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LANDSCAPE, ITS

ELEMENTS &
PRINCIPLES
Landscape architecture is the
design of outdoor public areas,
landmarks, and structures to
achieve environmental, social-
behavioral, or aesthetic
outcomes. It involves the
systematic investigation of existing
social, ecological, and soil
conditions and processes in the
landscape, and the design of
interventions that will produce the
desired outcome.
Landscaping refers to any
activity that modifies the
visible features of an area
of land, including:
1. Living elements flora or
fauna.
2. Natural elements such as
landforms, terrain shape
and elevation, or bodies of
water;
3. Human elements such as
structures, buildings,
fences or other material
objects created and/or
installed by humans; and
4. Abstract elements such as
the weather and lighting
conditions.
ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE
Natural
Manmade

Natural Manmade
Plants/vegetation Brick
Water Metal
Earth forms/landforms Plastic
Timber Glass
Stone
There are many varieties of plant materials such as:
Trees
Shrubs
Creepers and climbers
Land covers .etc.

USES:
Environmental Architectural
1. Microclimate modifiers 1. Enframement
2. Conservation belt 2. Scale induction
3. Erosion control 3. Creation of plaza
4. Retains ground water 4. Defines pathway
5. Welcoming look and aesthetic
5. Retains soil fertility
appeal to the building
6. Prevents siltation
ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE- LANDFORM
Elements of landscape- Plants
Plants create outdoor
rooms. Trees, shrubs,
and ground covers can
be used to emphasize
the desirable
architectural lines and
masses.
Plants can be used to
soften and balance
harsh and awkward
architectural angles,
masses and materials.
Elements of Landscape Design- Plants

The human eye has a tendency


to follow the outline of the
objects in the landscape.
With this idea in mind the
apparent size in affected.

By graduating plant sizes away from the house, the


apparent size of the structure is increased.

Plants that reach large sizes at maturity are Tall evergreen create an uninviting,
often planted too closely to the house when inhibiting appearance to this entrance.
small. When mature, they dominate and
make the house look smaller.
Elements of landscape design- Plants

Creating outdoor rooms

The development of
outdoor rooms utilizes the
same elements as indoor
architecture-floors, walls,
and ceilings.
The difference is that the
elements of outdoor rooms
are composed of plant
materials that have a
changing and dynamic,
living quality.

A small side yard developed into


an intimate strolling(concept-
Borrowing scene, hide and
reveal) garden.
Elements of landscape design- Plants

Inwardly oriented
space is
characterized by
either complete or
nearly complete
enclosure and a
strong central focal Planting beds and walks
point. act as a breezeway
between driveway and
entrance courtyard.
Central areas for
sitting, sculpture Inwardly focused space Outwardly oriented
displays, patios, and rooms are enhanced by
hot tubs require amenities outside the
enclosure for space such as good
purpose of privacy, views and breezes.
quit, and
concentration.
Activities taking place
within the front yard
are more public in
nature and will require
Various plant types, free visual access on
heights, and and off the site and
combinations create little enclosure.
Outwardly focused space
walls, partial screens,
and overhead
canopies
Elements of landscape design- Plants

Environmental role
Pollution control
Noise control
Climate control

Use of windbreaks to control winter


winds

embankments., deciduous and evergreen plantings and


masonry walls are used together for effective sound control.

Use of deciduous plants to direct


summer breezes
Elements of landscape design- Plants
Elements of landscape- Plants

Creepers

Shrubs

Climbers
Covered pathways
Elements of landscape- Plants

GROUND COVERS-
Classified into groups based on several criteria, the
most important being height, foliage persistence,
method of spread, growth rate, and aesthetic TREES
characteristics.
Elements of landscape -Water
Water is also another most important landscape element.
Water bodies improve the quality and the worth of the site.it
makes the site attractive.
There are many types of water bodies :
1. Fountains Water features add sound, movement,
2. Pools and enjoyment into the landscape.
They also provide opportunities for
3. Ponds incorporating pond and wetland
plants into your landscape design. The
4. Spouts choice and placement of boulders,
stonework, and plantings can link the
5. Artificial waterfalls. etc. water feature with your building and
property, creating a unified landscape
composition
Microclimate created.
Moisture level maintained.
Wetland, marshes, swampy areas are
conserved.
Maintaining vegetation into wetlands.
Site aesthetics are enhanced
Elements of landscape -Water
Water flows inevitably, from the source to the receiving ocean
basin. This continuity of rivulets , streams and rivers can be readily observed.
USES:
1. Excellent land water interface gives an ecological home for the animals
and plants.
2. Water runoff reduced.
3. Microclimate created.
4. Moisture level maintained.
5. Wetland, marshes, swampy areas are conserved.
6. Maintaining vegetation into wetlands.
7. Hydrological cycle maintained.
8. Site aesthetics are enhanced
ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE- TIMBER
ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE- TIMBER
Elements of landscape -Stones
Stones are hard, impermeable, inorganic elements used extensively in
landscape architecture.
Stones are basically used for the following:

1. Paving
2. Retaining wall
3. Stacked stone wall
4. Sitting
5. Shelters
6. Parapets
7. Bridges
8. Sculptures
9. Planters
10.Bollards
Elements of landscape -Stones
Landscaping with stone brings in a natural element that
evokes solidness and a sense security.
Types of Landscape Stones and their uses

Retaining Walls--There are many different types of


stones that can be used when it comes to creating
retaining walls in the lawn. One may elect to assemble a
retaining wall around a small pond, or even a garden.
Flagstone-- Flagstone is a very popular choice when
it comes to stones that are used for steps, or simple
ornamental design.
Boulders --Homeowners elect to implement the use of
boulders in the decorative design of their landscaping.
Great products in the way of boulders include that of
Birchwood, Wisconsin, Granite, and even Honeycomb
Western stone.
Elements of landscape -Stones
Marble--Many individuals elect to use marble when
decorating their landscape. Marble can be used to create
signs, around or in garden ponds, and even marble
fountains can be purchased in order to bring out the
natural appeal of a pond or garden area. They are also
used in sculptures.
Natural Stone--Natural stone is often a choice
for small landscaping structures.
Decorative Stones--Decorative stones are used
in pathways or trails to beautify the garden. Some of
them are Royal George, Walnut nuggets, beach wood
pebbles and many more.
Other-- Other than that there are pebbles
used for sidewalks, stepping stones used in
gardens and stone is also used as stone lantern in
Chinese gardens.
THANKS..