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Technical Article
Steel Structures 6 (2006) 393-407

Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete

Composite Bridges: State of the Art
Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi * and Airong Chen
1, 2

PhD Candidate, Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Professor, Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

This research presents the current state of the art in steel-concrete composite structures. The focus is on steel beamconcrete
deck connections and the effects of their interaction. First, analysis and design methods of composite bridge structures,
connections between components, the reliability and life cycle of bridges, new concrete-steel bridge system forms, and the
development of alternative materials used in composite bridges were reviewed with some potential applications. The conceptual
ideas on new forms of connectors and the application of hollow core slab decks in composite bridge structures were also
Keywords: Bridge, Composite bridge, Connector, Conceptual, Perfobond connector, Voided slab modeling.

1. Introduction new types of connections, the enhancement of bridge

reliability, and the use of alternative forms and materials,
The design and construction of bridges have evolved such as Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) and Inorganic
for the past thousands of years at different rates. The Phosphate Cement (IPC) to form new types of hybrid
extensive use of the automobile and the development of bridges, (Galambos, 2000), (Brozzetti, 2000), (Batista
modern highway networks increased the rate of construction and Ghavami, 2005), (Nakamura, 1998), (Nakamura et

of different types of bridges and necessitated the further al., 2002), (Wan et al ., 2005) and (Roover ., 2002).
et al

development of the exact science of bridge construction. As the state of the art in the development of the hybrid
The evolution of bridges is the result of a combination of bridge with special attention to composite steel-concrete
developments in construction materials, structural forms, bridges, it can be seen that the direction being taken by
and design and analysis methods. Composite structures research studies focuses on: (1) analysis and design
were introduced to serve as a highly competitive type of methods of composite bridge structures; (2) connections
bridge comparable to common types of bridges such as between composite bridge components (steel girder-
concrete and prestressed concrete bridges due to their concrete deck connection); (3) performance of composite
reduced weight and quick and cost-effective erection. bridges with the overall structure life (reliability and life
(Hayward, 1988), (Ansourian, 1988), (Haensel, 1998) and cycle of bridges); (4) establishment of new concrete-steel
(Saul, 1998) The use of steel-concrete composite decks as bridge systems; and (5) the development of alternative
part of other types of bridges such as cable-stayed bridge materials to be used in composite bridges.
types were also conducted and adopted as an alternative
solution (Reis and Pedro, 2004), (Combault and Teyssandier, 2. Analysis and Design of Composite Bridge
2005). Composite bridges may also be used in constructing Structures
concrete bridges to elevate the structure from the ground
level, whereas steel girders can support formwork and There are two existing types of composite bridges,
reinforcement (Collin and Lundmark, 2002). Extensive namely I-girder and Box-girder composite bridges, as
investigation in recent decades in countries such as the shown in Fig. 1. The methods of analysis for both types
USA, France, Brazil, Japan, China, and all over the world of composite bridges have two main categories: (1)
focused on the development of steel-concrete composite adoptive and analytical method to calculate structural
bridges, their design and analysis methods, creation of stress; (2) computation of a response of a section to
different load histories using numerical methods, such as
*Corresponding author the finite element method, as well as the design methods
Tel: +86-13524823687; Tel: +86-21-65983116-5204 depending on the use of numerical methods or adopting
E-mail:, the method stated by country-specific building codes,
394 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

Figure 2. Development of shear forces during composite

action (Menkulasi, 2002).

by developing different models and using different types

of elements (Adeli and Zhang, 1995), (Zhang and Aktad,
1997), (Nowak and Szerszen, 1998), (Barth, 1998),
(Bradford ., 2001), (Topkaya and Williamson, 2003),
et al

(DallAsta and Zona, 2002), (DallAsta and Zona, 2004),

(Chung and Sotelino, 2005). The stiffness and capacity of
steel-concrete composite beams were also investigated
through analytical means (Nie et al., 2005). The effects of
secondary elements such as barriers, sidewalks, and
diaphragms on increasing the load-carrying capacity of
girder bridges were also investigated, with an aim to
Figure 1.Typical components of composite bridges (Chen evaluate the potential benefit of secondary elements in the
and Duan, 2000). system reliability of girder bridges (Eamon and Nowak,
2004) and (Eamon and Nowak, 2005). The research studies
which mainly depend on experiments. Nowadays, several aimed at providing a better understanding of bridge
codes are available to support the design of composite behavior and developing good and efficient methods for
bridges, such as Chinese Code (GBJ, 1988), AISC getting the most accurate results.
Specification, and AASHTO-LRFD. (Chinese code, GBJ.,
1988), (AISC Specification, 2005), (AISC Commentary, 2.2. Steel girder-concrete deck interaction (Composite
2005b), (FHWA/NHI, 2003) (AASHTO, 1994), (Salmon action)
and Johanson, 1990) and (Chen and Duan, 2000) However, The interaction between steel girder and concrete deck
the development of design and analytical methods of slab was investigated considering the effect of partial and
composite bridges comprised the development of numerical full interaction, developed from the horizontal shear force
and analytical models that usually accompanied experimental at the interface between the steel beam and concrete slab,
tests, with the aim of obtaining the best simulation and on the composite bridges behavior, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3,
the most accurate results. There is the Guyon-Massonnet aiming to investigate the maximum flexural capacity and
method, stated by Guyon (1949), Massonnet (1950), and performance of bridges (Oehlers ., 1997), (Earls and
et al

Morice and Little (1956), and other methods with a wide Shah, 2002) and (Nie and Cai, 2003). Different finite-
application range and yield good results in many element models were used such as beam element (Ayoub
configurations including composite superstructures and Filippou, 2000). The short- and long-term behavior
(Ansourian, 1988), (Betti and Gjelsvik, 1996), and (Lee, of composite bridges was also considered (Zhou .,et al

2005). The applicability and accuracy of the finite-element 2004), (Fragiacomo et al., 2004), (Liang ., 2005).
et al

method makes it more attractive as a design and analysis

tool for composite bridge structures (Buckner and Viest, 2.3. The effect of concrete flange width on composite
1988). bridge behavior
In composite steel-concrete bridges, different types of
2.1. Load-carrying capacity of composite steel- steel can be used in girders, such as carbon steel, high-
concrete bridges strength low-alloy steel, heat-treated low-alloy steel and
The load-carrying capacity of composite bridges is an high-strength heat-treated alloy steel. The designs were
important factor that affects the overall and nonlinear mainly based on steel properties such as girder shapes,
bridge behaviors, which were investigated using different thickness, yield stress of steel ( ), tensile strength of

finite-element models such as ADINA code (Thimmhardy steel ( ), and modulus of elasticity ( ). The reinforced
Fu Es

et al ., 1995), the ABAQUS software, (Thevendran .,

et al concrete bridge decks compressive strength ( ) also fc'

1999), and FORTRAN languages, (Fu ., 2003) and

et al affects the design in terms of reinforcement properties in
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 395

Figure 4. Effective width b

of steel-concrete composite

strength of composite beams was also investigated using

static loading tests considering the shear span aspect
ratio, width and thickness of concrete flanges, and the
theories concerning elasticity and plasticity. The vertical
shear that the steel beam resisted was calculated based on
Figure 3. Strain variation in composite beam. (a) No strain measurements, finding that the concrete flange
interaction. (b) Partial interaction. (c) Composite interaction could sustain 33-56% of the total ultimate shear applied
(Salmon and Johnson, 1990). to composite beam specimens. The shear strength equations
that considered shear contributions of both steel beam
and concrete flange were included (Nie ., 2004).
et al

addition to the concrete modulus of elasticity . (Salmon


and Johanson, 1990). The transformed area of concrete is 2.4. The load distribution on composite steel-concrete
usually used to calculate the composite section properties bridges
using the ratio ( =n ES/EC ). The concrete modulus of The effect of inelastic force distribution in longitudinal
elasticity can be calculated according to the ACI Code,
EC and transverse directions with inelastic deformations,
(ACI Committee 318, 1999), or according to AISC reactions, and moments, on composite bridge behavior
specifications LRFD approximate formula (AISC was examined by grillage analysis (Bakht and Jaeger,
Specification, 2005). The width of top flanges comprised 1992) (Barker ., 1996), and by field test, showing that
et al

the concrete slab and top steel beam flange known as bridge systems have a significant ability to redistribute
effective width ( ), Fig. 4, depends on the equivalent
bE force effects (Barker, 1999). The finite-element modeling,
area carrying the compression force. The practical using SAP90 and ICES-STRUDL programs is also
simplifications of the effective width for design purposes performed, investigating wheel-load distribution factor
are given by several codes such as: AISC Specification comparing with AASHTO and experiments yielding
(LRFD-I3.1 and ASD-I1), AASHTO LRFD, British similar load distribution factors (Mabsout ., 1997).
et al

Specification (BS5400), Canadian Specification, Chinese The axial force effective width was then introduced as
Code (GBJ 1988), Japanese Specification, EU (Eurocode4), a parameter that affects load distribution, which differs
which mainly depends on span length (Chiewanichakorn from the bending effective width (Cai , 1998). The
et al.

et al., 2004a). finite-element method using the ABAQUS software was

Finite-element modeling was used to define steel- also used in deducing expressions for moment and
concrete composite bridge girder flange width, which was deflecting distribution factors (Sennah and Kennedy,
conducted employing an investigation of nonlinear finite- 1999). The shear distribution characteristics under dead
element analysis modeling, using ABAQUS software, load and under AASHTO live loadings on multiple steel
developing effective slab width definition for determining box-girder bridges were also investigated (Sennah .,
et al

the effective slab width for steel-concrete composite bridge 2003). The finite-element model, ABAQUS software, was
girders (Chiewanichakorn ., 2004a), (Chiewanichakorn
et al used in the analysis of bridge prototypes with various
et ., 2004b). A numerical comparison between the
al geometries, and AASHTO truck loading conditions,
effective flange width provisions in the USA, Britain, investigating distribution of flexural stresses, deflection,
Canada, Japan, and European Committee was also conducted shears, and reactions (Samaan ., 2002). The effect of
et al

(Ahn, 2004). The evaluation of effective width in elastic non-uniform torsion, load distribution factors, and
and plastic analysis of steel-concrete composite beams location of access hatches on the behavior and design of
was also performed through experimental tests, investigating composite curved box-girder bridges accounted through
both cases of sagging and hogging bending moments developing a grillage model computer program (El-Tawil
presenting a simple modification of Eurocode 4 (Amadio and Okeil, 2002).
et ., 2004). The shear-resisting mechanisms and the
396 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

2.5. The continuity of composite steel-concrete bridge 2.7. The dynamic response of composite steel-concrete
The continuity of composite bridges was also investigated, bridges
comparing with conditions with simple support. The The dynamic response of composite bridges was
continuity has many advantages such as: higher span-to- investigated to establish a better understanding of the
depth ratio, less deflection, and higher stiffness. The dynamic effects of composite steel-concrete bridges. A
finite-element analysis method, ANSYS software, laboratory three-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis of a
and field tests were used to investigate the performance multi-girder steel bridge, both with and without diaphragms,
of continuous-span composite bridges (El-Arabaty .,et al was performed comparing with field dynamic tests,
1996). The finite element, ABAQUS software, and developing techniques used to evaluate the function and
experimental tests were also performed to investigate effectiveness of diaphragms in transverse distribution of
both the skew and continuity influence on longitudinal traffic loads (Tedesco et al ., 1995). The finite-element
moments in girders (Ebeido and Kennedy, 1996) and model, ANSYS software, was used to study the dynamic
(Lne and Lebet, 2005). A model of steel and concrete response of the composite bridge including parapets and
composite beams subjected to negative bending was diaphragms in bridge models. (Barefoot et al., 1997) Modal
presented, accounting for nonlinear structural behavior on analysis and identification ascertaining the characteristics
negative bending moment regions using a numerical of composite bridges was performed, concluding that
procedure, (Manfredi ., 1999), analytical and experimental
et al damage in bridges may be reflected in the changes of
procedures. (Barker et, 2000), (Fabbrocino
al. .,et al natural frequencies or modes of natural vibration. (Fryba
2000) and (Fabbrocino ., 2002). The three-dimensional
et al and Pirner, 2001) A damage-estimation method using
finite element model was used to investigate composite ambient vibration data caused by traffic loadings was
beams in combined bending and shear accounting for presented, identifying operational modal properties,
geometric and material nonlinearity (Liang ., 2004).
et al assessment of damage locations, and severities by
The slip effect with negative bending was also investigated performing an experimental study on bridge model
(Nie et ., 2004). Studies were also performed for
al subjected to vehicle loadings measuring vertical accelerations
longitudinal prestress in continuous composite bridges to while vehicles are running (Yun et al., 2002). The dynamic
estimate their behavior in the elastic and plastic range impact factors for straight composite concrete deck-steel
(Shim and Chang, 2003), (Ryu ., 2004), (Ryu and
et al girder cellular bridges under AASHTO truck loading was
Chang, 2005) and (Shiming, 2005). determined using three-dimensional finite-element models,
ABAQUS software, finding that the truck speed affects
2.6. The long-term behavior of composite steel- the impact factor of straight bridges. (Zhang , 2003)
et al.

concrete bridge A finite-element formulation for free-vibration analysis of

The long-term behavior of the concrete deck slab was horizontally curved steel I-girder bridges, including warping
investigated with an aim to understand the full behavior of degree of freedom, was presented. A computer program
the composite steel-concrete bridge system. The transverse using FORTRAN77 language was developed, comparable
cracking in concrete slabs was studied by in-situ with ABAQUS software and applied to investigate the
measurements, laboratory tests and numerical simulations, free vibration characteristics of bridges (Yoon et., al

establishing criteria based on restraint coefficient showing 2005). A finite-element model was used for damage
the most critical tensile stresses and the effects of casting detection and long-term health monitoring through the
sequence (Lebet and Ducret, 1998). The creep and shrinkage measurement of ambient vibration for the Qingzhou
effects for composite box girder bridge with sequencing cable-stayed bridge over the Ming River (Ren and Peng,
were investigated by developing a numerical model that 2005).
adopted the layer approach, as well as through experiments
and field examinations for actual bridges under construction. 3. Composite Bridges Component
The ultimate shrinkage strain recommended in specifications Connections
significantly differs from actual drying shrinkage rate.
The effect of drying shrinkage in terms of ultimate Nowadays, different types of shear connectors are
shrinkage strain is more important than concrete casting available, such as (1) stud connectors; (2) channel
sequences based on the ACI Code. (Kwak , 2000a),
et al. connectors; (3) angle connectors; (4) spiral connectors;
(Kwak ., 2000b) and (Kwak and Seo, 2000) The
et al (5) tendon (or bent-up bar types) connectors; (6)
open-grid lightweight deck was investigated, with the aim perfobond connectors; and (7) T-shape connectors, Fig. 5-
to improve design methods through experimental testing 8. Generally, connectors are classified as either rigid or
and numerical and analytical means (Huang , 2002).
et al. flexible, depending on the distribution of shear forces and
The steel-concrete composite beams time-dependent analysis functions between strength and deformations. Most codes
under service conditions was investigated adopting a consider the stud and channel shear connector types in
beam model that accounted for slippage at deck-girder design simplification, such as Chinese Code (GBJ 1988),
interface and for time-dependent behavior of concrete AISC Specification, and AASHTO-LRFD. (Chinese code,
(Jurkiewiez ., 2005).
et al GBJ., 1988), (AISC specification, 2005) and (AASHTO,
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 397

of shear connectors, mechanism of failure and basic criteria

used to define shear connector strength was investigated
by analyzing the expressions and recommendations given
by Eurocode 4, given as a commentary on strength of
shear connectors in composite beams (Rankovi and
Dreni, 2002).
3.1. The effect of shear connector ductility on
composite bridges
The provision of adequate shear connection between
tension and compression-resisting components of composite
flexural members is essential to ensure the robust performance
of such structural members under load. Ductility requirements
were investigated defining ductility in terms of the behavior
of composite cross-sections in consideration of connection
performance suggesting ductility improvement (Patrick
Figure 5.Structures of stud, channel, spiral and angle and Bridge, 1988). The moment-curvature relationships
shear connectors (Salmon and Johanson, 1990). derived were ductile (strain-hardening) or non-ductile
(strain-softening). Geometric properties and limitations of
continuous composite beam were investigated to ensure
sufficient ductility for the development of a plastic design
mechanism of collapse before local and lateral buckling
of steel or compressive failure of concrete. (Kemp, 1988)
Figure 6.Structures of steel tendon, and steel mould Tests on cold-formed beams, joints and frames, with
shear connectors (Chinese code GBJ17-88, 1988). finite-element analyses were carried out, concluding that
cold-formed components can be used in plastic design, as
they meet the requirements of some connections, especially
with their high ductility and capacity. (Wilkinson, 1999)
and (Hanaor, 2000) Finite-element analyses of composite
Structures of steel tendon and steel mould shear beam connected to a concrete slab used to show that the
required level of connection ductility is parasitic on
Figure 7.

connectors types.
compliance of the connections. (Sebastian, 2003) Magnitudes
of the affecting maximum slip requirement was identified
suggesting an assessment method with general applications,
enables assessing connection efficiency to the bending
collapse of composite beams as a useful guide at the initial
stage of structure design as no demanding sophisticated
analysis is required (Bullo and Marco, 2004).
3.2. Effect of shear connectors in partial interaction
The connection largely influences the global behavior
Stud, perfobond, and t-shape shear connectors of composite bridges and its modeling was a key issue in
the analysis of such types of structures. The effect of
Figure 8.

types. (Valente and Cruz, 2004).

partial restraints on the response of composite beam was
investigated with deformable shear connectors using
1994) Shear connectors are important and their details distributed spring, accounting for the shear deformation
were investigated and developed through different using displacement- and force-based elements and in
research studies conducted to fully understand the consideration of bond-slip between element components.
behavior of bridges under different types of loads, dead (Salari et al., 1998) and (Salari and Spacone, 2001) The
load and live load, which necessitate the development of load-slip behavior and shear capacity of composite beam
different shear connector types. (Zellner, 1988) A new stud obtained from experimental push-off tests were
phenomenological law for the shear connection between simulated using the finite-element model. (Lam and El-
steel girder and concrete slab that considers stiffness and Lobody, 2002) The maximum deflection with partial shear
strength degradation, and a correlation study with available interaction was calculated suggesting a procedure to
push-pull tests on shear connectors were performed to obtain the stiffness value of shear connectors. (Wang,
validate the model, applying the steel-concrete composite 1998) A structural behavior reliable analysis of composite
frame element (Salari and Spacone, 2001). The strength beams subjected to sagging moment due to short-term
398 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

loads was performed using a numerical procedure introducing

an explicit relationship between slip and interaction force
given by each connector. (Fabbrocino ., 1999) A
et al

specialized stub element with empirical nonlinear shear

force-slip relationships was used at the concrete slab-steel
beam interface to permit nonlinear finite-element modeling
of either full or partial shear connector action. (Sebastian
and McConnel, 2000) The finite-element model with flexible
shear connection was also presented using displacement
field with the exact solution of Newmarks differential
equation employing only one element per member,
establishing the criterion for partial interaction effects.
(Faella et al., 2002) A procedure to predict the partial-
interaction strain distribution from standard full-
interaction analyses using a magnification factor was
suggested for the investigation of the effect of partial- Figure 9. The alternate shear connector (Klaiber ., 2000).
et al

interaction endurance. (Seracino , 2001) and (Seracino

et al.

et al., 2004) The experimental and analytical studies to

simulate partial-interaction behavior using push-out results
for steel-concrete composite members was presented
performing nonlinear structural analysis predicting partial-
interaction behavior of composite members. (Jeong .,
et al

3.3. Fatigue and cyclic load effects on shear connectors

The fatigue and cyclic load has also affected the behavior
of composite steel-concrete bridges by affecting shear on
shear connectors. The behavior of shear connectors under
fatigue and cyclic load was investigated suggesting a fatigue
procedure, which allowed the estimation of strength
reduction of stud shear connectors. (Oehlers, 1995) and Figure 10. Unfilled grid deck composite with reinforced-
(Oehlers ., 2000) Direct shear test was used simulating concrete slab using alternative shear connectors (Higgins
et al
and Mitchell, 2001).
the actual behavior of studs under reverse cyclic loading.
The load-induced fatigue of welded bridges components
due to primary stress should be considered. (Gattesco and 2000) Static and fatigue tests were also performed on
Giuriani, 1996) and (Nishikawa et al., 1998). The reliability composite bridge decks with alternative shear connectors
of stud connectors design for fatigue was inconsistent as consisted of concrete-filled holes located in the webs of
real stress ranges were less than those calculated in design. grid main bars and friction along the web embedded in
(Johnson, 2000) Analytical and experimental studies for the slab, Fig. 10. It was determined that the shear
the design of shear connection in a precast deck system connection location and not the control fatigue behavior
were performed investigating the characteristics of shear of deck was involved in positive bending, and no fatigue
connection and fatigue endurance through push tests cracking of steel grid was observed in negative bending
estimating bridge behavior using finite-element analysis. (Higgins and Mitchell, 2001).
(Shim et al., 2001) Fatigue tests conducted on full-scale The development and implementation of large stud
slender plate-girders showed that the levels of minimum diameters were presented, which increased the speed of
and maximum load used during fatigue testing, weld quality, bridge construction and future deck replacement, and
shape and magnitude of the initial imperfections, etc., reduced the vulnerability to damage of studs and girder
have a large influence on fatigue performance (Crocetti, top flange during deck removal. The studs can also be
2003). placed in one row only, over the web centerline, freeing
up most of the top flange width and improving safety
3.4. New innovative connectors conditions for field workers. (Badie ., 2002), (Shim
et al

An alternate shear connector (AS), shown in Fig. 9, et al., 2004) and (Lee ., 2005) Results of push tests
et al

was developed subjected to static and cyclic loading in with new types of shear connectors, namely Perfobond
both push-out specimens and composite beam tests, connectors were presented obtaining the load capacity of
determining the fatigue strength of ASC. The ASC was new shear connectors. It also helped describe the connection
effective in creating full composite action during service behavior used for shear connection in steel-concrete
load tests, and no bond failure appeared. (Klaiber .,
et al composite bridge. (Studnicka ., 2000), (Valente and
et al
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 399

Cruz, 2004) and (Kim and Jeong, 2005) Horizontal shear

connectors without welding were studied through a steel-
concrete composite beam static bending test, which showed
behavior similar to steel-concrete composite beams with
classical connectors, great ductility, flexural failure mode
(plastic hinge), and low relative movements at steel-concrete
interface (Jurkiewiez and Hottier, 2005).

4. Reliability and Life Cycle of Composite

Figure 11. Bridge girder consisting of steel tube filled

The reliability and life cycle of composite bridge designed with reinforced concrete (Mossahebi et al., 2005).

by AASHTOs (LFD) method and LRFD method for

conditions of maximum design load, overloading, and fatigue
load, the ultimate flexural capacity limit state was measured methods to calculate the bending and shear strength of
in terms of reliability index, using Monte Carlo simulations. encased composite girders. (Nakamura and Narita, 2003)
The value of the reliability index was a function of An experimental investigation into the behavior of steel
compactness classification, method of design, beam spacing, tube filled with reinforced concrete bridge girder made
span length, and section size. (Tabsh, 1996) The reliability composite with an overlying concrete deck, Fig. 11, were
index of steel girder highway bridges designed by AASHTO conducted, providing information for the assessment of
(LRFD) strength limit state was examined based on the various erection scenarios. A moment curvature analysis
stochastic finite-element method (SFEM), modeling bridges was used to predict the ultimate capacity of the system.
as a grillage beam systems including basic design variables (Mossahebi et , 2005) The concept of voided slab

such as sectional properties and various dead and live (hollow core slab) in conjunction with steel beam to form
loads. (Liu, 2002) Frangopol and his co-workers performed a type of composite beam or flooring system to be used
a series of investigations on the reliability of bridges in multistory buildings were established through a series
considering life cycles and maintenance effects on the of studies presented using finite-element modeling, ABAQUS
total life cost of bridges, investigating and estimating the software, with experiments using precast hollow-core floor
reliability of highway bridges using different models. slabs, modeling the headed stud shear connectors. The
(Enright and Frangopol, 1999) The cost-benefit analysis advantages of using such types of structure with shear
of reliability-based bridge management decision was studs, such as in terms of shorter construction duration,
investigated, which was considered as a guide in determining were also discussed along with a presentation of related
the optimum strategy in the face of uncertainties and experiments. (Lam ., 2000), (Lam, 2002), (Lam and
et al

fiscal constraints, identifying the optimum maintenance Uy, 2003) and (Lam, 2005).
scenario using a computer program called Life-Cycle
Analysis of Deteriorating Structures (LCADS), which 6. Development of New Structural Materials
considered the effect of maintenance interventions. It also Used in Composite Bridges
identified the maintenance strategy that best balances cost
and reliability index profile over a specified time horizon. The development of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
(Frangopol et al ., 2001) (Kong and Frangopol, 2003) A material and their usage as a structural member in bridge
relationship between maintenance intervention cost and construction as lighter, more durable alternatives to steel
effect of intervention on system reliability was also predicted. and concrete was also investigated using the finite-element
(Kong and Frangopol, 2004) Variability and sensitivity model, examining the bifurcation buckling problem with
analyses were used to investigate the characteristics of various loading and boundary conditions. (Lin ., 1996) et al

input random variables (Kong and Frangopol, 2005). The analysis and design of FRP composite deck-and-
stringer bridges was presented, developing a simplified
5. Establishing New Steel-Concrete Bridge design analysis procedure based on first-order shear
Systems Forms deformation macro-flexibility SDMF orthotropic plate
solution. (Salim ., 1997) A combined analytical and
et al

New structural forms of composite steel-concrete bridges experimental study of cellular box decks and wide-flange
were invented and suggested to be used in the last decades. I-beam stringer FRP composite bridges was presented
Such composite bridges were used in Japan, using concrete- including the design, modeling and experimental and
filled pipes or rolled H-girders that have high strength and numerical verification, predicting efficient FRP sections
ductility, whereas filled concrete restricts local buckling of and simplified design equations for new and replacement
steel plates. (Nakamura et al., 2002) Partially encased highway bridge system. (Brown, 1998) A study including
composite I-girder bridges were also investigated by testing and analysis of pultruded, hybrid double-web
performing bending and shear tests using analytical beam (DWB) developed for use in bridge construction,
400 Suhaib Yahya Kasim Al-Darzi and Airong Chen

Figure 12. The GFRP bridge system: (a) the bridge, (b)
cross-section geometry of GFRP panel (Wan ., 2005).
et al

determining the bending modulus, shear stiffness, failure

mode and ultimate capacity. (Schniepp, 2002) Developments
were also presented, emphasizing the aspects of transition,
critical advantages offered by inherent anisotropy of
composites, and efficient designs for such new materials.
(Karbhari, 2004) The fatigue and strength for experimental
qualifications were performed for FRP composite bridge Figure 13. Types of shear connectors proposed for
deck, using hollow glass and carbon FRP tubes. (Kumar investigation.
et al., 2004) The bi-directional plate-bending behavior of
a pultruded glass fiber-reinforced polymers (GFRP) bridge the results derived from experiments, establishing a finite
deck system with orthotropic material and system properties element model predict the behavior of the structure and
was investigated by full-scale experiments and numerical for the design of similar structures (Giannopoulos .,
et al

modeling. (Keller and Schollmayer, 2004) The structural 2003).

behaviors of the GFRP bridge deck system is shown in
Fig. 12 and was also investigated, as well as the development 7. Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-
of finite-element models using ANSYS 7.0 software. The Concrete Composite Bridges
collected field measurements and laboratory tests concluded
that girder spacing plays a key role in deck performance, 7.1. Development of new shear connectors
and that the composite structure can sustain higher loads With the aim to enhance the composite performance of
than the non-composite structure with identical girders, steel-concrete composite bridges, we intend to investigate
and the non-composite structure showed more efficient new types of connectors with precast hollow core slab
distribution of deformations on the deck (Wan et .,
al deck as part of our PhD research in Tongji University,
2005). Shanghai, China. The new shapes of perfobond shear
New materials such as Inorganic Phosphate Cement connectors depending on the analysis of horizontal shear
(IPC) are also used in the construction of composite bridges affects the interface between steel and concrete, and the
and were presented through an investigation performed shape of failure of stud connectors. It is assumed that to
on the applicability of such materials in construction and improve the interaction between the steel girder and the
the usefulness of such materials in creating a new hybrid concrete slab of composite steel-concrete bridges, three
bridge system. The finite-element method was used in the shapes of perfobond shear connectors are suggested for
design process of a modular composite bridge made of investigation, shown in Fig. 13, namely: (1) allows for
Inorganic Phosphate Cement (IPC) sandwich panels, with more main and secondary transverse reinforcement to be
the connections designed with an aim to control the passed through the holes of the connectors without
distribution of stresses in the panels. The conclusion bending, with the top hole distance not greater than the
showed that the result of the design was satisfactory and concrete cover; (2) produces better interaction between
could be the basis for the future realization of a prototype concrete and connectors by increasing the length of
bridge. (Roover et al ., 2002) The design and the joining interaction, and increasing the area of concrete inside the
procedure of pedestrian bridges made of IPC sandwich connector; (3) the direction of inclined strips suggesting
panels were also investigated by means of analytical and better resistance to horizontal shear force considered to
numerical tools, showing that in spite of the low stiffness affect on connectors. Experimental investigation will be
of the glass fiber-reinforced IPC, the use of IPC still led performed using push-out tests to produce the resistance
to realistic dimensions of the bridge structure (Roover et capacity of connectors and bond between connector and
al., 2003). An investigation on the development of IPC slab. Theoretical investigation will conducted by establishing
for the construction of pedestrian bridges was also a model for the tested specimens using suitable finite-
presented, evaluating the numerical modeling and using element software (such as ANSYS); experimental results
Conceptual Design and Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges: State of the Art 401

slab deck in conjunction with the new shapes of connectors

suggested above, both with simple and fixed support
conditions. Experiments are supposed to include casting a
bridge prototype in the laboratory and testing to failure,
followed by theoretical works including establishing a
model of the tested prototype using suitable finite-element
software (such as ANSYS), verifying by experiments,
and extending it to be used to study the effect of connection
behavior, effective slab width, transverse reinforcement,
slab geometries, and the reliability of the suggested section
and their effect on the construction process.

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