You are on page 1of 14

Technical Article

www.kssc.or.kr
Steel Structures 6 (2006) 393-407

Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete


Composite Bridges: State of the Art
Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi * and Airong Chen
1, 2

1
PhD Candidate, Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Professor, Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Abstract
This research presents the current state of the art in steel-concrete composite structures. The focus is on steel beamconcrete
deck connections and the effects of their interaction. First, analysis and design methods of composite bridge structures,
connections between components, the reliability and life cycle of bridges, new concrete-steel bridge system forms, and the
development of alternative materials used in composite bridges were reviewed with some potential applications. The conceptual
ideas on new forms of connectors and the application of hollow core slab decks in composite bridge structures were also
presented.
Keywords: Bridge, Composite bridge, Connector, Conceptual, Perfobond connector, Voided slab modeling.

1. Introduction new types of connections, the enhancement of bridge


reliability, and the use of alternative forms and materials,
The design and construction of bridges have evolved such as Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) and Inorganic
for the past thousands of years at different rates. The Phosphate Cement (IPC) to form new types of hybrid
extensive use of the automobile and the development of bridges, (Galambos, 2000), (Brozzetti, 2000), (Batista
modern highway networks increased the rate of construction and Ghavami, 2005), (Nakamura, 1998), (Nakamura et

of different types of bridges and necessitated the further al., 2002), (Wan et al ., 2005) and (Roover ., 2002).
et al

development of the exact science of bridge construction. As the state of the art in the development of the hybrid
The evolution of bridges is the result of a combination of bridge with special attention to composite steel-concrete
developments in construction materials, structural forms, bridges, it can be seen that the direction being taken by
and design and analysis methods. Composite structures research studies focuses on: (1) analysis and design
were introduced to serve as a highly competitive type of methods of composite bridge structures; (2) connections
bridge comparable to common types of bridges such as between composite bridge components (steel girder-
concrete and prestressed concrete bridges due to their concrete deck connection); (3) performance of composite
reduced weight and quick and cost-effective erection. bridges with the overall structure life (reliability and life
(Hayward, 1988), (Ansourian, 1988), (Haensel, 1998) and cycle of bridges); (4) establishment of new concrete-steel
(Saul, 1998) The use of steel-concrete composite decks as bridge systems; and (5) the development of alternative
part of other types of bridges such as cable-stayed bridge materials to be used in composite bridges.
types were also conducted and adopted as an alternative
solution (Reis and Pedro, 2004), (Combault and Teyssandier, 2. Analysis and Design of Composite Bridge
2005). Composite bridges may also be used in constructing Structures
concrete bridges to elevate the structure from the ground
level, whereas steel girders can support formwork and There are two existing types of composite bridges,
reinforcement (Collin and Lundmark, 2002). Extensive namely I-girder and Box-girder composite bridges, as
investigation in recent decades in countries such as the shown in Fig. 1. The methods of analysis for both types
USA, France, Brazil, Japan, China, and all over the world of composite bridges have two main categories: (1)
focused on the development of steel-concrete composite adoptive and analytical method to calculate structural
bridges, their design and analysis methods, creation of stress; (2) computation of a response of a section to
different load histories using numerical methods, such as
*Corresponding author the finite element method, as well as the design methods
Tel: +86-13524823687; Tel: +86-21-65983116-5204 depending on the use of numerical methods or adopting
E-mail: suhaibdarzi@yahoo.com, a.chen@mail.tongji.edu.cn the method stated by country-specific building codes,
394 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

Figure 2. Development of shear forces during composite


action (Menkulasi, 2002).

by developing different models and using different types


of elements (Adeli and Zhang, 1995), (Zhang and Aktad,
1997), (Nowak and Szerszen, 1998), (Barth, 1998),
(Bradford ., 2001), (Topkaya and Williamson, 2003),
et al

(DallAsta and Zona, 2002), (DallAsta and Zona, 2004),


(Chung and Sotelino, 2005). The stiffness and capacity of
steel-concrete composite beams were also investigated
through analytical means (Nie et al., 2005). The effects of
secondary elements such as barriers, sidewalks, and
diaphragms on increasing the load-carrying capacity of
girder bridges were also investigated, with an aim to
Figure 1.Typical components of composite bridges (Chen evaluate the potential benefit of secondary elements in the
and Duan, 2000). system reliability of girder bridges (Eamon and Nowak,
2004) and (Eamon and Nowak, 2005). The research studies
which mainly depend on experiments. Nowadays, several aimed at providing a better understanding of bridge
codes are available to support the design of composite behavior and developing good and efficient methods for
bridges, such as Chinese Code (GBJ, 1988), AISC getting the most accurate results.
Specification, and AASHTO-LRFD. (Chinese code, GBJ.,
1988), (AISC Specification, 2005), (AISC Commentary, 2.2. Steel girder-concrete deck interaction (Composite
2005b), (FHWA/NHI, 2003) (AASHTO, 1994), (Salmon action)
and Johanson, 1990) and (Chen and Duan, 2000) However, The interaction between steel girder and concrete deck
the development of design and analytical methods of slab was investigated considering the effect of partial and
composite bridges comprised the development of numerical full interaction, developed from the horizontal shear force
and analytical models that usually accompanied experimental at the interface between the steel beam and concrete slab,
tests, with the aim of obtaining the best simulation and on the composite bridges behavior, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3,
the most accurate results. There is the Guyon-Massonnet aiming to investigate the maximum flexural capacity and
method, stated by Guyon (1949), Massonnet (1950), and performance of bridges (Oehlers ., 1997), (Earls and
et al

Morice and Little (1956), and other methods with a wide Shah, 2002) and (Nie and Cai, 2003). Different finite-
application range and yield good results in many element models were used such as beam element (Ayoub
configurations including composite superstructures and Filippou, 2000). The short- and long-term behavior
(Ansourian, 1988), (Betti and Gjelsvik, 1996), and (Lee, of composite bridges was also considered (Zhou .,et al

2005). The applicability and accuracy of the finite-element 2004), (Fragiacomo et al., 2004), (Liang ., 2005).
et al

method makes it more attractive as a design and analysis


tool for composite bridge structures (Buckner and Viest, 2.3. The effect of concrete flange width on composite
1988). bridge behavior
In composite steel-concrete bridges, different types of
2.1. Load-carrying capacity of composite steel- steel can be used in girders, such as carbon steel, high-
concrete bridges strength low-alloy steel, heat-treated low-alloy steel and
The load-carrying capacity of composite bridges is an high-strength heat-treated alloy steel. The designs were
important factor that affects the overall and nonlinear mainly based on steel properties such as girder shapes,
bridge behaviors, which were investigated using different thickness, yield stress of steel ( ), tensile strength of
Fy

finite-element models such as ADINA code (Thimmhardy steel ( ), and modulus of elasticity ( ). The reinforced
Fu Es

et al ., 1995), the ABAQUS software, (Thevendran .,


et al concrete bridge decks compressive strength ( ) also fc'

1999), and FORTRAN languages, (Fu ., 2003) and


et al affects the design in terms of reinforcement properties in
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 395

Figure 4. Effective width b


E
of steel-concrete composite
beams.

strength of composite beams was also investigated using


static loading tests considering the shear span aspect
ratio, width and thickness of concrete flanges, and the
theories concerning elasticity and plasticity. The vertical
shear that the steel beam resisted was calculated based on
Figure 3. Strain variation in composite beam. (a) No strain measurements, finding that the concrete flange
interaction. (b) Partial interaction. (c) Composite interaction could sustain 33-56% of the total ultimate shear applied
(Salmon and Johnson, 1990). to composite beam specimens. The shear strength equations
that considered shear contributions of both steel beam
and concrete flange were included (Nie ., 2004).
et al

addition to the concrete modulus of elasticity . (Salmon


EC

and Johanson, 1990). The transformed area of concrete is 2.4. The load distribution on composite steel-concrete
usually used to calculate the composite section properties bridges
using the ratio ( =n ES/EC ). The concrete modulus of The effect of inelastic force distribution in longitudinal
elasticity can be calculated according to the ACI Code,
EC and transverse directions with inelastic deformations,
(ACI Committee 318, 1999), or according to AISC reactions, and moments, on composite bridge behavior
specifications LRFD approximate formula (AISC was examined by grillage analysis (Bakht and Jaeger,
Specification, 2005). The width of top flanges comprised 1992) (Barker ., 1996), and by field test, showing that
et al

the concrete slab and top steel beam flange known as bridge systems have a significant ability to redistribute
effective width ( ), Fig. 4, depends on the equivalent
bE force effects (Barker, 1999). The finite-element modeling,
area carrying the compression force. The practical using SAP90 and ICES-STRUDL programs is also
simplifications of the effective width for design purposes performed, investigating wheel-load distribution factor
are given by several codes such as: AISC Specification comparing with AASHTO and experiments yielding
(LRFD-I3.1 and ASD-I1), AASHTO LRFD, British similar load distribution factors (Mabsout ., 1997).
et al

Specification (BS5400), Canadian Specification, Chinese The axial force effective width was then introduced as
Code (GBJ 1988), Japanese Specification, EU (Eurocode4), a parameter that affects load distribution, which differs
which mainly depends on span length (Chiewanichakorn from the bending effective width (Cai , 1998). The
et al.

et al., 2004a). finite-element method using the ABAQUS software was


Finite-element modeling was used to define steel- also used in deducing expressions for moment and
concrete composite bridge girder flange width, which was deflecting distribution factors (Sennah and Kennedy,
conducted employing an investigation of nonlinear finite- 1999). The shear distribution characteristics under dead
element analysis modeling, using ABAQUS software, load and under AASHTO live loadings on multiple steel
developing effective slab width definition for determining box-girder bridges were also investigated (Sennah .,
et al

the effective slab width for steel-concrete composite bridge 2003). The finite-element model, ABAQUS software, was
girders (Chiewanichakorn ., 2004a), (Chiewanichakorn
et al used in the analysis of bridge prototypes with various
et ., 2004b). A numerical comparison between the
al geometries, and AASHTO truck loading conditions,
effective flange width provisions in the USA, Britain, investigating distribution of flexural stresses, deflection,
Canada, Japan, and European Committee was also conducted shears, and reactions (Samaan ., 2002). The effect of
et al

(Ahn, 2004). The evaluation of effective width in elastic non-uniform torsion, load distribution factors, and
and plastic analysis of steel-concrete composite beams location of access hatches on the behavior and design of
was also performed through experimental tests, investigating composite curved box-girder bridges accounted through
both cases of sagging and hogging bending moments developing a grillage model computer program (El-Tawil
presenting a simple modification of Eurocode 4 (Amadio and Okeil, 2002).
et ., 2004). The shear-resisting mechanisms and the
al
396 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

2.5. The continuity of composite steel-concrete bridge 2.7. The dynamic response of composite steel-concrete
The continuity of composite bridges was also investigated, bridges
comparing with conditions with simple support. The The dynamic response of composite bridges was
continuity has many advantages such as: higher span-to- investigated to establish a better understanding of the
depth ratio, less deflection, and higher stiffness. The dynamic effects of composite steel-concrete bridges. A
finite-element analysis method, ANSYS software, laboratory three-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis of a
and field tests were used to investigate the performance multi-girder steel bridge, both with and without diaphragms,
of continuous-span composite bridges (El-Arabaty .,et al was performed comparing with field dynamic tests,
1996). The finite element, ABAQUS software, and developing techniques used to evaluate the function and
experimental tests were also performed to investigate effectiveness of diaphragms in transverse distribution of
both the skew and continuity influence on longitudinal traffic loads (Tedesco et al ., 1995). The finite-element
moments in girders (Ebeido and Kennedy, 1996) and model, ANSYS software, was used to study the dynamic
(Lne and Lebet, 2005). A model of steel and concrete response of the composite bridge including parapets and
composite beams subjected to negative bending was diaphragms in bridge models. (Barefoot et al., 1997) Modal
presented, accounting for nonlinear structural behavior on analysis and identification ascertaining the characteristics
negative bending moment regions using a numerical of composite bridges was performed, concluding that
procedure, (Manfredi ., 1999), analytical and experimental
et al damage in bridges may be reflected in the changes of
procedures. (Barker et, 2000), (Fabbrocino
al. .,et al natural frequencies or modes of natural vibration. (Fryba
2000) and (Fabbrocino ., 2002). The three-dimensional
et al and Pirner, 2001) A damage-estimation method using
finite element model was used to investigate composite ambient vibration data caused by traffic loadings was
beams in combined bending and shear accounting for presented, identifying operational modal properties,
geometric and material nonlinearity (Liang ., 2004).
et al assessment of damage locations, and severities by
The slip effect with negative bending was also investigated performing an experimental study on bridge model
(Nie et ., 2004). Studies were also performed for
al subjected to vehicle loadings measuring vertical accelerations
longitudinal prestress in continuous composite bridges to while vehicles are running (Yun et al., 2002). The dynamic
estimate their behavior in the elastic and plastic range impact factors for straight composite concrete deck-steel
(Shim and Chang, 2003), (Ryu ., 2004), (Ryu and
et al girder cellular bridges under AASHTO truck loading was
Chang, 2005) and (Shiming, 2005). determined using three-dimensional finite-element models,
ABAQUS software, finding that the truck speed affects
2.6. The long-term behavior of composite steel- the impact factor of straight bridges. (Zhang , 2003)
et al.

concrete bridge A finite-element formulation for free-vibration analysis of


The long-term behavior of the concrete deck slab was horizontally curved steel I-girder bridges, including warping
investigated with an aim to understand the full behavior of degree of freedom, was presented. A computer program
the composite steel-concrete bridge system. The transverse using FORTRAN77 language was developed, comparable
cracking in concrete slabs was studied by in-situ with ABAQUS software and applied to investigate the
measurements, laboratory tests and numerical simulations, free vibration characteristics of bridges (Yoon et., al

establishing criteria based on restraint coefficient showing 2005). A finite-element model was used for damage
the most critical tensile stresses and the effects of casting detection and long-term health monitoring through the
sequence (Lebet and Ducret, 1998). The creep and shrinkage measurement of ambient vibration for the Qingzhou
effects for composite box girder bridge with sequencing cable-stayed bridge over the Ming River (Ren and Peng,
were investigated by developing a numerical model that 2005).
adopted the layer approach, as well as through experiments
and field examinations for actual bridges under construction. 3. Composite Bridges Component
The ultimate shrinkage strain recommended in specifications Connections
significantly differs from actual drying shrinkage rate.
The effect of drying shrinkage in terms of ultimate Nowadays, different types of shear connectors are
shrinkage strain is more important than concrete casting available, such as (1) stud connectors; (2) channel
sequences based on the ACI Code. (Kwak , 2000a),
et al. connectors; (3) angle connectors; (4) spiral connectors;
(Kwak ., 2000b) and (Kwak and Seo, 2000) The
et al (5) tendon (or bent-up bar types) connectors; (6)
open-grid lightweight deck was investigated, with the aim perfobond connectors; and (7) T-shape connectors, Fig. 5-
to improve design methods through experimental testing 8. Generally, connectors are classified as either rigid or
and numerical and analytical means (Huang , 2002).
et al. flexible, depending on the distribution of shear forces and
The steel-concrete composite beams time-dependent analysis functions between strength and deformations. Most codes
under service conditions was investigated adopting a consider the stud and channel shear connector types in
beam model that accounted for slippage at deck-girder design simplification, such as Chinese Code (GBJ 1988),
interface and for time-dependent behavior of concrete AISC Specification, and AASHTO-LRFD. (Chinese code,
(Jurkiewiez ., 2005).
et al GBJ., 1988), (AISC specification, 2005) and (AASHTO,
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 397

of shear connectors, mechanism of failure and basic criteria


used to define shear connector strength was investigated
by analyzing the expressions and recommendations given
by Eurocode 4, given as a commentary on strength of
shear connectors in composite beams (Rankovi and
Dreni, 2002).
3.1. The effect of shear connector ductility on
composite bridges
The provision of adequate shear connection between
tension and compression-resisting components of composite
flexural members is essential to ensure the robust performance
of such structural members under load. Ductility requirements
were investigated defining ductility in terms of the behavior
of composite cross-sections in consideration of connection
performance suggesting ductility improvement (Patrick
Figure 5.Structures of stud, channel, spiral and angle and Bridge, 1988). The moment-curvature relationships
shear connectors (Salmon and Johanson, 1990). derived were ductile (strain-hardening) or non-ductile
(strain-softening). Geometric properties and limitations of
continuous composite beam were investigated to ensure
sufficient ductility for the development of a plastic design
mechanism of collapse before local and lateral buckling
of steel or compressive failure of concrete. (Kemp, 1988)
Figure 6.Structures of steel tendon, and steel mould Tests on cold-formed beams, joints and frames, with
shear connectors (Chinese code GBJ17-88, 1988). finite-element analyses were carried out, concluding that
cold-formed components can be used in plastic design, as
they meet the requirements of some connections, especially
with their high ductility and capacity. (Wilkinson, 1999)
and (Hanaor, 2000) Finite-element analyses of composite
Structures of steel tendon and steel mould shear beam connected to a concrete slab used to show that the
required level of connection ductility is parasitic on
Figure 7.

connectors types.
compliance of the connections. (Sebastian, 2003) Magnitudes
of the affecting maximum slip requirement was identified
suggesting an assessment method with general applications,
enables assessing connection efficiency to the bending
collapse of composite beams as a useful guide at the initial
stage of structure design as no demanding sophisticated
analysis is required (Bullo and Marco, 2004).
3.2. Effect of shear connectors in partial interaction
The connection largely influences the global behavior
Stud, perfobond, and t-shape shear connectors of composite bridges and its modeling was a key issue in
the analysis of such types of structures. The effect of
Figure 8.

types. (Valente and Cruz, 2004).


partial restraints on the response of composite beam was
investigated with deformable shear connectors using
1994) Shear connectors are important and their details distributed spring, accounting for the shear deformation
were investigated and developed through different using displacement- and force-based elements and in
research studies conducted to fully understand the consideration of bond-slip between element components.
behavior of bridges under different types of loads, dead (Salari et al., 1998) and (Salari and Spacone, 2001) The
load and live load, which necessitate the development of load-slip behavior and shear capacity of composite beam
different shear connector types. (Zellner, 1988) A new stud obtained from experimental push-off tests were
phenomenological law for the shear connection between simulated using the finite-element model. (Lam and El-
steel girder and concrete slab that considers stiffness and Lobody, 2002) The maximum deflection with partial shear
strength degradation, and a correlation study with available interaction was calculated suggesting a procedure to
push-pull tests on shear connectors were performed to obtain the stiffness value of shear connectors. (Wang,
validate the model, applying the steel-concrete composite 1998) A structural behavior reliable analysis of composite
frame element (Salari and Spacone, 2001). The strength beams subjected to sagging moment due to short-term
398 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

loads was performed using a numerical procedure introducing


an explicit relationship between slip and interaction force
given by each connector. (Fabbrocino ., 1999) A
et al

specialized stub element with empirical nonlinear shear


force-slip relationships was used at the concrete slab-steel
beam interface to permit nonlinear finite-element modeling
of either full or partial shear connector action. (Sebastian
and McConnel, 2000) The finite-element model with flexible
shear connection was also presented using displacement
field with the exact solution of Newmarks differential
equation employing only one element per member,
establishing the criterion for partial interaction effects.
(Faella et al., 2002) A procedure to predict the partial-
interaction strain distribution from standard full-
interaction analyses using a magnification factor was
suggested for the investigation of the effect of partial- Figure 9. The alternate shear connector (Klaiber ., 2000).
et al

interaction endurance. (Seracino , 2001) and (Seracino


et al.

et al., 2004) The experimental and analytical studies to


simulate partial-interaction behavior using push-out results
for steel-concrete composite members was presented
performing nonlinear structural analysis predicting partial-
interaction behavior of composite members. (Jeong .,
et al

2005).
3.3. Fatigue and cyclic load effects on shear connectors

The fatigue and cyclic load has also affected the behavior
of composite steel-concrete bridges by affecting shear on
shear connectors. The behavior of shear connectors under
fatigue and cyclic load was investigated suggesting a fatigue
procedure, which allowed the estimation of strength
reduction of stud shear connectors. (Oehlers, 1995) and Figure 10. Unfilled grid deck composite with reinforced-
(Oehlers ., 2000) Direct shear test was used simulating concrete slab using alternative shear connectors (Higgins
et al
and Mitchell, 2001).
the actual behavior of studs under reverse cyclic loading.
The load-induced fatigue of welded bridges components
due to primary stress should be considered. (Gattesco and 2000) Static and fatigue tests were also performed on
Giuriani, 1996) and (Nishikawa et al., 1998). The reliability composite bridge decks with alternative shear connectors
of stud connectors design for fatigue was inconsistent as consisted of concrete-filled holes located in the webs of
real stress ranges were less than those calculated in design. grid main bars and friction along the web embedded in
(Johnson, 2000) Analytical and experimental studies for the slab, Fig. 10. It was determined that the shear
the design of shear connection in a precast deck system connection location and not the control fatigue behavior
were performed investigating the characteristics of shear of deck was involved in positive bending, and no fatigue
connection and fatigue endurance through push tests cracking of steel grid was observed in negative bending
estimating bridge behavior using finite-element analysis. (Higgins and Mitchell, 2001).
(Shim et al., 2001) Fatigue tests conducted on full-scale The development and implementation of large stud
slender plate-girders showed that the levels of minimum diameters were presented, which increased the speed of
and maximum load used during fatigue testing, weld quality, bridge construction and future deck replacement, and
shape and magnitude of the initial imperfections, etc., reduced the vulnerability to damage of studs and girder
have a large influence on fatigue performance (Crocetti, top flange during deck removal. The studs can also be
2003). placed in one row only, over the web centerline, freeing
up most of the top flange width and improving safety
3.4. New innovative connectors conditions for field workers. (Badie ., 2002), (Shim
et al

An alternate shear connector (AS), shown in Fig. 9, et al., 2004) and (Lee ., 2005) Results of push tests
et al

was developed subjected to static and cyclic loading in with new types of shear connectors, namely Perfobond
both push-out specimens and composite beam tests, connectors were presented obtaining the load capacity of
determining the fatigue strength of ASC. The ASC was new shear connectors. It also helped describe the connection
effective in creating full composite action during service behavior used for shear connection in steel-concrete
load tests, and no bond failure appeared. (Klaiber .,
et al composite bridge. (Studnicka ., 2000), (Valente and
et al
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 399

Cruz, 2004) and (Kim and Jeong, 2005) Horizontal shear


connectors without welding were studied through a steel-
concrete composite beam static bending test, which showed
behavior similar to steel-concrete composite beams with
classical connectors, great ductility, flexural failure mode
(plastic hinge), and low relative movements at steel-concrete
interface (Jurkiewiez and Hottier, 2005).

4. Reliability and Life Cycle of Composite


Bridges
Figure 11. Bridge girder consisting of steel tube filled

The reliability and life cycle of composite bridge designed with reinforced concrete (Mossahebi et al., 2005).

by AASHTOs (LFD) method and LRFD method for


conditions of maximum design load, overloading, and fatigue
load, the ultimate flexural capacity limit state was measured methods to calculate the bending and shear strength of
in terms of reliability index, using Monte Carlo simulations. encased composite girders. (Nakamura and Narita, 2003)
The value of the reliability index was a function of An experimental investigation into the behavior of steel
compactness classification, method of design, beam spacing, tube filled with reinforced concrete bridge girder made
span length, and section size. (Tabsh, 1996) The reliability composite with an overlying concrete deck, Fig. 11, were
index of steel girder highway bridges designed by AASHTO conducted, providing information for the assessment of
(LRFD) strength limit state was examined based on the various erection scenarios. A moment curvature analysis
stochastic finite-element method (SFEM), modeling bridges was used to predict the ultimate capacity of the system.
as a grillage beam systems including basic design variables (Mossahebi et , 2005) The concept of voided slab
al.

such as sectional properties and various dead and live (hollow core slab) in conjunction with steel beam to form
loads. (Liu, 2002) Frangopol and his co-workers performed a type of composite beam or flooring system to be used
a series of investigations on the reliability of bridges in multistory buildings were established through a series
considering life cycles and maintenance effects on the of studies presented using finite-element modeling, ABAQUS
total life cost of bridges, investigating and estimating the software, with experiments using precast hollow-core floor
reliability of highway bridges using different models. slabs, modeling the headed stud shear connectors. The
(Enright and Frangopol, 1999) The cost-benefit analysis advantages of using such types of structure with shear
of reliability-based bridge management decision was studs, such as in terms of shorter construction duration,
investigated, which was considered as a guide in determining were also discussed along with a presentation of related
the optimum strategy in the face of uncertainties and experiments. (Lam ., 2000), (Lam, 2002), (Lam and
et al

fiscal constraints, identifying the optimum maintenance Uy, 2003) and (Lam, 2005).
scenario using a computer program called Life-Cycle
Analysis of Deteriorating Structures (LCADS), which 6. Development of New Structural Materials
considered the effect of maintenance interventions. It also Used in Composite Bridges
identified the maintenance strategy that best balances cost
and reliability index profile over a specified time horizon. The development of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
(Frangopol et al ., 2001) (Kong and Frangopol, 2003) A material and their usage as a structural member in bridge
relationship between maintenance intervention cost and construction as lighter, more durable alternatives to steel
effect of intervention on system reliability was also predicted. and concrete was also investigated using the finite-element
(Kong and Frangopol, 2004) Variability and sensitivity model, examining the bifurcation buckling problem with
analyses were used to investigate the characteristics of various loading and boundary conditions. (Lin ., 1996) et al

input random variables (Kong and Frangopol, 2005). The analysis and design of FRP composite deck-and-
stringer bridges was presented, developing a simplified
5. Establishing New Steel-Concrete Bridge design analysis procedure based on first-order shear
Systems Forms deformation macro-flexibility SDMF orthotropic plate
solution. (Salim ., 1997) A combined analytical and
et al

New structural forms of composite steel-concrete bridges experimental study of cellular box decks and wide-flange
were invented and suggested to be used in the last decades. I-beam stringer FRP composite bridges was presented
Such composite bridges were used in Japan, using concrete- including the design, modeling and experimental and
filled pipes or rolled H-girders that have high strength and numerical verification, predicting efficient FRP sections
ductility, whereas filled concrete restricts local buckling of and simplified design equations for new and replacement
steel plates. (Nakamura et al., 2002) Partially encased highway bridge system. (Brown, 1998) A study including
composite I-girder bridges were also investigated by testing and analysis of pultruded, hybrid double-web
performing bending and shear tests using analytical beam (DWB) developed for use in bridge construction,
400 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

Figure 12. The GFRP bridge system: (a) the bridge, (b)
cross-section geometry of GFRP panel (Wan ., 2005).
et al

determining the bending modulus, shear stiffness, failure


mode and ultimate capacity. (Schniepp, 2002) Developments
were also presented, emphasizing the aspects of transition,
critical advantages offered by inherent anisotropy of
composites, and efficient designs for such new materials.
(Karbhari, 2004) The fatigue and strength for experimental
qualifications were performed for FRP composite bridge Figure 13. Types of shear connectors proposed for
deck, using hollow glass and carbon FRP tubes. (Kumar investigation.
et al., 2004) The bi-directional plate-bending behavior of
a pultruded glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) bridge the results derived from experiments, establishing a finite
deck system with orthotropic material and system properties element model predict the behavior of the structure and
was investigated by full-scale experiments and numerical for the design of similar structures (Giannopoulos .,
et al

modeling. (Keller and Schollmayer, 2004) The structural 2003).


behaviors of the GFRP bridge deck system is shown in
Fig. 12 and was also investigated, as well as the development 7. Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-
of finite-element models using ANSYS 7.0 software. The Concrete Composite Bridges
collected field measurements and laboratory tests concluded
that girder spacing plays a key role in deck performance, 7.1. Development of new shear connectors
and that the composite structure can sustain higher loads With the aim to enhance the composite performance of
than the non-composite structure with identical girders, steel-concrete composite bridges, we intend to investigate
and the non-composite structure showed more efficient new types of connectors with precast hollow core slab
distribution of deformations on the deck (Wan et .,
al deck as part of our PhD research in Tongji University,
2005). Shanghai, China. The new shapes of perfobond shear
New materials such as Inorganic Phosphate Cement connectors depending on the analysis of horizontal shear
(IPC) are also used in the construction of composite bridges affects the interface between steel and concrete, and the
and were presented through an investigation performed shape of failure of stud connectors. It is assumed that to
on the applicability of such materials in construction and improve the interaction between the steel girder and the
the usefulness of such materials in creating a new hybrid concrete slab of composite steel-concrete bridges, three
bridge system. The finite-element method was used in the shapes of perfobond shear connectors are suggested for
design process of a modular composite bridge made of investigation, shown in Fig. 13, namely: (1) allows for
Inorganic Phosphate Cement (IPC) sandwich panels, with more main and secondary transverse reinforcement to be
the connections designed with an aim to control the passed through the holes of the connectors without
distribution of stresses in the panels. The conclusion bending, with the top hole distance not greater than the
showed that the result of the design was satisfactory and concrete cover; (2) produces better interaction between
could be the basis for the future realization of a prototype concrete and connectors by increasing the length of
bridge. (Roover et al ., 2002) The design and the joining interaction, and increasing the area of concrete inside the
procedure of pedestrian bridges made of IPC sandwich connector; (3) the direction of inclined strips suggesting
panels were also investigated by means of analytical and better resistance to horizontal shear force considered to
numerical tools, showing that in spite of the low stiffness affect on connectors. Experimental investigation will be
of the glass fiber-reinforced IPC, the use of IPC still led performed using push-out tests to produce the resistance
to realistic dimensions of the bridge structure (Roover et capacity of connectors and bond between connector and
al., 2003). An investigation on the development of IPC slab. Theoretical investigation will conducted by establishing
for the construction of pedestrian bridges was also a model for the tested specimens using suitable finite-
presented, evaluating the numerical modeling and using element software (such as ANSYS); experimental results
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 401

slab deck in conjunction with the new shapes of connectors


suggested above, both with simple and fixed support
conditions. Experiments are supposed to include casting a
bridge prototype in the laboratory and testing to failure,
followed by theoretical works including establishing a
model of the tested prototype using suitable finite-element
software (such as ANSYS), verifying by experiments,
and extending it to be used to study the effect of connection
behavior, effective slab width, transverse reinforcement,
slab geometries, and the reliability of the suggested section
and their effect on the construction process.

References
AASHTO, (1994) AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Specification.
Washington DC: American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials, Inc, USA.
ACI Committee 318; (1999), Building Code Requirements
for Structural Concrete (318-99) and Commentary (318R-
99), Farmington Hill, Michigan.
Adeli, H. and Zhang, J.; (1995), Fully Nonlinear Analysis Of
Composite Girder Cable-Stayed Bridges, Journal of
Computers and Structures,Vol. 54, No. 2. pp. 267-277.
Ahn, I. S., Chiewanichakorn, M., Chen, S. S., and Aref, A.
J.; (2004), Effective flange width provisions for
composite steel bridges, Journal of Engineering
Structures, Vol. 26, pp. 1843-1851.
AISC Commentary; (2005), COMMENTARY on the
Figure 14. Composite steel beam with precast hollow Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC
core floor slabs. 360-05, American Institute Of Steel Construction, Inc,
USA.
AISC Specification; (2005), Specification for Structural
will be verified; and the work using the verified finite- Steel Buildings, ANSI/AISC 360-05, American Institute
element model will be extended to study the factors Of Steel Construction, Inc., One East Wacker Drive, Suite
affecting connection behavior and interaction between 700, Chicago, Illinois 60601-1802, USA.
concrete slab and steel girder, and using a suitable AISC; (1994), Manual of Steel Construction, LRFD. Volume
statistical method to predict an expression that cover the I, Structural member, Specifications, and Codes, Volume
II, Connections, 2nd Ed., American Institute of Steel
strength of the new shapes of shear connectors. Construction, Inc., USA.
Alenius, M.; (2003), Finite Element Modeling of Composite
7.2. Using a hollow core slab deck in composite steel- Bridge Stability, M.Sc. Thesis, Royal Institute of
concrete bridges Technology Department of Mechanics, Stockholm.
As previously mentioned, the hollow core reinforced Amadio, C., Fedrigo, C., Fragiacomo, M., and Macorini, L.;
concrete slab was tested and used in the composite beam (2004), Experimental evaluation of effective width in
of a multistory building, while the use of such types of steel-concrete composite beams, Journal of Constructional
slabs in composite steel-concrete bridges is still not Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. 199-220.
widespread. The use of hollow core slab, shown in Fig. ANSI/AISC 360-05, An American National Standard;
(14), is assumed to produce several advantages, such as: (2005), Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,
(1) reduces the weight of concrete (smaller dead load); American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
(2) establishes more economical bridges by reducing the Ansourian, P.; (1988), Rational Design of Composite
quantities of required concrete; (3) reduces the creep and Bridges, Proceeding of an Engineering Foundation
shrinkage's effects of the concrete slab; (4) uses precast Conference, ASCE, New York, pp. 214-225.
Ayoub, A., and Filippou, F. C.; (2000), Mixed Formulation
units connected together at site reduces the erection time. Of Nonlinear Steel-Concrete Composite Beam Element,
Connecting such precast units with the steel beam is a Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 3,
complex task, as it involves several factors such as types March, pp. 371-381.
of connectors, support conditions, availability of extra Badie, S. S., Tadros, M. K., Kakish, H. F., Splittgerber, D.
reinforcement, and it uses a cast in placement slab, and L., and Baishya, M. C.; (2002), Large Shear Studs for
grouting materials. An experimental and theoretical Composite Action in Steel Bridge Girders, Journal of
investigation is proposed to be conducted on hollow core Bridge Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 195-203.
402 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

Bakht, B, and Jaeger, L. G.; (1992), Ultimate load test of Chen, W. F., and Duan, L.; (2000), Bridge Engineering
slab-on-girder bridge, ASCE Journal of Structural Handbook, CRC Press, Washington, D.C, USA.
Engineering, Vol. 118, No. 6, pp. 1608-1632. Chiewanichakorn, M., Ahn, I. S., Aref, A. J., and Chen, S.
Barefoot, J. B., Barton, F. W., Baber, T. T., and McKeel, W. S.; (2004a), The development of Revised Effective Slab
T.; (1997), Development Of Finite Element Models To Width Criteria for Steel-Concrete Composite Bridge
Predict Dynamic Bridge Response, Final report, A Girder, ASCE/SEI Structures Congress-submission no.
Cooperative Organization Sponsored Jointly by the 208.
Virginia Department of Transportation and the University Chiewanichakorn, M., Aref, A. J., Chen, S. S., and Ahn, I.
of Virginia. Charlottesville Virginia, VTRC 98-R8. S., (2004b), Effective Flange Width Definition for Steel-
Barker, M. G., Bergson, P. M., French, C. E., Leon, R. T., Concrete Composite Bridge Girder, Journal of Structural
Galambos, T. V., and Klaiber, F. W.; (1996), Shake Down Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 12, pp. 2016-2061.
Tests of One-Third-Scale Composite Bridge, Journal of Chung, W., and Sotelino, E. D.; (2005), Nonlinear Finite-
Bridge Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, February, 1996, pp. 2- Element Analysis of Composite Steel Girder Bridges,
9. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 2,
Barker, M. G., Hartnagel, B. A., Schilling, C. G., and February, pp. 304-313.
Dishongh, B. E.; (2000), Simplified Inelastic Design of Collin. P., and Lundmark, T.; (2002), Competitive Swedish
Steel Girder Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. Composite Bridges, IABSE Symposium Melbourne.
5, No. 1, February, 2000, pp. 58-66. Combault, J., and Teyssandier, J. P.; (2005), The Rion-
Barker, M. G.; (1999), Steel girder bridge field test Antirion Bridge Concept, Design and Construction,
procedures, Journal of Construction and Building ASCEstructures. http://www.ascelibrary.org.
Materials, Vol. 13, pp. 229-239. Crocetti, R.; (2003), Web breathing of full-scale slender I-
Barth, K. E.; (1998), Finite element evaluation of pier girders subjected to combined action of bending and
moment-rotation characteristics in continuous-span steel I shear, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59,
Girders, Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, No. pp. 271-290.
8, pp. 761-778. DallAsta,A., and Zona,A.;(2002),Non-linear analysis of
Batista, E. M., and Ghavami, K.; (2005), Development of composite beams by a displacement approach, Journal of
Brazilian steel construction, Journal of Constructional Computers and Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 2217-2228.
Steel Research, Vol. 61, pp. 1009-1024. DallAsta, A., and Zona, A.; (2004), Comparison and
Beckett, D.; (1973), Concrete Bridges, Surrey University validation of displacement and mixed elements for the
Press, Oxfordshire. non-linear analysis of continuous composite beams,
Betti, R., and Gjelsvik, A.; (1996), Elastic Composite Journal of Computers and Structures, Vol. 82, pp. 2117-
Beams, Journal of Computers & Structures, Vol. 59, No. 2130. dot.state.mn.us/metro/projects/.../pdfs/Final100-1-
3. pp. 437-451. 4-04lowrescov.pdf
Bindra, S. P.; (1979), Principles And Practice Of Bridge Eamon, C. D., and Nowak, A. S.; (2004), Effect of
Engineering, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delhi. secondary elements on bridge structural system reliability
Bradford, M. A., Uy, B. and Pi, Y. L.; (2001), Behaviour of considering moment capacity, Journal of Structural
unpropped composite girders curved in plan under Safety, Vol. 26, pp. 29-47.
construction loading, Journal of Engineering Structures, Eamon, C. D., and Nowak, A. S.; (2005), Effect of Edge
Vol. 23, pp. 779-789. Stiffening and Diaphragms on the Reliability of Bridge
Brown, B. J.; (1998), Design Analysis Of Single-Span Girders, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2,
Advanced Composite Deck-And-Stringer Bridge March, pp. 206-214.
Systems, M.Sc. Thesis, West Virginia University, College Earls, C. J., and Shah, B. J.; (2002), High performance steel
of Engineering and Mineral Resources, Civil and bridge girder compactness, Journal of Constructional
Environmental Engineering, Morgantown, West Virginia. Steel Research, Vol. 58, pp. 859-880.
Brozzetti, J.; (2000), Design development of steel-concrete Ebeido, T. and Kennedy, J.B.; (1996), Girder Moments in
composite bridges in France, Journal of Constructional Continuous Skew Composite Bridges, Journal of Bridge
Steel Research, Vol. 55, pp. 229-243. Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 37-45.
Buckner, C. D., and Viest, I. M.; (1988), Composite El-Arabaty, H. A., Klaiber, F. W., Fanous, F. S. and Wipf, T.
Construction in teel and Concrete, Proceeding of an J.; (1996), Design Methodology for Strengthening of
Engineering Foundation Conference, Structural Division Continuous-Span Composite Bridges, Journal of Bridge
of the American Society of Civil Engineers, American Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 104-111.
Society of Civil Engineers, New York. El-Tawil, S. and Okeil, A. M.; (2002), Behavior And Design
Bullo, S. and Marco, R. D.; (2004), A simplified method for Of Curved Composite Box Girder Bridges, Final Report,
assessing the ductile behaviour of stud connectors in epartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
composite beams with high strength concrete slab, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450.
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. Enright, M. P., and Frangopol, D. M.; (1999) Reliability-
1387-1408. based condition assessment of deteriorating concrete
Cai, C. S., Zhang, Y., and Nie, J.; (1998), Composite Girder bridges considering load redistribution, Journal of
Design of Cable Stayed Bridges, Practice Periodical on Structural Safety, Vol. 21, pp. 159-195.
Structural Design and Construction, Vol. 3, No. 4, Fabbrocino, G., Manfredi, G., and Cosenza, E.; (2000),
November, pp. 158-163. Analysis Of Continuous Composite Beams Including
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 403

Partial Interaction And Bond, Journal of Structural ASCE, New York, pp. 194-206.
Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 11, pp. 1288-1294. Higgins, C., and Mitchell, H.; (2001), Behavior Of
Fabbrocino, G., Manfredi, G., and Cosenza, E.; (1999), Non- Composite Bridge Decks With Alternative Shear
linear analysis of composite beams under positive Connectors, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 1,
bending, Journal of Computers and Structures, Vol. 70, January/February, 2001, pp. 17-22.
pp. 77-89. Huang, H., Chajes, M. J., Mertz, D. R., Shenton, H. W., and
Fabbrocino, G., Manfredi, G., and Cosenza, E.; (2002), Kaliakin, V. N.; (2002), Behavior of open steel grid decks
Modelling of continuous steel-concrete composite beams: for bridges, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,
computational aspects, Journal of Computers and Vol. 58, pp. 819-842.
Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 2241-2251. Jeong, Y. J., Kim, H. Y., and Kim, S. H.; (2005), Partial-
Faella, C., Martinelli, E., and Nigro, E.; (2002), Steel and interaction analysis with push-out tests, Journal of
concrete composite beams with flexible shear connection: Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 61, pp. 1318-1331.
exact analytical expression of the stiffness matrix and Johnson R. P.; (1975), Composite Structures of Steel and
applications, Journal of Computers and Structures, Vol. Concrete. Volume 1, Applications in Buildings. London.
80, pp. 1001-1009. Johnson, R. P.; (2000), Resistance of stud shear connectors
FHWA/NHI; (2003), LRFD Design Example for Steel to fatigue, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 56,
Girder Superstructure Bridge, FHWA/ National Highway pp. 101-116.
Institute-04-042, Washington, DC, USA. Jurkiewiez, B., and Hottier, J. M.; (2005), Static behaviour
Fragiacomo, M., Amadio, C., and Macorini, L.; (2004), of a steel-concrete composite beam with an innovative
Finite-Element Model for Collapse and Long-Term horizontal connection, Journal of Constructional Steel
Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams, Journal of Research, Vol. 61, pp. 1286-1300.
Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 3, March, pp. 489- Jurkiewiez, B., Buzon, S., and Sieffert, J. G.; (2005),
497. Incremental viscoelastic analysis of composite beams
Frangopol, D. M., Kong, J.S. and Gharaibeh, E.S.; (2001), with partial interaction, Journal of Computers and
Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Management Of Highway Structures, Vol. 83, pp. 1780-1791.
Bridges, Journal of Computing In Civil Engineering, Karbhari, V. M.; (2004), Fiber reinforced composite bridge
January 2001, pp. 27-34. systems-transition from the laboratory to the field,
Fry'ba, L., and Pirner, M.; (2001), Load tests and modal Journal of Composite Structures, Vol. 66, pp. 5-16.
analysis of bridges, Journal of Engineering Structures, Keller, T., and Schollmayer, M.; (2004), Plate bending
Vol. 23, pp. 102-109. behavior of a pultruded GFRP bridge deck system,
Fu, K.C., ASCE, F. and Lu, F.(2003), Nonlinear Finite- Journal of Composite Structures, Vol. 64, pp. 285-295.
Element Analysis for Highway Bridge Superstructures, Kemp, A. R.; (1988), Quantifying Ductility in Continuous
Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3, May 1, pp. Composite Beams, Proceeding of an Engineering
173-179 Foundation Conference, ASCE, NewYork, pp. 107-121.
Galambos, T.V.; (2000), Recent research and design Kim, H. Y., Jeong, Y. J.; (2006), Experimental investigation
developments in steel and composite steel-concrete on behaviour of steel-concrete composite bridge decks
structures in USA, Journal of Constructional Steel with perfobond ribs, Journal of Constructional Steel
Research, Vol. 55, pp. 289-303. Research, Vol. 62, pp. 463-471.
Galuta, E. M. and Cheung, M. S.; (1995), Combined Klaiber, F. W., Wipf, T. J., Nauman, J. C., and Siow, J. C.;
Boundary Element And Finite Element Analysis Of (2000), Investigation of Two Bridge Alternatives for Low
Composite Box Girder Bridges, Journal of Computers Volume Roads-Phase II Volume 2, Concept 2: Beam In
and Structures Vol. 57, No. 3. pp. 427-437. Slab Bridge, Final report, Iowa state university of science
Gattesco, N., and Giuriani, E.; (1996), Experimental Study and technology, Department of Civil and Construction
on Stud Shear Connectors Subjected to Cyclic Loading, Engineering, Ames.
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 38, No. 1, Kong, J. S., and Frangopol, D. M.; (2003), Life-Cycle
pp. 1-21. Reliability-Based Maintenance Cost Optimization of
GBJ.; (1988), Code for Design of Steel Structures, National Deteriorating Structures with Emphasis on Bridges,
Standard of the People's Republic of China, GBJ 17-88, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 6, pp.
Beijing, China. 818-828.
Giannopoulos, G., Vantomme , J., Wastiels , J., and Taerwe, Kong, J. S., and Frangopol, D. M.; (2004), Cost-Reliability
L.; (2003), Numerical analysis and experimental Interaction in Life-Cycle Cost Optimization of Deteriorating
validation for static loads of a composite bridge structure, Structures, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 130,
Journal of Composite Structures, Vol. 62, pp. 235-243. No. 11, 2004, pp. 1704-1712.
Haensel, J.; (1998), Composite Bridge Design: The Kong, J. S., and Frangopol, D. M.; (2005), Sensitivity
Reanimation of Steel Bridge Construction, Journal of Analysis in Reliability-Based Lifetime Performance
Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 46, 1-3, pp. 54-55. Prediction Using Simulation, Journal of Materials in Civil
Hanaor, A.; (2000), Tests of composite beams with cold- Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 296-306.
formed sections, Journal of Constructional Steel Kumar, P., Chandrashekhara, K., and Nanni, A.; (2004),
Research, Vol. 54, pp. 245-264. Structural performance of a FRP bridge deck, Journal of
Hayward, A.; (1988), Cheaper Composite Bridges, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 18, pp. 35-47.
Proceeding of an Engineering Foundation Conference, Kwak, H. G., and Seo, Y. J.; (2000), Long-term behavior of
404 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

composite girder bridges, Journal of Computers and C. P. E.; (1997), Finite Element Analysis of Steel Girder
Structures, Vol. 74, pp. 583-599. Highway Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 2,
Kwak, H. G., Seo, Y. J., and Jung, C. M.; (2000a), Effects of No. 3, pp. 83-87.
the slab casting sequences and the drying shrinkage of Manfredi, G., Fabbrocino, G., and Cosenza, E.; (1999),
concrete slabs on the short-term and long-term behavior Modeling Of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams Under
of composite steel box girder bridges. Part 1, Journal of Negative Bending, Journal of Engineering Mechanics,
Engineering Structures, Vol. 23, pp. 1453-1466. Vol. 125, No. 6, June, pp. 654-662.
Kwak, H. G., Seo, Y. J., and Jung, C. M.; (2000b), Effects of McCormac, J. C.; (1989), Structural Steel Design: LRFD,
the slab casting sequences and the drying shrinkage of Harper & Row Publisher, New York.
concrete slabs on the short-term and long-term behavior Menkulasi, F.; (2002), Horizontal Shear Connectors For
of composite steel box girder bridges. Part 2, Journal of Precast Prestressed Bridge Deck Panels, M.Sc. Thesis,
Engineering Structures, Vol. 23, pp. 1467-1480. Civil engineering department, Virginia Polytechnic
Lne, A., Lebet, J. P.; (2005), Available Rotation Capacity Institute and State University, pp. 138.
Of Composite Bridge Plate Girders Under Negative Mossahebi, N., Yakel, A., and Azizinamini, A.; (2005),
Moment And Shear, Journal of Constructional Steel Experimental investigation of a bridge girder made of
Research, Vol. 61, pp. 305-327. steel tube filled with concrete, Journal of Constructional
Lam, D., and El-Lobody, E.; (2002), Behavior of Headed Steel Research, Vol. 61, pp. 371-386.
Stud Shear Connectors in Composite Beam, Journal of Nakamura, S.; (1998), Design Strategy to Make Steel
Structural Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 1, January 1, pp. Bridges More Economical, Journal of Constructional
96-107. Steel Research, Vol. 46, Nos. l-3, paper no. 48.
Lam, D., and Uy, B.; (2003), Recent Research And Nakamura, S. I., Momiyama, Y., Hosaka, T., and Homma,
Development In Composite Steel Beams With Precast K.; (2002), New technologies of steel/concrete composite
Hollow Core Slabs, Journal of The Australian Steel bridges, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.
Institute, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 1-14. 58, pp. 99-130.
Lam, D., Elliott, K. S., Nethercot, D. A.; (2000), Parametric Nakamura, S. I., Narita, N.; (2003), Bending and shear
Study On Composite Steel Beams With Precast Concrete strengths of partially encased composite I-girders, Journal
Hollow Core Floor Slabs, Journal of Constructional Steel of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, pp. 1435-1453.
Research, Vol. 54, pp. 283-304. Nie, J., and Cai, C. S.; (2003), Steel-Concrete Composite
Lam, D.; (2002), Composite Steel Beams With Precast Beams Considering Shear Slip Effects, Journal of
Hollow Core Slabs: Behaviour And Design, Prog. Struct. Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 4, April 1, pp. 495-
Engng Mater., 4: pp. 179-185. 506.
Lam, D.; (2005), Developments in steel composite construction Nie, J., Cai, C.S., and Wang, T.; (2005), Stiffness and
with precast hollow core slabs, The Structural Engineer, capacity of steel-concrete composite beams with profiled
pp. 13-14. sheeting, Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 27, pp.
Lebet, J. P., and Ducret, J. M.; (1998), Experimental and 1074-1085.
Theoretical Study of the Behaviour of Composite Bridges Nie, J., Fan, J., and Cai, C.S.; (2004), Stiffness and
During Construction, Journal of Constructional Steel Deflection of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams under
Research, Vol. 46, No. 1-3, pp. 69-70. Negative Bending, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.
Lee, J.; (2005), Flexural analysis of thin-walled composite 130, No. 11, November 1, pp. 1842-1851.
beams using shear-deformable beam theory, Journal of Nie, J., Xiao, Y., and Chen, L.; (2004), Experimental Studies
Composite Structures,Vol. 70, pp. 212-222. on Shear Strength of Steel-Concrete Composite Beams,
Lee, P. G., Shimb, C. S., and Chang, S. P.; (2005), Static and Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 8,
fatigue behavior of large stud shear connectors for steel- August 1, pp. 1206-1213.
concrete composite bridges, Journal of Constructional Nishikawa, K., Murakoshi, J., and Matsuki, T.;(1998), Study
Steel Research 61, pp. 1270-1285. on the fatigue of steel highway bridges in Japan, Journal
Liang, Q. Q., Uy, B., Bradford, M. A., and Ronagh, H. R; of Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 12, No. 23,
(2005), Strength Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite pp. 133-141.
Beams in Combined Bending and Shear, Journal of Nowak, A. S. and Szerszen, M. M.; (1998), Bridge Load and
Structural Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 10, pp. 1593-1600. Resistance Models, Journal of Engineering Structures,
Liang, Q. Q., Uy, B., Bradford, M. A., and Ronagh, H. R.; Vol. 20, No. 11, pp. 985-990.
(2004) Ultimate strength of continuous composite beams Oehlers, D. J., Nguyen, N. T., Ahmed, M., and Bradford, M.
in combined bending and shear, Journal of Constructional A.; (1997), Partial Interaction in Composite Steel and
Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp.1109-1128 Concrete Beams with Full Shear Connection, Journal of
Lin, Z.M., Polyzois, D., and Shah, A.; (1996), Stability of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 41, No. 2/3, pp. 235-
Thin-walled Pultruded Structural Members by the Finite 248.
Element Method, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. Oehlers, D. J., Seracino, R., and Yeo, M. F.; (2000), Effect
24, pp. 1-18. Of Friction On Shear Connection In Composite Bridge
Liu, C.; (2002), Reliability validation of multigirder Beams, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 2,
steelbridges designed by LRFD, Journal of Computers May, 2000, pp. 91-98.
and Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 2515-2527. Oehlers, D. J.; (1995), Design and Assessment of Shear
Mabsout, M. E., Tarhini, K. M., Frederick, G. R., and Tayar, Connectors in Composite Bridge Beams, Journal of
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 405

Structural Engineering, Vol. 121, No.2, February, 1995, with Deformable Shear Connectors, Journal of Structural
pp. 214-224. Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 10, October, pp. 1148-1158.
Oguejiofor, E. C., and Hosain, M. U.; (1996), Numerical Salim, H. A., Davalos, J. F., Qiao, P. and Kiger, S. A.;
analysis of Push-Out specimens with Perfobond rib (1997), Analysis and design of fiber reinforced plastic
connectors, Journal of Computer and Structure, Vol. composite deck-and-stringer bridges, Journal of Composite
62(4), pp. 617-24. Structures, Vol. 38, No. 1-4, pp. 295-307.
Patrick, M., and Bridge, R. Q.; (1988), Ductility Salmon, C. G., and Johanson, J. E.; (1990), Steel Structures,
Requirements for Composite Members, Proceeding of an Design and Behavior, 3rd Ed, Harper and Row
Engineering Foundation Conference, ASCE, NewYork, Publishers, New York, USA.
pp. 122-137. Samaan, M., Sennah, K., and Kennedy, J. B.; (2002),
Pircher, M., OShea, M. D., and Bridge, R. Q.; (2002), The Distribution of Wheel Loads on Continuous Steel Spread-
influence of the fabrication process on the buckling of Box Girder Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol.
thin-walled steel box sections, Journal of Thin-Walled 7, No. 3, May 1, 2002, pp. 175-183.
Structures, Vol. 40, pp. 109-123. Saul, R.; (1998), Cost and Time Efficient Design and
Rankovi., S., and Dreni., D.; (2002), Static Strength of The Construction of Steel and Steel Composite Bridges,
Shear Connectors In Steel-Concrete Composite Beams- Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 46. Nos. 1-
Regulations And Research Analysis-, Architecture and 3, paper number 43.
Civil Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 251-259. Schniepp, T. J.; (2002), Design Manual Development for a
Reis, A. J., and Pedro, J. J. O.; (2004), The Europe Bridge Hybrid, FRP Double-Web Beam and Characterization of
in Portugal: concept and structural design, Journal of Shear Stiffness in FRP Composite Beams, M.Sc. Thesis,
Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, pp. 363-372. Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Engineering
Ren W. X., Peng X. L; (2005), Baseline finite element Science and Mechanics Department, Blacksburg, Virginia
modeling of a large span cable-stayed bridge through Sebastian, W. M., and McConnel, R. E.; (2000), Nonlinear
field ambient vibration tests, Journal of Computers and FE Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Structures,
Structures, Vol. 83, pp. 536-550. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 6, pp.
Roover, C. D., Vantomme, J., Wastiels, J., Croes , K., 662-674.
Cuypers, H., Taerwe, L., and Blontrock, H.; (2002), Sebastian, W. M.; (2003), Ductility requirements in connections
Modelling of an IPC-concrete modular pedestrian bridge, of composite flexural structures, International Journal of
Journal of Computers and Structures, Vol. 80, pp. 2133- Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 45, pp. 235-251.
2144. Sennah, K. and Kennedy, J. B.; (1999), Simply Supported
Roover, C. D., Vantomme, J., Wastiels, J., Croes , K., Curved Cellular Bridges: Simplified Design Method,
Taerwe, L., and Blontrock, H.; (2003), Modular Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1999, pp.
pedestrian bridge with concrete deck and IPC truss girder, 85-94.
Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 25, pp. 449-459. Sennah, K., Kennedy, J. B., and Nour, S.; (2003) Design for
Rotter, J. M., and Ansourian, P.; (1979), Cross-Sectional Shear in Curved Composite Multiple Steel Box Girder
Behavior and Ductility in Composite Beams, Proc. Inst. Bridges, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 3,
Civ. Engrs., Part 2, Vol. 67, pp. 453-474. 2003, pp. 144-152.
Rotter, J. M., and Ansourian, P.; (1980), Design of Ductile Seracino, R., Oehlers, D. J., and Yeo, M. F.; (2001), Partial-
Steel/Concrete Composite Beams, Civil Engineering interaction flexural stresses in composite steel and
Transaction, I. E., Aust., Vol. CE22, No. 3, pp. 202-208. concrete bridge beams, Journal of Engineering Structures,
Ryall, M. J., Parke, G. A. R., and Harding, J. E.; (2000), Vol. 23, pp. 1186-1193.
Manual of Bridge Engineering. Thomas Telford Seracino, R., Lee, C. T., Lim, T. C., and Lim, J. Y.; (2004)
Publishing, London. Partial interaction stresses in continuous composite beams
Ryu, H. K., and Chang, S. P.; (2005), Ultimate strength of under serviceability loads, Journal of Constructional Steel
continuous composite box-girder bridges with precast Research, Vol. 60, pp. 1525-1543.
decks, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 61, Shim, C. S., and Chang, S. P.; (2003), Cracking of
pp. 329-343. continuous composite beams with precast decks, Journal
Ryu, H. K., Shim, C. S., Chang, S. P., and Chung. C. H.; of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 59, pp. 201-214.
(2004), Inelastic behaviour of externally prestressed Shim, C. S., Lee, P. G., and Yoon, T. Y.; (2004), Static
continuous composite box-girder bridge with prefabricated behavior of large stud shear connectors, Journal of
slabs,Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol. 60, Engineering Structures, Vol. 26, pp. 1853-1860.
pp. 989-1005. Shim, C. S., Lee, P. G. and Chang, S. P.; (2001), Design of
Salari, M. R., and Spacone, E.; (2001), Analysis Of Steel- shear connection in composite steel and concrete bridges
Concrete Composite Frames With Bond-Slip, Journal of with precast decks, Journal of Constructional Steel
Structural Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 11, November, pp. Research 57, pp. 203-219.
1243-1250. Shiming, C.; (2005), Experimental study of prestressed steel-
Salari, M. R., and Spacone, E.; (2001), Finite element concrete composite beams with external tendons for
formulations of one-dimensional elements with bond-slip, negative moments, Journal of Constructional Steel
Journal of Engineering Structures, Vol. 23, pp. 815-826. Research, Vol. 61, pp. 1613-1630.
Salari, M. R., Spacone, E., Shing, P. B., and Frangopol, D. Studnicka, J., Machacek, J., Krpata, A., Svitakova, M.;
M.; (1998), Nonlinear Analysis of Composite Beams (2000), Perforated shear connector for composite steel
406 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

and concrete beams, Proceedings of the Composite GFRP bridge deck systems, Journal of Composite
Construction Conference, Banff, 2000. Structures, 69, pp. 103-115.
Tabsh, S. W.; (1996), Reliability of composite steel bridge Wang, Y. C.; (1998), Deflection of Steel-Concrete Composite
beams designed following AASHTOs LFD and LRFD Beams With Partial Shear Interaction, Journal of Structural
specifications, Journal of Structural Safety, Vol. 17, pp. Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 10, October, pp. 1159-1165.
225-237. Wilkinson, T.; (1999), The Plastic Behaviour Of Cold-
Technical Report, (2004), St. Croix River Crossing Project Formed Rectangular Hollow Sections, PhD. Thesis, The
Structure Types, the stakeholders group, The Minnesota University of Sydney, Department of Civil Engineering,
Department of Transportation, The Wisconsin Department Sydney, Australia.
of Transportation, July 27. Xanthakos, P. P.; (1994), Theory and Design of Bridges,
Tedesco, J. W., Stallings, J. M., and Tow, D. R.; (1995), John Wiley & Sons, INC., New York.
Finite Element Method Analysis of Bridge Girder- Yoon, K. Y., Kang, Y. J., Choi, Y. J., and Park, N. H.; (2005),
Diaphragm Interaction, Journal of Computers & Free Vibration Analysis of Horizontally Curved Steel I-
Structures, Vol. 56, No. 2/3, pp. 461-473. Girder Bridges, Journal of Thin-Walled Structures, Vol.
Thevendran, V., Chen, S., Shanmugam, N. E., and Liew, J. 43, pp. 679-699.
Y. R.; (1999), Nonlinear analysis of steel-concrete Yun, C. B., Yi, J. H., and Shim, J. M.; (2002), Health-
composite beams curved in plan, Finite Elements in Monitoring Method For Bridges Under Ordinary Traffic
Analysis and Design,Vol. 32, pp. 125-139. Loadings, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 257(2), pp.
Thimmhardy, E. G., Marsh, C., Chen, H. and Tessemas, M.; 247-264.
(1995), Nonlinear Analysis Of Steel And Concrete Zellner, W.; (1988), Recent Designs of Composite Bridges
Bridge Components, Journal of Computers & Structures, and New Types of Shear Connectors, Proceeding of an
Vol. 56, No. 2/3, pp. 439-459. Engineering Foundation Conference, ASCE, New York,
Topkaya, C., and Williamson, E. B.; (2003), Development of pp. 240-252.
computational software for analysis of curved girders Zhang, X., Sennah, K., and Kennedy, J. B.; (2003),
under construction loads, Journal of Computers and Evaluation of impact factors for composite concrete-steel
Structures, Vol. 81, pp. 2087-2098. cellular straight bridges, Journal of Engineering Structures,
Valente, I., and Cruz, P. J. S.; (2004), Experimental analysis Vol. 25, pp. 313-321.
of Perfobond shear connection between steel and Zhang, Z., and Aktad, A. E.; (1997), Different Levels of
lightweight concrete, Journal of Constructional Steel Modeling for the Purpose of Bridge Evaluation, Journal
Research, Vol. 60, pp. 465-479. of Applied Acoustics, Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 189-204.
Victor, D. J.; (1980), Essentials Of Bridge Engineering, Zhou, S., Rizos, D. C., and Petrou, M. F.; (2004), Effects of
Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 1980. superstructure flexibility on strength of reinforced
Wan, B., Rizos, D. C., Petrou, M. F., and Harries, K. A., concrete bridge decks, Journal of Computers and
(2005), Computer simulations and parametric studies of Structures, Vol. 82, pp. 13-23.