lol

© All Rights Reserved

2 views

lol

© All Rights Reserved

- CalcIII Complete
- Quantech Report Calculus
- Calculus Tutorial
- Mearth_Attack - Visual Game
- f4 c9 Differentiation New
- Calculus II_Final Sample Test 2017
- AP Calc Free Response 1969-Present
- 00881961
- UNIT-2.PDF Engg Math
- Berkeley Madonna Tutorial 1
- matlab guide for mechanics
- Kelly Criterion
- Differential
- Articles
- ECON2101 Tutorial Week 3_ans
- tambor_i
- Notes 1
- hw1
- 010
- Worksheet 3 (Sol)

You are on page 1of 30

2.1 Definition of a Partial Derivative

Definition

If z f ( x, y ) , then the (first) partial

derivatives of f with respect to x and y are the

functions f x and f y respectively defined by

f ( x x, y ) f ( x, y )

f x lim

x 0 x

f ( x , y y ) f ( x, y )

f y lim

y 0 y

2.1.1 Notation

For z f ( x, y ) , the partial derivatives f x

and f y are also denoted by the symbols:

f z

, , f ( x, y ) , f x ( x, y ) or z x

x x x

f z

, , f ( x, y ) , f y ( x, y ) or z y

y y y

The values of the partial derivatives at the point

(a, b) are denoted by

f f

f x (a, b) and f y ( a, b)

x ( a,b) y ( a,b)

Note

The stylized d symbol in the notation is

called roundback d, curly d or del d.

It is not the usual derivative d (dee) or

(delta d).

Example

If f (x ,y ) x 3y x 2y 2 , find

f f

i. ii. iii. fy (1, 1)

x y

Solution

derivative with respect to x:

f

x 3y x 2y 2 3x 2y 2xy 2

x x

derivative with respect to y:

f

x 3y x 2y 2 x3 2x 2y

y y

For a function f ( x, y, z ) of three variables,

there are three partial derivatives:

f x , f y and f z

The partial derivative f x is calculated by

holding y and z constant. Likewise, for f y and

fz.

Example 2.6

Find the slope of the line that is parallel to the

xz-plane and tangent to the surface

z x x y at the point P(1, 3, 2) .

Solution

Given f ( x, y ) x x y

WANT: f x (1, 3)

f x ( x, y ) ( x y )

12 1

x ( x y ) 1 2 (1 0)

2

x

x y

2 x y

1 9

f x (1, 3) 1 3

2 1 3 4

Change

A partial derivative is the rate of change of

a multi-variable function when we allow

only one of the variables to change.

f

Specifically, the partial derivative at

x

( x0 , y0 ) gives the rate of change of f with

respect to x when y is held fixed at the

value y0.

Example

The volume of a gas is related to its temperature

T and its pressure P by the gas law PV 10T ,

where V is measured in cubic inches, P in

pounds per square inch, and T in degrees

Celsius. If T is kept constant at 200, what is the

rate of change of pressure with respect to

volume at V 50?

Solution

P

WANT:

V T 200, V 50

Given PV 10T .

P 10T

V V2

P (10)(200) 4

V T 200, V 50 (50) 2

5

Standard Notations

Given z f ( x, y )

2 f f

=

x x

= ( f x ) x = f xx

x 2

2 f f

=

y y

= ( f y ) y = f yy

y 2

Mixed partial derivatives

2 f f

=

xy x y = ( f y ) x = f yx

f

2

f

=

yx y x

= ( f x ) y = f xy

3 f f

=

x y y

= f yyx

xy 2

4 f f

= = f yyxx

x y

2 2 x x y y

Question 1

Find the first partial derivative of f (x, y ).

2

2 3

i. f x , y x y

ii. f x, y e x ln xy

Question 2

Find the first partial derivative of

f x, y, z cos xy sin yz .

Question 3

Find the value of fxy (1, 0), fyx (1, 0), fxx (1, 0) and

fyy (1, 0)for the given

f x, y x y sin x y .

2.2 Increments and Differential

Let z f ( x, y ) , where x and y are

independent variables. If x is subject to a small

increment (or a small error) of x, while y

remains constant, then the corresponding

increment of z in z will be

z

z x

x

Similarly, if y is subject to a small increment of y,

while x remains constant, then the corresponding

increment of z in z will be

z

z y

y

It can be shown that, for increments (or errors)

in both x and y,

z z

z x y

x y

The formula for a function of two variables may

be extended to functions of a greater number of

independent variables.

For example, if w f ( x, y, z ) of three

variables, then

w w w

w x y z

x y z

Definition

Let z f ( x, y ) where f is a differentiable

function and let dx and dy be independent

variables. The differential of the dependent

variable, dz is called the total differential of z is

defined as

dz df ( x, y) f x ( x, y)dx f y ( x, y)dy

Thus, z dz provided dx is the change in x

and dy is the change in y.

Example

Let f ( x, y ) 2 x xy y . Compute z

3 3

(2.03, 0.98).

Solution

z = f(2.03, 0.98) f(2, 1)

[2(2) 2 2(1) 13 ]

= 0.779062

dz f x ( x, y)dx f y ( x, y)dy

(6 x 2 y )x ( x 3 y 2 )y

Example

Suppose that a cylindrical can is designed to have

a radius of 1 in. and a height of 5 in. but that the

radius and height are off by the amounts dr =

0.03 and dh = 0.1. Estimate the resulting

absolute, relative and percentage changes in the

volume of the can.

Solution

WANT: Absolute change, V dV

V dV

Relative change,

V V

dV

Percentage change, 100

V

Absolute change,

dV Vr dr Vh dh 2rhdr r 2 dh

Relative change,

dV 0.2 0.2

2 0.04

V r h (1) (5)

2

Percentage change,

dV

100 0.04 100 4%

V

Question 1

change in

f ( x, y, z ) x 2 z 3 3 yz 2 x 3 2 yz

if ( x, y, z ) changes from (1,4,2) to

(1.02,3.97,1.96) .

Question 2

The radius and height of a right circular cone

are measured with errors of at most 3% and 2%

respectively. Use differentials to estimate the

maximum percentage error in computing the

volume.

2.3 Chain Rule

Functions

If y is a differentiable function of x and x is a

differentiable function of a parameter t, then

the chain rule states that

dy dy dx

dt dx dt

Theorem 1

If z f ( x, y ) is differentiable and x and y are

differentiable functions of t, then z is a

differentiable function of t and

dz z dx z dy

dt x dt y dt

Theorem 2

Let x x(r , s) and y y (r , s) have partial

derivatives at r and s and let z f ( x, y ) be

differentiable at (x, y). Then

z f ( x(r , s), y(r , s)) has first derivatives

given by

z z x z y

r x r y r

z z x z y

s x s y s

Question 1

i. z uv uv 2, u x sin y , v y sin x

ii. z r3 s v 2, r xe y , s ye x , v x 2y

Question 2

2t

w ln u v ,u e ,v t3 t2

Question 3

cylinder are increasing at the rates of 0.01

cm/min and 0.02 cm/min, respectively. Use the

chain rule to find the rate at which the volume is

increasing at the time when r 8 cm and

h 14cm. At what rate is the curved surface

area increasing at this time?

2.3.2 Partial Derivatives of Implicit

Functions

The chain rule can be applied to implicit

relationships of the form F ( x, y ) 0 .

gives

F dx F dy

0.

x dx y dx

F F dy

In other words, 0.

x y dx

dy F x

Hence, .

dx F y

In summary, we have the following results.

Theorem 3

If F ( x, y ) 0 defines y implicitly as a

differentiable function of x, then

dy Fx x, y

.

dx Fy x, y

Theorem 4

If F ( x, y, z ) 0 defines z implicitly as a

differentiable function of x and y, then

z Fx x, y, z z Fy x, y, z

and .

x Fz x, y, z y Fz x, y, z

Question 1

defines a function of one variable y as a function

of x. Use Theorem 3 to find y x .

i. 2x 3 xy 2 y 3 1

ii. x xy 3y 4

Question 2

In equations 2(i) and 2(ii), the equation implicitly

defines a function of two variables z as a

function of x and y. Use Theorem 4 to find z x

and z y .

i. xeyz 2ye xz 3ze xy

ii. x y 2 z sin z

2.5 Local Extrema

Definition 1

A function of two variables has a local

maximum at (a, b) if f (x,y ) f (a,b) when (x, y)

is near (a, b). The number f (a,b) is called a

local maximum value.

If f (x,y ) f (a,b) when (x, y) is near (a,b), then

f (a,b) is a local minimum value.

Theorem 1

If f has a local maximum or minimum at (a, b)

and the first-order partial derivatives of f exist

at this point, then fx (a,b) 0 and fy (a,b) 0 .

Definition 2

A point (a, b) is called a critical point of the

function z f (x,y ) if fx (a,b) 0 and fy (a,b) 0

or if one or both partial derivatives do not exist

at (a, b).

Relative Max

Relative Min.

Point (a, b, f (a, b)) is a local minimum

Saddle Point

Remark

The values of z at the local maxima and local

minima of the function z f (x,y ) may also be

called the extreme values of the function,

f (x,y ).

Theorem 2 : Second-Partials Test

Let f (x,y ) have a critical point at (a, b) and

assume that f has continuous second-order

partial derivatives in a disk centered at (a, b).

Let

D fxx (a,b)fyy (a,b) [ fxy (a,b)]2

minimum at (a, b).

(ii) If D > 0 and fxx (a,b) 0 , then f has a local

maximum at (a, b).

(iii) If D < 0, then f has a saddle point at (a, b).

(iv) If D = 0, then no conclusion can be drawn.

Remark

The expression fxx fyy fxy 2 is called the

discriminant or Hessian of f. It is sometimes

easier to remember it in the determinant form,

fxx fxy

fxx fyy fxy 2

fxy fyy

then the surface curves the same way in all

directions:

downwards if fxx 0 , giving rise to a local

maximum

upwards if fxx (a,b) 0 , giving a local

minimum.

If the discriminant is negative at (a, b), then the

surface curves up in some directions and down

in others, so we have a saddle point.

Example

Locate all local extrema and saddle points of

f (x,y ) 1 x 2 y 2 .

Solution

First determine fx and fy:

fx (x,y ) 2x and fy (x,y ) 2y .

fx = 0 and fy = 0 for x and y:

2x 0 and 2y 0

So the only critical point is at (0, 0).

Thirdly, evaluate fxx , fyy and fxy at the critical

point.

fxx (x,y ) 2 , fxy (x,y ) 0 and fyy (x,y ) 2

fxx (0,0) 2 , fxy (0,0) 0 and

fyy (0,0) 2

Compute D:

2 0

D 4

0 2

second partials test tell us that a local

maximum occurs at (0, 0).

In other words, the point (0, 0, 1) is a local

maximum, with f having a corresponding

maximum value of 1.

Question

and determine whether f x, y at that point is

a local maximum or a local minimum, or the

value of the saddle point.

1. f x, y 3 x 2 y 2 6y

2. f x, y x2 y2 4x 6y 23

3. f x, y x2 y2 2x 6y 4

- CalcIII CompleteUploaded byPreksha Naik
- Quantech Report CalculusUploaded byMark Luigi Babol
- Calculus TutorialUploaded bybuzzpavan
- Mearth_Attack - Visual GameUploaded byaldinette
- f4 c9 Differentiation NewUploaded bylinusshy
- Calculus II_Final Sample Test 2017Uploaded bykcshieh
- AP Calc Free Response 1969-PresentUploaded byDiane Yang
- 00881961Uploaded byapi-3706534
- UNIT-2.PDF Engg MathUploaded bysudersanaviswanathan
- Berkeley Madonna Tutorial 1Uploaded byAntonija Trontel
- matlab guide for mechanicsUploaded bytridevmishra
- Kelly CriterionUploaded byHo Sai San
- DifferentialUploaded byCarlos Teixeira
- ArticlesUploaded bysujit_sekhar
- ECON2101 Tutorial Week 3_ansUploaded bySandy Tanyarin
- tambor_iUploaded byAhmed Bdair
- Notes 1Uploaded bynigil001
- hw1Uploaded byaruntyagi000007
- 010Uploaded bystarsplesh
- Worksheet 3 (Sol)Uploaded byCarlos Arranz
- Jee differentiation physicsUploaded byGanesh Jadhav
- Real Analysis TutorialUploaded byRanu Games
- CalcIII CompleteUploaded byAftaab Grewal
- Trent ReportUploaded byedicioneshalbrane
- Pointers CEST 4 Maths Grade 11 (1)Uploaded bySinotif Depok
- engineering mathematicsUploaded byRaji Vijay
- NM 05.docUploaded byIustin Cristian
- project proposalUploaded byapi-231502884
- db xp-s precision enUploaded byapi-239932254
- db xp-s precision enUploaded byapi-239932254

- AtgUploaded bydaren
- MIP2E4DUploaded bydragon-red0816
- Exam+3 Sample (1)Uploaded byJeff Petrillo
- RLC circuitsUploaded byMemo Guerrero
- SAP AG - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bynalinrm
- Battlefield_V_Chapter_2_Lightning_Strikes_Update_13022019_ FINAL.pdfUploaded byGuz Black
- ExifToolGUI xdUploaded bySergioFreire
- Computer NetworksUploaded byDhana Sekaran
- DWDM Equipment - PacketLight NetworksUploaded byIsrael Exporter
- Purlin, Runner -R1_1Uploaded byMadhurimaMitra
- The Role and Value of the Global Distribution Systems in Travel DistributionUploaded byIvo Dimitrov
- 5IT01_01_que_20110110Uploaded byrj99master
- Coquand, Lombardi_A Logical Approach to Abstract AlgebraUploaded bymavrogiannis
- DMS.pdfUploaded byJc Leon
- DebugUploaded byawarcry
- Open Source Software NoticeUploaded byAlejandroRodriguez
- 2-Technological Life Cycles & Decision MakingUploaded byTuesday16
- C Language(Synopsis)Uploaded byMaria Sia
- UniPOS IFS 7002 CAN Functionality v5 I-M EngUploaded byasiasi
- User Manual ASP 300 lUploaded bymauriciocs
- Faris Al SaidUploaded byMD AbdulMoid Mukarram
- BAUploaded byPandiyarajan Thiruppathi
- Architecture, Time, and Geological Drift- RAM 2003Uploaded byEd Keller
- Lab 3.docxUploaded bynskprasad89
- Case for Computer Science as an EBacc OptionUploaded byEdwin Trinidad
- Gauss Quadrature IntegrationUploaded byPramesh Kumar
- COMP3151Ass2Uploaded byasdfasdf
- EEG Backgnd HistoryUploaded byzelin99
- ganttUploaded bymohd_eddy
- ms-01Uploaded bykvrajan6