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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS

Pusat Pengajian Kejuruteraan Bioproses


ERT 210/4 Process Dynamics and Control
Tutorial 5: Dynamic Behavior of First-order and Second-order Processes

5.1 In addition to the standard inputs discussed in Section 5.1, other input functions occasionally
are useful for special purposes. One, the so-called doublet pulse, is shown in Fig. E5.1.

Figure E5.1

(a) Find the Laplace transform of this function by first expressing it as a composite of
functions whose transforms you already know.
Answer:

(b) What would be the response of a process having a first-order transfer function K/(s+1) to
this input? Of the integrating process K/s?
Answer:
(c) From these results, can you determine what special property this input offers?
Answer:

5.9 Two liquid storage systems are shown in Fig.E5.9.Each tank is 4 feet in diameter. For system I,
the valve acts as a linear resistance with the flow-head relation q = 8.33 h, where q is in
gal/min and h is in feet. For System II, variations in liquid level h do not affect exit flow rate q.
Suppose that each system is initially at steady-state with h 6 ft and q i 50 gal/min and that
at time t = 0 the inlet flow rate suddenly changes from 50 to 70 gal/min. For each of the
system, determine the following information:

Figure E5.9

(a) The transfer function H ' ( s ) Q ' i ( s ) where the primes denote deviation variables.
Answer:
(b) The transient response h(t).

Answer:
(c) The new steady-state levels?
Answer:

(d) If each tank is 8 ft tall, which tank overflows first? when?


Answer:
5.10 The dynamic behavior of the liquid level in each leg of a manometer tube, responding to a
change in pressure, is given by

d 2 h' 6 dh' 3 g 3
2 h' p ' (t )
dt 2
R dt 2 L 4 L

where h'(t) is the level of liquid measured with respect to the initial steady-state value, p'(t) is
the pressure change, and R, L, q, , and are constants.
(a) Rearrange this equation into standard gain-time constant form and find expression for K, ,
in terms of the physical constants.
Answer:
(b) For what values of the physical constants does the manometer response oscillate?
Answer:

(c) Would changing the manometer fluid so that (density) is larger make its response more or
less oscillatory? Repeat the analysis for an increase in (viscosity).
Answer:

5.14 A step change from 15 to 31 psi in actual pressure results in the measured response from a
pressure indicating element shown in Fig. E5.14.

Figure E5.14
(a) Assuming second-order dynamics, calculate all important parameters and write and
approximate transfer function in the form

R' ( s) K
2 2
P' ( s ) s 2s 1
where R' is the instrument output deviation (mm), P' is the actual pressure deviation (psi).
Answer:
(b) Write an equivalent differential equation model in terms of actual (not deviation) variables.
Answer: