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# SUBJECT : MATHEMATICS MARKS : 4

UNIT : 01 QUESTIONS :2
UNIT NAME : REAL NUMBER
CLASS : X

CONTENTS : INTRODUCTION
EUCLIDS DIVISION LEMMA
EUCLIDS DIVISION ALGORITHM
THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF MATHEMATICS
RELATION BETWEEN HCF AND LCM OF TWO POSITIVE INTEGERS a AND b.
IRRATIONAL NUMBERS
REVISITING RATIONAL NUMBERS AND THEIR DECIMAL EXPANSION

1)INTRODUCTION :
CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS :-

NUMBERS

REAL IMAGINARY

RATIONAL IRRATIONAL

## INTEGERS FRACTIONS DECIMALS

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CLASSIFICATION OF NUMBERS ON BASIS OF DECIMALS :-

DECIMAL NUMBERS

TERMINATING NON-TERMINATING
(0.36) (4.36248695..)

RECURRING NON-RECURRING
(REPEATING) (NON- REPEATING)
(0.888.) (0.4231597..)

LEMMA :-A Lemma is a proven statement used for proving another statement.

ALGORITHM :- An algorithm is a series of well defined steps which gives a procedure for solving a type of
Problem.

2) EUCLIDS DIVISION LEMMA :-For any two positive integers a and b, there exist unique integers q and r
Satisfying-
a=bq + r ; 0r<b.
where a = dividend
b = divisor
q = quotient
r = remainder

3) EUCLIDS DIVISION ALGORITHM :- To obtain the HCF of two positive integers c and d, with c>d,
(i) Apply Euclids division lemma to c and d, such that c=dq + r, 0r<d.
(ii) if r=0 then d is the HCF of c and d. if r0, apply the division lemma to d and r.
(iii) Continue the process till the remainder is zero. The divisor at this stage will be the required HCF.

Example 1 : use Euclids division algorithm to find the HCF of 135 and 225.
Solution:- 225>135, we apply the division lemma to 135 and225.
225=135x1 + 90, 900
We apply the division lemma to 135 and 90.
135=90x1 + 45. 450
Again, we apply the division lemma to 90 and 45.
90=45x 2 + 0, now r=0
45 is HCF of 135 and 225.

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4) THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ARITHMETIC :-Every composite number can be expressed as
a product of primes and this factorization is
unique, apart from the order in which the prime factors occur.
i.e. Composite number= product of primes
Or
Any integer greater than 1 either a prime number, or can be written as a unique product of prime numbers.

## Example 2 : express 156 as a product of its prime factors.

Solution :-
156

2 78

2 39

3 13

156=2x2x3x13
=22x3x13.

5) RELATION BETWEEN LCM AND HCF OF TWO POSITIVE INTEGERS a & b :- If a and b are two
Positive integers, then
Relation between LCM and HCF of them-
LCM(a,b) x HCF(a,b) =a x b.

6) IRRATIONAL NUMBERS :-

Irrational numbers : A number s is called irrational if it cannot be expressed in the form , where p and q
are integers and q0.
eg: 2,15, , 0.101100111000

theorem 1 : let p be a prime number. If p divides a2, then p divides a, where a is a positive integer.

## Example 3 : prove that 5 is irrational.

Proof : let 5 be a rational number. Then 5 can expressed in the form

5= ..(i)
Squaring both sides, we get
2
5=2 p2=5q2(ii)
5 divides p2 5 divides p..(iii)
Now p=5m p2=25m2 ..(iv)
Putting the value of p2 in eqn (ii)

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we get,
25m2=5q2 5m2=q2
5 divides q2 5 divides q..(v)
Thus, from eqn(iii), 5 divides p and from eqn (v) 5 also divides q. it means 5 is a common factor of p and q.
This contradicts the supposition so there is no common factor of p and q.
Hence, 5 is an irrational number.

## 7) REVISITING RATIONAL NUMBERS AND THEIR DECIMAL EXPANSION :- Let x be a rational

Number whose decimal

Expansion terminates, then x can be expressed in the form , where p and q are co prime and the prime
Factorization of q is of the form 2m5n,where m and n are non- negative integers.

let x= be a rational number, such that the prime factorization of q is not of the form 2m5n. then x has

Non- terminating recurring decimal expansion.

Q.1 Find HCF of 48 and 105. [SAMPLE PAPER RBSE,12]
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Q.2 Write terminating decimal expansion of 8 without long division. [RBSE,12]
Q.3 What is Euclids division lemma. Find HCF of 196 and 3820 by using it. [RBSE,12]
Q.4 Complete the missing entries in the following factor tree. [CBSE,08]

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Q.5 If is a rational number (q0), what is the condition on q so that the decimal representation of is
Terminating? [CBSE,08]
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Q.6The decimal expansion of the rational number 24 .53 will terminate after how many places of decimals?
[CBSE,09]
Q.7 If HCF of 65 and 117 is expressible in the form of 65m- 117,then find the value of m.[CBSE,2010]
Q.8 Prove that 3+2 is an irrational number. [CBSE,09]
Q.9 Prove that 5 is irrational. [CBSE,09,10]
Q.10 Show that n2-1 is divisible by 8, if n is an odd positive number.[CBSE,10]
Q.11 Show that the square of any positive integer is of the form 4q or 4q+1 for some integer.[CBSE,10]
Q.12Check whether 6n can end with the digit 0 for any natural number n.[CBSE,10]
Q.13 Prove that(3+52) is an irrational number.[CBSE,09]

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