer nanocomposites. The nanotube network provides electrical conduction pathways above the percolation threshold. Two approaches are actively being pursued in SWNT materials: modify the synthetic route to preferentially produce metallic nanotubes and sort the existing nanotubes. The influence of nickel nanostrand loading level. new experimental methods are applied to the problem. especially mechanical properties. mode of their incorporation into the epoxy resin and magnetic orientation on mechanical and electrical properties of the composite were examined (Burghardt et al. such as a fluorescence method to non-destructively detect isolated SWNT in a polymer matrix. 2006). interpreting. New panel material for use in bulkhead and structural flooring in aircraft. 2006). Fortunately. The shielding effectiveness and electrical conductivity of carbon fibrereinforced epoxy composites were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The physical properties of nanotube /polymer composites can be interpreted in terms of nanotube networks. These factors should be taken into account when reporting. Further advances with respect to electrical conductivity in nanotube / polymer composites are likely if only (or predominantly) metallic nanotubes could be used in the nanocomposites. using glass reinforced polymer faced sheets with a foam core and a Kevlar 24 . Nickel nanostrands were mixed or infused into Hysol 9396 aerospace epoxy resin and the mechanical and electrical properties of the nickelcontaining epoxy resin investigated.
in particular the low solar absorptivity and the high emissivity for cold coatings. France) has elaborated a cold coating version by using a polysiloxane deposit on a metal substrate (such as polished aluminium or vacuum deposited silver). Panels infiltrated with a fire retardant resin. the resistivity of coatings should be reduced without altering their thermo-optical properties. mechanical strength and ballistic resistance according to National Institute of Justice and ASTM standards (Cohen et al. such as the incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles in the polysiloxane matrix. superior insulating materials capable of heat-storage and transfer.net). 2005).ohionanosummit. structural components with improved electrical / thermal conductivity (such as aircraft engines that can burn hotter and thus more efficiently). SEM was used to observe the different microstructures arising from various processing conditions. chemical and physical treatment of various forms of carbon may have direct-end uses or may be further continued in order to produce polymer nanocomposites for: low-wear resistance aircraft brakes. Researchers working for aircraft industry try to find a way to replace copper wiring with 25 . processing.ballistic resistant backing has been described. neutral or warm coatings. The material was demonstrated at the Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering’s annual conference in May. toxicity in fires. when researches lit a 75-watt bulb by running current through the model bridge. polysiloxane. The effects of processing parameters (compression moulding) on the mechanical properties of carbon/polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) thermoplastic composite laminates have also been studied. Optimum properties for the laminates have been established. novel batteries etc. Conductive multifunctional polymer nanocomposite “NanoSphalt” is a carbon nanofibre and fibreglass composite material (www. To prevent any electrostatic discharge problems in geostationary orbit. The Materials and Coatings Laboratory of the Thermal Control Services at CNES (Toulouse. 2004. 2005). The range of parameters can serve as a guide to consolidate carbon/PEKK laminates for high performance aerospace applications (Salek et al. with the objective of attaining a high transparency. To ensure reliable operation of their on-board systems and equipment. a thermal control of the spacecraft is necessary using cold. can accumulate implanted charges that can give rise to electrostatic discharges and damage the neighbouring electronic systems. Fabrication. 2006). a high emissive. protective coatings for satellites. energy harvesting. In geostationary orbit. satellites are exposed to significant thermal variations. were evaluated for their fire resistance. In orbit. The nanofibres bring an entirely new property to fibreglass and other polymer composites – the ability to conduct electricity – which opens the door for new applications for lightweight but strong materials that are inherently not conductive (a deflective “skin” could be applied to aircraft to prevent damage from a lightning strike). and an antistatic resin (Hidden et al. Other potential applications are: electrically conductive adhesives. which has a high electrical resistivity. Several methods have been studied.
functional conversion coat. intended to assist aircraft interior manufacturers in cutting their production times. It can be additionally shaped by heat (High Performance Plastics. 2006). NanoSperse in Akron (OH. and toxicity regulations (EUREKA.which is 30% lighter than standard Basotect. BASF AG of Germany reported a variant of its "Basotect" heat-insulating and sound-absorbing melamine resin foam "Basotect TG" . Henkel KGaA of Germany has commercialised a range of low-viscosity. which combines low outgases properties required for space applications with consistent bond thickness.polymer wiring made with electrically conductive carbon nanofibres. low-density adhesive film from 3M. has been reported (Riegler et al. Theoretically. The new film adhesive is comparable to a low outgas liquid adhesive and is considered suitable for various applications common to satellite manufacturing. June 2006. replacing that wire with conductive polymer will bring the wiring weight alone down to well below approximately 454 kg. stronger and more durable than other composite polymers – as well as being thermally and electrically conductive. e. electricity and infrared light (published in the February 2004 issue of Nature Materials).3 high-performance PNCs resins Many potential aircraft applications depend on successful incorporation of the nanoelements in thermoset resins. making it particularly suitable for the construction of parts for aircraft interiors (High Performance Plastics. an abrasion-resistant PU elastomer permanent primer layer containing a chromium-free corrosion inhibitor. 2.7.3. 4). 2006). which consists of a commercial chromiumfree. June 2006. New silicone film adhesive. and also in meeting increasingly strict fire. in large structures that need to be packed for launch and unfurled later. 1). USA) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have developed plastic that after being deformed. 3M AF3070 FST" is a new halogen-free. one-part benzoxazine resins for use in the manufacture of large fibrereinforced plastic parts for aerospace applications. Mixing carbon nanotubes with polymers creates “shape-memory” polymers that respond to heat. a Boeing 747 has approximately 225 km of wire weighing approximately 1600 kg. can spring back into shape when heated.g. The feasibility of developing a sprayable Chromium-Free Permanent Primer (CFPP) coating system. have a long pot-life. In the same place. smoke. Scientists from University of Dayton Research Institute (OH. 3). 26 . and are easy to process (High Performance Plastics. which will positively impact the range and fuel efficiency of the aircraft. May 2006. USA) is now in full production of nanomaterial-reinforced polymers that are lighter. The resins are stable at ambient temperature. It is believed that shape-memory polymers will be used in practical applications within 5 years. According to information from a wiring company.
This CFPP coating system exhibits higher abrasion resistance against plastic media blasting than the topcoat. radiation. the surface of the PBI was ultrasonically cleaned in acetone and modified by high-energy radiation for 6 hrs in the pool of a nuclear reactor that produced a mixed field of thermal and epithermal neutrons. The adhesive had a service temperature range of -260 to +370 ºC and was highly resistant to acids. making the aircraft ready to fly again (Kovar et al. 2006). and fire. All threaded fasteners tend to loosen under vibration. The PBI composites were prepared by using an ultra-high-temperature-resistant epoxy adhesive to join the two polymer sheets. 2006). corrosives. Vibra-Tite does not adhere strongly to the fasteners. Because of its soft. solvents. Alternatively. The topcoat may be selectively stripped off when required and a fresh topcoat reapplied. Attempts were made to modify polybenzimidazole (PBI) by high-energy radiation and low-pressure plasma treatment to permit the preparation of composites with the same polymer. allowing adjustment of fasteners and reuse after disassembly. A considerable increase in the joint strength was observed when the polymer surface was modified by either process. has been demonstrated. the polymer was subjected to low-pressure plasma treatment with a 13. pliable nature. and protons. Vibra-Tite has been used on assembly screws on the treadmill on the International Space Station and other applications (Dunn. it seems likely that Vibra-Tite is able to cold-flow to fill all the void spaces in a threaded assembly.which forms chemical bonds with the conversion coat and a conventional aircraft topcoat. and gamma-rays at a dose rate of 37 kGy/h. 27 . 2006). the joints were exposed to cryogenic (-196 °C) and high temperatures (+300 °C) for 100 hrs. Joints exposed to these conditions retained about 95 % of their strength. A further significant increase in joint strength occurred when the polymer surface was initially modified by exposure to low-pressure plasma followed by exposure to high-energy radiation. energetic electrons. Vibra-Tite is a solvent solution of acrylic polymers that is brushed onto the threads and dries within a few minutes. It permits selective stripping of the topcoat without removal of the primer or conversion coating. alkalis. Before preparing the composite.) is a unique threadlocking and sealing product. Microscopic examination of fractured surfaces of the joints showed that the surface-modified polymer essentially failed cohesively within the adhesive (Bhowmik et al.56MHz radio-frequency glow discharge for 120 s at 100 W power with nitrogen as the process gas. and then be hard enough and have enough friction to prevent the slide slippage of the threads that causes loosening. To simulate conditions in space. Vibra-Tite from ND Industries (Loctite Corp.
stiffness. 2002) The most important properties addressed by aerospace materials are strength. although these developments are mainly driven by other application fields such as the automotive or information and communication sector. The results obtained in these sectors can be transferred easily to aircraft when the technologies are ready for industrial use. In the aviation industry engine improvements are also under investigation. Main reasons are GDP growth. toughness. impact resistance. Reduced weight leads to lower costs and better ecological compatibility due to reduced fuel consumption. the need for lighter materials is even stronger in space applications. The main driving force towards lighter materials is the fact that transport costs decrease by a factor of $300 per pound of reduced weight in commercial aircraft transport. increased globalisation. long lifetime. There is also a need for new sensors and miniaturised electronic components. On the other hand. the materials should be corrosion resistant.Chapter 3: Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Aeronautics The global passenger traffic is expected to increase steadily over the next 20 years by an average growth rate of about 5%. This value is 100 times as high as it is in the automotive sector. ductility and lightness. To satisfy these expectations aircraft companies are looking for new technologies. and population growth (see chapter 6). 28 . This affects not only the main aircraft body and blades but also polymer components used in the interior. Main drivers are • increased safety • reduced emissions • reduced noise • increased capacity • increased range • enhanced payload • higher speed • lower operating and maintenance costs • better overall management of the aircraft and its use Most important for reaching these aims is the development of a new generation of lighter materials. In addition. so that the development of new materials is mainly driven by the space industry. but to a smaller extent compared to space applications. (Plano. damage tolerant and repairable as often as necessary. The main objective is to reduce the weight of the airframe.
Such novel materials would be extremely flexible allowing the wings to reshape instantly and remaining extremely resistant to damage at the same time. functionality and reliability can be enhanced by improved functional materials and sensors. the ‘maintenance-free’ airframe and environmental friendliness. In addition. In addition. there are no nanotechnology applications in current Airbus aircraft (Oger. Lightweight structural materials are the main focus for applications of nanomaterials in civil aviation. For example. The main reason for this is the need for mature and robust solutions in aerospace applications. (EADS. These are the reasons why the aeronautics industry is actively researching the exploitation possibilities of micro and nanotech. 2005) Airbus is following its airframe philosophy which focuses on highest performance. The aeronautics business remains extremely conservative and risk averse.Revolutionary new nanocomposites have the promise to be 100 times stronger than steel at only 1/6 of the weight. making it difficult for nanotech applications to be integrated into new products. Carrying passengers puts extreme demands on the 29 . (Pritchard. Current R&D is looking at improved macroscopic materials using nanomaterial additives which show the same promising properties on the macroscale as on the nanoscale. The high strength-to-weight ratio of these nano-materials could enable new vehicle designs that can withstand crashes and protect the passengers against injury. 2006) and this can also be assumed for Boeing aircraft. Researchers at the Corporate Research Centre (CRC) in Ottobrunn and Suresnes are working in projects to use nanotechnology for this airframe philosophy. making aircraft more efficient and able to fly faster. the Boeing Company has formed an alliance with Ford and Northwestern University to conduct nanotechnology research on projects of mutual interest and potential benefit to the companies' current and future products. (Boeing. 2001) Nanotechnology can contribute especially to reducing operating costs through lightweight and strong structural materials with the resulting weight and energy savings. In futuristic scenarios aircraft could weigh as little as half of a conventional aircraft manufactured with today's materials. these materials would have “self-healing” functionality. 2007) British Aerospace has also begun to build up a basic nanotechnology capability. Application opportunities are much broader in astronautics. 2004) Although nanotechnology seems to be promising for the aeronautics industry and breakthroughs are expected within the next few years. This is even more prominent for civil aircraft makers. (NASA.
as coatings. its stiffness by 50% and its damage tolerance by 100% Current aircraft are composed of different materials. new sensors. none have yet been realized in civil aviation. NanoroadSME) Although the requirements of the aerospace sector are a driving force for improvements in nanomaterials. When reducing the weight of an element by 10% it is necessary to reduce its density by 10%. the Airbus A380. the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymers in civil aircraft.g. for the Airbus A400M fibre-reinforced blades are planned also with an increase of the polymer amount to 30%. 2006. In current aircraft of around 20% by weight of reinforced polymers are used. has lead to a competitive advantage for the European aerospace industry. 2006) it is not sufficient to reduce the density of a material. but also its durability. In addition. stronger and safer aircraft. but simultaneously to enhance its strength by 35%. the sector will stay a niche market for nanotechnology applications because of the small numbers of aircraft and the associated cost intensive development. for the engine. in the Airbus A380 this value will be enhanced to 25%. Besides conventional metals like steel the use of lighter metals such as titanium. Fibre-reinforced polymers have the potential to reduce weight by up to 30% compared with aluminium parts and 50% compared with steel structures. 3. In the following sections. (Oger. Mainly carbon fibres with diameters of a few micrometres are used for reinforcing.1. whereby the physical properties are maintained under extreme conditions and on a long-term basis. Boeing’s concept for the new 787 Dreamliner includes an amount of more than 50% polymers measured by weight and much more than 50% by volume. and in the electrical system are discussed in more detail. Please note that. Airframe and components The drivers are for lighter. e.qualification process of new technologies. a production process suitable for an industrial scale and a reasonable price/performance ratio is mandatory. magnesium and aluminium has strongly increased in the past. According to a study of Lockheed (cited in Bader & Stumpp. Higher potential for lighter structures have the use of fibre-metal composites like glare (a laminate of aluminium and glass fibres) and fibre-reinforced polymers. the aspects of nanotechnology applications in the airframe. as described above. The material has not only to prove its supremacy. Recently. the following descriptions and examples are possibilities. 30 .
000-fold increase in price compared to standard fibres and the lack of an appropriate industrial-scale production method. Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer (CNTFRP) and NanotubeReinforced Aluminium (CNT/Al) Composites compared to an advanced carbon fibre reinforced polymer (IM7 CFRP) composite (Boehm) The major hurdles preventing a broader use of CNTs (not only in the aerospace sector) are the 10. wear resistance and resilience • thermal shock. good adhesion to the polymer matrix and achieving a high loading rate. Fibre-reinforced polymers • Carbon Nanotubes (CNT): Hollow tubes of one (SWCNT. Estimations are made that aluminium. fatigue and creep resistance • enhanced anti-microbial activity • multi-functional materials can reduce weight by reducing the number of components Nanomaterials can enhance the properties of almost every material used in aircraft building. single walled carbon nanotubes) or more (MWCNT.A further improvement can be expected by substituting micrometre fibres in these composites by fibres in the nanometre range. reinforced with carbon nanotubes. Technical problems include a lack of methods to achieve spatial alignment of CNTs.3. multi walled carbon nanotubes) layer(s) of graphite. can lead to a weight reduction of 60-70% compared with current fibre-reinforced polymers. The feasible reduction of the weight of aircraft components using composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be as large as 60-70% compared to existing carbon fibre reinforced polymers (Fig.1). Advantages of nanomaterials are: • ultra high strength to weight ratio • improved hardness. 31 . Figure 3.1.
(EADS. and hardness. Metals can be strengthened by ceramic fibres such as silicon carbide. • • Ceramics • Nanophase ceramics show an enhanced ductility and strength. 25% more strength and 90% more impact resistance.• • The addition of nanoparticles (e. For example. Advantages of these so-called MMC (Metal matrix composites) are a high thermal stability. it is much more expensive.g. but suffer from delamination under load. ultimate tensile strength. Composites • Glare –a laminate made of aluminium and glass fibres – is as strong as aluminium but lighter and corrosion-resistant. high thermal conductivity. and a controllable thermal expansion. 2007) Carbon-fibre reinforced polymers have a greater potential as a lightweight design than aluminium alloys. a low density. MMC have the potential to substitute magnesium and aluminium parts in the future. 2006) Metals • Properties of metals are governed by the Hall-Petch relationship – as grain size decreases. particularly aluminium and titanium alloys can improve the mechanical properties and enhance corrosion resistance. The use of SiO2 nanoparticles leads to an improvement of 64% in tensile modulus. These materials can be used as thermal and oxidation protection for fibre-reinforced construction materials. (Nanovic) Applications 32 . and a reduced sinter temperature. strength increases. However. aluminium oxide or aluminium nitride. the fatigue lifetime can be increased by 200-300 % by using nanomaterials with a significant reduction of grain size in comparison with conventional materials. Nanostructured metals. (Bader. clay-like mineral montmorillonite) to synthetic resin is being studied to improve material strength. Nanocrystalline materials are characterized by significant increases in yield strength. high strength. The bonding between the metallic sheets and fibres can be enhanced by nanoparticles.
the aircraft’ aluminium bodies would have to be much thicker. gradients) of mechanical properties well beyond more conservative chemical or metallurgical approaches. It is expected that as a result passengers will be far less tired. 2006) Substituting stronger material of the same weight can increase the impact resistance of aircraft skin material. potentially giving rise to self-healing composites (if sufficient migration occurs to seal cracks). One example is the development of bullet proof materials for sensitive parts. so it can allow a higher onboard pressure. For example. the nanoparticles automatically migrate toward cracks in the silicon oxide. (Physorg. With the right coating. Although these examples are not focused on aircraft applications. making them prohibitively heavy. As mentioned above.000ft altitude. nanotechnologies might enable further improvements or tailoring (e. equivalent to being outside at 6. the cabins of airliners are pressurized to avoid the need for oxygen masks. the cockpit door. aiming at a weight reduction and therefore decreased fuel consumption and costs because of the strength of nanomaterials as described above. but the onboard air is still much thinner than on the ground — typically the cabin atmosphere is equivalent to an altitude of 8. High strength and lightweight composite laminates (incorporating carbon nanotubes in a variety of resins) are being investigated for use in ballistic protection and novel damping materials. It has been shown that nanoparticles dispersed throughout a material can migrate to cracks. (Robbins. e. The new Boeing 787 will be built from a stronger carbon fibre composite. Visionary ideas include fault tolerant and self-healing materials. 2006) With regards to structural materials. Aircraft safety and security is also being increased through the use of new materials in the interior. and could allow onboard pressure to be increased further.g. Keeping the cabin pressure at ground level. The MaxPlanck-Institut für Eisenforschung is working on filled nanocapsules in zinc coatings for self-healing on cut-edges. the results should be transferable. Another reason for using stronger materials is to enhance passenger comfort. g. nanomaterials could give rise to even stronger composite materials than those made with traditional carbon fibres.Applications where nanomaterials can contribute to aircraft construction are mainly in the airframe structure but also in the interior to a minor degree: • The airframe is the main target for the use of nanomaterials. • • • • • 33 .000ft. For example experiments have been undertaken with spherical particles of about five nanometres underneath silicon oxide.
It has been shown that such nanofilters kill 99. 2003. Anodic coatings are tougher. Filtration systems are on the market. Up to 98% of odours were eliminated and another nano-filter eliminated all noxious volatile organic compounds. (FhG-IFAM. metals can also been made more durable by applying nanostructured coatings.• An important aspect for the interior of an aircraft is the need for fire retardant materials.7% of influenza viruses. Coatings The trend is to substitute metals by reinforced polymers. Plano. 2002) 34 . It has been shown that the introduction of nanoparticle additives to 5 % can lead to a huge reduction in fire risk. so that a viable alternative is urgently needed. but their cost is too high for mass production. The application of durable anodic or conversion coatings typically provide protection against such effects. which can be supported by nanomaterials. (Integran) The main target for nanocoatings is the protection of metals against corrosion.2. but magnesium alloys are strongly susceptible to corrosion. On the other hand nanoparticles can also act as fire accelerant. harder and have better wear properties than conversion coatings. (NANOMAG. but the hexavalent chromium involved is both carcinogenic and a hazardous air pollutant. 2004) • 3. so a detailed analysis of nanoparticles used in aircraft is necessary. but other applications are also under discussion. 2004) The Boeing 787 concept not only includes a higher cabin pressure but special filters to maintain a higher air quality. In addition to the use of nanomaterials for improving material properties of structural materials. One example is the development of coatings for landing gear as a replacement for environmentally problematic chrome coatings. The EU-funded NANOMAG project aims to provide an alternative by developing clean and environment-friendly nanocomposite coatings based on silicon oxide thin films that will be more economical while also offering superior resistance to corrosion and abrasion. The aim is to meet the stringent specifications demanded of materials used in aircraft interiors more cheaply and effectively than with the costly specialised polymers currently used. magnesium – which is one third lighter than aluminium and 80% lighter than steel – has been used increasingly in the past. • For example. which use nanoscale silver particles to eliminate undesirable odours and kill airborne health threats. (AzoNano. Chromate-based conversion coatings are cheaper.
In principle it should be possible to remove ice from the aircraft body by an electrical current flowing through a thin conductive layer. High performance nanocomposites of polymers. Scratch-resistant nanocrystalline coatings are already available on the automotive market. Hard compound nano ceramic films are being investigated for the protection of propeller-blade surfaces. 2001). Nano paint (nano graphite. (Nanovic) Additional coating applications are more durable paints allowing aircraft to be repainted on a less regular basis. These paints should show greater durability than current paints. and bio-nanomaterial coatings to keep airplane surfaces clean and free of micro-organisms. 2005) • • For repairing corrosion damage. Nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorous coatings are also being developed to provide superior sliding wear resistance and a lower friction coefficient. nano Teflon. (Qinghai. Anti-bacterial coatings using nanoscale silver are available in the clothing industry. carbon nanotube filled resins are under development. Their use is now being investigated for aircraft cabins. Research is underway for their use in aircraft windows. insulator coatings for heat and chemicals. 2006). can be used for tribological coatings of aircraft platforms operated at higher temperatures. and washing machines. 2003) and nano-crystalline cobalt-phosphorous coatings. Each single de-icing procedure of an aircraft can cost of up to 10.Other anticorrosive materials used in aviation. nano talc powder) has also been patented for reducing friction of ship and aircraft surfaces (allowing faster speeds to be achieved). Nanocomposite polyurethane paints and fluorocarbon paints have been patented for use in aircraft. metals and ceramics. are nanoscale boron oxide (Shuihu. as for instance self-cleaning or self-healing properties. refrigerators. This technique is currently under investigation for removal of dew and ice from automotive headlights (Hella. (TPC. Specific surface properties could be designed in order to open new functionalities. 2002) • • • • • • • • 35 .000 € (3sat. The advantages should be a very high lubricating and self-lubricating performance.
replacing inert or low-energy gellants. However. Iron oxide nanoparticles can act as a catalyst for solid propellants. which allow a higher combustion temperature. 2006) The enhanced creep. • Aluminium nanoparticles are used with liquid jet and rocket fuel to increase the propulsion energy. If successful. and a rapid energy release. Nanomaterials are being applied as coatings on aircraft engine blades.3. higher fuel efficiency can be reached due to longer lasting TBCs that do not peel off. fatigue and sulphidation resistance of grain boundary engineered components is expected to significantly increase the time between engine overhaul/refurbishment. higher pressures and increased rotor operating stresses. shortened burn times resulting in more complete combustion. the cost of aviation fuel is still a major part of airplane operating costs and further improvements in the efficiency of aircraft engines are required. and chemical processing. turbine engines. Research is ongoing to manipulate the properties of the coatings down to the molecular level making them adhere more firmly to the surface of the metal blade and allowing the engines to run hotter. Fuel combustion has been reduced in the past by aerodynamic improvements. deposited on an underlying strain-resistant layer that can deform without cracking. Fuels used at present can be improved by the addition of nano-sized energetic particles. Improvements in aircraft engine efficiency can be reached by materials which allow higher operating temperatures. Nano-phase ceramics are being tested for use as thermal barrier coatings (TBC). a greater flexibility in designing new energetic fuel/propellants. Both layers are made of perovskite oxide ceramic layers. Improved TBC protective coatings have wide application in aircraft engines. even for liquid and solid aerospace engine fuels. a shortened ignition delay. • • • Because of the high surface area. lower engine weights. (Navy. The coating system consists of an outer layer that is chemically resistant. nanoparticles can act as very efficient catalysts.3. • The application of high temperature nanoscale materials to aircraft engines may lead to an increase of the thrust-to-weight ratio of up to 50 percent and fuel savings of 25 percent for conventional engines. Engines Engines are still fuelled by hydrocarbons. • 36 . by weight reduction and by more fuel-efficient engines and systems. faster energy release rates. aero-structures.
4. 2003) A comprehensive understanding of the important characteristics of nanosized particles to reach a desirable performance and ease of processing is still not available. Sensors In addition to chemical and optical sensors. Examples under discussion are hydrogen or cryogenic fuels. Similar sensors can be used for the detection of biological and chemical toxins. High-density energy-storage technologies are needed to make this a reality. Gyroscopes are used to track an airplane’s position. Problems are a suitable industrial production technique of hydrogen and suitable storage technologies. A more revolutionary vision is the use of electrically powered propellers. • 37 . 2006). (Kuo. Aircraft turbine engines are very flexible in the kind of fuel that they can burn (Valentine.• Nano-sized energetic metals and boron particles possess desirable combustion properties such as a high combustion temperature and fast energy release rates. 2006) 3. temperature. The vision is based on superconducting energy-storage systems. acceleration. Microscopic structures are now being built into chips that perform the same function at far less weight and space. (Valentine. Nanosensors can be used for the early detection of fires in the cargo compartment of aircraft. further sensors are needed in aircraft for measurements of velocity. • The conductivity of wires with diameter of a few nanometres is very sensitive to small changes in electrochemical potential. Nanomaterials are being widely investigated for their ability to store hydrogen and other gases and liquids because of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Cleaner and alternative fuels may help in reducing harmful emissions. There is still much to learn about the correlation between physical and chemical properties and measured combustion performance. position. and flow properties. they can be used as very sensitive sensors for different gases. Nanocrystal films of iron-germanium can work as magnetic sensitive material for Hall elements for the measurement of angles and elongations. The sensors are based on nanoparticles of metal oxides. Advances in nanotechnology could enable superconductive materials to eventually be manufactured at a cost that could justify their application in airliner propulsion. It could be imagined that nanostructures can lead to further reductions in weight and space. Because of this.
Advanced concepts using networks of interoperable micro and nanotechnology sensors for accurate event detection and identification. Airbus for example is exploring piezoelectric paint made of a lead-zirconate-titanate nanopowder. flat screens utilising carbon nanotubes have been developed. Again. a network of carbon nanotubes or other nanowires can be used.5. which have lower energy consumption. For example. For identifying damage within advanced composite materials. (CANEUS.• The enhanced use of composite materials leads to the need for a structural health monitoring system. A research project. the aviation industry is not the main driver and applications in astronautics are much more ambitious because of stronger weight constrictions and a harder radiation environment. 2004) • 3. cannot be used for insulating materials. however this is still at a laboratory stage. which detects damages by a reduction of the network conductivity. like eddy current testing. improved flat screens and miniaturized and energy-saving data storage systems would be helpful. • The main driver in the aviation sector is an improved comfort for passengers. Weight savings could not only be reached by savings in the aircraft frame but also by replacing heavy copper wires in aircraft by nanotubeimproved plastic wires. For entertainment systems.for things 38 • • • • . The results can be used also for applications in aircraft. Nanotube-enhanced conductive plastics can be used for electrostatic dissipation in electronic devices and electromagnetic-wave shielding. Integrated nano-electronic systems will allow the opening of “the office and home in the sky”. a broader viewing angle and a lighter display compared with LCD displays. In this context systems for miniaturized power sources and wireless communication are also required. Electrical/electronic components and hardware Nanoelectronic systems are being developed for the Information and Communication sector. led by the Boeing Research and Technology Centre in Madrid is aimed at exploring the use of fuel cell technology for future aerospace applications and for providing auxiliary power . because traditional methods for testing metallic structures. This paint could work as a very precise sensor for information about vibrations. defects or impacts on an aircraft surface. and for long term monitoring applications are discussed for future aircraft/spacecraft health monitoring systems.
active noise control techniques may benefit from new knowledge on micro and nanotechnologies and could allow aircraft noise to be reduced further. Others • For hydraulic uses. which dims at the touch of a button. 2005) • • • • 3. 2006). Uptake of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics in aircraft may be slower than in other sectors. nanomaterials and nanoelectronics are being investigated for uptake in aircraft on a large scale. (Diehl. 39 .7. with the aim of increasing strength and surface quality. better lubricants and safer nano-fluids are being developed. Foreseen benefits include cost reduction. which is a large value considering that one Boeing 777 uses about half a million kilograms of fuel every year. but are made from electro chromic glass. but there is clear interest from the industry. In the longer term. (Robbins. or a starry night sky. the colour and brightness of hundreds of LEDs can be adjusted to give a sense of daylight. Conclusion To conclude. The application of fuel cells has the potential to save up to 1% of jet fuel. 3. reduced environmental burden and enhanced passenger comfort. (ACARE. The aim of these lighting effects is to adjust the body clock to the time of day at the destination. For a reduction of process times of composites.6. 2004) The windows in the Boeing 787 will not have blinds. Ceramic nanoparticles are included in fibre composites. new technologies are making use of microwaves to decrease the time needed for curing.such as air conditioning and lighting on its aircraft by 2015. OLEDs also allow new lighting and display devices for aircraft cabins. In the ceiling. Further advantages are cost and weight savings and the opening of new application fields.
In the period from 1957 till 2005. The spacecrafts have been classified as: A rocket is a vehicle that obtains the thrust from the ejection of fast moving fluid of a rocket engine. 6376 spacecraft have been launched at an average of 133 per year. Other than military applications. Non-orbital spacecrafts called ‘probes’ are used for deep exploration of the universe. The importance of the space sector can be emphasised by the number of spacecrafts launched. rockets are usually used to launch satellites or other payloads. also known as orbital stations. A shuttle is also a vehicle used to transport humans into space.Chapter 4 Review of state of the art of technology and future trends in Spacecraft 4. A shuttle can be used to transport humans from the earth to an orbital space station or can be a manned mission where astronauts have to live in the shuttle. A space station is an artificial structure designed for humans living in outer space. Different types of spacecrafts exist to achieve specific goals in space exploration. A satellite is an unmanned spacecraft used for several scientific applications such as earth observation and planetary exploration. This section will cover civilian applications. So far only low earth orbit (LEO) stations are implemented.1 Introduction The space sector deals with all the technologies associated with travel outside the earth atmosphere. There has been a decrease in the number of spacecrafts launched in the recent years with 40 . The satellite is also used for commercial applications such as communication and GPS. Spacecrafts are also developed for both military and civilian applications.
56. Titan or Pluto exploration and extreme heat of atmosphere re-entry) Facing mechanical constraints of launching by suitable engines and structures. Mars manned flights.2% were civilian. • The development of commercial space applications will be faced with the problem of decreasing costs.gov/pdf/142303main_2006_NASA_Strategic_Plan_sm. The space sector has been a strategic field for all the industrial nations. As costs are considered proportional to weight. Technological improvements can bring solutions to achieve those objectives. Facing extreme temperatures and temperature variation (e.8% were military spacecrafts and 43.g. The remaining spacecrafts launches have been exploration missions.ca/clafleur/spacecrafts-index.qc. • As nanotechnologies cover all the scientific fields implicated in spacecraft enhancements (materials. between the extreme cold of Mars.html NASA strategic plan. Space exploration is the oldest human dream and the present national space programs are very ambitious (e. But new technologies are also being developed to face traditional space constraints – • • Facing high levels of radiation with suitable materials and electronics. electronics. Energy generation and storage sub systems. The following factors are considered to be pushing new technology development in space• The ambition of national space programs to enhance their space knowledge such as that of NASA to push human frontiers to the moon and beyond by longer exploration. 1674 communication or weather satellites were also launched1. Of the 6376 launches. 245 manned missions have been launched in this period. GPS and space tourism companies.pdf 41 .78 launched in 2005. http://www. This goal will require the development of autonomous spacecraft and in the case of manned mission consider technical developments to sustain life in space. life support.sciencepresse. studying them for 1 2 The spacecraft encyclopedia. research will be required on commercial application based on decreasing both structure and payloads weights by the use of lighter materials and integrated systems such as Nano and Pico satellites. commercial applications are expected to present colossal potential opportunity for communication. health management knowledge have to be developed to meet the challenges of harsh environment in space.g. As spaceflights become common.nasa. energy). extra solar system exploration2). http://www.
The fourth part outlines manned flights and the potential applications of nanotechnologies for on-board life support management.2 Materials Most of the progress in nanotechnology has happened due to the discovery of many novel nanostructured materials and the subsequent characterisation of their electronic. As the different technologies developed can find applications in various missions (commercial / scientific) and on various spacecraft (lighter materials are important for satellites as well as for rockets). in the length scale of approximately 1 .jsp 42 . their use is very limited in space but after analysing space agencies research.gov/crssprgm/nano/reports/omb_nifty50. molecular or macromolecular levels. the analysis of the use of nanotechnologies in spacecraft field will be done by technology: . • New mechanical properties can bring solutions to mechanical constraints of launching. electrochemical. http://www. devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size3. optical and magnetic properties for a variety of applications. 4. As nanotechnologies are still an emerging field. electromechanical. to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures. . publications and reports it appears that several advanced researches are focused on nanotechnologies for short-term applications (expected by 2008). These new properties represent an important interest in spacecraft applications because they address the design constraints in achieving the space goals. electronics and energy.And final part is a review of the potential of nanotechnologies for futuristic visions like the space elevator. The objective of this chapter is to describe nanotechnologies state of the art for spacecraft applications and to analyse future trends in the coming years. .100 nanometre range. 3 NSF definition.The three first parts will describe innovation that could find applications in all the spacecraft such as nanotechnologies for materials.spacecraft applications makes sense in order to understand tomorrow’s spacecraft. mechanical.nsf. • New optical properties can increase radiation protection of space structures.The fifth part describes satellites and science payloads and the potential of nanotechnologies in making them more efficient. . Nanotechnology is the development at the atomic. chemical.
4. Nanoelements The nanomaterials considered are in fact nanoelements such as nanoparticles or nanotubes incorporated into different kind of materials (polymer. housings of solid-propellant rockets. or with nanotextured. The early applications are already emerging 43 . have potential applications in various components in space as lightweight structural materials. shuttle. nanoporous 3D specific network can present interesting characteristics for spacecraft applications.1. nanotubes. electrical isolations or fire protection applications. the tire industry has been using SiO2 nanoparticles in order to improve mechanical and thermal properties for a few years. Nanoparticles Nanoparticles were the first discovered nanoelement and so their engineered processes are the most controlled. Due to their high mechanical strength and resistance against heat and radiation. Indeed. nanoparticles are already used in mass production materials like in automotive industry. as heat protection material.g. not only for the structure but also for components. satellites) and most of the applications described here concern structural materials. New electronic properties can allow building materials with integrated sensors (e. because at that level the wall of temperature is a very stringent factor. composites. That’s why a rapid description of the two main elements found in nanomaterials for space applications seems important. According to the control of their engineering. Several new sensors such as infrared sensors. nanoparticle reinforced polymers. They can be used in several devices (as bulk or surface) for materials or electronics.• • • New thermal properties can solve the problem of extreme temperature variation. Nanoscale engineered materials built with basic nanoelements such as nanoparticles. They bring new properties to existing materials e. The nanomaterials with new properties may be used in spacecraft (rockets. Finally materials nano structured can allow the construction of lighter structure and the development of nanocomposites.2. creation of specific optical properties with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. gas and pollutants sensors can also be created. to detect materials cracks) or materials for electronic components. coating).g.
the related structural applications of multifunctional nanotubes are to be expected rather in a medium term time horizon due to their high price and problems with the scalability of production processes. This development aims to facilitate formability of materials through super plasticity generated by reducing the melting points and sintering temperatures to 30% (VDI Technology centre. among other things within the ranges of space structures. carbon nanotubes possess numerous application potentials in space. Despite the exceptional value for spacecraft technology. sensor technology. Another further advantage of carbon nanotubes based materials is the possibility of creating monitored materials. electronics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. which represents one of the main goal of futures spacecraft. A substantial part of the nanotechnology programme of the main space agencies (NASA. the changes of the mechanical properties of the material can be indicated through changes of the electrical resistance and so possible damages could in principle be easily detected by simply monitoring the electric conductance of the material (VDI Technology Centre. stiffness: about 1 terapascal. gas storage and biomedicine. compared with about 10 gigapascal for conventional carbon fibre and 1. It also has links with NASA. Aerospace Corporation4. thermal control devices. 2003). Due to their unusual properties (elasticity. Carbon nanofibres with graphene layers wrapped into perfect cylinders are called carbon nanotubes. In a SBIR project of NASA. The carbon nanotube is the emblematic element of nanotechnologies because it is the most promising. Indeed nanotubes and other structural materials discussed above are not yet being produced in large enough quantities to be cost effective for bulk applications (the 4 Aerospace Corporation is an independent US research centre for United States Air Force and the National Reconnaissance Office. According to the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanofibres are cylindrical nanostructures with graphene layers arranged as stacked cones.in the space sector. In particular there is a huge potential for mass savings in space structures. Air Force laboratories and California State 44 . cups or plates.2 gigapascal for high-carbon steel). nano-crystalline aluminium alloys were developed for space applications by the company DWA Aluminium Composites in co-operation with different US-American aerospace companies. 2003). ESA) is based on the development and application of carbon nanotubes based material improvements. Carbon nanotubes A carbon nanotube is a sort of carbon nanofibre.
Carbon nanotubes tend naturally to agglomerate. polymers and ceramics.2. ceramic.1. connected by covalent chemical bonds.1. But carbon nanotubes have the potential to revolutionize several space technologies. e. NASA has conducted the initial qualification tests of nanoparticles reinforced polymers for space application. decrease permeability.1. According to VDI. A partnership between NASA and Idaho Space Material (ISM) (NASA.g. Polymers A polymer is an assembly of large molecules consisting of repeating structural units. nanoparticles.2. nylon. POSS (Polyhedral Oligomeric SileSquioxanes) are under consideration. e. charge. Another problem with the production of carbon nanotubes composites. NASA has numerous research programmes based on an optimization of the carbon nanotubes production process and also on the functionalisation of those nanotubes to integrate them in components. Epoxide. 4. 4. suitable nanoparticles such as silicates (in particular montmorillonite clay). moisture and chemical resistance.g. composites. The properties of composites that can be significantly improved are thermal and flame resistance. thermal or mechanical properties. is the alignment and the adhesion of the carbon nanotubes in the matrix. or monomers. so that the loading rate of carbon nanotubes is limited to a little weight percentage and problems of viscosity appear at high loading rate.1. fullerenes in polymer. or metal matrices. Composites Composite materials are being produced by mixing nanotubes. reinforced polymers. dissipation and conductivity. nanowires.2. The second problem is concerning the transfer of the molecular properties to macroscopic materials are still unsolved. Such composite materials can provide significant enhancement in the 45 .1. 2006) will allow NASA to benefit the high rate carbon nanotubes production (50g per hour) to develop next generation metals. carbon. Nanoparticle reinforced polymers is being developed by NASA through the SBIR program. the dispersion of carbon nanotubes but also of any other kind of nano charge (more specifically when they are hydrophobic) in composite matrices or spinning of carbon nanotubes to macroscopic fibres. Nanoparticles can be introduced in polymer to improve their electrical. Materials using nanoelements 4. polyphenole or polyimide can be used as polymer matrix.average price is about $500 per gram and the average quantity production is about 100g per day).2.1.1.
CANEUS concept paper and Aerospace Corporation activities.tamu. 2003). Research aims at purifying and functionalizing carbon nanotubes to enable new nanotube polymeric and ceramic composites that have electrically conductive.thermal conductivity. Carbon nanotubes / nanofibres in polymer: Most of the research on composites is based on the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into polymer matrix. The use of nanopowders of oxide nanopowders Si3N4. aluminium oxide or aluminium nitride can be potentially used in spacecrafts. 2003) Ceramic fibres reinforced metals can replace magnesium and aluminium in different structure.edu/research/nanomat. the strength of metal matrix composites could be increased up to 25% through nanostructuring and beyond that. super plasticity and a better resistance against material fatigue can be obtained in comparison to conventional metal matrix composites (VDI. TiCN and non-oxide nanopowders Al2O3. directional anisotropy. Material such as silicium carbide. switchable molecular properties. adaptive. SiC. SiO2 can reduce the sintering temperature and the consolidation time of ceramic material. High strength transparent bulk ceramics for applications as external surfaces and skins for spacecrafts and window is also under development. size and power consumption. Further development of nanocomposites will be to make them tuneable. Nanoparticles and nanopowders as reinforcing composites: Thermomechanical properties. Nanostructured ceramic composites can provide thermal and oxidation protection for construction material. including nanoshells (spherical core of a particular compound surrounded by a shell with a thickness of a few nanometres). fracture toughness and formability can be improved by using nanoscale ceramics. (VDI. These materials will optimize considerably space travel by increasing functionalities in spacecraft systems and vehicles while reducing mass. and structural reinforcement capabilities. NASA investigates carbon nanotubes integration in polymer in its laboratory TIIMS5. fracture toughness. 5 Texas Institute for Intelligent Bio-Nano Materials and Structures for Aerospace Vehicles: http://tiims. self-healing and stress smart sensing systems. Different research activities can be noticed in the frame of the SBIR programme of NASA. radiation absorption. As has been reported.html 46 . Major reductions in the overall system mass are possible with the use of nanostructured thermal protection and radiation structure materials.
CANEUS is also investigating this field since 2004 with possible applications in 2007 in the frame of the project “Nanofibre Composite Materials for Load Bearing Structural applications”. 2005).2. Carbon nanofibre doped epoxy mixtures are used as a matrix material for the preparation of unidirectional CFRP. as opposed to the bare polymer matrices. This nanoreinforced resin can improve the resin-dominated properties such as shear strength of carbon fibre polycyanurate composites used in space hardware for stiff. The mechanical characterization of the doped CFRP showed remarkable increase in the fracture energy of the laminates and also higher elastic and storage modulus in comparison with the non-doped CFRP.3 Coatings 47 .1. The use of carbon nanofibre as nano-sensors for the damage detection within the matrix material of the CFRP is investigated. Experiments have shown that when carbon nanotubes are fully dispersed in cyanate-ester resin.5 percent by weight. Another research axis is the introduction of carbon nanofibre in carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP). Its application is non-destructive damage detection in CFRP during mechanical loading that is a key parameter in space structure (Kostopoulos et al. This also enhances the thermal diffusion coefficient by about 30 percent (CANEUS. Numerous potential applications exist for such multi-functional structures or failure monitoring. creating multifunctional.Aerospace Corporation shows that cyanate ester trimers interact strongly with the surface of the single walled carbon nanotubes. lightweight structures. 4. at concentrations of only 0. Investigations are also made in the frame of a CANEUS project to build smart composites. These characteristics of the composite.. are expected to be useful during the processing steps above glass transition temperature. Carbon nanotubes thermal characteristics have also been tested to create new polymer properties. Experiences show that the insertion of nanotubes into the polymer matrices increases the thermal expansion coefficient of the material by 40 to 60 percent above glass transition temperature.1. “smart” materials. The mechanical strength and stiffness characteristics of the polymer matrices are also found to increase by about 30 to 50 percent on mixing of 5 to 10 percent of nanotubes at room temperature. 2002). A variety of micro-nanotechnologies-based sensors and actuators are embedded within these composites. Enhancing thermal properties can be useful to protect structure of space extreme temperatures. Mechanical and electrical properties of the CFRP are enhanced proving their efficiency in ultra lightweight loadbearing structures for harsh environmental conditions. the modulus of the cured polycyanurate matrix is approximately doubled.
g. This task can be accomplished by coating one of the interfaces with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. That’s why a transparent polymer blend with sufficient bulk conductivity and environmental stability to mitigate surface charging on satellites was developed by Aerospace Corporation. 48 . 2006). Nanostructures have the unique property of being small enough not to significantly impact optical properties in small concentrations (<1%). Most of the research on coatings is currently focused on the enhancement of electrical and thermal properties of existing structures. The conducting indium-tin-oxide coatings typically used on blankets can crack and oxidize which reduces their conductivity and can create electrostatics charges. Transparent films of carbon nanotubes can also be used as a conductive coating over the ceramic coating to mitigate charging effects e. using a high density of nanometre-sized contacts. and the number of contact points is increased dramatically that generates thermal conductance improvements over both metal-metal contact (Sample.Coatings are used in spacecraft as structure protector or to enhance some properties of the material structure. thermal electrics isolating. a percolate network of conductive nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes or conductive oxide nanowires can be incorporated into the coatings to improve conductivity. Thus. They now investigate the use of fluorinated polyaniline in the fluorinated host material polyimide conducting to create polyaniline nanofibres in order to improve optical transmittance. Electrical conductivity of thermal blankets used on most spacecraft surface is a key point of a rocket structure because it prevents the build-up of electrostatic charges that could lead to potentially harmful discharges. on the heat shield (Kao. Nanotechnologies allow the building of a lot of new coatings like smart coatings or with attractive new properties like hardwearing. The use of carbon nanotubes as coating can also enhance thermal conductance of metal-metal contacts by increasing the number of contact points. many of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes make contact to the material. Conductive nanostructures could be used as dopes within the plasma sprayed white ceramic optical coatings. optical properties. When pressed against a solid material. The material polyaniline or polyimide blend could eliminate hundreds of straps used to ground the conductive front surface of the blankets to the spacecraft. 2005).
optical characteristics. Electronics Electronics is everywhere on a spacecraft. allow creation of electric properties like failure detector Integration of electronic component to create new functions Interest6 ++ + +++ +++ ++ Perspective Short term (in test) Short term Middle term Middle term Long term Notice: research on carbon nanotubes integration seems the most promising but carbon nanotubes manufacturing and integration into an existing structure is still not totally controlled. +++ : very strong interest 49 . attitude determination. It controls all the vital systems of the vehicle (orbit. electrical. one of the key factors of futures applications of nanostructured materials for spacecraft will be the elaboration of efficient characterisation and modelling tools.2.2 Materials conclusion Nanoscale materials represent a major stake for spacecraft because of the opportunity they bring to build new structures with specific thermal. This is all the more true with nanoscale materials because of their small size and specific characteristics. This research will find applications in the longer term than nanoparticles integration. decrease permeability. Finally. 2006). flame. radiations resistant Improve thermo mechanical properties. The following table summarizes the different nano applications for materials in space under study: Technology Nanoparticles reinforcing polymers Nanoparticles reinforcing composites Carbon nanotubes reinforcing composites Carbon nanotubes reinforcing coatings Smart materials Characteristic Improve thermal. ++: strong interest . stronger and cheaper structure. Before any material can be specified for a space application it must endure rigorous testing and analysis to determine optimal processing conditions and ensure reliable performance and security in the hostile space environment. Secure modelling processes and rigorous tests ensure crew security in the case of manned flights and decrease the financial risks of a failure in space (Kao. communication between the 6 +: normal . Major space agencies are engaged in research concerning nanomaterials with new properties and some of them can nearly find applications. resistance.3. charge dissipation Improve thermo mechanical properties Improve thermo mechanical properties.4. 4.
Finally an important aspect of nanoelectronics for spacecraft as well as for nanomaterials will be modelling and characterisation of electronics devices. 4. Secondly. For this specific aspect the best technologic answer is carbon nanotubes that show natural high radiation resistance properties. electronics device became more radiation tolerant when their dimensions are reduced.different parts of the vehicle. Kwanwoo Shin at Sogang University showed that: First. Not only do they present exceptional conductive characteristics but they also have a non-negligible advantage for space use: their radiation resistance. Big advances were made by the implementation of MEMS in several sub-systems and even though NEMS are in development they are not very relevant for the mass saving in big spacecraft.1012 cm-2 that is comparable to the space environment. energy transformation) and all the science payloads. increasing performances. None of the 50 .1010 – 4. And nanotechnologies show promises to achieve these goals by the use amongst others of carbon nanotubes.1 Carbon nanotubes for transistors Carbon nanotubes have potential to become the base of almost electronics devices for spacecraft. Nevertheless it is important to note that nanotechnologies in spite of their prefix “nano” don’t represent a huge potential for miniaturization. A recent study of Prof. The only specific constraints of spacecraft that can influence the development of space specific nanotechnologies for electronics. Indeed nanotechnologies promise enhancement of actual electronics devices properties reducing their size. The electronics industrial sector is a very innovative sector with a huge market potential and so the study of nanotechnologies incorporation into electronics devices represents a real stake for its actors. Experiences were made with carbon nanotubes based field effect transistors exposed to 10-35 MeV proton beams with a fluency of 4. Thus nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft electronics are essentially spin off from ground electronics sector because they pursue the same goals: decreasing price. It will be useful to detect and anticipate failures due to space harsh conditions. proton irradiations have no effects on the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes based field effect transistor.3. is the exposure to highs rates of radiation. It is all the more important as electronics devices use nanotechnologies because some characteristics they engender are not foreseeable.
. Zettacore Company is currently 51 . 2006). 4. carbon nanotubes based memory and magneto electronic (MRAM) storage technologies. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is one of the molecules intensively examined for memory applications. Moreover the quality control for the carbon nanotubes fabrication and the large contact resistance are two major issues that will remain problematic in the coming years. Biological memory Memories can be realized by making use of biological molecules (proteins. mechanical constraints. But electronics devices containing only carbon nanotubes are difficult to build and cost effective.devices that were fabricated for the experiment exhibited any significantly altered electrical changes before and after proton irradiation (Hong et al. 2005) a range of concurrent technologies are in development “like Millipede (micromechanical device with an array of nanoscale read/write/erase tips based on scanning probe technology developed by IBM). So the current most advanced researches concern hybrid Si approaches in merging carbon nanotubes based devices and structures with traditional siliconbased technology. 2003) ferroelectric (FRAM memory based on the ferroelectricity of certain crystals)..2 Memories / Data storage With the increasing number of on-board analysis systems coupled with the lengthening of space flight.3. memories have to increase their storage density decreasing mass memory. biological memories. which will compete in the future with conventional memory chips like DRAM. radiations. “Nanotechnologies offer potential in the development of new non volatile working memories for computer systems.” (VDI. DNA). Porphyrin is another molecule that can be used as memory.e. They also have to face space constraints like others electronics components i. The three lasts represent the main potential applications for spacecraft. At present efforts are made on genetic mutations of bR in order to stabilize individual configurations of the protein for increasing the data stability. extremes temperatures.” (VDI. 2003) Even expected dimensions of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) are to be 45 nm by the year 2010 and 18 nm by 2018 (Ives et al.
This innovation involves using the change of SEM image contrast and brightness caused by removal of surface carbonaceous deposit as an end point. NRAM has the potential to serve as universal memory replacing all existing forms of memory. NRAM NRAM is carbon nanotubes based memory. such as DRAM. This NANO-3DI technique is a special FIB milling technique that can remove material in slices less than 2 nm thick using a standard ion beam roughly 30 nm in diameter.com/pdf/Press_Release_11_06%20.pdf 52 . 4. MRAM This magneto electronic storage technology presents several advantages for space application such as low energy consumption.developing this technology. Nantero is developing this technology and announce in 2006 the routine production of carbon nanotubes for their memory applications7. Even if applications are expected in a middle-term carbon nanotubes based memory represent a huge potential of spacecraft applications because of their space radiations resistance. This structure increases data quantity stored by 107.3 Nanocharacterisation Impacts of defects on electronics devices geometries are always critical and the effect at the nanoscale is amplified and more difficult to detect with respect to manufacturability and reliability of these devices. visualization. SRAM and flash memory.3.nantero. the process of cutting and imaging can be repeated at nanoscale increments until the entire 7 See: http://www. Experiments were also made with data storage on diamonds with Fluorine and Hydrogen atoms on its surface. and detailed examination of every part of the features of interest at the nanoscale. (VDI. highdensity non-volatile Random Access Memory. inherent radiation resistance and suitability for high temperature application. Thus. 2003) The use of spintronics in this field represents conception advantages and potential size decreasing. That’s why The Aerospace Corporation created an innovative tool for failure analysis at the nanoscale. New and innovative uses of advanced analytical techniques are needed that allow imaging.
. The following table summarize the different nano applications for electronics in space under study: Technology Carbon nanotubes for transistors Carbon nanotubes based memory MRAM Biological memory Characteristic Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations) Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations).html A complementary approach is to prevent geometrical defects by performing simulation software.4 Electronics conclusion Nanotechnologies in electronics components are not yet available for space missions even if they promise several applications especially in facing space radiation.org/publications/crosslink/fall2005/03. data storage increase Interest +++ ++ ++ + Perspective Middle term Middle term Middle term Long term Space research is more focused on applied electronics like various sensors that are developed in their own parts. Aerospace Corporation http://www. data storage increase Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations). It can then be digitally reconstructed from the images taken after each cut (Ives et al.1 : NANO-3D.structure containing the features of interest is physically deconstructed. 2005). 4.aero. data storage increase Space harsh conditions resistance (radiations). Figure 4. Finally modelling and characterisation is the most active sector of space research in electronics because it represents a relevant stake to pursue the “zero failure” objective of main space missions.3. As electronics is not the most current strategic aspect of space researches evolutions in nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft will mainly depend of progress made in the terrestrial electronics sector. 53 .
http://www. with better outputs can allow spacecraft to be more autonomous and so to stay in space for farther missions. Weight and size decrease with efficiency increase to avoid self heating of electrical power subsystem also make cheaper vehicles. Energy generation and storage Spacecraft electrical power subsystem (EPS) typically provides four basic functions: power source. The energy problematic is common to all the spacecraft. The American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics as well as SNPE8 are currently exploring ways to improve those using nanoparticles of Aluminium. energetic materials. Propellants usually used for space launching are ammonium per chlorate (NH4ClO4).com/uk/index. Combustion wave speeds in excess of 1km/s with an under 8 SNPE is a chemical group specialised in explosives. Nanotechnologies can also be used to optimize energy generation boosting current propellants or for electric propulsion where they can be used as cold cathode to emit electron to neutralize flux of charged particles.snpe.asp 54 . energy storage. power distribution and power regulation and control. Propellants Propellants are typically a power source essential for rockets or shuttles. The aluminium particles sizes range between 60 and 120 nm and experimentally measured combustion wave speeds varied between 420 and 460 m/s. This subsystem is a key component for current space stakes because smaller energetic systems. As propulsion subsystem is an energy liberation component. and satellites need adapted propulsion systems smaller with high energy conversion rate. Rockets and shuttle need huge propulsion energy for launching using propellants.4.4. Autonomy improvement is also very important in the case of emergencies situations and can be determinant to save a mission. The most common formulation is aluminium nanoparticles mixed with molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) or bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3).1.4. 4. All spacecraft also need efficient energy storage and conversion systems during flights for their orbiting and their other on board subsystems. Nanotechnologies can be used to enhance current propellants essentially with the introduction of nanoparticles. its characteristics are the need of a huge energy generation in a very short time that implies optimized energy storage and a high discharge rate. Nanotechnologies applications in the range of electrical power and energy storage can improve batteries and fuel cells as well as photosensitive materials for high-efficient solar cells.
Technology is quite well known but progress has to be made in the range of energy conversion and durability of the collectors under space conditions (radiation. heat and corrosion resistance). Solar cells Solar cells appear to be one of the most promising energy production systems. 2003) The principle is to incorporate a layer (or layers of different sizes) of quantum dots that absorb in a region outside that of the usual 55 . With NASA they are developing a way to use carbon nanotubes bundles to create the surface bumps needed to prevent dust accumulation on the surface of photovoltaic cells that can decrease the energy conversion rate (Toon. Aluminium powder has been used as an additive to propellant and explosives for decades. Others research is turned to ion thrusters like Boron Argon or Xenon. 2006). the issues of volume production. Results indicate that burn rate increased with decreasing particle size. At the same time significant progress has been made toward understanding of the unique combustion processes of nanoaluminium and its various formulations such as Metastable Intermolecular Composites (MIC also called superthermite or nanothermite. (VDI. It is more and more envisaged for mars return mission to use carbon dioxide (most abundant component in Mars atmosphere) as an oxidizer for metal nanoparticles (Al). Anti-reflective or self-cleaning coatings and collectors can also improve the efficiency of converting solar energy to electric power..4. Thus. 2001). Conversion efficiencies of over 50% may be possible with such compound semiconductor solar cells (Aroutiounian et al. But they are still expensive and versatile which limit their use. 4. that is why nanoparticles of aluminium appears to be a promising alternative to traditional aluminium powder. (VDI.pressure of several hundreds atmosphere. The conversion efficiency of solar cells may be improved by using semiconductor quantum dots. The use of nanomaterials is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of solar cells. Recent advances in particle synthesis technology have allowed aluminium nanoparticles to be produced in commercial quantities. economics and quality control have reached a level of maturation such that the companies are now offering standard product.2. At present the most efficient solar cells for space applications are based on III/V-semiconductors such as GaAs and InP and have a conversion efficiency that can reach 40% with triple junction cells. 2003) Researchers from Georgia Tech are working on ways to mimicking lotus self-cleaning coatings. it refers to an important subset of nanoenergetics).
This method of device improvement relies upon the physics of the quantum mechanical "particle in a box". 1997). It implies increasing research in efficient capacitors to store energy that can be released during a night phase. they do not require current matching. Capacitors like “nanocaps” could be realized by metallic nano-electrodes with ultra thin pseudo capacity or nanoporous carbon aerogels. NASA Glenn research centre http://powerweb. 2002). quantum mechanical dot devices represent an alternative to multi-junction devices.gov/pvsee/programs/thinfilm/tfg_nano. their integration in an exogenous structure and the potential toxicity they represent during their manufacturing.” (VDI. 2003) Nanotechnologies offer different possibilities to increase the conversion efficiencies of fuel cells. Fuel cells “Fuel cells represent an efficient method for chemical energy conversion and possess substantial application potential in space and moreover reusable spacecraft due to their clean operation and their compactness. Theoretically studies have predicted a two-fold improvement in efficiency over conventional device structures (Luque and Martí. the problems of quantum dots integration in solar cells are both the synthesis of quantum dots. The main disadvantage at this stage is the low efficiency of the device.4. 4.2 : Intermediate-band gap solar cell. in particular within the ranges of 56 . 2003) The only constraint of solar cell is the necessity of sun exposure to generate energy.nasa. Each nanocrystalline dot behaves as a potential well with energy levels that are quantized and inversely related to the size of the well. Research on different types of organic solar cells including the Graetzel cell continues.html Organic solar cells can be potentially used in spacecrafts. By modifying the size of the particle. (VDI.grc. Although the quantum mechanical dots contribute to cell output by providing an intermediate band. The advantage of organic solar cells is the low cost of manufacturing as compared to conventional solar cells. the absorption energy of the dot can be tuned to a region where it will be complementary to the existing cell properties (NASA. As the quantum dots synthesis process is still not well controlled.3. In this respect.photovoltaic device. Figure 4.
Another hollow tubular structure. BCN (Boron Carbon Nitride nanotubes) shows promise because of its possibility for tuning nanostructures electrical properties by B/N concentration variation. which in many cases is critical for the employment of fuel cell technology in space. They provide higher power density and double conversion efficiency compared to DMFC. 57 . DMFC used a catalyst to convert methanol fuel to hydrogen.S. But several problems appear with the creation of this kind of materials like with securing bulk amounts of small-diameter nanotubes. But tube diameter and helicity are currently difficult to control and so manufacturing problems still exist. The critical problem with hydrogen fuel cells is hydrogen storage that prevents the use of hydrogen fuel cells power sources.. Different nanomaterials were tested for hydrogen storage due to their increased active surface area but their energy storage is still inferior to that of carbon nanotubes. membranes and hydrogen storage. As the U. That’s why various alternatives are studied in laboratories. Department of Energy specified that about 7-10 percent by weight storage should be sufficient for commercial viability for both ground and space transportation applications titanium ethylene can be an easy inexpensive solution for H2 storage. Scientists from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) and Turkey’s Bilkent University predict that a well-known. active cathode material. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are one platform for generating energy. Fuel storage is also considered to be a problem in implementing fuel cells (VDI. This can be improved by the use of metallic nanoparticles or ceramic nanopowders. bipolar plate interconnect in both hydrogen and direct methanol fuel cells. Moreover carbon nanotubes didn’t appear as cost relevant as it promised. The other type of fuel cell is hydrogen fuel cells. carbon nanotubes have a relatively good hydrogen retention rate (4-5% under very low temperature < 100°K) that is why several space agencies (American Institute of Aeronautics and Aerospace. NASA) investigated the use of carbon nanotubes to enhance current hydrogen storage system. The poisoning of the catalyst by carbon monoxide is one of the main obstacles.catalysts. inexpensive molecule: Ethylene could become the future of H2 storage. solid polymer electrolyte additive. The use of carbon nanotubes allows facing the high price of platinum and also the problem of radiation degradation. 2003). Carbon nanotubes can also be used as anode materials. 2006). Their calculations show that titanium atoms attached to an ethylene molecule can drastically increase H2 storage to reach 14 percent of the weight of the titaniumethylene complex (Durgun et al. Indeed due to their hollow tubular nature.
Those applications are explored for both ground and space sectors but space research is more focused on 58 . 2004 cited in VDI. The increasing miniaturization of electronic components requires flexible batteries that can be integrated into circuits. 2003). A significant improvement in both the current Ni/H and Li/C battery technologies with respect to the current storing capacity and discharging efficiency is expected. Ultracaps (kind of battery where electric energy is directly stored as positive or negative charge without any reaction on the electrode surfaces) with mechanical storage with kinetic wheel are also developed for pulsed and power driven applications and are planned for Space or Lunar station. Thin film batteries (in particular Li ion batteries).5 Energy conclusion Various types of energy generation and storage already exist.. 2000) can increase reversible charge capacity by 600%. with nanomaterials TiO2 as cathode. a polyaniline derivative. In lithium ion batteries. vanadium oxide or LiCoO2-particles and anode with Sn/Sb oxides. Nickel hydrogen or nickel metal hydride batteries are essentially used in small sized elements like for extra vehicular activity (EVA) suit devices and experiments. Nanotechnologies have the potential to improve their achievements. Carbon nanotube anodic layers around metal cathodes. Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes therefore provide an alternative to current anode fabrication technology with graphitic carbon. carbon nanotubes. Other experiments report increasing energy density with MnO2 or poly (o-anisidine) (POAS). The lifetime and efficiency of charging and discharging cycles in these batteries is critically dependent on storage and/or intercalation properties of the anode material. reducing their size and so their costs. That is why powerful and miniaturized batteries are needed to improve portative tools autonomy. (VDI. Cathode material can be built with carbon aerogels. whose dimensions and power density can be adapted to the respective chip components. nanoparticles of cobalt nickel and ferric oxides in the electrode material (Poizot et al. offer numerous advantages for space applications. Batteries Space power systems used high performance batteries such as lithium ion or nickel metal hydride accumulators for powering devices.4. Nanostructured materials offer improvements power density and durability by controlling the charge diffusion and the oxidation state on a nanoscale level (Khullar et al.4. are currently investigated as well as Li and K intercalation in single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and/or multiwall nanotubes.4. 2003) 4..4. such as Cu.
heat absorption and rejection. 4. ventilation. health monitoring.1. The following table summarize the different nano applications for energy in space under study: Technology Nanoparticles into propellants Quantum Dots reinforcing solar cells Nanoparticles for fuel cells electrolytes Nanotubes for H2 storage (essentially Carbon nanotubes) for fuel cells Nanoelement for battery Characteristic Improve their efficiency. (VDI. 2003) 59 . carbon nanotubes integration is more a middle term vision because of the difficulties for its manufacturing.5. Global life support As long travel mission for human far exploration are seriously engaged. According to NASA. Gas sensors: The electronic nose based on gas sensors is used for monitoring air quality and to detect fire warning. The important life support tasks have been summarised by VDI as oxygen supply. 2003) 4. wastewater treatment and sensors. CO2 removal. decontaminating. monitoring of water quality. Nanotechnology is expected to improve the selectivity of these gas sensors. nanotechnologies can find potential application in gas storage.5. (VDI. pressure monitoring. There are numerous applications of nanotechnology within life support. filtering. Nanotechnologies can bring technological solutions to astronauts’ daily problems. Various types of metal oxide and ceramic nanopowders can be used to improve the performance of electrochemical sensors. air cleaning and filtration. decrease volume needed Improve energy conversion rate Improve fuel cells efficiency Improve H2 storage rate and in the case of carbon nanotubes is radiations resistant Improve existing battery efficiency Interest ++ +++ ++ +++ + Perspective Short term Middle term Short term Middle term Short-Middle term* *Notice: It depends of the nanoelement used.those topics because energy is a key point for future spacecraft according to the increasing need of autonomy. enhancing on board life management become a necessity. With the development of longer manned mission and space tourism. Life support Life support is becoming a key research axis in space sciences. avoiding moistures. hygiene. control of air quality and humidity. waste water treatment. monitoring the life on the International Space Station or in shuttles is a real challenge.
They integrate multiple sensor elements consisting of isolated networks of single walled carbon nanotubes decorated with metal nanoparticles (for chemical selectivity).pdf Water cleaning: Pollutants and germs can be effectively removed from water using Nano-membranes. 2004).. Medical systems With the development of deep space living flights.NASA researches are focused on the topic of miniaturized sensors. University of Pittsburgh researchers enhance nanocarpet to create one that not only traps particles but also kills bacteria and others pathogens. coli. these tubes display sensitivity to different agents by changing colour and can be trained to kill bacteria. such as E. This unique structure is a carpet of self assembling carbon nanotubes that can be used for trapping microscopic particles or micro organisms (e. which can change colours when appropriately formulated..g. The advantage of Nano-membrane is reduced pore blockage as compared to conventional membranes. Nanomix. with a hydrocarbon diacetylene. with just a jab to its cell membrane. spores).5. As critical risks for astronauts. The resulting molecule would have the desired properties of both biosensor and biocide (Russell et al. a company devoted to the build of nanosensors. Argonide is developing nano-porous ceramic filter membranes for the sterilization of treated water in a NASA SBIR project. Indeed a particular nanocarpet combines a quaternary ammonium salt group. CO and H2S. Its function is first trapping microscopic particles for scientific analysis (Noca et al. 2006). 2003) 4. bacteria. the following should be mentioned among other things: 60 . enhancing medical system is becoming a key point of longer manned mission. known for its ability to disrupt cell membranes and cause cell death. pollen.cgi/jpcbfk/2006/110/i42/pdf/jp064371z. (VDI.org/cgi-bin/article. Researchers from NASA’s jet propulsion laboratory developed a nanocarpet. But another function of the nanocarpet can be cleansing. inorganic particles. Figure 4.2. 2004)..acs. Efficiency was proved for H2. Unlike other nanotubes structures. CH4. has recently demonstrated efficiency and selectivity of electronics noses base on carbon nanotubes in the frame of a SBIR phase II program (Star et al.3 : Nanomix sensor http://pubs.
bone. . radiation damages.g. Numerous research programs of NASA focus on life sciences in co-operation with other federal institutions (e. for gene analysis) that allows simultaneous detection of different analytes. This technique seems to be the most promising method of large scale nanoelectronics production that will be necessary for its routine use in manned mission. This biochip is build on a basis of multi walled carbon nanotubes array used to collect electrochemical signals associated with the target bio molecules. methods of early diagnosis in particular of cancer. miniaturized diagnostics and autonomous therapy. DNA) like gold nanoparticles.g. Applications of nanotechnologies can be identified in: . which are specifically bonded to the 61 . In this field NASA is developing “Ultra sensitive Label-Free Electronic Biochips Based on Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectrode Arrays” that allow fast detection of gene mutation which is the major causes for the development of cancer and genetic diseases and also the main risk of radiation exposure. high speed analyses. Nanotechnologies will not decrease significantly their size but can bring new functionalities that can gather various functions in a same device like with lab-on-a-chip systems. 2006). of the immune system. 2001).Nanoparticles use for the detection of molecules (proteins. 2003) They aim to apply nanotechnologies to achieving space medical systems. the most promising method is the Fountain Pen Nanolithography. To produce that kind of device. semiconductor nano-crystals (quantum dots) or also magnetic nanoparticles. insufficient methods for on-board medical therapy and diagnostics (Stilwell. heart and blood circulation problems. distortion of the sense of balance. efficient and mobile detection systems.Miniaturized analytical devices for medical diagnostics like lab-on-achip-systems that allow complex analysis sequences by individual controllable micro valves and channels. UCLA has developed in partnership with NASA a lab-on-a-chip for blood testing that can allow direct on board tests (Amudson. The main objectives include minimal invasive. thus combining both top-down and bottom-up paradigms. performance loss. Substantial progress was made in this field by the conception of MEMS based medical devices. NIH) or industrial partners.Oligonucleotide biochips (e. Another key point is the miniaturization of medical devices in order to adapt them to space transport. muscle. . as well as small and compact test kits. A CANEUS project is currently working on the future of this technique integrating micro fluidics with nanofabrication. bio molecular imaging. (VDI.
molecular probes covalently attached to the end of the multi walled carbon nanotubes. The probe molecules could be designed as specific biomarkers such as nucleic acids or proteins (NASA, 2006).
Figure 4.4 : NASA biochip
Drug delivery realized in principle from nanoscale cage molecules (e.g. liposomes, fullerenes or other cage molecules such as dendrimers) or by coupling with nanoparticles. The most advanced devices are miniaturized testers for bio molecules and diagnostics. Applications for nanoparticles or drug delivery seem to be expected in a longer term like for ground applications. With the help of nanotechnological therapy procedures a distinct progress in the autonomous self-diagnostics and medication of astronauts is expected in the future that is an important prerequisite for the realization of long manned space missions outside of the earth orbit. During a manned Mars mission, which is considered as a long term objective both for NASA and ESA, there would be no possibility of external medical supply of the astronauts for a period of up to three years, apart from capabilities of telemedicine which will be developed until then. A CANEUS project is also under development on this topic: “Astronaut health monitoring”. This 3 years project goal is building a new generation of miniaturized biomedical devices for astronauts for 2009. The sensor-on-a-chip for human health monitoring developed in the frame of this project consists of fully integrated microelectronics, micro fluidics and bio functionalized sensors on a single chip format using Polypyrrole bio functionalized electrodes. Polypyrrole is a selective conducting polymer adapted to detect glucose, cholesterol and a host of other blood molecules as well as volatile liquids and gases for environmental sensing. NASA is also preparing in-vivo test for a nanosensor to monitor space radiation exposure (Flinn, 2005). It is a molecule size sensor, built using dendrimers, which could be placed inside the cells of astronauts to warn of health impacts from space radiation. Researchers group set out to develop biosensors for real-time monitoring of radiation-induced biologic effects in space. They sought to develop cellular biosensors based on dendrite polymers, using nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter as the basis for the biosensors. To make use of this nanotechnology, an astronaut would inject a clear fluid, placed with nanoparticles, into his bloodstream before a space mission. During flight, he would put a small device shaped like a hearing aid into his ear. This device would use a tiny laser to count glowing cells as they flow through capillaries in the eardrum. A wireless link would relay the data to the spaceship’s main computer for processing. This scenario is at least 5-10 years away; 62
however most of the important research is being conducted in the laboratory. The researchers are trying to fix nanoparticles on lymphocytes and the answer can be induced by detection of suicides enzymes produced by the cell when it is irradiated.
Nanotechnologies can also be developed to improve astronauts comfort and protection with textile innovations by creating space clothes more efficient and more adapted to harsh space conditions. Various textile technologies are under development not only for astronauts but they can find applications in spacecraft. Sensatex, a developer of integrated smart textile systems, has announced in 2006 the beta launch of its Smart Shirt System. The system makes it possible to remotely monitor a wearer's movement, heart rate, and respiration rate in real-time through a conductive fibre grid that is seamlessly knit into the material of the fully washable shirt. Early research for the Smart Shirt System was funded by the DARPA9 and the Technical Support Working Group. This kind of device combines nanotechnologies enhancement for textile and improvement of health self monitoring. The same is possible by addition of core shell nanoparticles. They improve electrical, magnetic, optical properties and so can serve as diagnostic coating for astronauts’ suits. Others nanoparticles can be used to improve space textiles functions like silver nanoparticles that can provide antibacterial and anti fungal functions (nanoroadSME, 2006). Other developed products like Nano-Tex Coolest Comfort fabric or klimeo fabric can be used for space applications because of the new properties they provide: prevent moisture apparition, regulate internal temperature according to the external one. It appears more like comfort applications for astronauts but can become a critical point in the case of long manned mission.
4.5.4 Life support conclusion
As enhancement of life management in space is a key topic of the future years, several space studies are focused on it. They take advantage of the electronics and medical researches achievements and fit them for space applications. That is why the most advanced devices for life management containing nanotechnologies are sensors for gas detection or other medical applications. The following table summarize the different nano applications for life management in space under study:
US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Technology Nanocarpet Carbon nanotubes in gas sensors Carbon nanotubes in Lab on a chip / Biochip Drug delivery Smart textile
Characteristic Particles detection, space radiation resistant Improve their sensibility; harsh space conditions resistant Improve their sensibility; harsh space conditions resistant Enhance health management More adapted to space conditions, health monitoring
Interest +++ +++ +++ +++ ++
Perspective Short term Short term Short term Middle term Middle term
4.6. Satellites / Science payloads
Satellites are very small-unmanned spacecraft, which were first designed for scientific analysis (observation / particles detection of earth, other planets, universe) and for several years have been used for commercial applications such as communication or GPS. Others functions of satellites take place in military applications but this field will not be treated. To achieve their missions, satellites are equipped by science payloads that are functional devices allowing scientific analysis, data collection and transmission. Technological needs will be different according to the function of the satellite. Scientific satellites are launched by national or international space agencies to enhance the knowledge about space. It includes various missions like earth observation; planet, universe exploration and so have various functions like observation; atmosphere, planet surface particles collect and analysis (bio, chemical or physical properties detection). In the case of non-orbital mission one speaks more about probes. The needs identified for this kind of missions are for one part development of more autonomous systems in order to increase missions’ duration and on the other hand the miniaturization of satellites to decrease their weight and so decreasing launching costs. As probes are often used for deep space exploration (e.g. asteroid belt) problems of miniaturization and autonomy are all the more important. Companies that use the potential of satellites for business have launched commercial satellites. The two main commercial applications for satellites are: communication (e.g. cell phones, TV) and GPS. The need identified for commercial applications is clearly costs reduction and for that mass and size saving. Thus the evident technological trend for satellites is miniaturization (even if there are some exceptions like in telecommunication where certain 64
satellites can reach several tons). Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957 (84 kg), satellites weights have decreased to reach a ten kg for current satellites in orbit. Researches are currently focused on the nano and pico satellite development. Prefix used to qualify those satellites doesn’t express the size of the satellite itself but a class of weight (1 to 10 kg for nanosatellite, 0.1 to 1 kg for picosatellite). They most express an average range of size components. The ultimate goal of satellite miniaturization is the construction of a satellite-on-a-chip which represents the idea of a completely functional satellite built as a monolithic integrated circuit. Expected dimensions are: 216 cm² total design space, less than 5mm thick, lass than 100g mass, 100 mW peak power (Barnhart et al., 2005). In addition to the economic potential of nano/pico satellites represent, miniaturized launches can also be very useful for technological improvements and testing of new nanotechnologies. Aerospace is not a very innovative sector in the sense where space launches are very expensive and failure zero is needed. A co-founder of CANEUS, Thomas George said “technologies flying in space are 10 years behind what is state of the art terrestrially” (CANEUS, 2002). So the use of well-known technologies is safer in the same time for astronauts in the case of manned missions and for space agencies budgets. But the revolutionary potential of nano/pico satellites to make small, light and cheap satellites can change the use of emerging technologies like nanotechnologies in spacecraft. If satellites are cheaper, quantity launched can be increased at equal costs. It means that some of them can be lost without serious financial consequences. So space agencies can consider the use of their satellites not only for space mission but also for nanotechnologies testers in order to improve both their space and technological knowledge. Thus, nanotechnologies development follows a kind of virtuous spiral due to satellites potential:
Thus within the main space agencies program, industries are involved in the satellite miniaturization race which includes a part of enhancement in
power management.4M Figure 4. nanotechnologies will not revolutionize the miniaturization process because MEMS technologies have already allowed significant weight reductions.gov/cgibin/satellite_missions/select. 2005) Target Costs for Satellite Classes Show 100x improvement! Total Cost $316 M $4. coordinated formation flying (in 2011) (Delft University of Technology and Systematic. Delphi C3.nps.g.1-1 kg $1. TECH SAT 21). By this way student improve their spacecraft knowledge and space agencies can take this opportunity to test their new technologies like nanotechnologies in space conditions (e.0M $0.g.5 : CANEUS http://www. data management. OPAL mission. ST5).pdf NASA has several missions already including micro technologies on nano or picosatellite (e.gsfc.nu/activities/recap/060509/caneus. communications and control.0M $62. 10 See: http://ilrs. 2005 and Star shine 3 Satellite10) Thus.1M $0.5M $0. Delft University of Technology and Systematic.nasa. They are also implicated in test research program called Space Test Program (SPT) to test various new technologies directly on board satellites (e.2M $0.csba.cgi?order=&sat_code=STA3&sat_name=Starshine3&tab_id=general 66 . attitude and stationkeeping.8M Nano Sat Pico Sat 0.0M $2. On the other hand they can bring solutions for various satellites stakes: • Improve satellites autonomy for deep space mission using technologies developed in the part dedicated to energy. • Optimise structure and function of various payloads that will be described in this part. To achieve the goal of on board testing.000 kg Sat 1-10 kg $3. Several examples can be quoted: The NPS CANEUS program goal is to transform satellite from a prohibitive tool to a consumer good and consider launch of a satellite including advanced nanotechnologies for 2009 in those components: Thermal management control.0M Target Costs ($ million) Satellite Mass Group (including Manufacturing Launch Insurance fuel) $154.g.0 M Large >10.the on board nanotechnologies integration. several engineering schools build satellite programs for their students.0 M $100. autonomous navigation (in 2011).
and three-quit quantum computers capable of some simple arithmetic and data sorting. 4. decodes and distributes commands from the ground. payloads or other subsystem. 2001). This sub-system implies both use of advanced software and hardware. electrical power subsystem is a strategic point for them. Satellite subsystems Satellites are divided in various subsystems.g. 67 . Data handling subsystem: The data handling subsystem is basically the on-board computer for the satellite. These include building two. several advances were made in the field of quantum computing. The detectors can include optical detectors (e. Large technical issues must still be resolved. Nanotechnologies applications for electronics can contribute to the protection against space radiations but another nanotechnology application could enhance data handling performances. We can note that power wires are developed by Rice University under a NASA contract. (VDI. responsible for several jobs. Even if it is a longterm application.1. magnetometers (to determine attitude with respect to the geomagnetic field) and MEMSbased sensors to determine the rate of angular motion (NASA. Nanotechnological developments relevant to this area include both detectors to monitor spacecraft dynamics and devices to control those dynamics. 2003) The main potential advantage quantum computing represent is still its potential to secure data transmission by efficient information encoding. validates. Tools used in those subsystems (e. the mains are summarized here: Electrical power subsystem: As satellites are often autonomous spacecraft. micro nanotechnologies star mappers). All the nanotechnologies potentialities in this field were described in the part dedicated to energy.6. It also gathers processes and formats spacecraft housekeeping and mission data for downlink or use on board.g.So satellite miniaturization has the potential to accelerate introduction of advanced nanotechnologies not only in satellites but also in all the spacecraft. a gyroscope) have to be more efficient and secure and on the other hand have to be as light as possible. It receives. Attitude and orbit determination / control subsystem: Attitude determination subsystem (ADCS) and orbit control subsystem (OCS) function is to keep the spacecraft pointed in a desired direction to meet mission requirement.
Science payloads Science payloads are anything that a spacecraft carries beyond what is required for its operation during flight. or physical components.Propulsion subsystem: Because non-ideal forces can make a satellite move from its trajectory.g. 4. propulsion subsystem is needed to mitigate this effect.2.6. chemical components (e. planet atmosphere composition). nanophotonic waveguide potentially suitable for interconnections needed to build “photonic chips” (Aerospace America. So the limiting factor of sensor miniaturization is to measure a critical flux and sensor size can be reduced only where it does not compromise measurements at that level (Aerospace America.1. Several studies were conducted to study the feasibility of miniaturized propulsion subsystems. 2005). Various technologies are being developed to make sensors based on nanotechnologies such as quantum dots. This includes the instruments for analysis (sensors. carbon nanotubes. high energy density storage systems and micro-nanotechnology based batteries for providing adapted solutions of miniaturized propulsion system according to the kind of space mission. three main kinds of payloads have been identified: • Sensors • Imaging instruments • Communication systems 4. imaging tools) in the case of scientific mission and the communication instruments in the case of commercial satellites. bacteria).g. They can be used to detect biological components (e. Today only MEMS or micro propulsion effort (this technology embeds discreet amounts of propellant in an array of sealed capsules on a silicon substrate (Barnhart et al. Sensors Sensors will use electronics technologies developed in part 2. 2005)) were achieved but a CANEUS project is currently focused on research for low mass. The geometric factor of a detector sets the number of particles it will collect and thus the instrument’s ability to count statistically significant numbers of particles.2. 68 .2 of the present report according to their functions. Even if there are several different payloads according to their mission. nanocrystals to enable wavelength-selective emission.6. 2005)..2. In this case sensor miniaturisation will reduce this ability and thus may compromise measurements.
radiation belt electrons. represents a big step in nanotechnologies application for aerospace. to help reduce the hazards of re-entering debris. Nanosensors would be packed into small spheres to be used with the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). 2005). The most advanced structure containing nanosensors is “black box” developed by NASA in collaboration with Aerospace Corporation. Sensors can also be used to detect bio molecules on the principle of ground lab-on-a-chip. A nanosensor based on niobium nitride was built by a team of Delft University of Technology and Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) to detect terahertz frequencies. if everything goes fine. it is considered as the real first nano object used in spacecraft. This CEV will be shown in a demonstration flights by 2008 and manned flights are expected for 2014 (NASA. auroral electrons). bio molecules that can found on the Mars surface (NASA. This array will be used for the identification of genes. routine use of nanosensors is planned for around 2025. This black box flight. NASA's future replacement for the shuttle. This black box containing nanosensors will be attached to a main spacecraft and will separate from it when it re-enters the Earth's atmosphere. 2004). The NASA black box or Re-entry Break-up Recorder (REBR) weights about 1 kilogram. Moreover NASA has plan to rapidly use nanosensors systematically in mission to Mars and the moon. expected soon. A prototype test was envisaged for summer 2006 aboard an expendable Delta II rocket but as the rocket was not launched the prototype was not tested. First tests on earth atmosphere are planned for 2008. DNA. Nanosensors are used to gather data such as temperature or pressure about flights vehicles re-entering earth atmosphere to validate thermal protection systems for human missions. It can improve reliability and safety of crewed vehicles and aid in planetary exploration.Sensors can be used to detect energetic particles specific for space (solar protons. Terahertz frequencies are contained in cosmic radiation and so can be used to have more information about the birth of star systems and planets. Researchers from NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Centre are working on the adaptation of ground lab-on-a-chip for space mission and more especially for Mars exploration. 69 . Even if some nano applications in energy or materials are very soon available.
This latter can be build with carbon nanotubes as it investigates by NASA for antenna at optical frequencies.2. infrared. MEMS-based phased-array antennae are also investigated. communication intra satellite. radars (to collect information of the inside of the planet). between earth and spacecraft. A communication system is often made by an antenna to receive and/or emit data.2.gov/centers/ames/multimedia/images/2005/blackbox.Figure 4. the Aerospace Corporation http://www. Except this future application. In the long-term these could prove important because 70 .2. no nanotechnologies applications have been identified except the possibility to introduce carbon nanotubes based electronics in instruments.nasa. inter satellite. technologies developed find applications in all the communication structure.6 : REBR. some imaging instruments can be used to identify space components at the nanoscale like scanning probe microscopes and secondary ion mass spectrometers that have a resolution to the nanometre.3. Communication Nanotechnologies can contribute to the enhancement of data handling. For example. 4. Imaging instruments Imaging instruments include cameras. Even if power data transmission will be different according to the distance to transfer and the kind of mission. ultra violet.6. photometers for both visible. a carbon nanotube based X-ray diffraction spectrometer has been developed and would be ready for NASA Mars missions 2009-2010 in order to study rocks and soil.html 4. altimeters. spectrometers.6. Concerning instruments themselves.
These include e. 2003). The current microwaves amplifier used in space are based on “hot cathode” technology. quantum wires or quantum dots through miniaturisation and improved band gap selection. 2005) The communication system is made up of a transmission data system using most of the time optical data communication that include nano optoelectronics diffractive optical elements. Three-dimensional photonic crystals would open up new possibilities in optical data communication (light could be guided and branched to arbitrary directions) and offer in principle the potential for the realization of purely optical circuits (optical computing). Infrared sensors offer an alternative way of making optical data communication. This technology will be used in the future to develop optical communications protocols and components applicable for nanorobots. However nanoscale infrared sensors are not available as yet.of the critical need for real-time data downlink to support some kind of missions such as the space weather satellite (Kraft. intensified efforts are made for the development of threedimensional photonic crystals. Quantum technology. A team of researchers from Cambridge University showed that a “cold cathode” is possible using carbon nanotubes that can directly generates electrons at microwaves with an economy in weight and size of almost 50% (Teo et al. Quantum information may potentially enable a strong safe information encoding. quantum well or quantum dot lasers and photonic crystals.. a nanoscale electromechanical systems (NEMS) device. Long distance transmissions are based on microwaves but traditional microwaves amplifier are heavy (1 kg). the need of payload weight saving is a priority for satellite competitiveness. New metamaterials for antenna arrays are also planned. The infrared sensors can benefit from the use of quantum wells. 71 . developed since 2000 at the NASA Glenn Research Centre could also solve the ongoing problem of how to communicate with. As a kilogram payload roughly costs € 15 000 on a satellite. or otherwise extract information from. The centre for space microelectronics technology at NASA is developing GaAs quantum well infrared sensors (VDI. Twodimensional structures can be routinely manufactured with high precision. Photonic crystals are a further example of nano-optoelectronic components with application potential in optical data communication. 2005). At present.g. Carbon nanotubes can also be used as mass saving for microwaves amplifier. Optical satellite telecommunication can be enabled by the application of nanostructured optoelectronic components. optoelectronic transducers and photonic components.
6. Futuristic visions If in the near future applications of nanotechnology seem possible for traditional missions. As an example aerospace scientist continued to explore the use of nanoscale glass ceramic that enhances internal communication via photonics. Indeed as flying was considered as science fiction two centuries ago. 11 12 See: http://www.usra.edu/ See: http://www. 4.7.3 Satellites / Payloads conclusion: The most spectacular scientific improvements in the satellites and payloads topic are the progress made to build more integrated smaller devices. harsh space conditions resistance First nanointegrated object for space. some space dreams that currently appear like science fiction may be achieved one day and surely with the help of nanotechnologies.niac.int/gsp/ACT/ariadna/index. Small device integrating several sensors resisting to harsh space conditions Improve their efficiency. NASA has an institute devoted to those questions: the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC11) has the mission is to promote forward-looking research on radical space technologies that will take between 10 to 40 years to come to fruition.Finally it is important to notice that not only traditional optical data transmission are improved by nanotechnologies but also nanotechnologies allow the building of materials with innovative properties that can play a role in data handling. This topic has identified the main activities in nano and pico satellites. harsh space conditions resistant Enhance security of information Interest +++ +++ Perspective Short term Very short term (available) Middle term Long term + +++ 4. their applications have a huge potential to achieve some very old human dreams. ESA also explores what can be space future with a collaborative project called Ariadna12.htm 72 .esa. The following table summarize the different nano applications for satellites and science payloads in space under study: Technology Carbon nanotubes based sensors Black box using nanosensors Nanoelements for imaging instruments Quantum information Characteristic Sensor sensibility improvement. To promote scientific researches for space futuristic vision like space elevator or space colonisation.
4.7.1. Space elevator
In the most basic description the space elevator is a 37,786 km cable that would stretch into space from a floating platform in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Satellites or other payloads would be loaded onto climbers which would ascend the paper-thin cable by squeezing it between sets of electrically driven rollers or electromagnetic forces13 14. Even if it looks like a science fiction objective, scientists are seriously thinking of its implementation because of the big advantages it represents. The current problems space scientists encounter with traditional launching pad are: • The huge energy consumption needed to launch a spatial object • The weight constraints that it generates • The associated risks (fire, rocket destabilization) Thus the main advantages that a space elevator could allow are – • • The weight is not a problem anymore, therefore the number of payloads onboard is no longer restricted Launches are definitely cheaper
All of this could call into question the current advanced technologies because of the weight and price constraints that would be partly removed. Thus a researcher from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bradley Edwards, has been credited with giving the most rigorous thought to the components and technical breakthroughs that would be needed to build a space elevator (Aerospace America, 2006). The main conclusions of his research are that the main components in the construction of a space elevator will be carbon nanotubes. Though the technology is not going to be ready for this application soon. There has been some promising research performed by Yuntian Theodore Zhu, who built a 4cm nanotube. The challenge remains in constructing a cable that is 37, 786 km. Another important aspect is the cable security. Some smarts materials could be used to address this security challenge. The use of nanoscale sensors could be made for detecting damage. Such smart materials do not exist but research should be further conducted on it. Another constraint is the management of the power supply to launch a satellite or a rocket with the elevator. A potential solution may be by using light sensitive cells. Laser light may be projected on gallium arsenide receptors that transform it to electrical energy providing propulsion.
See: http://www.isr.us/Downloads/niac_pdf/contents.html See: http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast07sep_1.htm
In order to address the technical barriers that scientists are facing with, the NASA organizes a design contest every year to address these space challenges. There are two parts to the challenge, the beam power and tether15. There have been other concerns voiced such as terrorist attacks, hacking risks and other environmental catastrophes it could bring. There has also been concern about sharing the costs and risks internationally.
4.7.2. Space colonisation
These are exciting times for human space exploration with several countries contemplating and planning manned missions to “Moon, Mars and beyond.” Indeed, space agencies such as NASA, ESA, JAXA and the Chinese Space Agency are planning a series of robotic and manned missions that could culminate in the establishment of permanent habitats on the Moon and possibly Mars. With these ambitious goals in mind, there have been large-scale efforts to design new crew vehicles, as well as powerful boosters and habitats to facilitate interplanetary human spaceflights. Nanotechnologies can find several applications for those requirements such as facing the huge constraint of space radiation with the use of carbon nanotubes for living structures. They can be incorporated into structures, electronics to allow sustainable constructions or in inhabitants’ suits to enhance human protection and health management. But the main problem they will have to confront is the need for improved monitoring of the human body. Humans on such missions would have to confront microgravity, weak magnetic fields, ionizing radiation and other cosmic hazards. Space agencies are involved in program dedicated to enhance space life monitoring e.g., NASA invested 10M$ in 2006 in a program called “NASA’s Bioastronautics Roadmap”. The main problem will be to monitor astronauts’ health: several devices are in development as it is described in part 4 but the long term effects of radiation are very difficult to control. But one of the projects of NIAC is the use of bio-nanotechnologies to build molecular machines / bio nano robot to create a sort of "second skin" for astronauts to wear under their spacesuits that would use bionanotech to sense and respond to radiation
penetrating the suit, and to quickly seal over any cuts or punctures (NASA, 2005).
Figure 7 : Bio/Nano robot, NASA Institute for Advanced Concept
However, even if those developments are expected in a quite long term, the International Space Station can already serve as a test bed for conducting research that will benefit long-range space exploration.
4.7.3. Autonomous systems
The ultimate goal pursued by spacecraft researchers is the building of a complete autonomous system able to make its own analysis, store and send the data, to communicate with other systems, capable of self repairing. It can be spacecraft like satellites as well as advanced robots. Satellites Swarm To achieve autonomous goal, researches are focused on satellites systems called cluster of satellite or swarms. As the main stakes of this kind of formation are secure communication and autonomy (energy generation, storage), researches are being conducted in sparse aperture signal processing, micro propulsion, formation flying, collaborative control, spatial ionosphere effects, MEMS/NEMS and software intelligence. Launch of formation satellites has already done to test and improve those technologies: o TechSat 21, launched in 2003 is a flight experience of three micro satellites to experimental concepts for clusters very low costs, lightweight satellites in close formation. o Space technology 5 (ST5) consists of three 20 kg satellites that will demonstrate the feasibility of 100 or more sparsely distributed nano satellite to make spatial and environment measurements. Satellites are highly integrated with miniaturized electronics, extendable booms and antenna, subsystems for communication and attitude control, miniaturized thrusters and instrumentation. o Orbital Express (OE) is a project sponsored by DARPA. It contains an Autonomous Transporter and Robotic Orbiter (ASTRO) which is an on orbit servicing vehicle designed for spacecraft diagnostic, repairs and restocking (CANEUS, 2002).
It will recognize obstacles and figure out how to get around them. devices. It is the most complex of all the systems conceptualized so far. information safety has to be maintained (e. NASA is currently working on a project called ANTS (Autonomous NanoTechnology Swarm) which is 12 tetrahedrons (a pyramid with 3 sides and a base) made of 26 struts (thin.gov/Fea tured. The advantage in space exploration will be to carry hundreds or thousands of such robots on each mission and to explore vast areas of a remote planet in each mission. and steering systems to operate in extreme or rough environmental conditions. Unlike the current wheeled rovers. it is possible to envisage nanorobots in the quite near future. and applications is already in progress in laboratories. To confirm this trend.nasa.and Nano-ElectroMechanical Systems. It has a huge advantage over wheeled rovers because it does not require flat ground to operate properly.g. so it will not require instruction from a whole team of scientists to complete a simple task. Traditional motors were replaced with Micro. and communicating with the carrier spacecraft and the earth control station. metal rods) for Mars exploration application containing nanotechnologies like advanced nanosensors.html . A robot called "TETwalker" was tested in 2005 to join the NASA swarm project. because they may include the integration of all the above technologies plus extremely well-developed motors. The struts was replaced with metal tape or carbon nanotubes that not only reduce the size of the robots.8 : NASA TET walker http://gsfctechnology. it will be autonomous. quantum information) Nanorobotics A nanorobot could be defined as a robotic system capable of motion and steering in a complex environment. sensors. collecting surface chemical / biological samples or data.gsfc. extendable. As research on component materials. but also greatly increase the number that can be packed into a rocket because tape and nanotube struts 76 Figure 4.Nanotechnologies can serve for the components quoted previously and more generally for: • Size and weight decrease of the structure by advanced materials using nanotechnologies (part 1) • Advanced electronics devices (part 2) • Lighter and more powerful energy system (part 3) • Advanced communication devices because with the increase of communication between the different satellites.
This is the NASA first step to completely autonomous robots.4 Futuristic visions conclusion Al those perspectives are in a long-term future and will may not be the most appropriate in this future. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that just begin to find applications in ground devices. The swarm has abundant flexibility so it can change its shape to accomplish highly diverse goals. molecular electronics). allowing the pyramid to shrink to the point where all its nodes touch. It is important to note that most of those applications are middle or long- 77 . the following scheme shows several applications developed in space laboratory according to their potential time to market. and companies are engaged in the development of nano applications for spacecraft because they are convinced that those emerging technologies have the potential to: • • • Help them to face space constraints. reducing costs Allow serious technological improvements necessary for the development of novel space missions (manned mission to Mars) Create breakthroughs that can revolutionize space sector by making it more innovative than it is currently by the possibility to test new technologies in space conditions and by reaching futuristic visions like the space elevator. the space sector has known several technological enhancements allowing more and more scientific explorations and the development of commercial applications. when joined together in "swarms.8 Conclusion Since 1957 and the launch of the first spacecraft. So it explains why nanotechnologies for space applications are more a perspective than a reality." will have great advantages over current systems.are fully retractable. So to summarize potential nano applications in the space sector in a chronological vision. 4. But what is sure is that space agencies.g. nanosensors) and other are more visionary (e. These miniature TETwalkers. Nanotechnologies already find a lot of applications in futuristic vision because of the new technical opportunities they offer but with the enhancement of “nanoresearch” in the following years we can imagine that they will be the key for the achievement of those “science fiction” projects. 4.g. All systems are being designed to adapt and evolve in response to the environment. Some nano applications can be considered as short term perspective (e.7.
Summary of the main nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft according to their time to market 78 . But nanotechnology development is a long process and in some cases priority can be given to the development of new space missions integrating well-known technologies to the detriment of a focus on new technologies. Nanotechnologies have the potential to enhance spacecraft. Another key aspect will be the priority that will be given by space agencies to those technological improvements.term vision and so are dependants of the technological improvements in all the sectors concerned by nanotechnologies. improving space knowledge and have also the potential to be improved by the space sector. This choice is more strategic than scientific and is available for both sciences and commercial applications.
It summarizes the main nanotechnologies applications for spacecraft on a time to market scale. This summary is only conclusions of what was said in this report and under the only valuation of the author. 79 .Autonomous nanorobots swarm Space Systems Autonomous satellites swarm Nano/pico satellites Satellite on a chip Space elevator Space colonization CNT based lab on a chip / biochip Space subsystems CNT based electronics noses Black box using nanosensors CNT based imaging instruments Drug delivery Quantum Dots solar cells Fuel cells using nanoelements Quantum devices for information management Battery using nanoelements Smart textile Space devices Nanoparticles in propellants CNT based memory MRAM CNT in transistors Nanoparticles reinforcing composites Nanoparticles reinforcing polymers Short term 0-5 years CNT reinforcing coatings Bio memory Smart materials Long term 10-15 years CNT reinforcing composites Middle term 5-10 years Legend: Materials Electronics Energy Living suport Science payloads Futuristic vision This figure is inspired by VDI Technology Centre report “Applications of Nanotechnology in Space Developments and Systems”.
2004-1). The Advisory council for aeronautical research in Europe has set a strategic agenda for research that addresses important issues such as environmental pollution. maintenance and disposal of aircraft and related products. safety. The creation of a new framework that assist organisations to work more effectively in achieving industrial priorities is one of the goals for supporting the growth of the industry. The maximum value from funds has been envisaged by facilitation of a European national and private research programs.1: Goals for European Aeronautics set by the Advisory Council for aeronautical research in Europe 80 . The educational policies should be framed to ensure adequate scientists. Figure 5. operations and airports. New standards of quality and effectiveness have been identified as goals to accomplish in order to make European aerospace more competitive. The need in aeronautics research objectives has changed from a generation ago from being higher. engineers and other skill sets are available for the aeronautics sector (ACARE4Europe.Enabling 99% flights to arrive and depart within 15 minutes of departure time in all weather conditions. security. safer and cleaner for the environment and quieter for residents around airfields. quality and affordability. and an efficient air traffic management system. further and faster to aircraft that are more affordable to travel in. maintenance and air traffic operations Environment Reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50% Reduction in perceived noise by 50% Reduction in NOx emission by 80% Reduction in environmental impact of the manufacture.Chapter 5: Summary of Needs in Aerospace Research 5. Quality - and Affordability Reducing Travel Charges Increasing passenger choice Transforming Air Freight Services Creation of a competitive supply chain that reduces time to market by half Safety Five fold reduction in average accident rate for global operators Reducing impact of human error Higher standard of training for aircraft operators.1 Aeronautics Aeronautics is a thriving sector in Europe with two million people employed in manufacturing. Security Zero successful hijacks Goals for European Aeronautics Air Transport Efficiency Enabling the Air Transport system to accommodate 3 times more aircraft movement by 2020 compared with 2000 Reduction in time spent by short haul passenger to 15 minutes and long haul to 30 minutes .
The use of green coolant for manufacturing is another environmentally friendly measure that is being encouraged.5. Composite materials such as Metal RubberTM are reported to be non-toxic with applications in aircraft structures (Nanosonic. The solutions in aero structures are expected to bring benefits for green air transportation by using lightweight materials and processes for the airframe (ACARE4Europe. Plasma generating arcs reduce the turbulence in engines thereby reducing the noise generated by aircraft. combustors and turbine are considered as key to enhancing engine performance thereby reducing the environmental impact. 2004-2). Low environmental impact materials and manufacturing techniques for the airframe.1. New solutions can be harnessed from the disruptive technology for application in the aeronautics sector. Noise shielding through developing the right configuration and acoustic panels require further development. Morphing airframes have been regarded as emerging technology for aircraft providing a structure that would also reduce drag and vibration control thereby improving aircraft performance (University of Bristol). Silicon carbide sensors are used for monitoring aeronautical propulsion systems 81 . Development is further required in ultra-high temperature alloys for aircraft engines.2 Airframes Nanoscience and Nanotechnology provide a new method for solving old problems. Noise reduction using MEMS devices for active control of noise is considered important for residents living around airports.1. 2004). Research is needed in alternative lift mechanisms to derive lift by design of novel aerostructures using nanomaterials. engine and other equipment is expected to reduce the environmental impact. Nanotechnology could prove effective in dealing with unsteady aerodynamics problem such as drag reduction using electromagnetic technologies. Enhancement in acoustic measurement and testing technology has been envisaged to meet customer needs (ACARE4Europe. 2004-2).3 Propulsion High temperature materials and coatings for compressors. 5. Nanotechnology surface application research would lead to friction reduction thereby reducing the environmental impact.5 Another technology assisting the development of ultra green air transport system is the high-lift engine airframe. Research in nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube composites for weight reduction and reduced fuel consumption is also expected to make air transport highly cost efficient. Research in the use of non-toxic material with enhanced functionality such as non-inflammability is would also contribute to the environmental objective.
Lightweight architecture and materials for engine rotors and structure have also been considered an important requirement in aircraft engine design. Alternative propulsion designs for future aircraft are being conceptualized.2) Development of smart maintenance systems for condition monitoring of airframes and structures are expected to increase the interval for servicing thereby making the air transportation systems more cost effective. Development in sensor integration for detection using laser. (Covered in section 5. components and new repair methods have been identified to make aircraft more cost effective. optronics. beam energy devices using laser or microwaves and ground powered energy forms. lasers for detection. Another key development required is the design of components with reduced thermo mechanical distortion and effective sealing for turbo machinery for an environmentally friendly air transport system. 2004-2). Thrust reverser technologies for weight reduction are also being developed as a key technology for achieving environmental objectives (ACARE4Europe. Increase re-uses of systems. nuclear energy. hydrogen from the sea.2) The search for a novel solution leading to a more sustainable energy consumption that is affordable. radar and infrared is expected to help achieve the security goals. New combustion solutions are to be considered for the existing configuration that may reduce the emission produced by conventional engine. systems and equipment Enhanced airborne display development in the cockpit for routing and traffic monitoring is expected to make the transportation system highly efficient providing customers with high value addition.are being researched (Ohio Aerospace Institute. data fusion and signal processing for pattern recognition would make the new aircraft ultra secure. Utilizing new forms of energy are being considered such as solar power. New nacelle design development is needed for air breathing propulsion that is expected to reduce the environmental impact. New materials should be considered for a maintenance free 82 .4 Aircraft avionics. 2005). 5. (Covered in section 5. Camera and sensor technology research based on optics. practical and complimentary fossil fuel is underway. Research and development in warning systems such as missile attack sensors and missile defence are expected to provide enhanced security for air travel.1. Enhanced communication systems with high performance air-ground data link would improve the air traffic management and highly customer oriented air traffic system. Coating and improved sealing solutions need to be developed to increase the lifetime of aircraft thereby making them more cost effective and environmentally friendly.
The change in the atmospheric chemistry is complex and not understood very well. 2004-2). Development of enhanced fire protection system by use of fire retardant material is considered as an important goal in achieving an ultra secure transport system (ACARE4Europe. In addition particulate emissions such as water vapour and soot have also added to the impact that affects the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere.1. braking system) in hydraulic power generation should be under further consideration. Emerging technologies such as application of fuel cells for on board electrical energy generation during cruise and on ground should be developed further for implementation achieving cost efficient and environmental goals. reducing taxi time and eliminating circling. 2004-2). Further research in the new low drag wing-body blended aircraft design is expected reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50%. Goal Environment Research Challenge Drag reduction through conventional and novel shapes Fuel additives Noise reduction New Propulsion concepts Emission reduction Environmentally friendly production.1: Relating environmental goals and research challenges 83 . encouraging short haul flights. Strategies for combating climate change have been suggested such as combining routes of large aircraft. In order to accomplish environmental goals the development of oil free systems and replacement of polluting hydraulic fluid with more electrical technologies (for e.g.system that is expected to drive down costs significantly (ACARE4Europe. 5. maintenance and disposal Better aircraft/engine integration Table 5. lower cruise speed.5 Environment The impact of carbon dioxide and Nox emissions from the aircraft has added significantly to the greenhouse gas effect.
Research in other strategies such as reduction in emission by reducing fuel burning has been proposed by aerodynamic improvements. development of non-lethal devices for terrorist neutralization. The use of biometric controls for pilot identification. Automatic collision detection and deviation from flight plan are important technology solutions to be considered and implemented. 2004-2). 5.6 Safety and Security Post 9/11 the security of the aircraft and passengers is considered of paramount importance. are expected to deliver higher standards of security for aircraft (ACARE4Europe. acoustic measurement under cryogenic condition and combustion are required for improved aircraft design. The need for measuring techniques for boundary layer. Research in low noise component design.1. Nox control remains a main problem that is not addressed even by reducing carbon dioxide emissions by improving thermal efficiencies. Development of designs in more adaptive structures would reduce the need for additional control surfaces. Protection against missile attacks on passenger aircraft should be developed. 84 . 2004-2). Research in lean combustion should be considered in order to meet the goals. engines with reduced complexity and weight thereby reducing the fuel consumption. weight reduction and efficient engine. landing gear faring and acoustic panels should be further developed. New engine designs such as the ultra high by pass ratio. The environmental impact is reduced by design of vehicles that take into consideration all factors from manufacturing to the end of the life cycle disposal. Development of laminar flow design is needed for aerodynamics though innovation is required to reduce the complexity. synthetic fuels and liquefied natural gas are should be considered for further development (ACARE4Europe. using heat signature reduction while providing detection and jamming facilities. bio fuels. enhanced video monitoring of passengers are some measure to be further considered. Noise produced by aircraft is another problem that is being addressed by better design of aircraft. The Nox emissions are dependent on the take off weight and range of the aircraft. New combustion technology and injection systems should be developed to achieve an 80% reduction in Nox. Development of on-board explosive detection systems equipped with high sensitivity sensors and alarm systems. Micro-nanotechnologies are expected to provide novel concepts to reduce the noise in the aircraft. geared fan and contra fan have been developed to reduce noise but complete elimination cannot be achieved without a radically new design. Protection against electromagnetic threats and secure communication data link are essential for the aircraft. Alternative fuels such as liquid hydrogen.
The research challenges that relate to the quality and affordability have been stated in the table 5. Strategic Goal Quality and Affordability Research Challenge Permanent trend Monitoring Flexible cabin Environments Passenger services Anticipatory maintenance Systems Integrated avionics Air Transport management related airborne Systems Novel materials and structural concepts Lead-time reductions Integrated design manufacturing and maintenance systems Advanced design methods System validation through modelling and simulation Concurrent engineering Table 5.3: Research needs from Strategic Quality and Affordability goals translating to research challenges 85 .2: Relating Goal and Research Challenge for Safety and Security 5.3 below.7 Quality and affordability Improving the quality of the flying and the flight experience has been an important driver.1.Goal Safety Research Challenge Flight hazard protection Advanced avionics Probability and risk analysis Computational methods Human error checking systems Table 5.
intelligent and integrated ATM ground.10 Current Research The research can be broadly divided into 5 themes in the nanotechnology sector: structure and materials. missions and collaborations. application needs and requirements. Strategic Goal European Air Transport System Research Challenge Innovative ATM operational concepts Advanced. Improvements in computing power are also expected to bring benefits to robotics leading to the development of independent robots controlling specific tasks. systems and sub systems.9 Future concepts for Guidance & Control Enhanced avionics and automation have been envisaged for future aircraft where computers manage the entire flight from landing to takeoff.4: Relating European Air Transport System relation with Research Challenges 5. Enhancement in the computing power with the application of nanotechnology to transistors is expected to greatly enhance centralized and dispersed operations. The table below gives the overview of some of the associated research challenges in Table 5.1. reliability and packaging.1.1. airborne and space systems Rotorcraft integration in ATM systems High-density traffic systems capability in all weather conditions Airport capacity and advanced management Increased use of airspace capacity Table 5. 5.8 European Air Transport System Europe is aiming to integrate the air transport system by improving management of air transportation.5.4. 86 .
CNRS. are fabricated using the MEMS technology by Carlo Gavvachi Space and CNR IMM. c. Structures and Materials Carbon nanotubes are one of the most important nanomaterials being developed for aerospace applications. The Northwestern Polytechnic University is investigating the use of MEMS in aerodynamic flow control.a. 2006). Monolithic silicon based micro thrusters for orbital and altitude control. Damping properties and dynamics of nanoparticles for reinforced damping material are being researched by NAS of Belarus. DAM and CNAM in France.Laboratori Nazionali de Frascati. Systems and sub-systems There is a significant amount of work being done in MEMS for aerospace applications. Other research in carbon nanotube for space applications is being conducted at NASA investigating multifunctional characteristics of embedded structures with carbon nanotube yarn. 2006). Application needs and requirements ASRC aerospace and NASA have jointly collaborated to investigate the application of sensors in space vehicles. Kyushu University in Japan is studying the contemporary technology and applications of the MEMS rocket. Colibrys have developed standard MEMS capacitive accelerometer for harsh 87 . b. Design and fabrication of Non-powered MEMS trajectory sensors are being developed by CEA. Presens has been studying silicon MEMS pressure sensors for aerospace applications. The Tokyo University of Science is involved in developing application of MEMS technology to a Light wave antenna for communication in space and aeronautics. Molecular dynamics modelling of thermal conductivity of engineering fluids and its enhancement by inclusion of nanoparticles is being studied by the National Institute of Technology. University of Minnesota has been investigating layer-bylayer self-assembly of carbon nanotube patterns and interconnections. Studies are being conducted in the use of carbon nanotubes for aerospace applications by University of Rome and INFN. The Boeing Company is investigating the enhancement of conductivity in composite materials using nanotechnology (Caneus. Airbus has investigated the requirements for airframe enhancement using nanotechnologies (Caneus. MEMS based one-shot electro thermal switches for system reconfiguration is being developed by LAAS. 2006). Novel surface-micro machined micro mirrors for optical MEMS beam manipulators are being investigated by University of Toronto for aerospace applications. Politecnico di Milano has been researching MEMS integrated electro-fluid-elastic modelling for aerospace applications. Minnesota State University has been evaluating the shear properties of polymer nanocomposites (Caneus.
software systems for displays. EADS in collaboration with Albert Ludwig University is also developing low maintenance MEMS packaging for rotor blade integration.environments. CNES and Nova MEMS are involved in hermiticity assessment of MEMS packaging –leak rate measurements based on Infrared spectroscopy. The fabrication and performance testing of miniature electro thermal thrusters using microwave-excited micro plasmas has been developed by Kyoto University (Caneus. The National research council in Canada has been researching micro fibre optical sensor interrogation systems for aerospace applications. New technologies for a space launcher telemetry system are being developed by Astrium Space Transportation.11 Aeronautics application in other industries Novel solution developed for aerospace applications has benefited other industries as well. d. Design of packaged RF MEMS switching on alumina substrate is being developed by Xlim. EADS is developing high temperature MEMS pressure sensors including reusable packaging for rocket engine application. materials for artificial limbs. manufacturing and verifying micro-electro mechanical louvers. 88 . Design and performance of quartz inertia micro sensors has been investigated by ONERA. MEMS reliability studies such as accurate measurement of beam stiffness using nanoindentation techniques. Swedish Space Corporation in collaboration with Nanospace AB is developing MEMS based components and sub-systems for space propulsion.1. composite materials. disc braking for cars and trains and anti-lock braking system. EADS CCR is developing a MEMS sensor to design a life consumption monitoring system for electronics (Caneus. The example are aerodynamic design of cars. 2006). Thermo elastic damping in vibrating beam accelerometers has been studied using a finite element approach by University of Liege and ONERA. LAAS-CNRS has been investigating the development of optical micro resonators used for stabilisation and miniaturisation of high spectral purity microwave sources for space applications. 2006). Bio Inspired micro driller for future planetary exploration is being researched by ESA and University of Surrey. Nanosensors for gas detection in space and ground applications are being developed by ASRC aerospace. 5. Packaging and reliability testing Magma Space technology is involved with developing. The Surrey Space centre has been researching satellite on a chip development for future distributed space missions. CNES is conducting research in spacecraft control and command. The EADS micropak project is developing a novel modular system for packaging integrated Microsystems for future applications.
2004-1). There has 89 . the demand for specialists with good fundamental knowledge of aerospace is set to rise. It has been estimated that public funding in US is three times that of the European Union and its member states. 5. 5. open mindedness and cultural awareness is required. 2004-1). Reviewing the research needs ACARE has recommended an increase in funding by 65% over a 20-year period that is being invested currently.14 Education and Training Employment in all aspects from manufacturing to air traffic control is at 3 million at the moment and set to rise to 5-7 million by 2020. Similarly the amount of US export in the aerospace sector is also known to be twice of the European Union (ACARE4Europe. A multi-disciplinary approach to training with excellent communication skills. A skills shortage is expected in the aerospace sector partly due to demographics and reduced attractiveness of the aerospace sector. 5.13 Policy The new investment in research and development programme would become successful only when organisation would conduct their research in Europe thereby retaining their bases.1. The benefits from the sector are creation of 3 million jobs and 2.000 additional human resources would be required to fulfil the need to research goals. The annual turnover and number of people employer in US in this sector is more than twice of that by EU. The investment is in accordance with the Barcelona European Council aims that would need to be met by public and private sources in a ratio of twothird private and one third public (ACARE4Europe. With the falling level of graduates taking up science and technology education.1.6% of the GDP to the individual member states. Another trend observed with graduating students is the fall in the number of students being recruited by the technology supply chain. In addition 50. Measure to increase the production of research output is required as opposed to importing the research outputs.12 Funding and investment Aerospace and aviation is considered an important sector for Europe. Indirect benefits through lifestyle and the way business is being done has been estimated to be 10% of the GDP.thermal imaging camera’s for rescue and police work and advanced business project management.1. Contrasting the initiative to the American effort where 87% of the known airliners are being built.
been an alignment between courses offered at Universities and aerospace employers needs. these companies have been presented with a choice of suppliers across the world putting the pressure on the small and medium size businesses in the supply chain. The technological development has also spurred activity that has been beneficial for terrestrial applications as well. 5. Therefore it maybe reasonably expected that the implementation of present nanotechnology would take another 20 years after the concepts and components have been thoroughly validated for airworthiness.16 Conclusion Aeronautics and aviation is an important sector for the European industry. North America and Asia has revealed that 74% of research is being conducted in research institutions (illustrated in figure 1).1. An exhaustive survey of 384 organizations in Europe. development and implementation of nano-scale technologies in aeronautics would increase the global competitiveness of this industry. The need for a pan European accreditation has also been beginning with a voluntary system in the aeronautical discipline has been made. This would require development of lean practices that improve the performance of the SME.2. There is also an imminent need to increase communication between research communities in aeronautics research and nanotechnology research. A strong need to develop a permanent forum for dialogue between Universities and aerospace companies has also been voiced to ensure appropriateness and quality of education provided.15 SME The supply chain orientation is so that large companies play a central role in integration. The SME business in the supply chain would need to implement global best business practices and leverage industrial alliances to become more competitive. Greater research is required in the development nanotechnologies for aeronautic applications. 5. 5. With the increased global competition.1.1 Introduction The exploration of the vastness of space has driven the active development of space programmes in various countries.2 Statement of needs for Research and Development in Space 5. The identification. The implementation of emerging technologies in aeronautics lags a decade or in some cases even more. 90 .
and the lack of communication between communities involved in space and nanotechnology research.ESTEC 2003. Other barriers to implementation of research are likely to be extreme conditions in space such as high radiation. Reduction in the size and energy consumption of electronics on board for data processing and control systems is another important driver for research. electronics and nanobiotechnology solutions may hinder development in the long-term future. This is expected to slow implementation of research in Europe.2: Nanotechnology Research around the world. Enhanced services such as GPS. GIS and communications are expected from these commercial satellites placed in orbit. Financial investment will determine the development of lightweight and energy saving satellites. presented at ESA. Figure 5. The barriers to the implementation of nanotechnology research and development range from economics factors to the readiness of the concept. The high research and development costs associated with applications in energy. temperature changes and high cyclic loading of structure in take off and re-entry. The development of space programmes has also driven scientific discovery such as micro gravity research and commercial applications such as satellite communication. Improved spin off products enabled by nanotechnology are also expected for terrestrial applications. and infrastructure for space stations. A significant research goal is to increase the autonomy of spacecraft by improving altitude and orbit control. rockets. The need to reduce costs is further pushing commercial off the shelf technology into space applications. The solutions developed for terrestrial applications in nanotechnology are more likely to be adapted for space in Europe as compared to the US. health monitoring and payload monitoring.Research in the space industry is being driven by a desire to reduce the mass and volume of payload lifted into space. Adapted from the presentation of Nanotechnology in future space mission by Miland Pimpprikar et al. This summary of research needs has been compiled by reviewing the problems and challenges faced by various nanotechnology applications in 91 .
2003).space. Materials such as metals reinforced with ceramic fibres such as silicium carbide. 92 . 5. design impact resistance space stations or astronaut suits.2.nanocompositech. thermal expansion and low density. Metal matrix composites have excellent properties such as high heat resistance. These include: development large-scale production methods (www. Nanoparticles such as silicates (montmorillonite) and POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) are also being considered for reinforcing polymers. New research is required in light nanocomposite materials. Other properties such as changes in mechanical properties that can be detected by changes in electrical resistance make them excellent candidates for sensors (Zweck & Luther. However further research is required to develop macroscopic components that may translate into applications (Zweck & Luther. strength. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a distinct advantage as lightweight materials and are regarded as one of the core materials in bringing nanotechnology benefits to space. Production issues have limited the use of CNTs in reinforced polymers. thermal conductivity. alignment and adhesion of carbon nanotubes in reinforced polymers (www. Each of these research needs or concepts is considered of some strategic importance to the space objectives. and production of CNTs of a uniform size and in high volume (Science Daily.2 Nanomaterials for space craft structure Space research has been driven by the goal to reduce the lift-off mass of spacecraft. Applications based on CNTs are expected only in the long term. thermal control elements. and improving safety and flexibility of space missions. aluminium oxide and aluminium nitride are being examined for application in various airframe structures of spacecraft. The various technology solutions are at different stages such as fundamental or basic research.com). CNT yarns could be potentially used for weaving larger fibres that may have applications in electromagnetic shielding.space. proof of concept and validation. 2003). uniform dispersion of CNTs in the matrix of the composite material. Reduction of costs is also an important parameter for space missions. The integration of nanoparticles into components such as airframes has to be researched further before the excellent mechanical and heat resistance properties of CNTs can be put to useful application. Further research is required for the successful demonstration of their reinforcing properties.com). 2005). miniaturized cooling loops and heat exchangers. Nanomaterials research could contribute to the successful achievement of these goals. applied research.
information processing and control of the space craft. Space missions have to endure extreme conditions including dramatic temperature changes. Further research is required in utilizing the viscous. 2003). Nanomaterials such as diamond-like carbon have a high thermal conductivity (4 times that of copper) and have been used for thermal monitoring in nanosatellites. NASA is considering nanostructured ceramics such as silicon carbide for exceptional heat and radiation resistance properties (AZoNano. such as carbon fibres coated with boron nitride. act as a thermal and oxidative protection for construction material.However such materials require further research into their thermo mechanical properties before application as heat shields. Ceramic fibre composites offer excellent thermal barriers for components such as nozzles and rocket combustion chambers or as heat shields used in re-entry. 2005). Electronic equipment in space crafts is sensitive to large variations in temperature. Further applied research is required in application of diamond. stiction and wear properties make them an excellent candidates for use in moving mechanical assemblies (Milne. One of the most promising areas of research are MEMS structures where their friction. Nanostructured ceramic composites. optoelectronic components and space structures. as they are light and less prone to embrittlement by hydrogen (Zweck & Luther. 2003). Proof of concept studies are required in the application of these nanostructured materials as sensors. affecting communications. 93 . Therefore thermal protection is a very important area. Nanocrystalline metals and their alloys such as that of aluminium also offer excellent thermo mechanical properties. however they could be utilized for thermal protection of control systems for miniaturized electronic components or as self-lubricating bearing for micro mechanical components. This is dependent on the nanostructure of the material that can be controlled using nanopowders. Diamond-like carbon also provides corrosion resistance to oxygen over a wide range of temperatures. With further research they may replace titanium components in liquid rocket engines. Research is needed in controlling the grain growth of ceramics during the sintering process that would improve the density and thereby the firmness of spacecraft components (Zweck & Luther. Magnetic fluids are currently used as sealing and damping media. Enhanced thermal protection for spacecraft can increase re-usability of the vehicles thereby reducing costs. 2003). electrical and thermal properties of magnetic fluids for thermal control for miniature electronics.like-carbon as corrosion resistance.
Fuel cells are considered as an alternative to batteries in space applications. silicon/beryllium or tellurium/selenium. however they require ceramics that are stable at high temperatures. Solid oxide fuel cells operate at a much higher temperature and are more efficient. Nanotechnology research in this sector is focused on improving efficiencies by enhancing the performance of catalysts. Organic dyebased. Research on the nanoporous layer of titanium dioxide and novel dye molecules is aimed at increasing this efficiency (Institute of Nanotechnology. Methanol is easier to store. to enhance proton transfer and therefore efficiency. Basic research is required in engineering the band-gap of these solar cells so that longer wavelengths of light can be converted to electrons thereby increasing efficiency. Quantum dot solar cells have also been considered as an alternative solution. however. thin films and membranes with nanometre dimensions are applicable in a range of energy generation and storage devices such as fuel cells. solar cells.2. Areas that require research include anti-reflective coating and collectors. The main disadvantage of such dye-based solar cells is the low conversion efficiency (10% maximum efficiency in experimental systems). Fuel cells Fuel cells combine hydrogen (fuel) and oxygen (from air) to produce water and an electric current. This section will examine the technical challenges that need to be overcome before these technologies can be used in spacecraft. Solar cells Nanomaterials have tremendous potential for increasing the efficiency of solar cells. membranes and hydrogen storage. At present research is focused on III-V semiconductors such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide. or Graetzel. direct methanol fuel cells face the problem of carbon monoxide poisoning of the catalysts. the optimum material combinations need further exploration for example from the III-V semiconductors or combinations of silicon/germanium. 94 .5. super capacitors and batteries. solar cells are also the subject of much research due to a low manufacturing cost. Fuel cells with the exception of direct methanol fuel cells require hydrogen. Other areas that require further development include the proton exchange membrane. a. and overcoming this is the focus of much current research. b. 2006).3 Energy Production and Storage Nanomaterials. However. Current research on ceramic nanopowders such as yttrium stabilised zirconium aims to improve their ionic conductivity and thermal stability for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells.
This implementation of this technology is expected to be another 6 – 8 years away (Space daily). Further research is required to have reproducible results in hydrogen storage with carbon nanotubes or alkali metal doped graphite. High absorption capacity has been reported for carbon nanotubes. Research and development would be required in thin film deposition techniques for development of such devices. Alternative materials such as carbon aerogels are also being investigated for electrodes due to their large internal surface area. d. c. 2002). Further research is required to produce higher power density and durability by controlled charge diffusion and oxidation state on a nanoscale level. Batteries and Accumulators Lithium ion batteries and nickel metal hydride accumulators have been implemented within the power supply of space systems. Increasing the electrical conductivity is being investigated through the incorporation of nanoparticles of. The performance of these batteries can be improved further by using nanostructured materials.4 Data Storage. and vanadium oxide for cathodes and tin/antimony for anodes. Capacitors Super capacitors. for example. Thin film batteries can also be integrated with thin film solar cells. With the increasing miniaturisation of electronics. the development of thin film batteries is seen as an important step. are expected to increase power density significantly.Hydrogen storage has been considered one of the most critical problems in the successful implementation of fuel cells. Other electrode materials that need further research are nanoscale spinel structures such as magnesium aluminates. however the results were not reproducible. Processing and Transmission Data processing and systems control are an important area for spacecraft. controlled pore distribution and pore diameter (Pröbstle et al. 5.2. Materials that are being developed include carbon aerogels. Research at present is being conducted in using self-assembled electrically charged polymer layers as electrolyte. carbon nanotubes. The use of carbon nanotubes as electrode in nanocaps increases the surface area leading to a boost in the charge. also known as nanocaps. Increased research is needed to investigate the role of nanocrystalline metal hydrides such as magnesium nickel alloys for high temperature storage and lanthanum nickel alloys for low temperature storage. Nanotechnology applications can enable highly integrated avionics. One of the main issues is integrating super capacitors with highly dense circuitry for microchips. alkali metals. 95 .
increased operating voltage. There is research being conducted at NASA for data processing and communication systems that need minimum energy. Research is also required into the selection of materials as silicon or silicon-germanium alloys are expected to integrate well with current silicon circuits. The first logical circuits have been developed but more research is required in their production and processing.wireless data communication and state of the art sensors. are transparent and allow high electrical conductivity. They have applications in space structures and electrode material for solar cells. micro mechanical and micro fluidic systems. High electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) are nanotechnology enabled high-speed electronic components. Research needs for some of these applications have been elaborated. such as that of polymer or silicates. Research is required in wide band gap semiconductors such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride that will form the basis of future transistors. silicon circuits. Further development would be required in integrating of such systems into miniaturization of satellites. Magnetic nanocomposite materials are made up of nanoscale magnetic crystals in an amorphous or crystalline matrix. RTDs are used in high frequency oscillators. At the moment the focus is in providing a proof of concept and validation in spacecraft. Tunnelling components such as the resonant tunnelling diodes (RTD) use fast quantum mechanical tunnelling. With a high signal to noise ratio these transistors are used in microwave receivers and transmitters for radar and communication systems. optoelectronic switches and photo detectors that have applications in digital electronics for satellite communication. a. diodes. analysis and communication. These materials offer features such as high power density. Anti-static coatings made from a dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix. The research is also being conducted in highly integrated nanodevices to be used in miniaturized space systems. Soft magnetic nanomaterials are used in transformers and 96 . and are expected to be in use earlier than other applications. The problem faced in RTD production is ensuring the geometry of components on which the property depends. Electronics There is a range of nanotechnology applications in electronics for spacecraft. Several technical problems need to be solved for RTD to become more practical. including: amplifiers. smaller component size and higher efficiency leading to lower cooling requirements. One area that has been highlighted for new research is a quantum device for applications in ultra sensitive detection.
significant basic research is required for photonic transistors before they can be put to practical use. high precision processing is essential for components such as those used in optical satellite communication or for earth observation and astronomy. sensors and data memories for various space applications. However. 2000). integration into spacecraft sub-systems and qualification. it will require specification of the laser. However for quantum dot lasers to be realized in space applications. quantum dot lasers. Research in optoelectronics enabled by nanostructures can lead the way for diffractive optics. inductors. Such sensors and memory chips are consist of ultra-thin layers of metals and insulators up to 1 nm thick. whereas hard magnetic nanomaterials are used in energy storage. and rotation. Research is required in three-dimensional crystals that will open up new possibilities for optical data communication. Such optical inter-satellite links have been demonstrated by ESA on the ARTEMIS mission. High costs of manufacturing equipment 97 . and high resolution CCD. A problem that needs to be addressed is the limited operating temperature range for space applications. highly integrated CCD.16 Photonic crystals are expected to be used in optical satellite communication.inductors. data storage and sensors. acceleration. plastic optics. b. Lateral nanostructures can be used in improving optical data communication by enhancing the performance of diffractive optical elements. and photonic components. Optical Transmission Nanotechnology applications for optical space components include X-rays mirrors. optoelectronic transducers. Improvements are also needed in optical wireless data links for intersatellite communication. and laser systems. With further research they could be developed as sensors for measuring position. For space applications. Further areas include quantum wells. Research is also needed for nanostructures that can be used for applications such as optical satellite telecommunication. infrared sensors. Such nanocomposites have the advantage of high sensitivity to changes in magnetic field and a wide operating temperature range (Wincheski & Namkung. Photonic crystals can also be used for optical data communication. Magneto electronic sensors and memory chips are based on the magnetic resistance effect (Magneto Resistance) that occurs in magnetic multilayer systems. Research and development is required using these properties in energy saving antennas. Quantum dots provide the freedom to cover the entire spectrum from ultraviolet to infrared and production methods are now well characterised. potentially leading to purely optical circuits. and photonic crystals. high resolution optics.
The advantage over DRAM is a reduced time lag and energy dissipation. The different gas sensors used for space applications are Schottky diodes based on silicon carbide. resistive sensors based on 98 . Data Storage for spacecraft Nanotechnology enabled solutions for data storage systems under consideration are based on thermo mechanical. However.and low throughput rates. further demonstration of this is required.2. further research and development is necessary if the technology is to be applied in space. optical or holographic principles. Basic research is being undertaken to prove the feasibility of the concept. 5. measuring oxygen in the upper atmosphere and monitoring air quality in manned space flight. 2003). Flash and FRAM) for aerospace applications due to its low energy consumption. FRAM can retain data for over 10 years. MRAM uses the principle of magneto electronics and is also considered as a replacement for CMOS based memory. high storage capacity (1 Terabit / sq in) with application in mobile devices and space. MRAM is considered better than other non-volatile memories (EEPROM. Silicon on insulator (SOI) and phase change memories (PC RAM) are also considered as alternatives. but material fatigue is a considerable disadvantage. Ferroelectric RAM (FRAM) and Magneto electronic RAM (MRAM) are nanotechnology enabled memory chips that are non-volatile and are being considered as replacements for DRAM. Another area that has been highlighted for further research is the use of 3 dimensional arrays of quantum dots in optical data memory (Zweck & Luther. The millipede memory being developed by IBM is a micro mechanical device that reads. radiation resistance and high temperature operating range. Nanomaterials are expected to enhance the functionality of these sensors. Gas sensors are used for detecting hydrogen leaks in rockets. Though FRAMs are commercially manufactured and used in Smart Cards. X-ray mirrors (composed of a thin single mirror and mirror foil with a nested design) play an important role in astronomy. 2003). c. is a limiting factor for such applications.5 Sensors Sensors play an essential role in monitoring the health of astronauts and control systems of the spacecraft. writes and erases data using the scanning probe technique. it still requires validation for space applications. Further research and development is required in the ultra precision finishing of surface figuring of coil substrates of X-ray mirrors (Zweck & Luther. The features of this technology are the low voltage consumption. Sensors are used to accomplish a wide variety of functions in space. However.
One of the main problems faced on long flightmanned mission is that of radiation from space.6 Life support systems NASA is researching bio-inspired. assessment and therapeutic delivery for medical autonomy. Further research is required in integrating electrochemical sensors with CMOS circuits. reducing weight of heat exchangers by using nanomaterials. Further research is also required in integrating the sun sensors into spacecraft such as satellites. Although the spacecraft shield will protect the craft. pressure monitoring. Infra-red (IR) sensors are used for satellite-based observation of the earth. Sun sensors based on nanoporous silicon are expected to benefit from nanomaterials research.polymer films and electrochemical sensors based on tin oxide. Research is also ongoing in the area of nanoscale sensing. Bimolecular nanotechnology is another area in which NASA is actively developing a biological-geological-chemical laboratory for life detection and science.Ann Harbor to develop nanosensors based on nanoparticles that will monitor the effect of radiation in space. research of the atmosphere. 99 . prevent and treat these effects (AIAA. ventilation. astronomy. NASA is working in collaboration with University of Michigan. navigation and optical data communication. Quantum well IR sensors have been developed based on gallium arsenide fabricated using molecular beam epitaxy. 2005). Research is required in improvement of sensors based on quantum wells. adaptable and self-healing systems for extended missions. Research is also needed on nanopowders used as coatings on sensors for improved sensitivity and robustness.2. Therefore research is being undertaken to monitor. Schottky diodes are used for detecting hydrogen or hydrocarbons under extreme conditions. Space applications of sensors may have terrestrial applications. The absorption of gas molecules on the surface of the diode produces a change in the electrical conductivity. Research is required in realizing these sensors for long wave infrared radiation. on 6 month long mission to mars the most advanced heat shield will may not be able to protect the astronauts. Nanotechnology may potentially offer solutions for supporting life functions such as oxygen and nitrogen storage. Research is required in validating the use of Schottky diodes and increasing the sensitivity. 5. quantum wires and quantum dot nanostructures. Research is required in decreasing quantum losses and improving quantum yields of the nanoporous silicon. especially in the automotive industry.
Solid films developed at a nanoscale are important for space as friction and reducing layers. including autonomous self-medication. Although they have been used in the Mars Rover and NASA Stardust missions. monitoring of water quality by using electronic nose sensors. Nanostructured layer have applications in heat insulation of rockets. and have applications in electrode materials for capacitors or batteries. type and strength of chemical bonds determine the development of MEMS components. The tribological properties such as relative hardness. 2003).waste water treatment using regenerative membranes. Drug delivery. 100 . They have a high internal surface area and low density. Research has also been envisaged for embedded sensing to ensure reliability and safety. hygiene. and which allow the concurrent and rapid analysis of different analytes. by conducting basic research in the above mentioned areas for space travel. control of air quality and humidity. they require further development to improve characteristics such as brittleness and mechanical stability (Zweck & Luther. chalcogenide composites. Intermediate layers such as lubricants. via several routes (such as inhalation) is another important area of research for longduration space flights. thermal. 2003). coolers for liquid hydrogen and thermal control layer for nanosatellites.2. air cleaning and filtration. coverage layers. blood chemistry. mechanical and other properties.10 Further research is required in developing nanomaterials. Material research is also required in materials with programmable optical. disease or radiation load. Research is needed in applications such as low friction and lubricant free bearings. and thermal isolation. Material selection for solid lubricants and mechanical protection such as chalcogenide. carbides and nitrides as well as carbon material are taken into consideration for research. This will also require more effective lab-on-a-chip systems where both the measuring and analysis unit are combined. fatigue resistance. carbon dioxide removal. NASA research has envisaged the creation of high strength to mass ratio material that can be used for aerospace and space vehicles. Areas which will be important (particularly for the planned long duration manned spaceflights to other planets) are the development of sensors capable of measuring physiological parameters such as bone density. 5.7 Nanomaterials and thin films for spacecraft Nanomaterials and thin films have applications in various areas of space. Aerogels are made up of a highly porous three-dimensional network of nanoparticles such as silicates. and friction partners behave differently in high vacuum space than terrestrial conditions (Zweck & Luther.
However.2. Research is needed in manufacturing processes such as pulse laser deposition that ensures high precision and reproducibility. vacuum and high pressures. Finally. a bio-inspired approach based on viruses and bacteria could pose a hazard to human health. high radiation. evolve. Other applications where thin film technology can be usefully applied are – large telescopes.Thermal protection layers are used in the re-entry to act as heat shields and for thermally insulating the rocket engines. at most. 1999). heal and replicate in response to changes in the environment. mirrors and antennas. and require several technological solutions before they can be reliably applied in space. The heat insulating layer of rocket engines are required to be temperature stable. One of the main challenges for the bio-inspired approach is the extreme environment of space where there are high temperatures. Research is also need in intelligent multi-functional structures that can be used for active control. at the basic research stage. Artificial self-replicating systems are considered to be in their infancy. An approach inspired by bottom-up nanobiotechnology may provide a novel solution. Biomimetic material development is required to realize enhanced functionalities such as selforganization. and it is essential that they are developed with rigorous fail-safes to ensure safe application. Molecular Nanotechnology and electronics for space NASA is aiming to develop structures and systems that can adapt. strain tolerant and have high adhesion strength. Problems in synthesizing such molecules have also been reported. Intelligent sensing requires research in areas that combine novel material properties such as optical. further research is required to improve the level of current obtained from molecular electronic devices (Globus. thermal and mechanical. Feasibility studies are required in visionary applications such as solar sails for interplanetary spacecraft and extremely light solar generators for solar powered satellites. robust. For example. 101 .8 Visionary Applications Visionary applications are. as they can act as building blocks. self-healing and self-replication. molecular connections are among the main problems to be solved before molecular computing at femto second can become a reality. 5. a. Organic molecules such as benzene have potential in future nanoelectronic circuits.
a suitable propulsion technique (potentially electromagnetic propulsion). Monitoring the health and safety of the constellation has been regarded as another major challenge for such nanosatellite systems.1. Nanotechnologies that have potential application in nanosatellites but require further integration studies are sensors (magnetic. 1996). micro-thrusters and nuclear-batteries (Simonis & Schilthuizen. For picosatellites technical breakthrough is required in areas such as microfuel cells. Research has to be achieved in adaptive structures with skins for improved thermal control. size and power consumption of smaller satellites. communication. There is also a need for improved propellants such as those based on nano-dispersed aluminium. The increased integration of nanotechnology is expected to lead towards satellite on a chip. However. Space Elevator The Space Elevator is a novel concept that has been proposed to transport mass into space from the earth using a cable or ribbon. 2000). 1999). Carbon nanotubes have been proposed as a suitable material as they has the right strength to weight ratio. picosatellite (0. corrosion. turbulence in weather. 2006). and vibrations created by the flowing winds. Among other solutions needed are tether technology for the cable. such a system would require research and development of an extremely high strength-to-weight ratio material. Research is further required in spinning of composite fibres (carbon nanotube reinforced) that will be able to stand the extreme stresses of the earths atmosphere. Nanotechnology can play an important role in reducing the weight. and development of supporting infrastructure before this concept can be turned into reality (NASA. Further development is required of smart components with built in sensing capabilities and load monitoring.12 The desired strength for a space elevator is 62 GPa with carbon nanotubes having a stiffness (Youngs modulus = 1 TPa and tensile strength = 200 GPa). infrared and solar) based on optical fibres or MEMS. 102 . navigation and energy generation. One of the main research challenges for the constellation of nanosatellites is the information systems that will require very high processing speeds and nanoelectronics may be able to provide solutions.10 kg).b. Research is required in areas such as high strength nanocomposite plastics and biomimetic structures to reduce weight. Micromachined devices can provide improved integration in propulsion. Nano and Pico satellites Constellations and swarms of miniaturized satellites and probes have been envisaged such as the nanosatellite (1. c. and here nanosensors can play a very important role (Johnson et al. and the development of dedicated integrated circuits for communication systems (Torres et al.1 kg) and the satellite on a chip (less than 100g) concept.
Among other problems that need to be solved are the development of optical concentrators. Other important criteria for assessing deployment are the market potential for terrestrial applications. light and selfunfolding with integrated subsystems. 2003). and in integrating other equipment such as telescopes and mirrors for detecting planets outside the solar system on unmanned missions (Zweck & Luther. 5. The development of such a light and foldable structure requires an airframe inspired by nature and an energy generation system such as those based on thin film solar cells. economic benefits of the application and the potential barriers to the development. Alternative fuel-less propulsion research needs be conducted in laser and microwave propelled sails. is a major barrier. as opposed to the current niche markets driven by telecommunication and information services. e. NASA is encouraging the participation of private companies to conduct their research through their financial investment in space. This is due to the fact that future applications in space are expected to be high volume markets. 2003). Utilizing space infrastructure for research and development is becoming an important issue. Such concepts are also beginning to be considered in Europe and Japan. To realise this vision would require intensive research in multi-band gap solar cells with high efficiency and low cost of production.d.9 Conclusion The research and development of nanotechnology applications has to be based on the level of technology readiness and contribution to space objectives. such as that by NASA JPL (2000). The high prohibitive cost of space transportation. Research would also be required in thin film technology that can be used to develop phased array antennas for communication. Space Solar Power NASA and several academic institutions in the United States are considering the development of a concept called “Space Solar Power” to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Gossamer Spacecraft Gossamer Spacecraft have been envisaged to be very large. however.2. The programme envisages the deployment of large space solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbits to potentially delivering 10-100 TW of energy to world markets. the programmes must be based on the economic value of the application to the space industry. Energy would be transferred by means of high power density microwave. and development of solid state devices for wireless power transmission. radiation resistance thin film material. and the multi-functional integration of sub-systems (Mankins. 2003). Considering the high cost of the development of nanotechnology. The time frame of implementation of this concept is estimated to be more than 25 years (Zweck & Luther. Increasing dialogue 103 .
such research and development is expected to take nearly a decade before it is implemented in space crafts. In any event. 104 .between space and nanotechnology research communities is essential for the continued development of nanotechnology applications for space.
European aerospace must maintain a strong competitive position if it is to play a full role as an industrial partner in the global aerospace marketplace. and the strategies that are being developed by the various sectors to ensure economic success. Europe must remain at the forefront of key technologies if it is to have an innovative and competitive aerospace industry. prosperity and security. the EC and the EU parliament. The STAR 21 report recommends four governing principles for Europe’s aerospace industry: 1. The European Commission (EC) has recognised the central importance of the aerospace industry to innovation. 4. and influenced by a broad range of European policies such as trade. the report highlights the need for evaluating and harmonising competition policies and tax incentives amongst member states. and that long-term R&D goals are well defined.2 Aviation The aerospace industry is a significant contributor to economic wealth worldwide. security and quality of life. To ensure that the aerospace industry in the EU continues to succeed. and in 2002 published a Strategic Aerospace Review for the 21st Century (STAR 21). environment and security and defence. transport. It concludes with a presentation of patents utilising nanotechnology that are applied to the aerospace industry. globally competitive industrial base is essential to provide the necessary choices and options for Europe in its decisions as regards its presence and influence on the world stage.Chapter 6: Economic Aspects 6. 3. that worker mobility between Member States is supported. It discusses the impacts on civilian aviation and space exploration. globally. ensuring that adequate training schemes are established (that also take account of continued education and training). 6. and the role that SMEs will play in this. 2. but also. 2004-1) the European air transport industry directly 105 . A strong. the result of the efforts of an advisory group with members from industry.1 Introduction This chapter describes the economic impacts that the aerospace industry has in the EU in particular. It is directly associated with. To achieve these goals it recommends that combined public and private funding for civil aeronautics in the EU should reach a total of €100 billion by 2020. Aerospace is vital to meeting Europe’s objectives for economic growth. because of its nature. According to the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE.
ru/English). In the US. It has over 17.manufacturer of the famous MiG fighter planes.6%) in 2004. with profits of $11 billion (€8. Civil aircraft orders are of the order of €780 million per annum (www. Brazil. However.the largest Russian aircraft manufacturer (both military and civil) with a reported 14% of global output of aircraft products (25% for military aircraft). It had sales of €468 million in 2004 (www.org/eng).com/en).ru/ENG). Air transport alone is estimated to account for approximately 18% of all international trade. Tupolev OKB.oldest Russian aeronautics company. Canada. is being established in an effort to streamline operations and improve the Russian aviation industry’s global competitiveness (Russian Minister. and that this will increase to 5 to 7 million by 2020.primarily involved in military aircraft design.com/english/content/home). Furthermore. The most important sites for the global civil aerospace industry are Seattle (Boeing).87 billion).68 billion USD (€2.S. but with plans to increase its percentage of civilian aircraft manufacturing from 13% to 45% over the next 10 years.primarily a military aircraft manufacturer.contributed €220 billion to European GDP (or 2. but also produces small civil aircraft (www. 106 . the aerospace industry generated $170 billion (€133 billion) in sales during 2005.tupolev. The 6 individual companies are: • Sukhoi. 2006). Ilyushin. an estimated 10% of GDP. • • • • Brazil The Brazilian company Embraer manufactures small to medium sized passenger aircraft that are used by a number of global airlines.embraer.irkut. other important global players are located in Russia.yak.6 billion). United Aircraft Building Corporation (UABC). The new company.migavia. Toulouse and Hamburg (both Airbus).ilyushin.manufactures both military and civil aircraft (www.ru/eng). but with several small to medium size civilian aircraft (www. and taking into account ancillary business. it is estimated that total employment within the industry in Europe is some 3 million. A.000 employees (www. • Irkut. Yakovlev. 2006) The major manufacturers in the industry are Airbus in the EU and Boeing in the US. In 2005 it had revenues of 3. As of April 2007 these are to be merged into one company by the Russian government. Mikuyan.sukhoi. and Ukraine: Russia There are 6 manufacturers of civilian aircraft in Russia. Manufactures both military and civil aircraft (www. with Airbus commanding slightly over half of the global market share. (Napier.org/en).
Air cargo is also expected to expand over the next 17 years at a rate of 5.800 and profits in 2005 of 8.1 Global markets in the aviation industry According to the Airbus “Global Market Forecast 2004-2023” world passenger traffic is expected to increase by 5. will require an estimated 16. It has a global workforce of 26.838 in 2003 to 21. falling to an estimated 1. This increase in demand. Although this loss in the US market is largely a result of decreased passenger numbers in wake of September the 11th. However. By 2023 it is expected that air 107 . combined with the need to renew older aircraft. In monetary terms this equates to some 1. however in product value terms this is almost 75%. Airbus forecasts that only 15% of today’s passenger aircraft will still be in service with their current operators in 2023. one of the other key issues is the relative cost of fuel to the airlines. 6.antonov.9% per annum.48 trillion). The market share on a regional basis looks quite different. Airbus forecasts that the number of passenger aircraft in service will double from a fleet of 10. while operators in the Asia-Pacific will focus more on large capacity aircraft (such as the Airbus A380) and so will have the greater share of seat capacity.759 in 2023. and Global. with Europe expected to have the largest demand in terms of aircraft numbers. Challenger.com).html). EU airlines have seen net profits of between 1 and 2 billion USD in the same period (IATA). In many cases large passenger aircraft are “recycled” as cargo aircraft before this point.Learjet.3 billion) (www. Typical maximum life-spans for aircraft range from 37 years for small jets to 35 years for others. since 1992 it has also manufactured small to medium sized civilian aircraft (www. while the US is expected to fall from 33% to 26% and Asia-Pacific increase from 25% to 31%.601 new passenger aircraft.7 billion USD in 2006).9 trillion USD (€1. Over the next 17 years Europe is expected to retain its share of the market at 32%. At present approximately 40% of exports by weight from Asia to North America and Europe are delivered by air.2. Ukraine Antonov ASTC originally designed military aircraft for the former Soviet Union (and famously the largest aircraft ever built: the An-225 Mriya transport). This buoyant mood is also felt by airlines within the EU. contributing 26% to operating costs in 2005 (compared with 14% in 2003).bombardier.com/index.3% per annum over the period 2004-2023.1 billion USD (€6.Canada Bombardier Aerospace manufactures 3 families of small civilian jet aircraft. Despite staggering net losses in the US market over the last 6 years (13 billion USD in 2001.
The remainder will be met by increasing passenger numbers through more aircraft. with Europe favouring point-to-point.there are two airline strategies in place for connecting destinations: hub and point-to-point.cargo from Asia to North America will be greater than Europe to North America.it has been determined from several independent surveys that the most important issue to passengers is price rather than convenience (as evidenced by the growth of low-cost airlines). reducing NOx emissions by 80% and decreasing noise pollution by 50%. and it is estimated that increased productivity across the industry will contribute approximately 0. The industry metric is revenue passenger kilometre (RPK). hub-based flight patterns are the most economical and long-lived. and increasing the frequency of flights. Passengers. only 40% have been lucrative enough to survive. ACARE has set goals of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50%. point-to-point flights link secondary or tertiary cities. This favours hub based routing for the major airlines. with passengers connecting via these and flying on to their final destination by smaller regional aircraft. The future forecasts for world population growth indicate that by 2020 16 cities worldwide will have more than 20 million inhabitants (compared with 5 today). Conversely. smaller versatile aircraft for point-to-point.there needs to be continued development of different aircraft sizes: large aircraft for hub-based flights. What are the strategies that the industry sees as necessary to ensure continued growth? Both efficiency and capacity increases are required. One issue now is that packaging of such high-value goods takes up relatively more of the cargo space. 108 . As a result aircraft turnaround will be faster and passenger capacity will increase. The success rates speak volumes: of 75 routes opened during the past twenty years between a primary city in Asia and a primary city in Europe. This essentially means linking major destinations together by larger aircraft.new regulations on greenhouse gas emissions will have a major impact on the air traffic industry. Of the two. In contrast.improving the air traffic management systems will allow shorter flight times (as a result of less time in holding patterns on approach to airports) and less time spent taxiing or on stand. As part of its strategy. and offer greater convenience to passengers. which will further increase the demand for hub flights and underlines the need for larger aircraft to service this region. Routes. of the 47 routes opened between secondary or tertiary cities. Within different regions the preponderance of the two types of strategy varies. Regulation. such that there is greater demand for larger capacity aircraft. intra-regional flights while Asia-Pacific has a larger demand for hub flights. 10 of these cities will be in the AsiaPacific region. almost 90% have proved successful and are still in operation today. Aircraft size.8% of the yearly growth in RPKs. larger aircraft. It has been estimated that two-thirds of new aircraft will be single aisle with between 100 and 210 seats (the size favoured by the low cost airlines). Air Traffic Management.
This could be through “low corporation tax rates.Investment in R&D. and the means to coordinate their activities and those of the larger players. In this regard there is also the need for the large organisations in particular to move away from the “perpetuation of self-interest”. while it is the public finance in aerospace R&D that is lacking (25% that in the US). and strengthening links between the aerospace industry and higher education. There are issues in attracting sufficient researchers. export credit guarantee schemes. R&D tax credits. and the level and quality of publicly funded research. however ACARE has recommended that 65% more funding is required over the period to 2023 to ensure that the projected growth in the industry is maintained.the industry already has significant investment in R&D (approximately 12% of turnover). education and improving trans-European research. risk-sharing equity funds. To ensure that this is achieved will require coordinated efforts by each member state and not just the centralised EU administration. specialist companies. In contrast to other sectors. To reverse this trend there needs to be continual assessment of university curricula (aligning it more with the needs of the industry). ACARE has proposed a strategic research agenda (SRA) to meet these goals: • As with many technical sectors the aerospace industry is facing a shortage of suitably qualified and experienced personnel. and thus continue to re-invest in the EU R&D market. engineers and technologists into the industry. However. Policy changes at the European level that will improve European research infrastructure. What is lacking is a coherent map of these companies and their expertise. This will also require the enthusing of young people to embark on a career in science.” Improved collaboration both within the EU and with other regions (in particular the US) to ensure that R&D efforts are not duplicated. and policy changes that will ensure that European companies retain their presence within Europe and do not migrate to North America. the funding available in the EU from the private sector is comparable to that in the US. it is not only financial investment that is required. it will be essential that new policies encourage business to retain their centre of operations within the EU. certification and qualification. EU-wide coordination • • 109 . the supply chain. • Recognition that the industry also depends on the expertise and service from tens of thousands of smaller. ensuring that standards are met and improving the mobility of graduates. In addition. technology or engineering. This will require the establishment of cross-stakeholder groups to identify the necessary research infrastructure. and that companies must cooperate to maximise the outcomes of the limited pool of finance and expertise within the EU to achieve R&D goals.
continued support through the FPs. or increase society acceptance”. etc. ACARE sees collaboration in two ways: context and commercial. 5 High Level Target Concepts (HLTC) are identified in the ACARE Vision 2020 report that will play a role in shaping the future of air transport: the Highly Customer Oriented Air Transport System. establishment of networks centres of excellence.g. The drivers for these changes will be external e. One mechanism could be the development of roadmaps for the industry and the establishment of a technology watch. the Ultra Secure Air Transport System. increased air travel restriction as a result of environmental impact. context collaboration.activities (such as ERA net). While commercial collaboration is unlikely to be achieved with the US. aimed at “developing international standards that promote customer service and confidence. 110 . the Ultra Green Air Transport System. is a more achievable goal. the Highly Cost Efficient Air Transport System. These are seen as “technology pools” which will each contribute to the changing face of air transport over the coming decades. the Highly Time Efficient Air Transport System. increased security threats.
ACEP (Ariane 5 Consolidation and Evolution Preparation). The leaders in space technologies at present are: the US. According to the ESA website 111 . and China (although other countries such as Japan and India have established Space Agencies and programmes). CSG (Guyana Space Centre) Resolution. The Technology Transfer Programme has been very successful not only for the aerospace industry but the wider economy. “how does the Solar System work?”. In addition. "the future of space flight is in using new systems. Education. Space Exploration. Russia. The Technology Transfer Programme (TTP) focuses on commercialising new technologies through the support of new startups and the creation of “European Space Incubators” in ESA centres. China and India.1 billion in the following areas in the period to 2010: • The scientific programme (€2. the European Space Agency (ESA) has set forth an ambitious plan for development split into two areas: Mandatory Activities and Optional Programmes (ESA.8 billion). To achieve this will require both “discovery and competitiveness”. The specific projects attracting funding are: Envelope programme. with an increase in public spending in the USA. space exploration and exploitation is seen as a major goal for many different nations. Ariane 5 ARTA. ELIPS 2.development of space education offices to provide support for young students and graduates. it has a budget of €1.covering topics in the following areas “what are the conditions for life and planetary formation?”. “how did the Universe originate and what is it made of?” • The General Studies Programme (GSP) continues to develop basic science.6. According to Dario Izzo of ESA’s Advanced Concepts Team (ACT). The Mandatory Activities have a budget of €3. 2005). including those from outside the space sector. Russia.1 billion) for basic R&D. Vega VERTA. and Launchers. human spaceflight and exploration. telecommunication and navigation. The Earthnet Programme. launchers. In the EU.3 Space Despite a decline in the commercial market for space since 2000.supports the Earth Observation programme including the participation of Third countries. ISS Exploitation. The Technology Research Programme (TRP) looks at developing cross-cutting technology developments. new architectures and exploring technologies to reinvent the design of space missions”. EU. Telecommunications. ARTES programme. • • • • The level of investment for the Optional Activities is even higher (€3.9 billion set aside for proposals for new activities in Earth Observation Applications. earth observation. “what are the fundamental laws of the Universe?”.
more than €30 million attracted in venture capital and funding. Examples of inventions that have applications in other industrial sectors include: airbags. In the US even larger budgets are available: in 2004 NASA had a budget of 16 billion USD. In 2004 it had revenues of €2. The primary commercial agency for fulfilling the EU’s space aspirations is EADS SPACE. is responsible for the design and manufacture of satellite systems for both civilian and military telecommunication and Earth observation purposes. Formula 1 has utilised advanced technologies developed within the aerospace industry to design lighter cars. which employs over 11. the Columbus laboratory and the ATV cargo vessel for the International Space Station. while the Department of Defence had 18.000 people. Recently.int/SPECIALS/Technology_Transfer/SEMZ5TRMD6E_0. cooling systems and many more.6 billion USD. Two industrial partners (Space Exploration Technologies [SpaceX] and Rocketplane-Kistler [RpK]) will each share approximately 500 million USD to achieve this goal. carbon brakes. EADS SPACE is a wholly owned subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) and is the European authority on civil and military space transportation and manned space activities. some 15 start-ups within the European Space Incubator (ESI). Galileo (a joint programme between the ESA and the EC) finally moved towards becoming a reality with the launch of its first satellite (GIOVE-A) on the 28th December 2005. some 36 incubators within the European Space Incubator Network (ESINET). develops and produces Ariane launchers. navigation systems. however the partners will only receive this money if 112 . NASA is investing in commercial space transportation by opening up a competitive tender for supply to the International Space Station (ISS). Another company within EADS SPACE. it has resulted in: • more than 200 successful transfers of space technologies to nonspace sectors. In 2008 the ESA’s Columbus laboratory will be launched to the International Space Station (ISS). Astrium.(www.3 billion. insulation. • • • • • • • over €800 million cumulative turnover generated in both space and non-space sectors. around 1500 jobs created yearly. propulsion systems and space equipment.esa. It designs. atmospheric re-entry vehicles. ballistic missiles for France’s nuclear deterrent force. over 30 new companies established as a direct result of exploiting technologies. a portfolio of over 450 active space technologies available for transfer and licensing. vibration damping.6 billion with an order backlog of €11.html).
The Russian Federal Space Agency is responsible for space science research. The Indian Space Research Organisation was established in 1972 and has developed launch vehicles (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. and has plans for human spaceflight and exploitation of the moon. the EU and ESA signed a cooperation agreement on space. It plans to develop a new re-usable spacecraft called Kliper (although a suitable contractor has yet to be identified). and is in negotiations with Russia over joint missions to the moon and Mars. 2006).org). JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) on the 1st of October 2003 with the merger of 3 organisations: Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautic Science (or ISAS).they are successful (payments will be made in stages based on achieving targets). and then to Mars) and the use of space in support of homeland security and defence.7-1. Turnover in the EU is also 113 . It employs 20.a.000 people and has a budget of approximately €550 million. and Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) for its own use and those of international customers. with a budget of some €12.9 billion) over the first 10 years of the strategy. It is also looking to collaborate more closely with the EU after the US blocked closer cooperation with the ISS (BBC). the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL). two new launching pads.5 billion from 2006 to 2015 (Forbes. China has plans to send unmanned and manned flights to the moon. www. including science and technology. and satellite systems for telecommunications and earth observation. On 10 March 2006. JAXA’s vision comes with large investment. The EU and Russia are also engaged in a dialogue on space cooperation.1 billion USD (€860 m) and employs 110. Of all the countries involved in space exploration. One of the major challenges to the EU space industry is the fact that in the US over 75% of funding for R&D comes from the Department of Defence and NASA (while in the EU it is 50%). around 258-280 billion yen p. The Chinese Space Programme contracts most of its work to the state-owned China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). Russia. which has registered capital of 1. Japan established its own space agency. (€1. 2005). China is one of only 3 countries to have put a person in space (in 2003 using the Shenzhou spacecraft) (China.isro. It aims to achieve a leading global position in reliability and capability for both launch vehicles and satellites. In the interim it has plans nearer to earth. send missions to one of the two moons orbiting Mars. The US is focused on 2 priorities: space exploration (particularly a manned mission to the moon.7 billion. stimulating agreement between the Russian GLONASS and the European Galileo satellite navigation systems.000 people. and double the number of earth orbiting satellites to 70.to develop a supersonic aircraft capable of flying at Mach 5 that would cut the flight time between Japan and the US to a few hours. The EU is also collaborating with Canada and the USA on a bilateral basis and in the International Space Station. India aims to put an astronaut in space by 2014 (a programme that is estimated to cost €1. Russia still remains the one launching the greatest number of spacecraft.
As described above.en. 1999 figures). heatresistant coatings) and electronic sub-systems. pollution and noise pollution. 6. 18. and will require continued and concerted action at the EU level.4. and 16. structural materials for launch vehicles (e.1 Patenting of Nanotechnology Advances that have Applications in the Aerospace Industry A total of 62 patents were identified using the European Patent Office (EPO) web portal (which also provides information on other patent offices)16 using search criteria for nanotechnology with keywords related to aerospace applications (see Figure 1). storage and transmission”.4 How can Nanotechnology Impact on these Strategies? The aerospace industry is already making use of composite materials to reduce the weight of structural components. It is likely. In this respect FP7 funding for space related R&D is €1. nanotechnology is expected to impact on fuel and energy systems. that many of these patents will have potential applications in the aerospace industry.htm 114 . the worldwide patent database contains approximately 28. The impact will be on fuel economy. as well as delivering alternative future propulsion systems. such as decreased ability to form or retain ice (e.4 billion from 2007 to 2013.espacenet. on aircraft wings).g.com/access/index. Nanomaterials in engine components could also improve fuel efficiency.115 entries for “nanotechnology for materials and surfaces”. 6. In the future it is envisaged that nanocomposites will offer not only enhancements in strength and reduced weight but also added functionality. 27. 16 See www.172 entries for “nanotechnology for information processing. and more than 100.024 entries for “nano-optics”.000 results for nanotechnology in total. The distribution of these patents by search term is shown in Figure 1 and by country in Figure 2.g. approximately a four-fold increase from FP6 (European Commission FP7 fact sheet). although not explicitly stated. The title and abstract for each patent is given in Table 1. advances in nanotechnology with applications to these areas are expected also to be spun-out into other industries. sensing or actuating”. This inevitably puts EU industry at a competitive disadvantage. In contrast.090 for “nanomagnetics”. 10. In space applications.960 entries for “nanotechnology for interacting.significantly lower than the US (€5 500 million compared with €33 700 million. On closer inspection of each patent’s abstract and description only 46 of these appear to be based on nanotechnology applications.
winning materials from extraterrestrial sources” and “nano*”. cosmonautics and nano* Figure 6. or “apparatus for. No results were returned for “nanotechnology” plus “space exploration”. aviation. “airplane”. 115 . “extraterrestrial” or “aviation”. “satellite. A-G: numbers of patents in the category “nanotechnology” using the search terms: “aerospace”. “aeronautic*”.” “spacecraft”. aviation. There were 5 duplicated results between the searches giving a total of 46 patents. or methods of. “rocket”.Numbers of Patents in the Nanotechnology Section using different key word searches 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E F G H 4 17 15 7 5 1 1 1 A B C D Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Nanotechnology and and and and aerospace aircraft satellite spacecraft E F G H Nanotechnology and rocket Nanotechnology and airplane Nanotechnology and aeronautic* Aircraft.1. “aircraft”. H: numbers of patents in the category Aircraft. The patent landscape for nanotechnology applications in aerospace is dominated by the US (23 of the patents) followed by Germany (9 patents) and France (6 patents) see Figure 2. cosmonautics using the search term “nano*”.
casting composition. batteries. Table 6.2.com/) with applications stated for the aerospace industry. Nanotechnology patents listed through EPO website (http://gb. Patent Country Number of times filed Article comprising a fine-grained metallic material and a polymeric material Object identification using quantum dots fluorescence allocated on Fraunhofer solar spectral lines Method for preparing micro powder containing antiagglomerated nanometre silver. components for engines. Number of nanotechnology patents with applications in the aerospace industry by country. micro powder produced by the method and its application Epoxy resin having improved flexural impact strength and elongation at rupture Preparation of nano composites by organic modification of nano filler useful as a paint. in aircraft construction. automobile finishing.espacenet. adapted to the respective media Cabin window arrangement for an aeroplane Toilet system.1. surface treatment and coatings. and as a parquet flooring lacquer Freshwater system in a commercial aircraft Waterless vacuum toilet system for aircraft Toilet system with reduced or eliminated flushing requirement. particularly for vehicles Surface treatment for aerospace applications.or nanometre structuring. propellants. etc includes changing surface roughness measured perpendicular and in CA CA CN DE DE 1 1 1 1 1 DE DE DE DE DE DE FR 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 116 . The patents fall into a number of different categories including: materials. especially for transportation vehicles Body contacting media has surfaces with micrometric. electronics. electronics.Global Nanotechnology Patents with Application to the Aerospace Industry 2 2 1 1 1 1 6 23 US Germany France Japan Canada Italy Sweden China Korea 9 Figure 6. adhesive.
plane of surface before applying adhesive or decorative material Space and time modulator for X-ray beam Process for producing organized powders by spraying from at least two sets of particles. photon tunnelling imaging probes Broadband light-emitting diode Aluminium matrix composite and method for making same Electromechanical memory cell ESD coatings for use with spacecraft Uncooled tunnelling infrared sensor Embedded nanotube array sensor and method of making a nanotube polymer composite Transparent composite panel Magnetorheological nanocomposite elastomer for releasable attachment applications Nanocomposite layered airfoil Oya computerized glider Spacecraft sculpted by solar beam and protected with diamond skin in space FR FR FR FR IT JP JP KR SE US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US US 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Entries found using the search terms that contain no obvious nanotechnology applications: Patent Turbofan or turbojet arrangements for vehicles craft. aircraft and the like Improved lighting system lamp units used on airport taxi-ways. takeoff and landing runways Exposing process for electronic beam Device and method for detection of aircraft wire hazard Dry cooled jet aircraft run-up noise suppression system Tilt-tester Method and apparatus to produce ions and nanodrops from taylor cones of volatile liquids at reduced pressures Smart docking surface for space serviceable nano and micro satellites Power sphere nanosatellite Light shield for an illumination system Dual spectrum illumination system Method for producing extreme microgravity in extended volumes Nano-G research laboratory for a spacecraft Country ES FR JP US US US US US US US US US US Number of times filed 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 117 . and organized powders thus obtained Metal/metalloid nitride/carbide ceramic powders prepared by flash pyrolysis Ammunition or ammunition part comprising a structural element made of energetic material Method to manufacture X ray mirrors with thin film multilayer structures by replication technique Magneto static wave device Quantum wire structure Carbon nano particles having novel structure and properties Reactor for decomposition of ammonium dinitramide-based liquid monopropellants and process for the decomposition Reinforced foam covering for cryogenic fuel tanks Self-cleaning super hydrophobic surface Novel carbon nanotube lithium battery Electrically conductive polymeric foams and elastomers and methods of manufacture thereof Systems and methods for modifying ice adhesion strength Dark field.
aircraft or satellite) is sold to a country with which the US has trade restrictions. to maintain the stated US objective of “supremacy in aerospace”.06 for 30 months. plus Bulgaria. as certain technology developments in the US are subject to restrictive trade agreements. Furthermore. or the final product validated. The NAVOBS+ project which supports the participation of SMEs in R&D projects in the field of Space infrastructures (e.de). SMEs are seen as a crucial component of the aerospace industry as they provide both services and additional expertise in R&D to that of the major corporations. devices may be subject to incorporation. Ensuring that SMEs can engage effectively in R&D with each other and other organisations is therefore a key element for the future success of the European aerospace industry. Norway. In other cases.5 Role of SMEs As described above. Iceland.g. which specialises in coatings and material analysis and characterisation. which can further compound the competitive disadvantage of EU industry. However. there is significant overlap in aerospace R&D for civil and military purposes.bekaert. On the website is a database of over 1000 SMEs which can be searched by country. which are largely dominated by the US. Israel. this is not the case for space technologies. which specialises in surface treatment technologies and NanoCraft (www. technology or keyword. Romania.6 Conclusions Europe is in a relatively strong position as regards its current market share in aviation technologies. and includes 32 countries: the 25 EU member states. Much of this can be attributed to the high level of public funding for aerospace research in the US (particularly for space) through the Department of Defence and NASA. and Turkey. SCRATCH is another EU-funded project that supports SMEs in the aeronautics industry to establish consortia and submit project proposals to the EC.g. Switzerland. by the US manufacturer or 118 . It both networks aeronautical SMEs and allows prospective project coordinators to identify “researchintensive SMEs”. Using “nano” as keyword search term however identifies only two SMEs: Bekaert Dymonics NV (www. 6.02.com/dymonics). Ultimately this means that an EU manufacturer may not be able to include US technology if the final product (e.6.nanocraft. It is a joint activity between the AeroSpace and Defence Industries Association of Europe (ASD) and the EC. satellites). AeroSME is one of the main instruments that have been set-up to aid the involvement of SMEs in EU-funded projects in aerospace. Other initiatives to support SMEs include: European Communities Aeronautics REsearch+ (ECARE+) which is funded under FP6 from 01.
In the absence of a comparable EU technology this has the potential to severely restrict markets. and increasing their functionality (e. Through advances in nanotechnology it is expected that the aerospace industry will be able to address issues of improved and novel propulsion systems. Other applications include communication and navigation. engineering antifouling surfaces). The involvement of appropriate authorities such as ACARE and the ESA is essential to ensure that this funding is targeted to the best projects to achieve the long-term strategic goals.g. 119 . nanotechnology enabled systems should provide novel energy production and storage. sensors and electronics. To achieve this and to ensure that critical technologies will be developed by EU R&D requires the ongoing support of large-scale collaborative projects through the Framework Programmes.approved organization. Advances in materials will be through decreasing the weight required for structural components (through increased strength. and decreasing environmental impacts. ductility. wear resistance. etc) thus reducing fuel consumption. In the longer term.
2006 International Conference on Nanotechnology Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety (NOEHS). As demonstrated in earlier chapters. e.). "Best practice" engineering controls and PPE (personal protective equipment).g. etc.Chapter 7: Environment. airborne nanoparticles in the cabin or released from the plane or spacecraft in the air are likely to constitute the biggest potential hazards. 2005 and click the button “safety and environment” on top of the page www. drilling. will be addressed early on before shop floor production is considered. the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanoscale materials for all applications constitute a great concern for policy makers worldwide.1 Introduction Applications of nanotechnology in the aeronautics and space sectors are rather new in themselves. 120 . in most cases. It is uncertain how the size and surface to volume ratio of materials with particle sizes between 1 and about 100 nm influence toxicity as compared to the bulk materials.The postulation that these abrading processes will not release free engineered nanoparticles will be challenged. Nanoforum. a considerable variety of nanostructured materials and nanodevices are aimed at incorporation in aeronautics and aerospace in the future. will certainly be applied. water or soil.g. With nano modified composites. little research has been done on Environment.nanoforum. in polymer matrix composites. animals and the environment. Nano workplace health & safety issues. In many cases. EHS will be used as shorthand for the three fields.org for an overview of recent developments and publications. 2006) and projects started in the last few years to assess the toxicity of different kinds of nanomaterials and to develop exposure scenarios for humans. Maynard et al. For applications of nanomaterials in aerospace. On the one hand. Battelle 17 See e.g. Therefore. The aerospace production shop floor will be one of the first locations affected by potential release. Health and Safety Aspects 7. such fixed nanoparticles may be released in the environment due to wear (abrasion) or by accident. EU and its member states and other countries. a universal issue involves standard shop floor processing (sanding. cutting. Health and Safety aspects of nanotechnology in aerospace. Most concern is focused on free engineered nanoparticles which may be released in the air. During normal use. as required. the nanoparticles will be fixed in a matrix and potential health and environmental risks may be mainly expected during production and in waste processing or recycling.17 In the USA. At the Dec. research strategies have been developed (e.
Relevant news and publications can be found elsewhere at the Nanoforum site or through other media. The general debate about EHS aspects of engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is also relevant to aerospace industry. 7. Environmental benefits include less use of energy and materials. A review of this debate goes beyond the scope of the present report.org/millennium/nanotechrd2.2 EHS risks Environment. the possibility of free engineered nanoparticle release from standard shop floor processing. filters for purifying air and water etc. This exposure risk study was thought to be one of the first to evaluate. In this part of the report.doc 121 . under controlled conditions.Toxicology Northwest presented results of a release comparison study of simulated Boeing shop floor sanding a "control" composite versus a nano modified composite. Health and Safety aspects of nanomaterials in different applications including aerospace applications were the topic of a Delphi study carried out in the AC/UNU Millennium project (Glenn and Gordon. On the other hand. The focus is on response to engineered nanoscale materials explicitly intended for application in the aeronautics or space sectors. 2005). remote sensing applications and other nanomaterials and devices. Health benefits can arise from incorporating nanosensors monitoring on board air and water quality. we summarise the available literature and come up with suggestions for further research. Aerospace applications which may lead to EHS impacts in 20052010 include the following18: Application: Nanoparticles in fuel as additives Potential EHS impact: Inhalation by staff but also by the population in general 18 Source: AC/UNU Millennium project : « Environmental and Health Hazards resulting from military uses of nanotechnology. integrating nanosensors networks in composite materials to monitor structural integrity of the hull. Safety may be improved by applying fire retardant nanomaterials.acunu. introducing nanomaterials or nanodevices such as sensors into aeronautics can also bring environmental. round 2 : www. health and safety benefits.
2006) The general research agenda for EHS aspects of engineered nanomaterials is also applicable to applications in aerospace. Health and Safety implications. An aerospace and defence company was the first to be audited. humans and animals. stealthy Erosion of these nanoparticles make them inhalable by staff but also by the general population Nanopollution in the environment and contamination of the environment (vegetables. (Boeing.03 responsible for Nanotechnology Environmental & Occupational Health & Safety.” (Garner. Industrial sectors such as Aerospace and Automotive have articulated similar needs as the Chemical industry on “joint nanotechnology research needs which would enable the correlation and prediction of nanostructure and properties from synthetic conditions. The life cycle should be assessed to be sure. but a similar recycling process could perhaps eventually be found useful for carbon nanotube composites. 2006) 122 . Lux Research and a toxicology consultant are offering an EHS audit service aiming to raise awareness among nanotech start ups and other companies of these issues. because only the grain size of crystals inside a metal matrix is of nanodimensions. 2005) Nanostructured metals have been applied in aerospace since the 1990s. The EHS risk potential of nanotechnology applied in aeronautics outlined by Boeing reflects the general global nanosafety research agenda. Boeing Phantom Works and several subcontractors are working on a composite recycling project for carbon fibre composites from aircraft since 2003. first in landing gear components. Carbon fibre composites have been applied in aircraft since the early 1990s. fruits etc). Boeing is represented by their Environmental Assurance group on the ASTM International Subcommittee E56. Since the late 1990s. but were not recycled due to a lack of a market for the scrap materials. These composites do not contain nanomaterials. The contamination can also infect drinkable water and fish Boeing (2005) expects future nanotechnology applications in aeronautics and aerospace in 10-15 years and considers now a good time to investigate Environment. such markets were identified and it became interesting for Boeing to develop recycling schemes. smoother.Nanoparticles as surface coverage to make it harder. Lux Research (2006) does not see indications of any EHS issues with nanostructured metals. (Thayer.
In general. accidents caused by re-entry of satellites have been reported occasionally. most current research is performed in vitro. The magnitude of the protective response is generally proportional to the magnitude. satellites or other objects in earth orbits which may fall out of orbit or collide with each other in space. The last factor is the main source of chronic adverse health effects. These findings indicate there may be many ways to reduce the health risk for astronauts who are expected to spend considerable lengths of time in a spacecraft. cabin staff and passengers don’t spend more than some hours at a time in a commercial aircraft..3 Environmental benefits Applications of nanotechnology in aerospace are expected to lead to potential benefits for the environment. 7. These benefits include reduced fuel consumption.1 Health risks Health impacts of nanomaterials are the most pressing concern in spacecraft. because astronauts can spend months inside a spacecraft. including the need for global monitoring of environmental conditions and better understanding and calibration of 123 .2. more environmentally sound coatings and on-board environmental control sensors. not chronic exposure. Modifications of the surface of nanomaterials can alter biochemical reactivity and should be reflected in calculations of absorbed and effective dose.. Studies have shown that modifying the surface of nanomaterials with surfactants or biocompatible polymers (e. not in vivo.g. 2004) and alters the half-life and tissue deposition in vivo (Ballou et al. 2004). whereas pilots.7. the need for specific studies on the human response to nanomaterials highlights another research challenge: the limited availability of well-characterized material in sufficient quantity.. polyethylene glycol) reduces the toxicity in vitro (Derfus et al. and assesses acute exposure.2.2 Safety risks Potential risks may in the long term occur due to more futuristic applications of nanotechnology in aerospace such as accidents with the proposed space elevator. 7. Development of new test methods to evaluate novel behaviour of nanomaterials in vivo. Piotr Tucholka (2002) presented some “Major challenges for environmental studies”. and duration of exposure. In the past. Standardized dosing protocols have yet to be established. complexity. Consequently. and new in vitro tests may be necessary to predict novel in vivo behaviour. Any surface modification has the potential to strongly influence the material’s reactivity.
the use of POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes) may result in zero volatile organic compound (VOC) coating development. “Dave Whelan. 124 .g. if the lighter planes. this potential environmental benefit may be limited by rebound effects. He believed “nano.and micro technologies are well-suited to provide significant improvements in these applications. lower energy consumption due to nano-surface treatment for environmental benefits. 2006). (at that time) Boeing Phantom Works General Manager.” Other advantages mentioned are not specific for the aerospace sector. polymer nanocomposites) may be applied to produce lighter aircraft. 2006) An important aspect is the environmental control. Dastoors. advancing more environmentally sound technologies.space based observations and their relation to parameters of the objects. No details are disclosed. Environmental sensors distributed throughout the ship keep track of contaminants in the air and water (Meyyappan. (Woelcken et al. 2005) Boeing (2005) foresees EHS benefits due to applications of nanotechnology. Some other beneficial applications have already been mentioned in earlier chapters such as alternative energy sources for aircraft and spacecraft.g. Spacecraft have closedloop environments with the ability to reclaim air and wastewater. like those used in petroleum well monitoring are adapted or adaptable to environmental problems…” Light and strong nanomaterials (e. in turn. (CCN Matthews. 2005) Airbus is also interested in nanotechnology for enhancing the environmental friendliness of their airframes. The Canadian government is investing $3. including waste and air emissions reductions. Several already existing applications.4 million in development of new nanotechnology based coatings for aerospace. e. (Mulcair. 2003) This may help reduce aircraft fuel consumption. (Ellen et al. However. Also. carry a heavier load of passengers and cargo. commented he believes that it will make possible: ‘Specialised coatings so that planes don’t need repainting’. The company Integran will develop nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorous coatings and deposition process technologies as an environmentally friendly alternative for the current hard chrome plating process used for coating landing gear and jet engine components. along with other materials such as carbon-fibre reinforced plastics or alumina-based materials.
Safety of people on the ground and the environment can profit from improved disaster management by earth observation and satellite communication. 2006) 7. The ultimate vision for nanotechnology in astronaut health management is to provide a quality of medical care regardless of the duration of the space mission. or in the form of life support systems in spacecraft and possibly also aircraft. nanosensors and smart materials can improve safety for the people on board considerably. Safety of people on board can profit from application of vibration and flame resistant nanomaterials and nanosensor networks embedded in composite materials. 2006).15% of the material and are evenly distributed through the composite. 2006) and other MNT-based sensors (Blue Road Research. The existing relevant European Union policies and legislative framework is summarised below. 2006) 7. The nanotubes make up only 0. micro cracks in the material can be detected. also Kneipp et al. Especially on commercial aircraft.7.4 Health benefits Health benefits can occur if nanomaterials can replace toxic materials currently applied in aerospace. Solutions include cantilever-based MEMS (Waitz. These sensors incorporate dendrimers.6 EHS Regulation Regulating Environment. By running an electrical current through the web of nanotubes. (Thostenson. Carbon nanotubes embedded in composites can be used as an artificial nervous system. (Flinn. Embedded micro and nanosensors for measuring structural integrity can be included in future generation aircraft structural components. 125 . Health and Safety aspects of nanomaterials and nanodevices for aerospace applications will have to be part of the existing legislative framework for the aeronautics and space sectors. Scientists at Michigan University Ann Arbor’s Centre for Biologic Nanotechnology are developing nanosensors for monitoring the health impact of space radiation on astronauts. 2005) Katrin and Harald Kneipp of Harvard University have proposed nanosensors for astronaut health monitoring based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (Kneipp & Kneipp.5 Safety benefits Nanomaterials and devices are expected to enhance the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.
There is currently no formal cooperation between the two ISO committees ISO/TC 229 for nanotechnologies and ISO/TC 20 for 126 . The EC aims to reduce this dependence on oil supplies through innovative energy efficiency and alternative energy solutions. and will likely apply also to aerospace. making engines more efficient. intelligent transport systems and engine technology providing increased fuel efficiency and promoting the use of alternative fuels. the EC has presented an Action Plan on energy efficiency. “In order to respond to increasing concerns over the health and welfare of passengers during flights. too little is probably known about the impacts of nanotechnology to determine if current regulations are sufficient. “Although airlines have reduced fuel consumption by 1-2% per passenger-kilometre in the last decade and noise emission from aircraft has declined significantly. A broad set of common safety standards is enforced with the help of the European aviation agency EASA. Air transport accounts for 9% of EU oil consumption. the overall environmental impact of civil aviation has increased due to buoyant growth in traffic… greenhouse gas emissions from air transport have grown by over 4% per year in the last decade. The EC is in favour of developing green aircraft according to the thematic strategy on air pollution (EC.The European Commission has reviewed and updated its Transport policy mid 2006. p 8) The EU is a major world player in air transport equipment. This action plan builds upon the EC Communication on Climate Change and Aviation (2005) including proposals to give research into ‘greener’ technology the highest priority in FP7 and working in ICAO on developing more stringent technical design standards to reduce aircraft emissions at the source. EU innovation policy under FP7 includes the greening of air transport. In the Dutch standards committee dealing with nanotechnology. This is the general situation. The EU aims to be a world leader in sustainable transport solutions. 2007-2012) and proposing legislation to include the aviation sector in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (end of 2006). The EC wants to reduce environmental impacts whilst maintaining the competitiveness of the sector. 2006. it is necessary to develop aircraft designs which better protect the safety and health of passengers. no representatives of aerospace participate. safety and security in transport.” (EC. 2005). “aeronautical products should be subject to certification to verify that they meet essential airworthiness and environmental protection requirements relating to civil aviation… in line with standards set by the Chicago Convention”. The aviation industry is consolidating at European level. Currently.” (EC regulation 1592/2002) In 2006. by innovation. It includes strategies to stimulate higher energy efficiency of aviation through the Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research project (SESAR. On 19 October 2006.
The discussion about nanotechnology is starting in aerospace norms and standard setting circles. and Dutch companies are involved in it. results will be published at http://www.” “All potential impacts revealed by this Specific Support Action (SSA) will be documented in the final report and disseminated via the specialised web pages on the NANOFORUM web site. NEN. which have been put in place or are under development. Potential specific EHS risks of nanotechnology applied in aerospace must be addressed in toxicology research and the development of specific exposure scenarios for the aeronautics and space sectors.aerospace. These are currently focused on general toxicology and exposure scenarios in the workplace and exposure of the environment and the human body. Current research agenda’s for risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials intended for application in aerospace are relevant. and codes of practise. The European debate takes place in ECSS. ethical issues. these are likely to be applied also to individual sectors including aerospace. the discussion and investigation of EHS risks and benefits of engineered nanomaterials and nanodevices in aerospace is barely getting off the ground. health and safety related to nanomaterials for applications in all sectors including aerospace are framed.7 Conclusion To conclude.19 This implies the following: “Standards. There is a need for identifying the main possible concerns and opportunities. Guidelines and recommendations for the institution of future European standards. Their implications and effectiveness will be discussed.” The project aims “to survey national. (Source Ivo van der Werff. policies and codes of practice. ethics. It is not yet clear if there will be a need for nanospecific norms. policies and codes of practice. international and European standards. legislation. Exposure 19 This project runs from 1 February 2005 until 31 January 2007.” 7.html 127 . In the EU funded NANOTOX–project. ethical issues. personal communication.org/impartnanotox/nanotox_summary. October 2006). for the safe production and use of nanoparticles will be produced. policies. legislation.impartnanotox. When the first nano-norms appear. at international and European level. There seems to be a need for complementing these plans with additional life cycle analysis of the materials intended for use in aerospace applications. legislation. will be assessed and reviewed. Ways in which existing legislation is applied to the macroscale counterparts of nanoparticles will also be examined.
The novelty of nanoscale materials arises from the fact that with the size decrease the properties of the materials change. Communication between parties involved in standardisation of the aerospace sector and of nanotechnology also needs improvement. pilots. however. This is true for all applications of engineered nanoscale materials including aerospace and is being addressed worldwide. health and safety risks. a lighter weight aircraft might be admired for its lower fuel consumption but it could also be considered a potential risk source if its nano modified materials should in any way release free engineered nanoparticles. Whether international regulations could ever prevent potential future disasters is problematic. The public acceptance of some EHS aspects of nanotechnology in aerospace may be ambivalent. Specific for aerospace applications. Relevant regulations should not be limited to airworthiness criteria. health and safety is urgently needed. exposure scenarios of astronauts. For example. To obtain the optimal environment.g. 128 . Development of instruments and methods for nanomaterials characterisation considered crucial for testing impacts on environment. health and safety benefits of nanotechnology in aerospace. but also promote the use of Best Available (environmental) Techniques under the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control policy of the EU. between the relevant ISO Technical Committees. Safe usage of engineered nanomaterials in aerospace requires employing strict control on atmospheric nanoparticle release from aircraft in the atmosphere because the nanoparticles could easily be distributed widely over the Earth’s surface. which.scenarios due to release of engineered nanomaterials in the air at high altitudes and in the cabin environment are also needed. as well as life cycle assessments of the nanomaterials applied in aircraft and spacecraft to identify possible environmental exposure scenarios. e. cabin personnel and passengers must be developed. may be accompanied by increased environmental. scenarios must be developed and used to decide on research priorities and regulation.
but focus on the relevant issues and regulatory framework for nanotechnology applications in aeronautics and especially outer space. Issues like the use of outer space and ownership claims are still not regulated and the potential risks of human activities and the deployment of human-made technologies in outer space are highly uncertain and not addressed in any systematic way. because they can enable activities which were not possible or too expensive before. Nanotechnology is one of the first emerging technologies where policy makers and researchers have initiated a deliberately constructed. 20 See Nanoforum (2005) or click the button “More” followed by “Society Issues” on top of the webpage www. Most of the issues and discussions are likely to focus on outer space. stimulating longer astronauts’ missions. legal and social aspects of nanotechnology in general. as has been demonstrated in many case studies in the field of Science. which can be used on a larger scale for earth monitoring.1 Introduction Society and new technologies mutually influence each other’s development. Technology & Society (STS). as discussed in chapter 7. E. In the aeronautic sector. we will not review all the literature on ethical. Legal and Social Aspects or Implications of a new science and technology area in an unprecedented early phase of development. microsystems and nanotechnologies can enable small satellites.org for an overview of relevant developments and publications. or autonomous systems for exploring other planets. space tourism and other activities are more recent than large-scale air travel and transport. Or nanotechnology may enable better life support systems in space stations and spacecraft.g. Legal and Social Aspects 8. The development and eventual uptake of aerospace applications of nanotechnology is influenced on the one hand by the parallel development of the regulatory framework for the space and also the air transport sectors in general as these nanomaterials and devices will have to conform to these more general regulations. 129 . since space travel and commercial uses of outer space in satellites.20 In this chapter. large scale systematic research programme on Ethical.Chapter 8: Ethical. nanotechnology will change current practices and norms and values governing the air transport and space sectors.nanoforum. most developments focus on reducing the environmental burden of air travel and on improving on-board safety and health. On the other hand.
. . 8.legal principles (1963). Then we review some early literature exploring potential ethical.phpURL_ID=6353&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201. iii) Arbitrage between confidentiality and collective security (related to info-ethics). the rights of observed countries vs.satellite TV (1982). property). we first review current developments in European and international regulations governing the space sector which are relevant for nanotechnology. UNESCO proposes to incorporate ethical guidelines in the existing framework of UN outer space treaties and declarations.html 130 .org/shs/en/ev.The 1967 treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space.use of nuclear devices (1992).remote sensing (1986). d) Risks of abuse of dominant position by space actors. In general. . e) Responsibility in case of catastrophe.The 1968 treaty on return and rescue of astronauts. .g. c) How to decide on ethical questions regarding outer space: i) Nuclear power in space. . . UNESCO highlights some new issues which need to be discussed in particular: a) Motivation and interest of space conquest. ii) limits of outer space. (UNESCO. b) Interest of manned flights. The UN assembly declarations cover the following aspects: . iv) Determination of the status of data (e.International cooperation (1996).In this chapter. The treaties are: . See also Detlev Wolter (2006).The 1975 convention on registration of space objects. We conclude with some suggestions for further research. . Scientific and Cultural Organisation’s (UNESCO) World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology is working on an international instrument on the ethics of outer space. including the moon and other celestial bodies (outer space treaty). p 12) Some of these treaties are limiting arms and military uses of outer space.2 Regulations The United Nations Educational. . 2004.The 1972 convention on international liability for space damages. legal and social implications of nanotechnology applied in outer space and aeronautics.unesco.21 21 See UNESCO website: http://portal.The 1979 agreement about the moon and other celestial bodies.
The European Union (EU) is developing a European Space Policy. implying that technologies which are or will soon be available on the world market can be exported freely. As part of the strategy they do intend to encourage international cooperation with foreign nations and/or consortia on space activities that are of mutual benefit and that further the peaceful exploration and use of space as well as US national interests. technologies and components. the strategic benefits of space can be recognised and ESA can be maintained as Europe’s pole of excellence. which seem to imply that the US reserves the right to protect their own national security in space.”22 The EU is coordinating a common European – United Nations position on the political.23 The US President established the White House’ new National Space Policy on 31 August 2006.html 131 . licensing. At the same time they will oppose the development of new legal regimes.html See: http://ec. export controls. China and Israel. member states. the roles of EU. allocations of frequencies and orbital slots within the International Telecommunications Union). national space agencies and other organisations. shall be approved only rarely. guided by a number of principles.eu/enterprise/space/themes/inter_cooperation_en. ESA. systems. These items include systems engineering and systems integration capabilities and techniques or enabling components or 22 23 See: http://ec. but that “export of sensitive or advanced technical data. 2005).europa. The aim is to develop a strategy for space technology development coordinating the activities of the EU. The scenarios deal with who should take the lead in managing and funding regulations and space activities. in which the current principles of governance in space can evolve.europa. The European Commission has published a Communication on European Space Policy – Preliminary Elements in May 2005 (European Commission. European Space Agency (ESA) and EU Member states as well as other countries including Russia. while denying adversaries the use of space capabilities hostile to the US national interests. on a caseby-case basis. They are also developing a regulatory and institutional framework. The EU space policy includes international collaborations including “aspects of international trade ‘fair competition’ and market access through the regulatory environment (WTO. The policy includes effective export policies. The communication envisages at least five scenarios for developing a legal framework and recommends assessing all of them.eu/enterprise/space/themes/inter_cooperation_en. legal and technological components of space affairs. other restrictions or arms control agreements restricting US activities. They declare the conduct of US space programs and activities a top priority. the United States (US).
Researchers do exert some influence on policy makers. such as in the International Space Station. ESTP proposes to continue this ECI and develop similar “buy European” programmes for other critical space components. The Strategic Research Agenda of the European Space Technology Platform (ESTP. The current developments of international and national space policies as described above are of course on the table of the politicians and are not easily influenced by researchers working on nanotechnology. Researchers must be aware of their responsibility. explained developments in space law. He pleads for a review. During the abovementioned CANEUS 2006 conference an NPS industry working group was installed. 5% from other countries and 35% are made in the EU.” (US White House. Standards. This is the case since 1999. ESA director of external relations. a short course has been held on “International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) – Intergovernmental agreements. in particular concerning extrapolations into the future. which apply to satellite technology and all electronic and other space components or subassemblies. France. which aims for standardisation of small 132 . The EU is party to many such arrangements. when the US Congress transferred responsibility for satellite technology from the Commerce department to the State Department.” The main focus was on US expert restrictions on defence related technologies as applicable to Microsystems and Nanotechnologies for aerospace. p 37) also mentions these ITAR restrictions. The EU has since developed a strategy of “non-dependence”: having unrestricted access to any required space technology from European or other suppliers. On the other hand. René Oosterlinck (2006). while maintaining the quality of the European technologies. 2006. The current legislation is ambiguous on several aspects including mineral exploration on asteroids and intellectual property rights for research in space. as demonstrated by recent discussions at the CANEUS 2006 conference in Toulouse. About 60% of the electronic components and equipment needed for a typical satellite are imported from the US. During this conference. Environmental. Also who is responsible for space debris is not settled. guiding visions. Flight Opportunities. Safety. ESA has started a European Components Initiative in 2004. these political developments determine the boundaries in between which the researchers have to do their work on developing nanotechnology for applications in aerospace. etc. aiming to reduce substantially the dependence on components subject to US export restrictions.technologies with capabilities significantly better than those achievable by current or near-term foreign systems. export policy restrictions. 2006) Among the goals of expert control policies for sensitive goods is to block or slow down access to militarily relevant equipment.
wtec. We show progress in the discussion by briefly summarising relevant literature in chronological order. starting with the question of the adaptation of humankind to outer space. Ethical and Legal Implications of Nanotechnology” of the US National Science Foundation (NSF) report on Societal implications of nanotechnology (Roco & Bainbridge.satellites. How we structure nanotechnology related outer space use today will influence development for decades.24 Richard H. UNESCO mentions Nanotechnology explicitly as a bioethical issue in its work on the ethics of outer space: “Specific bioethical issues may be raised by experiences in outer space.5 on “Social. and nanotechnology can only be a factor in making them smaller. These issues can be divided in two groups: 1) Implications for privacy. 25 October 2006. Societal implications of nanotechnologies and studies needed are outlined in section 6.org/loyola/nano/NSET. Legal and Social Aspects Most Ethical. Legal and Social issues are related to outer space. Smith includes several positive opportunities of nanotechnology for outer space exploration. There is also largely an issue of risk. cheaper and increasing their use.Implications/nanosis65. 2001). because the earth observation and communication satellites are already there. (Caneus.3 Ethical. These implications should be viewed in the context of decades.pdf 133 . The second group is a very long term concern. and the determination of the possibility of contamination either of or 24 http://www. security and safety of humans and our earthly society and environment. 2006) 8. The first meeting has been in Montreal. The international community is currently in the process of developing ethical declarations. legal and social issues is reviewed below. The more detailed discussion of how the uptake of nanotechnology in aerospace may lead to new ethical.g. using other planets as quarantined nanotechnology test beds. as opposed to air travel and terrestrial policies. e. 2) Ethical implications of applications of nanotechnology in planetary and outer space exploration. but nevertheless discussed already by proponents as well as opponents.Societal. The first group is a more immediate concern. in the case of sending out autonomous “thinking” systems to other planets and who is responsible for what they do there. treaties and legislation to govern human activities in outer space as has been reviewed above. including reduction of the payload to energy ratio which may enable new missions. carrying out risky experiments in outer space or attempts at terraforming other planets. and considering terraforming other planets.
if used for anti-satellite attack. Jürgen Altmann (2006) proposes preventive arms control on nanotechnologies which may be used for military applications. 134 .or micro robots for exploration of the moon. There is a need for a comprehensive ban on space weapons. “In aviation.from outer space.” “Exceptions should be strictly defined and narrowly limited … they could concern exploration of celestial bodies. 2006. 2006) One can imagine that the potential development of autonomous “thinking” spacecraft invokes ethical concerns. allowing independent inspectors to control compliance on site. He proposes a “general prohibition of small mobile (partly) artificial systems below a certain size limit (0. “cheap production of hundreds or thousands could lead to diffusion to uses on earth”. planets and asteroids. with knowledge flowing in both directions.” He proposes technical limitations and licensing procedures to prevent misuse. much of military as well as civilian R&D takes place in the same institutions and firms. The debate about ethical aspects of human enhancement. 2006. in the military and the civilian sector. p 136) He warns for two military uses of swarms of small satellites: observation and detection of targets on earth guiding attacks. 2006. a significant number could be allowed for civil Earth monitoring or space research if subject to intensive licensing and inspection procedures while military satellites would be strictly limited. p 139-140) Altmann (2006. p 10-11) The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Grand Challenges for nanotechnology in Aerospace are: . This issue is also linked to the ethical concerns raised by nanotechnology”.” (Altmann.2 to 0. p 132) “Small and/or more autonomous satellites. He includes explicitly civil nanotechnology developments in aviation (aeronautics).” (Altmann. The compatibility of life science experiments in outer space and their return to Earth should also be studied.Safe. If “swarms of centimetre size flying or crawling robots for moon and planet investigation” were developed. would counteract the general ban on space weapons that the international community has striven for since decades. p 167) foresees the deployment of mini.Autonomous “thinking” spacecraft . affordable aviation .” He proposes to prevent misuse of civilian R&D for military purposes by strong verification rights. (Altmann. “With respect to Nanotechnology. or attacks to other satellites in orbit. this might apply to small satellites.Human exploration and colonisation of outer space .Evolution of Universe and Life (NASA. (UNESCO. 2004. This has been demanded nearly unanimously by all recent UN General Assemblies.5 metres) in all media. human-machine interactions and artificial life is in general emerging.
He predicts that applications of nanotechnology in space may enable such a new colonialism and land-grab. security and safety of people and the environment on earth. Patrick Lin (2006) explores potential ethical issues of space exploration. it often decreases the security of others. While carried out in the interest of one’s own security. In the long term nanotechnology may lead to new ethical concerns caused by new human initiated activities on other planets or even outside our solar system. These developments are only to a limited extent influenced by nanotechnology. leading to arms races and decreased stability (security dilemma). as miniaturisation will lead to cheaper and more abundant satellites orbiting earth.Security measures are inherently ambiguous. new 25 The Nanoforum contract precludes covering military activities.25 Subsequently. including the rationale to explore space in the first place. therefore we had to make this distinction in the present report. such that these developments should be regulated from the start to avoid conflicts related to fundamental property rights. Even though he mentions nanotechnology. Legal and Social Aspects of science or on Ethics of Science focusing on nanotechnology and on aerospace (aeronautics as well as outer space) should be further reviewed to explore issues in the boundary area between them which are currently overlooked. Researchers in nanotechnology for aerospace are forced to take these boundary conditions into account in planning their research and in selecting partners in other countries. Such additional research should not distinguish between military and civilian research as this distinction does not really exist in the aerospace sector. the argumentation is more general space ethics. administration and security. The debate on such longer term but not unprecedented developments is barely emerging. 135 . The way out of this dilemma is agreed international limitation with verification of compliance. but the development and uptake of nanotechnology in aerospace is fenced in and guided by these global political developments.4 Conclusion Current developments in international and national politics and negotiations on international treaties and declarations are in progress in small parts of especially the space sector. The uptake of nanotechnology in outer space is in the short time likely to strengthen the urgency of existing ethical concerns such as privacy. 8. We propose some suggestions for further research: Current and proposed projects on Ethical.
The second type of outreach activities should enhance public awareness of the potential benefits and risks of nanoscience and technology including those specific for aerospace applications. Two types of programmes should be developed. A main new topic for nanotechnology use in air traffic could be crewless aircraft. Educational programs at schools and universities are needed which combine nanosciences. These are becoming available first in military. nanotechnologies. Mini. An inventory of regulations on aeronautics should also be prepared in addition to the list of outer space treaties. 136 . The first type of programmes should educate the nanotechnology and aerospace workforce. legal and ethical aspects. aerospace applications and social.- - research projects should be initiated which focus on newly identified issues of major concern to society.and micro-aircraft are becoming available for military uses. and later in civilian air traffic. but may also be appropriated by terrorists in the longer term.
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