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ERT 210/4 Process Dynamics and Control

Tutorial 5: Dynamic Behavior of First-order and Second-order Processes

5.1 In addition to the standard inputs discussed in Section 5.1, other input functions occasionally

are useful for special purposes. One, the so-called doublet pulse, is shown in Fig. E5.1.

Figure E5.1

(a) Find the Laplace transform of this function by first expressing it as a composite of

functions whose transforms you already know.

Answer:

(b) What would be the response of a process having a first-order transfer function K/(s+1) to

this input? Of the integrating process K/s?

Answer:

(c) From these results, can you determine what special property this input offers?

Answer:

5.9 Two liquid storage systems are shown in Fig.E5.9.Each tank is 4 feet in diameter. For system I,

the valve acts as a linear resistance with the flow-head relation q = 8.33 h, where q is in

gal/min and h is in feet. For System II, variations in liquid level h do not affect exit flow rate q.

Suppose that each system is initially at steady-state with h 6 ft and q i 50 gal/min and that

at time t = 0 the inlet flow rate suddenly changes from 50 to 70 gal/min. For each of the

system, determine the following information:

Figure E5.9

(a) The transfer function H ' ( s ) Q ' i ( s ) where the primes denote deviation variables.

Answer:

(b) The transient response h(t).

Answer:

(c) The new steady-state levels?

Answer:

Answer:

5.10 The dynamic behavior of the liquid level in each leg of a manometer tube, responding to a

change in pressure, is given by

d 2 h' 6 dh' 3 g 3

2 h' p ' (t )

dt 2

R dt 2 L 4 L

where h'(t) is the level of liquid measured with respect to the initial steady-state value, p'(t) is

the pressure change, and R, L, q, , and are constants.

(a) Rearrange this equation into standard gain-time constant form and find expression for K, ,

in terms of the physical constants.

Answer:

(b) For what values of the physical constants does the manometer response oscillate?

Answer:

(c) Would changing the manometer fluid so that (density) is larger make its response more or

less oscillatory? Repeat the analysis for an increase in (viscosity).

Answer:

5.14 A step change from 15 to 31 psi in actual pressure results in the measured response from a

pressure indicating element shown in Fig. E5.14.

Figure E5.14

(a) Assuming second-order dynamics, calculate all important parameters and write and

approximate transfer function in the form

R' ( s) K

2 2

P' ( s ) s 2s 1

where R' is the instrument output deviation (mm), P' is the actual pressure deviation (psi).

Answer:

(b) Write an equivalent differential equation model in terms of actual (not deviation) variables.

Answer:

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