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9/20/2017 6:12:00 AM

Erik Erikson→ stages in the development of a human being, containing 8
stages. Each stage is linked to the family intimately. The way we get
through stages is strongly impacted by the family.

1) Infancy → trust vs. mistrust; first year of life. Children are totally
dependent on parenting figures for survival. They learn to trust by having
their needs satisfied (hunger, thirst, loved, etc).

2) Toddler → autonomy vs. shame and doubt. Ages 2 and 3. Autonomous
means that you are independent. Learn to walk, talk, potty training. They
need to develop independence and mastery of their environment and
selves. Parents/older figures need to encourage it and make it positive
experience. Memory starts here and goes on.

3) Early childhood → Initiative vs. guilt. Ages 4 to 5. Very important stage.
Increasing independence. Spatial perception: ability to visualize objects
out of context. Boys tend to be better at it. The toys they are given,
socialization; encouraged to play outside. They are not overly protected
compared to girls. Math and science. Don’t be overprotective. See the
world from different angles. Family must allow child to develop initiative,
the family needs to direct energy. Child must not feel guilty to be

4) School age → industry vs. inferiority. Ages 6-11. Children learn that
activities pay off. Playing sports, instruments and learning. Creativity.
Family needs to encourage sense of accomplishment. Failing to do so may
lead to feelings of inferiority. Insecurity. Can be a bully if inferior. Impact
adult relationships, dating, marriage, etc.

5) Adolescence → identity vs. role confusion or diffusion. Ages 12-18. Time
of turmoil, children try many roles for size. Children are transitioning to
adulthood. Successful transition = need to develop goals, philosophy of
life, sense of self. Family needs to be supportive of turmoil. If adolescent
fails to find identity, they will drift without sense of purpose, lonely.
LGBT in role confusion.
6) Young adulthood → intimacy vs. isolation. Adolescent leaves home,
begin to establish intimate ties to other people through dating,
cohabitation, marriage, etc. Without making connections, young adult
may be experiencing loneliness, isolation.

7)Adulthood → generativity vs. self absorption. Establishes his or her
family of choice, have children, find satisfaction with family
relationships. Failure to be productive may lead to a self centeredness,
what’s in it for me attitude.

8) Maturity → integrity vs. despair. Older age, looks back on life to
understand meaning. Assess and evaluate what is accomplished. Gauge
the success or failure of their relationships. Those who can make a
positive judgment can make a wholeness and richness of lives or a feeling
of despair (negative judgment).
Edie Windsor → plaintiff of Supreme Court decision to legalize same sex
marriage. Don’t postpone joy.

-Can deal with the ramifications if an individual does not get pass a stage
of development

Variant marital and family lifestyles (ones that are not nuclear family):
1) Variations in marriage and number of spouses
-Marital status and number of spouses are important, variations in
marital interaction patterns (living and sleeping relationships), sexual
interactions, impact of likelihood and number of children
-Single, married, separated, divorced, widow, partnered, other.
-None, one, multiple (polygamy)
9/20/2017 6:12:00 AM
9/20/2017 6:12:00 AM