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October 2015 Vol 59

Chief Editor : Deepika Kachhal Joint Director (Production) : V.K. Meena

Senior Editor : Shyamala M. Iyer Cover Design : Gajanan P. Dhope
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Let noble thoughts come to us from all sides

Rig Veda

Re-defining Skills Development Landscape in India do you know? . .............................................................................40
dilip Chenoy.............................................................................................7
special Article
Jobs, Employment, Technology, and Skills
Preserving our Heritage :
Arun Maira, Madan Padaki.....................................................................11
Protecting and Promoting Handloom
Skills for Inclusive Growth: Next decade of Monika S Garg........................................................................................42
Innovation and Blended Learning
NORTH EAST DIARY . .....................................................................48
Pooja Gianchandani................................................................................17
Skill Development :
Skilling India through Blended Learning
Capitalizing Resources & Capabilities
an avant-garde attempt
Manoj Joshi, Arun Bahadauria, Shailja Dixit.........................................50
M Sairam, Sharanya Ramesh . ...............................................................22
Improving Employability of The Disadvantaged
Skill Development & Vocational Education
sunita Sanghi..........................................................................................56
Swati Mujumdar......................................................................................26
Skill Development of Women : Enabling Factors
Skill development: imperative for Indias Growth
Dev Nathan ............................................................................................65
S S Mantha..............................................................................................29
Building Human Capital through Skilling
J&K window....................................................................................34
Sachin Adhikari.......................................................................................68
Skill Development for Tribal Youth in India:
Craft and Education
Excerpts from Gandhiji's Discussion With Existing Status and Future Strategies
Teacher Trainees, February 3/4, 1939................................................. 36 Rajendra Singh Gautam, Navin T and Shashank Singh..........................71

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YOJANA October 2015 3


4 YOJANA October 2015


Skilled India, Successful India

uccess does not come through magic. It needs necessary skills to succeed. This universal
truth is equally applicable for the young generation. Youth energy can be the driving
force for social and economic development of any country provided it is channelized
effectively. Skill development and Employment are the best means to mobilise this force.
The Indian employers have been struggling with acute shortage of skilled manpower
despite India having the largest pool of young population in the world. Reason: Lack of
required expertise for specific jobs. As per the Labour Bureau Report 2014, the current size
of Indias formally skilled workforce is only 2 per cent. This apart, there is also the challenge
of employability of large sections of the conventionally educated youth. The Indian education
system has been churning out brilliant minds but lacking in the skill sets required for specific
jobs. There is a huge gap between the talent that is coming out of colleges and universities
and its suitability in terms of scope and standard of employable skills. This crop of English
speaking population has the capability to meet the skill requirements of the nation as well as
the entire world. The need is for appropriate and adequate skill development and training which can convert this force into
the largest source of technically skilled manpower.
The Skill India mission launched by the government aims to provide a solution to this problem through creation of a
job ready and skilled workforce by equipping it with employable skills. The Mission aims to skill over 40 crore people by
2022 and enhance their employability by training them in skill sets of their choice.
Skilled human resource at all levels is essential for inclusive growth. Skill development cannot be seen in isolation.
It has to be an integral process of linking the skill training with education and employment at the same time. The
government agencies and system cannot accomplish this task alone. Private Sector, NGOs, Educational institutions with
experience in skills training need to be involved in the process of skilling. All sections need to be given equal importance.
Vocationalisation of education is of cardinal importance for skilling youth. At the same time, the other sections of society
viz. women, marginalised, tribalsetc. need tailor made training programmes to suit their diverse and specific needs. While
being illiterate may be an issue in providing skill training to most marginalised sections, one may have to deal with family
issues and social restrictions in case of providing skill training to women. These factors need to be taken into account for
any programme to be successful.
India has already starting moving on the path of high economic growth. To put this wave of motion into the next gear
we need to focus on advancement of skills which are pertinent to global economic environment. The challenge lies not
only in expansion of facilities for skill training, but also in raising the quality of skills to be able to compete at international
forum. The National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015 proposes to meet the challenge of skilling
at scale with speed, standard and sustainability. It aims to provide an umbrella framework to all skilling activities being
carried out within the country. It also seeks to standardise the process of skilling and link it with demand centres both at
national as well as international level.
Skill multiplied by effort equals success. With recent initiatives of the government, the skill development programme
has taken the shape of a movement. These efforts of the government may take some time to bear fruits however in the
long run, the skilled Indians (Kushal Bharat) will lead the country towards being a happy, healthy and prosperous nation
(Kaushal Bharat) thus justifying the slogan Kushal Bharat, Kaushal Bharat.. q

YOJANA October 2015 5


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6 YOJANA October 2015

skill eco-system

Re-defining Skills Development Landscape in India

dilip Chenoy

recently launched pivot for all the other national missions

annual report by like Make in India, Digital India, Smart
Reserve Bank of India Cities and others. Only a job ready
(RBI) for 2014-15, and skilled workforce will lead to the
mentions that Indias success of all these national missions
growth outlook is hence leading to Indias economic
improving gradually growth, improvement in GDP numbers
and the real activity indicators are and increasing per capita income. It
backing its 7.6 per cent gross domestic is imperative that the countrys youth
product (GDP) projection. Further the gets the right direction to harness
report states that business confidence the countrys demographic dividend
remains robust, and as the initiatives and also add to his/her personal and
Only a job ready and announced in the Union Budget professional growth.
boosting investment in infrastructure
skilled workforce will roll out, they should crowd in private At present, as the developed nations
lead to the success investment and revive consumer are preparing themselves to face a
sentiment, especially as inflation ebbs. storm created by more advanced
of all these national These are some of the indicators which and technical processes of delivery
missions hence leading suggest that despite having a slow- of education, Indias educational
down across countries world over, system is still undergoing a content
to Indias economic Indias story looks bright and well- reformation. A few initiatives by the
paced. Only, India has shown signs of current incumbent government will
growth, improvement shift our focus to the right needs of our
improvement in GDP numbers among
in GDP numbers and the fast growing nations. countrys youth. Our focus has always
been on education but unfortunately
increasing per capita The government has already set not on overall skill development. This
income. It is imperative the ball rolling. It has relaxed FDI is the need of the hour, in order to
norms to encourage both domestic become a great power and utilize our
that the countrys and foreign companies to manufacture biggest strength i.e. our demographic
in India and sell their products dividend. The next 5 to 10 years are
youth gets the right abroad. Make-in-India is expected extremely crucial for our country to
direction to harness the to increase manufacturing activity meet the challenges ahead, in making
across various sectors as well as India, the human resource capital of
countrys demographic enhance its contribution to GDP. It is the world.
dividend and also add also expected that with the increase in
manufacturing activity, a substantial If there was ever a time for the
to his/her personal and number of jobs will be created for the demographic dividend that India is
skilled workforce that the country is banking on to start paying off, it is now.
professional growth preparing. In line with the same, the According to the census data released
Government has recently launched the in September 2013, Indias youth
Skill India Mission which will act as a bulge is now sharpest at the key 15-24
The author is Managing Director and Chief Executive Officers, national skills development corporation.

YOJANA October 2015 7

industries, ministries, states, corporates
National Skill Development Corporation
and individuals join hands and work
The National Skill Development Corporation India, (NSDC) towards a common objective of
is a one of its kind, Public Private Partnership in India. It aims to making India the Skills Capital of
promote skill development by catalyzing creation of large, quality, the World.
for-profit vocational institutions. NSDC provides funding to build scalable,
d for-
vocational training initiatives. At/ 
W W W  / this 
time, the  overall

 wave of skill development looks
mandate is also to enable support systems such as quality assurance, E^
/      positive,
   could bolster

information systems
   and train'
  the trainer /academies
  either directly or through

Indias strength as a leading emerging
partnerships. NSDC acts as a catalyst in skill development by providing funding market economy in the
/world and
:      D  ^  

to enterprises, companies
and organisations that provide skill training. It
E will also also contribute towards improving its
developD^appropriate models
 and coordinate private sector investment appeal.
The first and foremost step that the
age group. As
 WWW Indias demographics
   56 per cent of students government took in shaping the skills
grow younger, the issue of sustainable drop out between high school and landscape was the creation of a separate
employment becomes more important. higher education. Between all these Ministry for Skill Development &
This coupled with the volatile economic facts and figures, only a fraction of Entrepreneurship (MSDE). The country
growth that the country is currently people are employed and trained. The already had an existing skill ecosystem
going through, springs up a challenge report also suggests that 53 per cent of created by NSDC which includes 37
for the industry. Indian employers find skill shortage sectors skill councils and 235 training
as one of the prime reasons for entry partners with 3611 training centres
A significant opportunity that the level vacancies. Hence, we clearly see spread across 450 plus districts across
country foresees now is that India that there is a mismatch between the the country. The next big step is to
will be expanding its most productive aspirations of the Indian youth and further empower the existing system
cohorts (population between 15-60 the expectations of the employer and by ensuring government support and
years) as most developed countries thus, there exists a huge gap between guidance by enabling focused policies.
and some developing ones will be employment and employability. The NSDC worked with MSDE to aid the
contracting theirs. By utilising this key challenge that the country faces is skilling process for various sectors
opportunity, we can pull the Indian finding jobs for the millions of youth by creating the National Occupation
economy into a virtuous cycle of below 25 years of age constituting 50 Standards for different job roles, which
growth with meaningful job creation. per cent of the population. define standards and curriculum for
Approximately 15 to 17 per cent of
This was imperative, as it was sector. Till date NSDC"CPVU1SBEIBO.BO
vocational training in the respective
the global working population in 2022 has been able
would be Indian. about time that the country realised the to train 5.5 million people of which 61
need and importance of skills;and all per cent have been placed. This is being
The figures today reflect that Indias
working population will surpass Chinas Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
working population by 2040. Clearly, (PMKVY)
our country has an advantage in terms
of the total workable population Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is
i.e. the number of people working the agship outcome-based skill training scheme of the
in an economy. But we cannot just Government of India implemented through the National Skill Development
rely on the increase in workable Corporation (NSDC) under the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship.
population for a brighter future. Of the The objective of this skill cercation and reward scheme is to enable and mobilize
a large number of Indian youth to take up outcome-based skill training 
and E^
become   D  ^
countrys approximately 500 million      
workforce, 14 per cent is employed in employable and earn their livelihood. Under the scheme, monetary reward through
the formal economy and 86 per cent is direct bank transfer would be provided to trainees who are successfully trained,
employed in the un-organized sector. assessed and certied in skill courses run by affliated training providers. PMKVY

The challenge is that this 86 per cent will impart skill/training to 24 lakh persons. The scheme will      W
be implemented
is not well-trained or recognized in the through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).  d    
job market. All trainings and cercation under Recognition of Prior Learning will
   be  Z
specically oriented for developing skills in specic growth sectors. Assessment

Today, there is a huge mismatch
and training bodies for all purposes of the Scheme will be   
separate  ^
and no   
between education, skill training and
overlap of roles will be allowed to maintain transparency and
objectivity. The
employment. According to a report d      
monetary reward will be wholly funded by the Ministry of Skill Development and
from McKinsey, only 54 per cent of '/
Entrepreneurship, Government of India and will be affected through bank transfer

youth believe that post-secondary
to the beneciaries accounts.
education improved their employment

8 YOJANA October 2015

 scaled up with speed so that we can fill PMKVY - Objectives
up the huge gap across industries. d^
The objective of this Scheme is to encourage skill development for youth
On the other hand, the Skill India providing monetary rewards for successful completion of approved training
Mission and the Skill Policy 2015, aimed programs. Specically, the Scheme aims to:
to skill 40 crore youth in the country
by 2022. The vision of the policy is to /
create an ecosystem conducive to an 
empowered economy which has a job 
ready skilled workforce by skilling on
WD<sz  ^

a large scale with speed and quality,

industry recognised d standards 
      of innovation 
to promote a culture 

based entrepreneurship which can 

generate wealth and employment so as
 WD<sz to ensure
 livelihoods for all
country. Z
Over 70-odd Skill Development
Z  W >     
Programmes (SDPs),
 have been  
      each with its
   own norms

for eligibility criteria, duration of  Z
   D  ^cost of training,
  outcomes,  d
monitoring and tracking mechanism

etc. The policy revision is a great

move by the Government of India
which will help in rationalising the
whole spectrum of skill development Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen and skilled workforce, along with
processes and systems including Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY), Nai enough respect for the job they
inputs, outputs, funding/cost norms, Manzil and the Credit Guarantee do.  q
third party certification and assessment, Fund will certainly enhance access, (E-mail:
monitoring/tracking mechanisms, and equality, quality, innovation and
empanelment of training providers and institutional credit in the area of skill National Web Portal for
W' ultimately lead to a common goal. development. W'
Apprenticeship Training
Industry is also witnessing an Schemes like PMKVY will help The Centre launched the National Web
increased participation from Corporates in mobilization of the youth through a Portal for Apprenticeship Training
and PSUs who are coming forward and monetary reward for skill certification for Graduates, Diploma holders and
investing back in the countrys youth and will in turn, help boost their 10+2 pass-outs vocational certificate
by supporting skill development employability and productivity. The holders, with the slogan Sashakt
through their CSR initiatives under scheme also aims at recognising the Yuva, Samarth Bharat. This portal
various partnerships such as financing, existing skills of individuals through enables door step delivery of service,
providing infrastructure, recognition recognition of prior learning. The streamlines processes and saves time
of prior learning, adoption of overall target is to benefit 24 lakh youth for students. This portal would offer
security for women at workplace and
national qualification framework in the country over the next one year.
ensure grievance redressal for the
and occupational standards etc.
Overall, there is a feel-good factor. apprentice through the mechanism
Organisations like PowerGrid, NTPC, of internal complaints committee.
Coal India, Ambuja Cements, CIFCL, The skill ecosystem is currently
seen getting a clear direction for a The Portal will enable viable
Essar and Coca-Cola are some of the contract for students and industry
leading examples. PSUs have been progressive India and it is the best time
partnership and also ensure seamless
very forthcoming in their agenda to align ourselves to one objective of connectivity with all stake holders
towards skill development. The three Kushal Bharat, Kaushal Bharat. There including students, establishments
PSUs, PowerGrid, Coal India Limited is growth in parts of the economy. Now and technical institutions across the
and NTPC have contributed more than with the launch of the Skill India country for transparent administration
Rs. 200 crores for this purpose. Campaign, the approach is likely through e-Governance. It will serve
to become widespread and more as a multilingual platform which
On the other hand, governments impactful. The next challenge is to currently engages with the user
initiatives like Pradhan Mantri Kaushal create the training capacity to meet the in Marathi, Bengali, Tamil and
Vikas Yojna (PMKVY) - flagship increasing demand of the industry and Hindi.  q
program of MSDE, Skill Loan Scheme, ensure enough jobs for the empowered

YOJANA October 2015 9


10 YOJANA October 2015

job-skills ecosystem
job creation

Jobs, Employment, Technology and Skills

Arun Maira, Madan Padaki

ndia, more than any youth if they do not have adequate

other country in the opportunities to earn and consume,
world, must ensure that and to lead the lives they have begun
there will be enough to aspire for. Signs of the growing
jobs for young people. unrest are becoming increasingly
Economists have been visible, manifested in demands for
pointing out that demographic trends reservations of jobs, migration of
around the world have created a youth to Indias growing and creaking
condition in which the richer countries urban conglomerations, and violence
of the world (including China) will by youth in the cities.
Rather than putting have a shortfall of working age people
The government of India is seized
to support their economies. At the same
more skills as the time, India is pregnant with a bulge of the imperative to create employment
opportunities for its youth, through
goal of the national of people coming to working age. India
its Skills Development Mission to
has over 470 million persons below
enterprise, the goal must the age of 18 years. The governments skill up 500 million persons, and to
Economic Survey 2014 says that Make in India. With China gradually
be the formation of vacating its factories for the world,
every year 63 million new entrants are
many more enterprises being added to Indias working age with rising Chinese wages and an
population. appreciating yuan, and also with its
and with them jobs. internal demographic challenge of
Requisite skills will have I n d i a s p o t e n t i a l t o e a r n a too few young people, India has an
demographic dividend from its opportunity it must seize to become
to be developed along burgeoning youthful population is a viable factory for the world. The
with the development of often cited, but generally without fear is that India will not be able to
the rider that should accompany it. do this unless it changes its pattern of
enterprises. Moreover, Which is that India will not realize economic growth, and unless it adopts
its demographic dividend unless its better approaches to implementation
critical portions of skill youth are able to earn incomes, which of its well-intentioned programs. The
development will have to they will spend, and from which they fear that India will have a problem
will save, and thus boost the countrys if it does not change its approach is
be within the enterprises economic growth. Indeed, there can founded on evidence that, though
themselves be large-scale social unrest amongst Indias growth in GDP, on average,

Arun Maira is Chancellor, Central University of Himachal Pradesh. As Former Member, Planning Commission of India he led the
development of strategies for the country on issues relating to industrialisation and urbanisation, and drove the formulation of policies
and programmes in these areas. His most recent book, An Upstart in Government: Journeys of Change and Learning. His earlier books
include Redesigning the Aeroplane While Flying: Reforming Institutions; Remaking India: One Country, One Destiny; Transforming
Capitalism: Improving the World for Everyone, and Shaping the Future: Aspirational Leadership in India and Beyond. Madan Padaki
is Co-founder and CEO, Head Held High Services. He is also on the Governing Council of TiE Bangalore, Indo-American Chamber of
Commerce, Karnataka and is a founding Partner of Social Venture Partners, Bangalore.

YOJANA October 2015 11

has been impressive since its economic telecommunications, and many conglomerations seeking livelihoods.
reforms since the 1990, India seems to others. Even manufacturing is being Indias towns and cities must be
create fewer jobs with every per cent transformed with application of prepared to provide decent housing,
increase in GDP than other developing digital technologies and automation: water, sanitation, transport, and security
countries do. This is a finding of the for example, now small units using to much larger numbers of people than
Boston Consulting Groups Sustainable 3-D printers can have the scope of they are able to handle now. The
Economic Development Assessment capabilities of a large factory with its backlog in urban facilities is already
analysis of international comparisons, many special machines. Technologies huge. The Smart Cities and AMRUT
for example, and it is supported by are being developed rapidly and programs of the Indian government
others analyses too. applied in innovative ways. It has are being energized to meet the needs.
become very difficult to predict what However, it is safe to say that for the
In this essay, we explain the the shapes of factories and service next decade and more, Indian cities
changes in mind-sets and institutional industries will be even in the next ten will not be in a position to provide
architectures that are necessary for years, and what will be the shapes of good facilities and livelihoods for the
India to create jobs more rapidly. We jobs in them and precisely what skills large numbers of Indian youth who
will first describe the forces shaping will be required. this uncertainty is need jobs. Therefore, the formation of
the global (and Indian) environments a problem for preparing the surplus ecosystems in rural India to provide
for creation of jobs and skills, and Indian workforce to meet the needs sustainable and respectable livelihoods,
explain how technology is changing in developed countries where the to meet rural youths aspirations for
these environments and disrupting old effects of technology on reshaping modern jobs must be strengthened.
patterns. Then we will describe the manufacturing and service enterprises
changes in mind-sets and institutional will be pronounced. Technology will India has to move past the village
architectures required for India to transform Indian enterprises too, as versus city, and rural versus urban
seize its moment. Finally, we present ideological debate. Ecosystems for
an example to illustrate the changes India has to move past the village good livelihoods will be required in
required in mind-sets and in the versus city, and rural versus urban both urban and rural India. And, since
architectures of skill development solutions for providing modern jobs and
ideological debate. Ecosystems careers in urban settings are fairly well
for good livelihoods will be known around the world, albeit being
Forces shaping Indias Jobs- required in both urban and rural altered by technologies as mentioned
(JETS) eco-system India. And, since solutions for before, India must develop innovative
solutions for modern livelihoods in
providing modern jobs and careers rural India.
A force pressing strongly on the
in urban settings are fairly well
jobs-skills eco-system is the pressure new architecture of the JETS
to get a lot done very quickly so that, known around the world, albeit
as many fear, Indias demographic being altered by technologies as Skills) eco-system
dividend does not turn into a mentioned before, India must
demographic disaster. Whenever there The widely prevalent theory-in-
develop innovative solutions for use for doing anything on a large scale
is great pressure to do more, and faster,
of anything, the usual response is to modern livelihoods in rural India. is to construct a large integrated system
throw more resources and apply more with strong control from the top. This
authority to get it done. The approach is it must, and it will be hazardous to is the model of the assembly line. This
not changed. Only more resources and estimate what skills will be required method can work when the output
power are applied with the expectation to do exactly what jobs even in India, required at the end of the assembly line
that the problem will then go away. and what the numbers of each of these is pre-determinable. You can have any
However, as Albert Einstein said, one jobs will be. color car so long as it is black, Henry
cannot solve seemingly intractable Ford is reported to have said. Factories
problems by using the same approach The third force, already very strong have become far more flexible since
that may have caused the problem. in India, is the need for job creation in Fords days. Nevertheless, a factory to
rural India. Less numbers of people produce mobile phones may produce
The second big condition affecting will be required to work in farming as a variety of mobile phones but it
the JETS ecosystem all over the productivity improves, which it must to cannot produce garments or cars.
world is uncertainty. The shapes of increase incomes. Agricultural output The challenge of makers of policy
enterprises and jobs are being changed must increase but agriculture itself will and builders of institutions for skill
with new technologies. Industries are not be generator of jobs. Therefore, development in the 21st century, as
being radically transformed: retailing, youth will stream into Indias hard- explained earlier, is that what work will
publishing, public transportation, pressed and rapidly growing urban be required to be done and what skills

12 YOJANA October 2015

will be necessary cannot be predicted develop better learners, not merely as they learn. The value of all other
with sufficient precision any more. The good workers. (Indeed, the thrust resources of the enterpriseits
assembly line, or linear supply chain of livelihood generating enterprises machinery, materials, and buildings,
model for skill development cannot also, as we shall see in our example will depreciate with time. Therefore,
work any longer. later, must be primarily to foster in a fast changing world, employers
a learning ability in enterprise would do well to humanize their
An approach to large scale skill creators and employment seekers.) enterprises, and not only digitize
development which begins with an
3. Employers must be an integral part them with technology.
estimation of the numbers of people
in various trades who will be required of the skill development process, 6. The architecture of the JETS
in the economy some years in the not merely its customers. To survive ecosystem will be a dynamic
future will fail to produce people with in dynamic competition, employers network, not a tight supply-chain.
requisite skills for the enterprises must keep re-shaping their The network will be formed by
and jobs that will actually arise. The enterprises along with the changing enterprises specializing in different
length of a linear skill development landscapes of their industries, activities to assist people to learn
supply chain can be very long in time, which, as explained before, will and keep learning as jobs and
extending to many years. Working happen even faster than it already enterprises take new emergent
backwards, from the skill specifications is. Therefore enterprises must forms. There will be specialists
and numbers factories say they will continuously change their processes in content development, training
need, technical training institutions and they must keep changing the support, teacher development, for
must produce the required numbers skills they expect their employees to
mentoring entrepreneurs, etc. They
with the required skills. To provide have. Since the changes will be fast,
will compete with others providing
inputs to the technical institutes, our the only place employees can hone
the same service: those amongst
schools and colleges should provide and develop these new skills will be
them who provide better value will
students with preliminary vocational in the place of work itself where the
new processes and technologies are grow. Innovation must flourish
skills. And thus, we define a supply within the JETS ecosystem.
chain extending over several years being introduced.
of a young persons life. He (or she) must continuously 7. The governments principal roles
will be to protect customer
can set out early in life on a path change their processes and they interests with standards that
towards an aspirational job at the end
of the chain, channeling himself into a must keep changing the skills they enterprises must follow. It must
specialization. And when he finds, at expect their employees to have. regulate competition and prevent
the end many years later, that the jobs Since the changes will be fast, the established players crowding out
for which he has qualified are no longer only place employees can hone and new entrants. The government may
sufficiently available, he will join also provide common facilities,
many other disillusioned, educated, but develop these new skills will be in for steps in the skill development
under-unemployed youth who are fuel the place of work itself where the process that smaller enterprises
for social unrest. new processes and technologies are cannot provide for themselves. Here
Clearly we need an ecosystem with being introduced. too, the principal must be that the
employers take responsibility for
a different architecture. This system
4. Competition will be increasing the quality of the skill development.
must be founded on seven foundational
by global, i.e. coming not just Therefore, these common facilities
principles. from other countries, but from should be, as much as possible,
1. It cannot be designed like a supply- enterprises outside the present run as cooperative ventures by the
chain or assembly line for reasons borders of industries also. Only employers albeit with support from
explained. It must not be a system those enterprises (and employers) the government.
designed from the end requirements will succeed who are able to learn
working backwards. Rather, it must and change themselves faster Innovations in JETS
be designed to enable young people than other enterprises. Therefore,
So far we have taken a high-level
to discover opportunities and jobs enterprises must become faster and
view of the changing pattern of the
as they arise, and to be quickly better learning enterprises.
able to learn the skills that will be 5. The only resource any enterprise ecosystem, like a view from the
required. has with the ability to learn and moon of weather systems swirling
2. The emphasis must be on making improve its own abilities is human over the earth. Now we will come
students better learners. The thrust beings. Human beings are the only down to earth and see how these
of teaching in universities, technical appreciating assets of an enterprise architectural principles are giving
institutions, and schools must be to whose value can increase over time shape to innovative ventures that are

YOJANA October 2015 13

simultaneously enabling youth to learn There is a general misconception marketplaces. There is an opportunity
new skills and create new enterprises. about rural India. Many believe that to build technology-based gateways and
capabilities in rural India for modern platforms in rural India that will enable
We must state at the outset that jobs/careers are limited with a tacit rural youth to assist corporates to have
the case we present here is only one assumption that this is due to a lack market access and to provide business
example, albeit a very good one, and of computer literacy, communication support services. The corporates
that there are many others, such as skills, logical reasoning, judgment could be in various sectors such as
the well known Barefoot Academy, ability, etc. But if one were to look agriculture, healthcare, education,
and many more. Many of the older closely, one would realize that the DNA financial services, retail, and utilities
examples did not use technology as a of rural India is changing. The emerging (water, power, telecom).
major driver. Whereas those formed breed of rural youth has anurban level
more recently, such as the one we of access to information, a similar Head Held High has created a
describe here, are using technology or even higher hunger to learn, an platform called Ruban Bridge, that
quite extensively. entrepreneurial spirit, and even global provides last mile connectivity to rural
aspirations. India which brings necessary services
Skill developments new look; of health and education, as well as
Job Creators over Job Seekers: A common perception is that rural aspirational servicesentertainment
Rural Enterprises; Extensive use of India is lacking in technology, but of and e-commerce products and
technology Livelihood is defined as the 1,000 people HHH surveyed in 4 servicesto the doorsteps of rural
a means of support or subsistence. districts in North Karnataka, 53 per consumers. In just a few months,
Today, the aspiration of our youth is cent have used a smartphone and 73 per HHH began to see new jobs and
not just subsistence, but to build a cent of them access internet on mobile. entrepreneurship opportunities opening
career that provides both income In another E-Commerce survey, we up to feed newly forming markets, and
growth as well as respect from society. did among 100 people, 90 per cent of engaging over a hundred previously
Since there are hardly any careers or them had heard about online shopping unemployable rural youth.
modern jobs in rural India, but mostly and 47 per cent of them had actually
traditional livelihoods, rural youth feel tried to order online. This shows the Another of HHHs successes has
compelled to migrate to urban slums penetration of technology and rural been in creating a marketplace that
where they eke out whatever jobs and youths comfort in using it, even in the facilitates the Governments vision
career opportunities that a large city rural hinterlands. of Digital India. Internet Santhe
can give them. (Santhe in Kannada means a Fair) is
Technology is being used to map an initiative to promote and provide
According to a recent report by out job/career opportunities, skill education on the use of technology to
McKinsey, India has to absorb 115 achievement levels, and entrepreneurial specific rural user groups in the taluks.
million youth into the workforce career paths at a rural/district-level. Internet Santhes have been organized
over the next 10 years. Large, formal Technology is also used to provide in ten taluks across six districts in
organizations, which can provide them career counselling to rural youth to Karnataka, including Sira, Nargund,
careers, can never absorb all of them. choose their options wisely, and to and Tavaragere. Over 8000 people
enable local, educated youth to become were engaged through Internet Santhes;
So how do we cater to the career trainers so that local help is many of them used relevant internet-
expectations of careers? The answer always available. Technology is also enabled apps and tools to explore new
is, by creating entrepreneurship as a providing a platform where aspirants avenues of knowledge-sharing and
viable career option. Head Held High are helped to make the right aspiration- income generation.
(HHH) is a successful example of this skill-role match, to help them build
paradigm and that too in rural India long term careers rather than just do Conclusion
where many more opportunities for a job. The global jobs-enterprises-
modern livelihoods must be created
Head Held High has also deployed technology-skills (JETS) ecosystem
rapidly. HHHs surveys have revealed
has become very dynamic and, at
that there is a significant number of technology-assisted learning to
the moment at least, it is impossible
youth who would prefer to stay in and transform youth with low literacy
levels into English-speaking, computer to predict with any certainty what
around their districts if they could be the shapes of industries, factories,
gainfully engaged. The solution for literate, professional workers in four
months! manufacturing processes and
Indias jobs challenge is to encourage enterprises will be.
more youth to make the choice of Leveraging skills to generate
becoming entrepreneurs, rather than incomes To have a nation of skilled people,
personal job-seekers, who will create who have invested years of their lives
career opportunities for more youth For careers and entrepreneurship in acquiring skills, without jobs at the
in their districts. to thrive, we need to create new end, would be worse perhaps than

14 YOJANA October 2015

Story of Skill India Logo
The Skill India Logo depicts a clenched
hand, in which a spanner and pencil are
firmly held. The strong depiction of the
hand exemplifies empowerment of the No Stories, Only Strategic Discussion
Dear Candidates, in the new pattern of Civil Services Examination,
individual through skilling.
The spanner, also known as Chabbi in colloquial
Hindi, symbolizes the role that skill plays in unlocking
human potential. It is also a universal tool used across the mantra for success is
Worry Less About Content, Focus More On Analysis
many trades, including by plumbers, auto-mechanics,
electricians and in a wide range of manufacturing jobs.
The pencil represents service sector skills and is also
used in general education.
The spanner and pencil are held together. Their
Read Less Think More, Write Less Convey More
juxtaposition puts skill and general education at parity,
suggesting both can empower individuals and are
aspirational for Indias youth. Regular Batches
A rising sun is shown as a backdrop to the clenched
hand, alluding to the role of skills in the rise of India as Duration: 2 months; Timings: 4:30-7:30 pm (Mon-Fri)
a nation. The use of arrows in Skill suggests upward

Starting on: 1 December, 2015

mobility through skilling. st
The logo is placed on a computer screen, highlighting
Skill India as a gateway to sophisticated jobs in advanced
sectors and the great potential of using technology in
skilling. 1st March, 2016 1st June, 2016
Test Series Batches (Mains-2016)
The tagline, Kaushal Bharat, Kushal Bharat suggests
that skilling Indians (Kaushal Bharat) will result in a
happy, healthy, prosperous and strong nation (Kushal
( Module I and Module II)
Starting on: 10th January, 2016 10th April, 2016
having a nation of unskilled people without jobs. Therefore,
the JETS stream must be turned on its head. Rather than
putting more skills as the goal of the national enterprise, the
goal must be the formation of many more enterprises and
with them jobs. Requisite skills will have to be developed Special Fee Concession for economically needy candidates
along with the development of enterprises. Moreover,
critical portions of skill development will have to be within Download Free Sociology Notes from our
Facebook Group: Sociology @ Aditya Mongra
the enterprises themselves.
Technology alone can never be a good enough solution.
Within the JETS ecosystem, technology is both a disrupter The only institute for Sociology where
of enterprises and jobs, as well an enabler of enterprises
and skills. The architecture of the JETS ecosystem must be the focus on answer-writing starts from the very first class
Aditya Mongra
changed, from a linear supply chain model to a model of
networked enterprises, and then technology applied to it, for
India to create more enterprises and dignified employment
of its youth, and realize its vision of inclusive and politically Professors Classes
sustainable development. Innovators of new models, like Laxmibai Nagar, INA Metro Station, New Delhi-110023
Head Held High, using technology as a powerful enabler,
q Enquiry: 9999663160, Email:

are revealing new pathways. 

( Facebook: Limited Seats Admission Open Register Today
YOJANA October 2015 15

16 YOJANA October 2015

stakeholders for skill india

Skills for Inclusive Growth: Next decade of

Innovation and Blended Learning
Pooja Gianchandani

anjita Nayak is from a new lease of life. She had never

the tribal district of handled a machine, knew little about
Rayagada in Southern stitches and garments and did not
Odisha. This 19-year know how to work with people. She
old's father supports was nervous but excited to learn
a family of 7 members something new.
with her earnings as an agricultural
labourer. Her children have dropped She had to undergo selection tests
out of school given their paltry like eye sight, hand eye coordination,
condition. She has always been comfort with tools, colour blindness
courageous and so decided to elope etc. Once selected, she found the
company of many other young girls
Skill India is a daunting with her lover at a very young age.
from nearby villages who had joined
She was abused and abandoned by
task of keeping sight him within 6 months of their marriage. the training to support their family.
on the manpower Her family refused to accept her She would get 3 meals a day, a real
back leaving her with the struggle luxury for her. The trainers trained
requirements of the to find shelter and proper food and her on the basics of operating a
industry and the clothes. Depressed and alone, she machine, gave regular assignments
lost her desire for living and attempted as well as project work. She went to
infrastructure needed suicide many times. Nothing seemed a nice institute which had toilets and
for achieving the targets to be working for her so she was clean water. There were classes on
considering joining the Maoists. She personal hygiene, English and use of
of skilling. With many Internet. In a short span of 45 days,
is one of the many girls who struggle to
new players entering the make ends meet or even survive given Sanjita became adept in operating a
the socio-economic barriers. Luckily machine, understanding instructions
skills space, focus has to and producing the finished garment
for Sanjita, she met a counsellor who
be on the 3 is of Skills - offered a training programme which in specified time. She was offered a
job by Cotton Blossom, a well known
investment, innovations led to a job.
export house in Tirupur, Tamil Nadu.
and institutions to She got an opportunity to enroll She earns Rs 8000/- along with food,
into a programme which was free for accommodation, health check-up,
improve the quality of youth, enrolled even school drop outs PF and other facilities like a bank
training, assessments and and offered job relevant training in account. Sanjita boarded the train for
jobs residential mode. Sanjita chose the the first time when she left Rayagada.
Sewing Machine Operators programme She couldnt believe that she works
at the centre. This programme offered with such a big company and is treated
by the Government of India gave her in a dignified manner. From her first
The author is Group Head - Policy & Communication Group (PCG) and Corporate Engagement, IL&FS Education and Technology
Services Ltd. She was earlier Director and Head for Skills Development with FICCI. She has also worked with the Confederation of
Indian Industry as the first member of the founding team of the skills development where she played an active role in national level
policy design and deployment, including the initiation of Sector Skills Councils.

YOJANA October 2015 17

salary, she bought chappals for all 12. 9 per cent. In 2014, the World presents the dichotomy of the Indian
her family members, they had never Bank estimated that India had 179.6 education and training system. We
worn a pair. This summer her father million people Below the Poverty Line have youth who are seeking work and
got the roof repaired. When she went (living on less than 1$ a day). In other employment but have limited means
back for Diwali, she was moved to see words, while having 17.5 per cent of or access to skill based training. On
a painted well lit house and her family total worlds population, India is home the other hand, there are young people
welcoming their daughter. to 20.6 per cent of the of worlds poor. who are acquiring qualifications but
In states like Odisha, West Bengal, arent work ready.
Sanjita is not a fictitious character. Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
She is a trainee at the IL&FS Institute of Jharkhand and UP, more than 25 per Skills development for inclusive
Skills, Rayagada, Odisha. She is Skill cent of the population is Below Poverty growth is therefore, an imperative
India - as real as it gets. She is one of Line (BPL)4. This is the stark reality. to ensure that young people from
the many people whose lives have been We have an abundance of young, different backgrounds participate
transformed as a result of the concerted productive minds but unemployment in the development story. While,
efforts of all stakeholders in delivering and/or underemployment has severely Industry has received impetus through
Skill India. Her story is also the beacon impacted both their social and Make in India, only 3 per cent of
of what must drive this mission the economic condition leading to much organised sector cannot perhaps
learner and how initiatives have to larger challenges with each passing absorb all those joining the labour
keep in mind the capability of trainees day. market. Further, initiatives such as
and needs of employers. It is a reminder Digital India, Swachh Bharat, Namami
that Skills programmes in India cannot A substantial per cent of these Gange and several other infrastructure
be peripheral (restricted to certain are those who are Not in Education development programmes will require
trades and urban centres) but these need Employment or Training (NEET). an army of skilled professionals. An
to be market driven and inclusive. They have no formal entry points equally vast number of informal sector
to any form of training, leave aside craftsmen are also being promoted
Inclusive skills programmes: a academics, which qualifies their by the initiatives like Ustaad,
growth imperative workmanship/craftsmanship. They Learn and Earn where skilling in
According to UN estimates, India neither have access to training nor traditional trades and employment in
is home to the largest youngest can afford any programme. On the informal sector is being recognised
population. 883 million people in contrary, only 1 out of 10 graduates, as a skilling outcome for the first
India are under the age of 35 years, a even after paying exorbitant fees time. This, therefore calls, for skills
strong 66 per cent, as compared to the to private colleges, completing the programmes that empower people to
47 per cent in China2. Sadly though, university education and acquiring seek employment both in the form of
the Youth Unemployment Rate3 was a certificate are unemployable. This jobs or self employment.
Nurturing the skills development
Government of India has nurtured
the skills ecosystem in close partnership
with the private sector, international
agencies like ILO, World Bank, OECD,
EU among others. Through various
skills development schemes, 20+
departments have launched programmes
which are outcome driven, now steered
by the Ministry of Skills Development
& Entrepreneurship (MSDE). They
have invested, significantly in nurturing
the skills ecosystem, such that those in
the remotest parts of the country get
an opportunity to join mainstream
employment. The largest of the
Sanjita is one of the ~ 4,50,000 trainees who have undergone training as
Government initiatives being DDU
part of placement linked Skills programme with IL&FS Skills.47 per cent
Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (GKY)
of these trainees are women, largely school drop outs and from various social
and educational backgrounds. IL&FS Skills multi-sectoral programme is
under Ministry of Rural Development
operational in 25 states including 37 LWE districts from 10 states, most and Integrated Skill Development
hard to reach districts in J&K and North East1. Scheme (ISDS) by Ministry of Textiles

18 YOJANA October 2015

initiative. Quality of profit and Institutional partners
training provision working with the key ministries
therefore becomes the in delivering skills programmes
principal requirement. have taken vocational training
This can be achieved to the far reaching corners of
only by use of multiple India. Thousands of private
technologies and training institutions offering niche
partnerships amongst courses as well as employability
stakeholders keeping programmes that are fast consumed
the development of by the job starved youth. Some of
the trainee in mind. these developed on the principles
When the job role is of learning by doing have had
at the core, a holistic a deeper impact. However, given
approach in delivery the technological advancements
that have reached out to youth from catapults the trainee and rapidly changing industry, it
Bottom of Pyramid (BoP) groups in on to a learning curve that gives him/ becomes essential that training
rural and urban areas, backward regions her not only the right exposure but centres are where the industry is
and hilly areas, economies under opportunity to grow with the industry. (eg: industrial clusters, special
stress of civil conflict and extremism, Of the various initiatives successfully economic zones, smart cities)or
minority communities. Their initiatives operating across India, the following the workplace is where the training
have focused on women and Persons have been the key driver in making centres are ( eg: ITI, polytechnics,
with Disabilities (PwD) such that all skills development a standardized, colleges and university campuses.
segments can participate. scalable, viable model: c) Technology: One of the key
a) Industry partnerships: Skills challenges facing quality in TVET
Several noteworthy private sector is the lack of trained trainers. To
initiatives have also played their role. is the bridge between jobs and
workforce. It is estimated that deliver a training mandate of 300
The National Skill Development
the incremental HR requirement million people by 2022, India
Corporation (NSDC), now part of
(2013 2022) for high growth would need a minimum of 10
the MSDE, is playing a pivotal role
industries like textiles, engineering, million trainers across domains and
in aggregating the industry by way
construction, service industries, will areas of expertise. They will require
of incubating training initiatives,
be 120.8 million people. Jobs will be training on androgogy, domain
setting up Sector Skills Councils and
a key driver towards education and skill sets, class management,
promoting skills of Indian youth at
investments in education by trainees knowledge of conducting practicals
international fora etc. Corporates
from more than 35 sectors are working and Governments. Employers and several powerful training tools
closely with the Sector Skills Councils have a critical role in ensuring that which make learning effective.
to define the National Occupational while the NOS is set via the SSC Such platforms will become
Standards (NOS) as per the National and implemented through a huge highly relevant in deep forests of
Skills Qualification Framework network of accreditated training Jharkhand, North East, J&K where
(NSQF), which is the young persons partners, they employ only those it is hard to find qualified trainers.
passport to the world of work. These who have been SSC certified. Technology interface is an absolute
bodies have collectively launched a essential component. However,
b) Infrastructure: One of the
mechanism for deeper engagement of the challenge is to adapt it swiftly
key limitations which triggered
all stakeholders, including the learner, within the TVET processes.
the current skills
towards Skill India. programmes was
The skills ecosystem has hyper- poor infrastructure
accelerated in the past few years, and its availability
but the sheer scale and complexities, in tier 2,3 cities
facing it calls for interventions that and rural areas.
keep the learning needs of the trainee Today, 14,000+ new
in mind whilst preparing him /her for Government and
a job. private ITIs, 200
+ NSDC partners
Market driven skills programmes with their pan-India
Building competitiveness of reach and several
the Industry is core to any skills other Industry, Non

YOJANA October 2015 19

the country. This will pave the way
for several immersive technologies
that will be fully capable of accessing
digital resources, both in online and
offline mode.
The blended learning model will
also provide for greater introspection
of the skills model. It will drive
Institutions, especially the employers
and providers, to look at skills from
an outcome not output perspective.
Funders, whether it is Government or
Private sector, will need to consider
the impact by using tools such as
the Social Return on Investment
(SROI). Consider the case of Sanjita.
Empowering her with a skill set
What next? that vocational programmes in all resulted in not only improving her
sectors require a fair degree of hands economically, but her entire family,
It is estimated that 500 million on learning, newer, innovative online
people will be connected to the community and village.
learning modules will have to be
internet by 20225. Interestingly, users announced allowing freedom of conclusion
in rural areas are expected to go up location and 24X7 access to the
from 29 per cent in 2013 to nearly 50 Skill India is a daunting task
trainee. It is here that the concept of of keeping sight on the manpower
per cent in three years. The number Blended Learning in TVET shall take
of women users are expected to requirements of the industry and the
a unique form. infrastructure needed for achieving
increase from 28 per cent in 2013 to
35 per cent by 2018.This would mean The blended learning approach the targets of skilling. With many
greater access and connectivity not in TVET may combine face-to-face new players entering the skills
space, focus has to be on the 3 is of
only for entertainment, but also for interaction with technology -mediated
Skills - investment, innovations and
edutainment. Skill India will move instruction. Add on to it the centres
institutions to improve the quality of
hand in hand with Digital India and may come up at various commonly training, assessments and jobs. Many
Make in India. Mobility of potential used areas like railway stations, metro successful industry led models of
trainees will also lead to increased stations, malls. Skills on Wheels training have emerged ensuring that
use of online and mobile platforms will perhaps add immense value to the training is competency based and
for learning. The question therefore the programmes. There are shining improves work readiness of trainees.
is, can a skill / craft be imparted only examples of Skills Trucks operated On its part, technology has played
using fixed infrastructure? Perhaps in Brazil by SENAI that take skills an integral role as an anchor to the
No. While there is merit in the position training to the rural, remote parts of programmes being delivered at scale.
Ultimately, skilling has the potential to
socially transform young people. For
individuals, who are most often school
dropouts seeking to join the workforce,
skills training is the critical bridge
of information, training, soft skills,
and experience that will lead them to
gainful employment.
1. All figures as on March 2015
2. According to UN Population Division
3. Trading
ment rates
4. Table 162,Number and per centage of
population below poverty line, Reserve
Bank of India (2012)
5. Report by Internet and Mobile
Association of India  q
Figure 1 : Framework of blended learning or Models of blended learning (

20 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 21

beyond "brick and mortar" approach
ict solutions

Skilling India through Blended Learning

an avant-garde attempt
M Sairam
Sharanya Ramesh

ith the nation l Quality

undergoing change l Synergy
economically and l Mobilization and Engagement
aspiration wise, l Global Partnerships
there exists a need
l Outreach and Advocacy
to have a paradigm
l ICT Enablement
shift when it comes
to the arena of skilling the human l Development of Trainers
resource in India. This paradigm shift l Inclusivity
assumes greater importance when we
Each of these enablers identified
look at the unique nature of the skill
does set the context on what needs to
For India to march challenge in India.
be done to rejuvenate the skill space in
forward, skilled human To handle the skilling conundrum India. However, the key enabler that
in India, a unified approach needs stands out in the list outlined is the ICT
resources across all levels to be adopted where the ideology of Enablement. The Draft Policy rightly
and disciplines in a must. convergence is explored with having expounds the ICT enablement as that
methods to measure benefits and the brick and mortar approach alone
The unique nature of the may not yield the desired effect, the
overall performance. These should also
skill challenges in India pave the way for adopting innovation government will also look to support
has made it mandatory to in the way skilling in looked at both as innovative products, solutions and
a system and as an exercise. models that address critical gaps in
experiment with traditional the skills ecosystem in an effective
ideologies and evolve Skilling initiatives in India are manner. It further states that An
helmed by the Ministry of Skill open platform for e-content on skill
more innovative means Development and Entrepreneurship development will be created where
to go about skilling. The (MSDE). Already the wheels have further curated content will be crowd
been set in motion to structure sourced. Mechanisms will be put in
integration of technology various initiatives to address the skill place to incentivize high quality content
in our daily life has created development with the tabling of the aggregation. This platform would
Draft National Policy for Skilling provide standardized training content to
the perfect situation to which identifies the ten enablers for be used by Trainers/Training Institutes
imbibe new and exciting skilling: for delivery of Vocational Training.
pedagogies l Aspiration Stakeholders will be encouraged to
l Capacity develop Massive Open Online Courses

M.Sairam heads the Education and Skill development practice in IMaCS and specialises in human resources and operations improvement
areas. His consulting experience spans across a wide range of organisations such as State and Central Govt., Multilateral Institutions, PSU
and leading Private Sector companies. He has worked extensively in competency mapping, benchmarking, performance improvement,
organisational design and development, impact assessment, programme management, and monitoring and evaluation of projects in
India and abroad. Sharanya Ramesh is consultant with IMaCS in the Education and Skill Development Practice. She has experience in
various HR and skill development studies working with private, government and multilateral clients pan-India.She has worked in more
than 10 states, at district level, in India in various skill mapping exercises spanning several sectors. Sharanya's expertise include mapping
of human resource skills, impact assessment, evaluation of technology in vocational space and workforce development.

22 YOJANA October 2015

In fact, the proactive adoption of
Nature of unique skill challenges in India
Policy level initiatives has reaped
1. Sheer magnitude of the people who need to be skilled. The study by the National dividends across the globe when it
Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) indicates that a net requirement of 11.92 comes to blended learning. In such
crore skilled manpower would be required in twenty four key sectors by 2022. scenarios where there is need to push
2. Requirement of higher order skill sets. a new concept, the Government has
3. The diverse nature of the skills sets required that vary across the geography to take the initiative. One of the best
of the country depending on the industrial demand in the cluster which further examples is the United Kingdom which
makes the need to have location-specific strategies for skilling. empowered the FELTAG (Further
4. The target demography for the skilling initiative is also diverse with people
Education Learning Technology Action
from various education backgrounds who aspire to be skilled.
Group). The FELTAG brought out
clear recommendations on using
5. Perception about vocational skilling vis--vis higher education.
technology in the further education
6. Lack of integrated Labour Management Information System to map demand- landscape. In response to the FELTAGs
supply mismatch. recommendations, the Department of
Business Innovation and Skills (BIS)
(MOOC) and virtual classrooms for l Blended learning looks to utilize
gave point-by-point response and
easy access and convenience. Creation technology in its right spirit.
clearly outlined the way forward.
of blended learning environments to l Normalize skill variation among
deliver high quality vocational training students. In our context, the Policy, in
in under-served regions of India will addition to setting the context with
be promoted. What is imperative here is that the respect to blended learning, should also
core idea of blended learning needs find a way to answer how to make the
Leading directly from the above to be enquired into further to tailor assessments process more rigorous.
is the urgent need to explore skilling the solution which can be applied in Assessment as such is an important
models that move beyond the India. aspect in the skilling value chain and
traditional brick and mortar approach. in blended pedagogy assessments gain
The idea here is not to replace the Applying blended learning in India:
a four point strategy further importance. Today, in India
existing pedagogies but to embrace assessments are more often than not
complementary pedagogies that can A disruptive change like adopting measuring the compliance rather than
strengthen and disperse the initiatives the blended pedagogy in a landscape what has been acquired to achieve the
further at the grassroot level. One of the that has been dominated by traditional learning outcomes. The Draft National
complementary pedagogies that can be skilling ideologies requires focused Policy for Skilling does outline the way
explored is blended learning. strategies. These strategies should forward on the aspect of Assessment by
Understanding Blended Learning aim to marry the existing framework stating There would be a framework
with the emerging actions. Of course, for independent assessment and
The term blended learning often the central thought here is that no one certification which would also have
attracts several pre-conceived notions. strategy will work in isolation. All e-assessment to scale-up capacity and
The chief of these notions is to believe these work in tandem holistically to increase convenience. Somewhere, all
that blended learning is an initiative create the enabling environment. these ideas need to coalesce to form the
that is driven by the internet where the Policy direction for blended learning
trainer/faculty becomes redundant. Strategy 1: Policy Framework and assessments.
However, blended learning as the name Policy framework that explicitly
suggests is a combination of learning Strategy 2: Leverage
outlines how and where the blended infrastructure
enabled by ICT, face-to-face learning pedagogy will be integrated with the
(with trainer, practical sessions, etc) existing systems is a must. Today, Taking blended pedagogy to the
and collaborative learning (learning there is a sea of change that has been grassroot level does not mean creating
from peers). occurring in the skill system in India. infrastructure at all possible locations. In
Across the globe, several nations are The various Sector Skill Councils India, there are multiple infrastructures
(SSCs) are evolving occupational that have been created for various
starting to integrate blended learning
standards in line with the National Skills purposes which may not be utilized
with several education and skilling
Qualification Framework (NSQF). for 100 per cent of the time. Such
initiatives. This really does not come
An inclusive Policy that outlines the resources can be leveraged to create
as a surprise considering the various
place of blended pedagogy in this a geographically dispersed system
advantages of blended learning as
overall scheme of things will lend the that propagates the requisite aspects
pedagogy, namely:
requisite gravitas to the adoption of the related to blended pedagogy aided
l Ability to reach millions of students pedagogy. Also, from the perspective skilling. The blended learning has three
at a time. of training providers, it would be easier fold advantages:1. the geographical
l Blended learning leverages the idea for them to align their courses with reach that can be achieved and the
of collaborative learning. blended approach. optimization of existing resources so

YOJANA October 2015 23

that they can be used for face-to-face training; 2. Around 30
per cent saving in incremental capacity creation; 3. Shorter

turnaround time for training delivery

Strategy 3: Build qualified trainers
In the skill landscape in India today, there is an urgent
need to create capacity that will give the system the key cogs
qualified trainers.
When thinking about expanding the skill web with the
blended pedagogy, there is a need to create a trainer pool that
appreciates the difference in their role. In blended learning, the
trainer becomes a facilitator and mentor who pushes the trainee
to discover various aspects on his/her own rather than being
the driver (as is the case in traditional didactic training model).
Looking at innovative source areas for getting trainers supply
is a must and there must be focused efforts in this area.
Strategy 4: Invest right
For any large scale initiative to take wings, there needs to
be clear avenues to route the investments that would give the
initiative the requisite fillip. In the case of blended learning, the
investment decisions have to be governed by only one axiom
invest in areas where there will be measurable impact.
These could be in either creating sustainable partnership
with fellow nations that have expertise in applying blended &RPSOHWHFRYHUDJHRIV\OODEXV 5HDOLW\QRW
learning or upgrading infrastructure at locations to host blended
learning or putting in place human resource structure that would PHUHO\5KHWRULF
facilitate blended learning. 1HZSDWWHUQGHPDQGVVSHFLDOL]HGIRFXV
In retrospect
The time now is ripe to push for innovative methods in HYHQWV IDFWV
skilling. For far too long vocational skilling has been viewed *RYHUQDQFHVSHFLILFYRFDEXODU\EXLOGLQJ
through a one-dimensional prism which has now given rise
to a scenario where skilling systems are fire fighting rather $UWRIRSLQLRQEXLOGLQJVKDSLQJDVRSSRVHGWR
than building an empowered human resource pipeline. For PHUHO\SODJLDUL]LQJRSLQLRQVRIRWKHUV
India to march forward, skilled human resources across all

levels and disciplines in a must. The unique nature of the
skill challenges in India has made it mandatory to experiment &RXUVHFRYHUVQHDUO\UGRI*66\OODEXV
with traditional ideologies and evolve more innovative means
to go about skilling. The integration of technology in our
daily life has created the perfect situation to imbibe new
and exciting pedagogies. With ambitious targets and several
flagship initiatives like Make in India, the Government needs
to broaden the horizon when approaching skilling. Blended
learning offers one of the ways to explore complementary
skilling pedagogies.
The strategies outlined above are just broad contours that ,QFOXGLQJ7RSLFVRI3DSHU,,, 6$6LGGLTXL
need further analysis to give the implementation impetus. &RYHUV+LVWRU\*HRJ+HULWDJH&XOWXUHDORQJZLWK
Detailed, phased and systematic development of the strategies KROLVLWLFFRYHUDJHRIHQYLURQPHQWDQG%LRGLYHUVLW\
will pave the way for large scale application of blended $OVRIURP3DSHU,,,$JULFXOWXUH3'6,UULJDWLRQ
pedagogy. The evolution of any innovative system is fraught 0DMRUFURSV&URSSLQJSDWWHUQ)RRG3URFHVVLQJ
with challenges that need out-of-the-box and proactive

solutions. Going forward, we can hope that the skill scenario $QG)ORRU2OG5DMHQGUV1DJDU
in India will witness exciting initiatives. q 1HDU%LNDQHU6ZHHW 'HOKL

( 3K0RE
24 YOJANA October 2015

YOJANA October 2015 25

skill development

Skill Development & Vocational Education

Swati Mujumdar

oday, India is one of the To understand the various skills

worlds largest growing gaps and requirements of the industry,
economies. India is the NSDC is playing an active role
also blessed with a and has formed various Sector Skill
demographic dividend. Councils comprising experts from the
For India to become industry and other stakeholders.
a developed nation, we need skilled
I got the privilege of Chairing an
manpower and more importantly, we
11-member Committee constituted by
need to skill our youth. However, today
the Govt. of Maharashtra to look at
India as compared to other nations,
various issues and challenges in skill is important to lacks formally trained manpower in
development and vocational education
vocationalize the a variety of industry required skills.
and thereafter formulate a policy for the
In Korea, for example, more than 93 State in this matter.
current education per cent of their work force is skilled.
system. The existing However, in India only about 10 per During our research of over 4
professional programs cent are formally trained in some years, we interviewed thousands of
useful skill or the other. The Govt of students and over a hundred faculty/
can be vocationalized by India realized this and has launched train
ers involved in this area. Some of
developing curricula in a massive Skill India initiative by the important issues which came to our
line with industry needs, establishing a separate Ministry for attention are listed below:
this purpose and other agencies such 1. The vocational courses are terminal
creating infrastructure for as the National Skill Development in nature there is lack of clear
skill training, involving Corporation. The vision of Make vertical mobility from certificate
the industry in all aspects in India has given major impetus to to diploma to degree courses in
skill development over the last year. vocational education. As a result,
of curricula development, The Government plans to skill more parents who do feel that their
training delivery, student than 150 million youth by 2022 which child has an inherent skill, do not
assessments and creating a means skilling about 45,000 youth each influence him/her to take up a
year for next ten years (*Source: NSDC vocational career. Thus, vocational
model where students can website). This ambitious target can be courses are not pursued by choice
obtain skills and at the same achieved only if the industry, academia and entrants to this stream are
time get a degree and government come together and limited in number despite the
form a golden triangle. demand for skilled manpower.

The author is Principal Director, Symbiosis Open Education Society Director, Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning, Pune, India. Vice President,
Symbiosis Foundation. She has been doing research in Vocationalization of Education for several years and in 2012 was awarded PhD in this area. Her
Case Study on Use of ICT in Education has been published by UNESCO. She Chaired the Vocational Education & Skill Development Committee of
Govt. of Maharashtra for defining the States Policy. She is a member of Governing Council of The Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education,
Govt. of Maharashtra. She formulated the concept and model of a Skill Development University. Under her leadership, Symbiosis is setting up Indias
first Skill Development University (Symbiosis University of Applied Sciences) in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Under her leadership Symbiosis is also
setting up a Private Open University in the State of Maharashtra. has been a recipient of the SanganakSarathi IT Award 2010 and Excellence in
Education award from the Top Management Consortium, Pune.

26 YOJANA October 2015

2. Social acceptability -Vocational Ministries offer skill courses certification at the time of hiring
and skill development courses increasing the confusion amongst and for career advancement.
are looked down upon and such students also resulting in lack of 5. Creating standard curricula and
students do not have acceptability standardization. assessments across various agencies
in the society as compared to other It is observed that the expansion offering vocational courses.
courses. It was found during our of this sector and the various 6. Formal training programs for
study that many of these students initiatives being taken are vocational faculty and trainers
do not have the choice to pursue happening without considering all so that they understand this
undergraduate courses in the skills these and other major issues facing pedagogy.
which they obtained. Not having this sector today. Furthermore,
the option to obtain a degree, there is no single comprehensive The above recommendations will
most students drop out and get de- model addressing all the concerns ensure that the parents will motivate
motivated. of this sector. their children to enter the vocational
3. Lack of good infrastructure and stream and will also bring social
poor quality of courses The acceptability to these students. Industry
infrastructure in most skill training 1. Creating a vertical mobility from will get job ready manpower and
organizations or centers is of poor certificate to diploma to degree quality of skilling will improve.
quality and not upgraded. Hence, courses in the vocational education
sector. Providing options right The NSDC has taken several major
the gap between what the industry
from school level up to PG level. steps in the above direction already
desires and the machinery being
Establishing a Skill Development and continues to address these issues
used for training becomes wide.
University to offer specialized through various initiatives. Each
4. Poor quality of Trainers the degree programs which will State mission for skilling is also
trainers who impart the skill provide advance skills. Since addressing these issues and making
training are not up-to-date with most students aspire for higher significant effort in improving the
the skills required by the industry education, such a university will present scenario.
and hence the outcome of training
help more and more students to In my personal opinion,
is not as per desired quality. As
enter the vocational stream. apart from implementing various
such, students who complete these
courses also do not find ready 2. Providing lateral mobility by recommendations as highlighted
employment in the industry. giving equivalence to vocational above, it is important to vocationalize
students especially at +2 level so the current education system. The
5. Lack of initiative from the industry
they can pursue under graduate existing professional programs can
the industry especially the
programs. be vocationalized by developing
small and medium enterprises
do not emphasize on vocational 3. Increasing role of industry in all curricula in line with industry needs,
certification or formal training as aspects of vocational training creating infrastructure for skill
this sometime increases the cost of providing latest machinery for training, involving the industry in
manpower. At times, it is observed training, governance, providing all aspects of curricula development,
that such SMEs prefer to hire an trainers from industry and doing training delivery, student assessments
untrained or semi trained worker at assessments to ensure quality at and creating a model where students
a cheaper pay-out than a formally each stage. can obtain skills and at the same time
trained or skilled worker. 4. Industry should emphasize on
get a degree. q
6. Lack of standardization - Several formal vocational training and (

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YOJANA October 2015 27

Our History of UPSC Results


28 YOJANA October 2015

creating institutional capacity
way forward

Skill development: imperative for Indias Growth

S S Mantha

ndias informal sector them with poise and equanimity since

constituting 90 per the demographics points out that more
cent, though some than 50 per cent of the population is
experts peg even slanted towards the younger generation
larger, is both a boon in the next ten odd years whose fire in
and a bane for the the belly and yearning can conflagrate
economy. Boon, since it meets the a Nation on the move.
aspirations of a population where
disparity between haves and have-nots Lack of education and lack of
in education is massive and a bane skills is a pestilence that we need to
since it hits the formal economy where overcome in our current system and
the faster we do this, the better for all
An egalitarian society it hurts the most.
concerned. Education certainly opens
where the focus is Are there sufficient jobs at every the doors to lead a life of liberty but
level to meet the populace at least half skills makes that liberty meaningful by
on social reform, way through, is the big question. allowing one to achieve prosperity.
economic growth of the
The above two scenarios would We need to map the available job
downtrodden and the need the academics and the education opportunities in various sectors at
protection of cultural administrators to seriously rethink disparate levels and make a conscious
the supply chain for education as a effort at improving the job markets
diversity of the natives necessary indigence to address various in all the three employment markets.
in India is expected to incongruencies that have crept in the This improves economy and growth
benefit all. This is truly system. Should the school and higher
education follow the current jacketed
in GDP and has a cascading effect on
employment opportunities.
possible only when every path where further pathways are
narrow and delineated or new avenues I would like to see India as the
child in this country is Skills Capital of the World by
explored that can provide expectations
educated and eventually and opportunities to the denizens of creating a skilled and productive
finds a meaningful job. this great democracy? workforce matching international
standards of quality and productivity
The National Skills Semantics apart, it is time to take a demands through integration of Skills
relook at the education paradigm and and Training along with Education.
Mission would truly make the consociate it has with employment This has the ability to drive the
this happen and employability. Though these are Make in India paradigm that will
two attributes, we need to address promote entrepreneurship and aid

The author is the Former Chairman, All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India, and was
instrumental in bringing in some radical changes for transparency and accountability in its administration, implemented the first
e - governance project, automating the workflows, for the department of Higher and Technical Education. The e-governance project
implemented in AICTE has also won the Silver Edge Award instituted by United Business Media and Information Week and the Good
Governance National Technology Award, 2010.

YOJANA October 2015 29

start-ups and new Job Markets. Digital students (34 per cent) failed and jobs are not growing at the same rate
transformation of India through new probably dropped out every year and as the potential workforce and thereby
technologies that centre on internet of in 2013 2014, whereas 119.234 lakh breeding unemployment, this in turn
things (IoT) will create the ecosystem students appeared in the XII Board breeds discontent. Before these issues
for a massive growth. examinations, 95 lakh students passed snowball into large scale discontent,
and 24.23 lakh students (22 per cent) they need to be expeditiously and
Vocational Education and Training failed and probably dropped out every effectively addressed.
(VET) is an important element of the year.
Nations education initiative where Impediments in the path
there is an urgent need to redefine the In summary, 60 per cent of Indias
Lack of quality vocational skills
critical elements so that the training workforce is self-employed, many of
that aid productivity, a mind-set of
is flexible, contemporary, relevant, whom remain very poor. Nearly 30 per
Indian parents and students acquiring
inclusive and creative. cent are casual workers. Only about
only degree qualifications without
10 per cent are regular employees, of
India has a population of over work place skills are all serious
which two-fifths are employed by the
1.267 billion and a workforce of impediments. Over indulgence in
public sector. More than 90 per cent
474.1 million out of which 336.9 service sector economy and the
of the labour force is employed in inability of the primary and secondary
million are rural workers and 137.2 the unorganized sector, i.e. sectors
million are urban workers as per the employment sectors to sustain a
which dont offer the social safety and steady growth further amplify the
last survey of NSSO conducted in other profit of employment that are
2011-12. The unemployment register problems.
available in the organized sector.
had 40.17 millions registered in 2010. Opportunity
Providing meaningful employment Since jobs are not growing at
to all with unemployment rate at 8.8 the same rate as the potential Skills are needed to those
per cent and a population growing at currently in colleges for them to
approximately 1.5 per cent every year
workforce and thereby breeding be better employed. This is a small
is a daunting task indeed. In terms of unemployment, this in turn number, about 20 in 100, compared
demographics, almost 35 per cent of breeds discontent. Before these to the group who drop out from
Indians are younger than 15 years of issues snowball into large scale colleges who also need skills for
age, and almost 50 per cent falling being employable. Upgrading work
discontent, they need to be place skills just provides a much
below 25 years of age. The median
age of India is 24 years, which makes expeditiously and effectively needed opportunity. With most of
it one of the youngest populations in addressed. the developing economies having
the world. a sizeable ageing population, we
India has one of the lowest levels have a huge opportunity. According
Adding to the unemployment of per capita income and productivity. to a recent newspaper report, these
figures, dropout rates also greatly The per capita income is 30,000 US numbers in the coming few years
stress an already stressed system. As dollars in Japan, 879 US dollars in Sri are as large as 8 mn in Japan, 17
per the Annual Status of Education Lanka while it is only 433 US dollars mn in USA and almost 4 per cent
Report (ASER) 2013, there were 229 in India. Currently Indias per capita of the entire European population
million students enrolled in different income is 7.5 per cent of the per capita base. Should India not be looking
registered urban and rural schools income in developed countries. As per at exploiting this, we could see this
from class I to XII. Estimates peg 430 experts, this needs to be increased to opportunity pass on to countries like
million children below the age of 18. 80 per cent in half-a-century. China, Sri Lanka, etc.
Drop out occurs due to inability to fund
education and due to a general lack of Skills: Void & Implications What needs to be done?
interest. These children support their Mainstreaming Skills in Education
families by working and helping their A survey of graduate students
across the country, conducted by both in schools and colleges is one
parents in whatever they do. way to go. Multi, point entry and
Aspiring Minds reveals that India
The value for school enrolment at produces 50 lakh graduates every exit from the formal to vocational
the secondary level (per cent gross) year. However, we are unable to education systems and the job
was 63.21 as of 2010 and 20.0 as bring marketable workplace skills to markets with an option to acquire
of 2014 at the tertiary education the table. This results in excessive only skill certifications, soft skills
level. Further in 20132014, whereas demand for white-collar jobs that are and recognition of prior learning will
164.75 lakh students appeared in unavailable in the numbers required. provide some options.
the X Board examinations, 128.33 This skewed demandsupply situation Creating new job opportunities and
lakh students passed and 36.42 lakh results in under employment. Since markets to counter unemployment and

30 YOJANA October 2015

realise Make in India, paradigm is integrated scholarships, and anchor come up under the new government
the larger goal. all this in a complete e-governance is a master stroke for revving up the
framework with payment gateways, infrastructure sector growth and fuel
Way forward all very important in creating a newer job markets. This in turn will
Setting up a National Skills credible system. A large number rev up the skills market.
University (NSU) with stated objectives of verticals like Automobiles, IT,
Systems approach to defence
that integrates all skill initiatives of the Communications, Paramedical,
related equipment manufacture /
Central Government with those of the Manufacturing, Construction, Retail,
indigenisation and import substitution
States would be required. This will off Healthcare, Tourism, etc. need to be
of equipment like Combat Recovery
course work on common standards for nurtured. These can be short duration,
Vehicle (CRV), Unmanned Aerial
an optimal return on investment. focused, modular, credit based, in Vehicle (UAV), Snow mobiles, Bullet
multi languages and flexible. proof jacket, automatic weapon
Creating a Make in India hub for systems etc., through collaborations
productisation that promotes massively Make in India and Skills
with EME schools, DRDO labs,
new products in various verticals like A lot of funding has been happening premier institutions and selected
defence, railways, infrastructure and in our premier institutions towards industries is the way forward.
agriculture is another such initiative. research and development. Though
This will facilitate a plethora of new they do aid in incremental addition to A system like a CRV can be
jobs and new skill requirements. the body of knowledge, do they help discretised into mechanical, electrical,
in job creation and does this paradigm control and other sub systems. The Sub
Skill: Standards and Policies centers of the NSU located in each State
need to be revisited?
and a handpicked industry can recreate
Success of skills depends on the A lot of funding has been the subsystem to our specifications.
general level of economic growth,
the extent of FDI, the degree to which happening in our premier The NSU will be the integrator by
amalgamating the subsystems to
exports are composed of higher value institutions towards research and
create the substitutions / indigenisation
added items, the degree to which there development. Though they do aid that we need. The NSU can create
are skills mismatches, and the rates in incremental addition to the body studies to forecast technology growth,
of growth of productivity. Estimating
of knowledge, do they help in job foster innovation and indigenisation,
skill mismatches is critical. Setting conduct research in guarded areas with
standards would be imperative. creation and does this paradigm purposeful collaborations, with the
need to be revisited? best in the world like CSU, MIT, and
NSU would set policy directives
Thousands of Ph Ds per annum Stanford, Imperial College, Humboldt
and standards for skill training
are needed but with mandated research University, Helmholtz association
and education as per NSQF, enroll
that helps the Industry deliver. A clear etc.
students in the country, provide skills
mandate for the CSIR/DRDO labs,
and training, award certifications, A serious attempt will be needed
IITs has to be innovations that aid
diplomas and degrees at various to create Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
in job creation. Several IPR Patent
certification levels, create sub centres, Entrepreneur cells in every one
like research centres around the NSU
allow any existing college / ITI / in a chosen few cities in India. This
of the above institutions need to be
Polytechnic to conduct skill programs. would give a great fillip to focussed
developed. This adds to the research
It would also create Skill content potential as well as connects with the research that aims at self-reliance,
and pedagogy in all languages and national agenda. Promotion of niche provides inputs for productisation and
models of delivery, interface with technology areas like oil exploration, process improvement and consequent
other relevant bodies, would also help mining, agriculture, power, water job creation in all three primary,
entrepreneurship cells, estimate skill resources and infrastructure should be secondary and tertiary employment
gaps, opportunities for CSR initiatives, high on priority and should receive the markets.
conduct skill research, local and best of funds. The entire process has immense
foreign collaborations, a robust LMIS, potential to create newer jobs and new
Promoting sustainable
Skill Trainers and trainee accreditation d ev e lo p men t f o r en v ir o n me n t , skill initiatives not to speak of a great
processes. integration with MSME climate change and protection through saving in foreign currency with a new
sector for creation of new jobs would innovation in energy, bio-sciences, confidence in the local capabilities
also be done as also, execution Make bio-engineering and genetics need and self-reliance. for then will we be
in India campaign, skill roadmap for to be the next level of priority. The able to live and strive for the unity and
the next 10 years, establish community innovations should drive several welfare of the world, and stand before
College networks, promote work downstream activities in each of the the world as a self-confident, resurgent
integrated training models, create skill areas enumerated. 100 model cities to and a mighty nation.

YOJANA October 2015 31

An egalitarian society where the of VET programs, the opportunities cost could be estimated at Rs. 870 cr/
focus is on social reform, economic indeed are gargantuan. annum, a small sum considering the
growth of the downtrodden and the employability potential of the scheme
protection of cultural diversity of the A new division added in schools notwithstanding the yet untapped
natives in India is expected to benefit that advocates vocational education
political gains that accrue.
all. This is truly possible only when would provide a colossal addition
every child in this country is educated in GER and be a feeder route to our We need to inspire, achieve and
and eventually finds a meaningful job. colleges further in the supply chain. engage our youth, wean them away
The National Skills Mission would Expanding the archetype, if 100 from divisive forces, build them
truly make this happen. students are trained in competency into a formidable force to pitchfork
based skills, fifty a batch, thrice the economy to a higher plane and
We also need to realise that our a week for three hours a day for of course create a WIN-WIN for
adolescents coming from the kind of 48 weeks in a year, at least half everyone and this is certainly not
financial means that they have, would a million would be trained every esoteric cosmology.
need to be sustained on some minimal year with an increase of 5 points
financial incentive to pursue skills in GER. If each of these students, Dont wait to exploit the
for employment and hence we need assumed poor, is provided Rs. 50 / demographic dividends; instead make
credible financial models to sustain day to take care of travel and food a road or make a vehicle that is faster,
education for a burgeoning youth. Let for the period of the conduct of safer and trendy. Above all, remember
me suggest a model for our planners. the program, the Grant required on to strengthen the existing systems and
Out of more than 11500 institutions account of this will be Rs 720 cr / compose ingenious innovations for
that we have in the technical education annum. With an annual grant that creating new ones. Skills and skilling
space, even if we select 5000 under may be provided to institutes that is certainly one such initiative for a
the community college framework train these students amounting to great nation on the move. q
as a subset of NSQF, for the conduct Rs. 150 cr /annum, the total project (
National Skill Development Mission
The National Mission for Skill Development was launched on July 15, 2015 to provide the overall institutional
framework to rapidly implement and scale up skill development efforts across India.
Mission Statement : To rapidly scale up skill development efforts in India, by creating an end-to-end, outcome-
focused implementation framework, which aligns demands of the employers for a well-trained skilled workforce with
aspirations of Indian citizens for sustainable livelihoods.
Mission Objectives The Mission seeks to: l Create an end-to-end implementation framework for skill development,
which provides opportunities for life-long learning. This includes: incorporation of skilling in the school curriculum,
providing opportunities for quality long and short-term skill training, by providing gainful employment and ensuring
career progression that meets the aspirations of trainees. l Align employer/industry demand and workforce productivity
with trainees aspirations for sustainable livelihoods, by creating a framework for outcome-focused training. l Establish
and enforce cross-sectoral, nationally and internationally acceptable standards for skill training in the country by creating
a sound quality assurance framework for skilling, applicable to all Ministries, States and private training providers. l
Build capacity for skill development in critical un-organized sectors (such as the construction sector, where there few
opportunities for skill training) and provide pathways for re-skilling and up-skilling workers in these identified sectors, to
enable them to transition into formal sector employment. l Ensure sufficient, high quality options for long-term skilling,
benchmarked to internationally acceptable qualification standards, which will ultimately contribute to the creation of
a highly skilled workforce. l Develop a network of quality instructors/trainers in the skill development ecosystem by
establishing high quality teacher training institutions. l Leverage existing public infrastructure and industry facilities
for scaling up skill training and capacity building efforts. l Offer a passage for overseas employment through specific
programmes mapped to global job requirements and benchmarked to international standards. l Enable pathways for
transitioning between the vocational training system and the formal education system, through a credit transfer system. l
Promote convergence and co-ordination between skill development efforts of all Central Ministries/Departments/States/
implementing agencies. l Support weaker and disadvantaged sections of society through focused outreach programmes
and targeted skill development activities. l Propagate aspirational value of skilling among youth, by creating social
awareness on value of skill training. l Maintain a national database, known as the Labour Market Information System
(LMIS), which will act as a portal for matching the demand and supply of skilled workforce in the country. The LMIS,
will on the one hand provide citizens with vital information on skilling initiatives across the country. On the other, it
will also serve as a platform for monitoring the performance of existing skill development programmes, running in
every Indian state.

32 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 33

J&K window

Indian Railway extends train service from Chennai to Vaishno Devi

T he service of Chennai Central- Jammu Tawi Andaman Express train has been extended to Shri Mata Vaishno
Devi Katra station in Jammu and Kashmir. This is the extension of the train from Jammu Tawi to Shri Mata
Vaishno Devi Katra. The tri-weekly train service has a stoppage at Uddhampur station between Jammu and
Katra.  q

Army pays tribute to martyrs of 1965 war

he Indian Army on September 8 at Poonch paid homage to its 49 soldiers and officers who laid down their
T lives while capturing the strategically important Raja and Rani posts from Pakistan in the 1965 war. These
areas were later returned following the Tashkent agreement between the two countries. These two posts were
captured by the soldiers of 2 Sikh and 3 Dogra regiments.  q

SARAS Mela held at Kashmir Haat

10th Regional Sale of Articles of Rural Artisans Society (SARAS) Mela was inaugurated at Kashmir Haat on 10th
September. The fair is organised to showcase products made by rural craftsmen. SARAS Mela is an initiative of
the Union Rural Development Ministry. The Mela displayed products from 19 states of the country as well as all
self-help groups from all the 22 districts of the state.  q

Jammu Master Plan-2032 will cover 103 new villages

T he government of Jammu & Kashmir has announced to bring 103 villages under the ambit of the Jammu
Master Plan-2032 for planned development of the winter capital and its suburbs. Prior to this, the government
has decided to put the new Master Plan in public domain to seek suggestions from the citizens for a comprehensive
proposal before it is vetted by the State Cabinet. These decisions were taken by the Chief Minister of Jammu &
Kashmir.  q

Model School Scheme launched in J&K

Model School Scheme was launched in Jammu & Kashmir with the inauguration of the States first government
model school in Basohli by the Chief Minister. The scheme aims at providing quality education for all. 113
government higher secondary schools will be converted into model schools in the first phase of the scheme. A
total 220 schools will be reshaped into model schools.  q

NSDC -Service Providers - Sector Wise

NSDC is focusing on 21 high priority sectors and the unorganized sector for skill development. these are:
l Automobile/auto-components l Electronics hardware l Textiles and garments l Leather and leather goods
l Chemicals and pharmaceuticals l Gems and jewellery l Building and construction l Food processing l Handlooms
and handicrafts l Building hardware and home furnishings l IT or software l ITES-BPO l Tourism, hospitality and
travel l Transportation/logistics/warehousing and packaging l Organised retail l Real estate l Media, entertainment,
broadcasting, content creation, animation l Healthcare l Banking/insurance and finance l Education/skill development
l Unorganised sector.

34 YOJANA October 2015

Prime Ministers Skill Development Fellowship is a 3 years short term work cum-learning
opportunity for young professionals interested in working in the skills sector at state and district
level. The role of the Fellows will be to assist the SSDMs and the district administration in select
districts and act as Skill Development Facilitators particularly in implementation of the flagship
skill development schemes and generating greater participation of youth into the skill development/
training programmes. By this process, as well as through structured learning exercises and events, the Fellows, who
are expected to be bright and motivated but short of hands-on experience, will also get an opportunity to build their
capacity in programme implementation, gain field experience and explore self motivation as well as life goals. This will
help in nurturing them as highly capable Skill Development Facilitators, which is a much-needed resource in ensuring
the fulfilment of the motto of the governmentSabka Saath Sabka Vikas. Thus, the scheme has twin objectives of
providing short-term catalytic support to SSDMs and district administration in identified districts to provide decent
means of livelihood as well as to develop a cadre of Skill Development Facilitators, who will be available as a ready
resource for the SSDMs at later stage.
The PM District Skill Development Fellow will have mainly the following functions: Help the district administration/
SSDM/NSDA in coordination and implementation of skill development initiatives in the district (prepare, rollout and
monitor progress of specific district action plans, conduct job fairs/melas etc.): Assist in better implementation of
all skill development schemes, particularly Ajeevika Skills, NRLM, ISDS, MES-SDIS, SCA to TSP, SCA to SCSP,
NRLM, HSRT, BADP, BOCW, MSDP, IAP, CBTA, HRD of NMFP etc. at the district level; Conduct socio-economic
analysis of the local areas at block level for ascertaining the gap between the skills and needs of the youth; Facilitate
better linkages of skill development initiatives with the rural youth clubs and other youth organisations in the district,
the Common Service Centres and other grassroots level entities for awareness generation programmes for youth to
health them access the skill development programmes at district level; Implement plan for mobilisation and registering
candidates for skill development; Understand and identify the group of skills that each group of MSME units needs
in the district, and design programmes to meet these multi-skilling requirements; Devise mechanisms to employ the
local youth within the state and marketing linkages within the state itself; Undertake action-research to discover more
appropriate ways of programme delivery by the implementing agencies and other institutions involved in the delivery
of training, certification and placement of trainees in wage or self-employment ; Design and implement innovative,
results-oriented awareness generation programmes in the district to ensure information dissemination regarding emerging
opportunities; Provide feedback to SSDM on skill development initiatives underway in the district; Facilitate in setting
up of enterprises and promote entrepreneurship in the district, and work closely with banks and Financial Institutions
for facilitating credit linkages.

Skill Development - Funding

The NSDC provides skill development funding either as loans or equity, and supports financial incentives to select
private sector initiatives to improve financial viability through tax breaks etc. NSDCs financing initiatives provide
funding through:
Loan Equity Grants
The NSDC will adopt a phased and detailed due diligence process to select proposals for funding to provide funds for
vocational training.
Detailed evaluation will be done across six sets of criteria:
Employer view of demand for the specific skills Alignment with the NSDC's mission Robustness of overall plan
and operating model Ability to leverage partnerships Ability to leverage financial requirements Ability to leverage
management capability
The NSDC will consider supporting a pilot and then scale up for proposals from organizations with no prior
experience in this area. On the financials, the NSDC will be more flexible upfront in terms of percentage of total
project funded by it, channels of funding, i.e. grant or loan/equity and cost per student, and ensure that agreements
are structured to ensure these parameters become stringent over time. Further, the NSDC will fund various stages
of the project clearly linked to attainment of mutually agreed outcomes/milestones.

YOJANA October 2015 35

cu Craft and Education

Excerpts from Gandhiji's Discussion With Teacher Trainees, February 3/4, 1939

(Extracted from Pyarelals "Wardha Scheme under Fire". About seventy five delegates from all over India had attended
a three weeks course at the Teacher Training Centre at Wardha. Before leaving for their respective provinces, they met
Before going to the meeting, a friend had asked him if the central idea behind the scheme was that teachers should not
speak a word to the pupils that could not be correlated to the takli. Gandhiji, answering this question in the general meeting,

G. This is a libel on me. It is true I have said that all instruction must be linked with some basic
craft. When you are imparting knowledge to a child of 7 or 10 through the medium of an industry,
you should, to begin with, exclude all those subjects which cannot be linked with the craft. By doing
so from day to day you will discover ways and means of linking with the craft many things which
you had excluded in the beginning. You will save your own energy and the pupils if you follow
this process of exclusion to begin with. We have today no books to go by, no precedents to guide
us. Therefore we have to go slow. The main thing is that the teacher should retain his freshness
of mind. If you come across something that you cannot correlate with the craft, do not fret over
it and get disheartened. Leave it and go ahead with the subjects that you can correlate. May be
another teacher will hit upon the right way and show how it can be correlated. And when you
have pooled the experience of many, you will have books to guide you, so that the work of those
who follow you will become easier.
Our education has got to be revolutionized. The brain must be educated through the hand. If
I were a poet, I could write poetry on the possibilities of the five fingers. Why should you think
that the mind is everything and the hands and feet nothing? Those who do not train their hands,
who go through the ordinary rut of education, lack music in their life. All their faculties are
not trained. Mere book knowledge does not interest the child so as to hold his attention fully. The
brain gets weary of mere words, and the childs mind begins to wander. The hand does the things
it ought not to do, the eye sees the things it ought not to see, the ear hears the things it ought not
to hear, and they do not do, see, or hear, respectively, what they ought to. They are not taught
to make the right choice and so their education often proves their ruin. An education which does
not teach us to discriminate between good and bad, to assimilate the one and eschew the other is a
Q. Shrimati Asha Devi asked Gandhiji to explain to them how the mind could be trained through the hands.

G. The old idea was to add a handicraft to the ordinary curriculum of education followed in the
schools. That is to say, the craft was to be taken in hand wholly separately from education. To me
that seems a fatal mistake. The teacher must learn the craft and correlate his knowledge to the craft,
so that he will impart all that knowledge to his pupils through the medium of the particular craft
that he chooses.
Take the instance of spinning. Unless I know arithmetic I cannot report how many yards of
yarn I have produced on the takli, or how many standard rounds it will make, or what is the
count of the yarn that I have spun. I must learn figures to be able to do so, and I also must learn
addition and subtraction and multiplication and division. In dealing with complicated sums I shall
have to use symbols and so I get my algebra. Even here, I would insist on the use of Hindustani
letters instead of Roman.
Take geometry next. What can be a better demonstration of a circle than the disc of the takli?
I can teach all about circles in this way, without even mentioning the name of Euclid.

36 YOJANA October 2015

Again, you may ask how I can teach my child geography and history through spinning.
Some time ago I came across a book called Cotton The Story of Mankind. It thrilled me. It
read like a romance. It began with the history of ancient times, how and when cotton was first
grown, the stages of its development, the cotton trade between the different countries, and so
on. As I mention the different countries to the child, I shall naturally tell him something about
the history and geography of these countries. Under whose reign the different commercial treaties
were signed during the different periods? Why has cotton to be imported by some countries and
cloth by others? Why can every country not grow the cotton it requires? That will lead me
into economics and elements of agriculture. I shall teach him to know the different varieties of
cotton, in what kind of soil they grow, how to grow them, from where to get them, and so on.
Thus takli-spinning leads me into the whole history of the East India Company, what brought
them here, how they destroyed our spinning industry, how the economic motive that brought
them to India led them later to entertain political aspirations, how it became a causative factor
in the downfall of the Moguls and the Marathas, in the establishment of the English Raj, and
then again in the awakening of the masses in our times. There is thus no end to the educative
possibilities of this new scheme. And how much quicker the child will learn all that, without
putting an unnecessary tax on his mind and memory.
Let me further elaborate the idea. Just as a biologist, in order to become a good biologist, must
learn many other sciences besides biology, the basic education, if it is treated as a science, takes
us into interminable channels of learning. To extend the example of the takli, a pupil teacher,
who rivets his attention not merely on the mechanical process of spinning, which of course he must
master, but on the spirit of the thing, will concentrate on the takli and its various aspects. He will
ask himself why the takli is made out of a brass disc and has a steel spindle. The original takli had
its disc made anyhow. The still more primitive takli consisted of a wooden spindle with a disc of
slate or clay. The takli has been developed scientifically, and there is a reason for making the disc
out of brass and the spindle out of steel. He must find out that reason. Then, the teacher must
ask himself why the disc has that particular diameter, no more and no less. When he has solved
these questions satisfactorily and has gone into the mathematics of the thing, your pupil becomes
a good engineer. The takli becomes his Kamadhenu-the 'Cow of plenty'. There is no limit to the
possibilities of knowledge that can be imparted through this medium. It will be limited only by
the energy and conviction with which you work. You have been here for three weeks. You will
have spent them usefully if it has enabled you to take to this scheme seriously, so that you will say
to yourself, I shall either do or die.
I am elaborating the instance of spinning because I know it. If I were a carpenter, I would
teach my child all these things through carpentry, or through cardboard work if I were a worker in
What we need is educationists with originality, fired with true zeal, who will think out from
day to day what they are going to teach their pupils. The teacher cannot get this knowledge through
musty volumes. He has to use his own faculties of observation and thinking and impart his knowledge
to the children through his lips, with the help of a craft. This means a revolution in the method of
teaching, a revolution in the teachers outlook . . . .
Q. In training pupil teachers, would it not be better if they are first taught a craft separately and then given a
sound exposition of the method of teaching through the medium of that craft? As it is, they are advised to imagine
themselves to be of the age of 7 and relearn everything through a craft. In this way it will take them years before they
can master the new technique and become competent teachers.

G. No, it would not take them years. Let us imagine that the teacher when he comes to me
has a working knowledge of mathematics and history and other subjects. I teach him to make
cardboard boxes or to spin. While he is at it I show him how he could have derived his knowledge
of mathematics, history and geography through the particular craft. He thus learns how to link his
knowledge to the craft. It should not take him long to do so. Take another instance. Suppose I go

YOJANA October 2015 37

with my boy of 7 to a basic school. We both learn spinning and I get all my previous knowledge
linked with spinning. To the boy it is all new. For the 70-year-old father it is all repetition but he
will have his old knowledge in a new setting. He should not take more than a few weeks for the
process. Thus, unless the teacher develops the receptivity and eagerness of the child of 7, he will
end up by becoming a mere mechanical spinner, which would not fit him for the new method.
Q. The basic education scheme is supposed to be for the villages. Is there no way out for the city-dwellers? Are
they to go along the old rut?

G. This is a pertinent question and a good one, but I have answered it already in the columns
of Harijan. Sufficient for the day is the good thereof. As it is, we have a big enough morsel to bite. If
we can solve the educational problem of seven lakhs of villages, it will be enough for the present.
No doubt educationists are thinking of the cities too. But if we take up the question of the cities
along with that of the villages, we will fritter away our energies.
Q. Supposing in a village there were three schools with a different craft in each, the scope for learning may be
wider in one than in the other. To which school out of these should the child go?

G. Such overlapping should not occur. For the majority of our villages are too small to have
more than one school. But a big village may have more. Here the craft taught in both should be
the same. But I should lay down no hard and fast rule. Experience in such matters would be the
best guide. The capacity of various crafts to become popular, their ability to draw out the faculties
of the student, should be studied. The idea is that whatever craft you choose, it should draw out
the faculties of the child fully and equally. It should be a village craft and it should be useful.
Q. Why should a child waste 7 years on learning a craft when his real profession is going to be something else,
e.g., why should a bankers son, who is expected to take to banking later on, learn spinning for 7 years?

G. The question betrays gross ignorance of the new scheme of education. The boy under the
scheme of basic education does not go to school merely to learn a craft. He goes there to receive
his primary education, to train his mind through the craft. I claim that the boy who has gone
through the new course of primary education for seven years, will make a better banker than the
one who has gone through the seven years of ordinary schooling. The latter when he goes to a
banking school will be ill at ease because all his faculties will not have been trained. Prejudices die
hard. I will have done a good days work if I have made you realize this one central fact that the
new education scheme is not a little of literary education and a little of craft. It is full education
up to the primary stage through the medium of a craft.
Q. Would it not be better to teach more than one craft in every school? The children might begin to feel bored of
doing the same thing from month to month and year to year.

G. If I find a teacher who becomes dull to his students after a months spinning, I should
dismiss him. There will be newness in every lesson such as there can be new music on the same
instrument. By changing over from one craft to another a child tends to become like a monkey
jumping from branch to branch with abode nowhere. But I have shown already in the course of
our discussion that teaching spinning in a scientific spirit involves learning many things besides
spinning. The child will be taught to make his own takli and his own winder soon. Therefore,
to go back to what I began with, if the teacher takes up the craft in a scientific spirit, he will
speak to his pupils through many channels, all of which will contribute to the development of
all his faculties.
SEGAON, February 9, 1939

Harijan, 18-2-1939 and 4-3-1939

(Excerpts from the Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi: VOL. lxviii : October 15, 1938- February 28, 1939)

38 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 39

do you know?

D igiLocker is a key initiative under the Digital India Programme. It is a free digital vault service for the safe-keep
of documents like birth certificates, property papers etc. It is aimed at minimizing the usage of physical documents
and enable sharing of e-documents.
The DigiLocker has two main components, Repository and Access Gateway. Repositoryis a Collection of e-Documents
which are uploaded by issuers in a standard format and exposing a set of standard APIs for secure real-time search
and access. Access Gatewayprovides a secure online mechanism for requesters to access e-documents from various
repositories in real-time using e-Document URI (Uniform Resource Indicator). The URI is a link to the e-Document
uploaded by an issuer in a repository. The gateway will identify the address of the repository where the e-Document is
stored based on the URI and will fetch the e-Document from that repository.
The sharing of the e-documents is done through registered repositories thereby, ensuring the authenticity of the
documents online. As easy as opening an email account, the free Digital Locker facility on a cloud, or cyberspace, allows
any individual with an Adhaar card and a linked mobile phone to sign up. Its a personal storage space to securely store
e-documents and links of such official certificates. To sign up, you need only to enter your Aadhaar number, and an SMS
is set out to the mobile phone number you registered at the enrolment camp. This one-time-password is the only way
to get inside your DigiLocker for the first time, but afterwards, you can set your own password or link the DigiLocker
to your Google or Facebook login.
The idea is to minimise the need for physical documents. For instance; if your birth and education certificates are
online, and you apply for a passport, then the Passport Office could use your Aadhaar number to request the DigiLocker
for your details, without needing you to carry a large file of documents for the application.
One can upload scanned copies, which, if required, can be digitally signed. The locker is also a repository of all
your government issued e-documents. These electronic e-documents are uploaded by issuers, government departments
or agencies such as CBSE, registrar office, income tax department, etc., in a standard XML format that is compliant to
digital locker technical specifications. While the documents you upload can be shared via email, the e-documents from
Government agencies can be viewed by an authorised list of requestors such as a bank, university, the passport office
or the transport department.
Government of India has recently launched a platform under Digital India Initiative that will help students
tremendously. Aptly called eBasta (Basta means school bag in Hindi), this new platform provides digital and eBook
versions of school books and study materials.
The eBasta is a collaborative platform that brings together Book Publishers, School Teachers and Students. The main
idea is to bring various publishers (free as well as commercial) and schools together on one platform. In addition to the
portal, a back-end framework to facilitate the organization and easy management of such resources has also been made,
along with the web based applications that can be installed on tablets for navigating the framework.
The framework, implemented as a portal, brings together three categories of stakeholders: the publisher, the school
and the student.
Teachers can organise eBooks and other digital contents from the portal as per the need of the students of the school
and create an eBasta. It is like one creates a bag full of schools books that are related to each standard or course. With
access to variety of school resources- text, simulation, animations, audios, videos etc from the portal, teachers can choose
and bundle content according to their teaching methods.
Students can get themselves enriched with easy access to interactive and dynamic content augmented texts, charts,
graphics, audios and videos. They can also easily download the eBasta created by their teachers. Because the content
is in digital format, it can be stored on any device and shared or copied making the entire content very accessible and
portable for students to use. Students now need not worry of the weight while carrying e-contents and can start reading
them anywhere any time.
Book publishers through eBasta can read out to thousand of schools across the country without worrying about the
issues of printing, transport and delivery. They can list, sell and distribute all their content in digital format. eBasta
facilitates direct feedback from teachers and students to the publishers regarding the digital content they offer. The
platform also supports DRM, so publishers do not have to worry about piracy of their books.
The eBasta App, freely downloadable from the portal, runs on Android device.  q
(Compiled by Gopajit Das, Editor)

40 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 41

tradition of excellence
special Article

Preserving our Heritage :

Protecting and Promoting Handloom
Monika S Garg

nderstanding the way This tradition of excellence has

in which the handloom since been preserved by generations
sector may keep pace of skilled artisans engaged in the
with the changing times art of weaving by hand. Today,
is not just a matter handloom employs over four million
of academic interest, weavers and allied production
but is imperative for understanding workers, bulk of whom belong to
the varied facets of the sector and SC, ST, OBC and women. It is the
planning our policies accordingly. second largest employer next to
The schemes are to be framed in agriculture. The industry is eco-
There is a need for focussed a manner that addresses the many friendly, decentralized and rural
incentive schemes towards divergent dimensions of the subject based and is important for our
reviving the age-old tradition in developing economy.
handloom research. a sustainable manner, increasing
Technological innovation income levels, attracting more people However, the 2010 Handloom
to the occupation, reducing drudgery Census portrays a dismal trend. The
can create new possibilities number of weavers is declining at
associated with handlooms, enhancing
for design development and exports and changing the mindset of a rate of 7 per cent per annum. The
count of handlooms is dwindling. Gen
production process. Apart society in general. Once these issues
Next is skeptical, disinterested. These
are clearly delineated, it becomes
from product technology possible to address each with a indicate that handloom is on the verge
in terms of equipment distinctly targeted strategy. of becoming a sunset industry.
and machinery discussed Project Handloom As A Niche The causes for this deterioration
above, it could be process Product are diverse. The Census reveals
that a weaver earns merely Rs.
technology in terms of Handloom is as integral to our 3400 per month, as against the
technique of production, cultural heritage as zari is to bridal all India average of Rs. 4500 per
usage of machinery trousseau. The Rigveda, Mahabharata month for any worker. An art dies
and Ramayana expound upon the if its artisans fail to thrive. Weavers
and processing of raw art of weaving. Woven cloth, bone deserve a higher place in the society
materials or finished goods. needles and spindles have been found like any good painter or artist.
Innovations in process in Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa. A Hand woven products are unique,
cache of block-painted fabrics, mainly they are made with threads replete
which save human effort, of Gujarati origin, discovered in with passion, patience, elegance
time and energy are the Egyptian tombs exhibit the demand of and skill. They deserve a matching
Indian cotton textiles abroad and their remuneration. This can be achieved
need of the hour export since the 19th century B.C. by working the strengths of the sector.

The author is an officer of Indian Administrative Service, 1989 batch Uttar Pradesh cadre. She has worked in the textile sector for
7 years. She was Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Textiles for a little less than 6 years, holding additional charges of Development
Commissioner (Handloom), Director General NIFT and Development Commissioner (Handicrafts).

42 YOJANA October 2015

With its quantum and varieties of drives would be required to increase Intricate designs: Niche products
traditional handloom products, India the outreach.
occupies an enviable place in the The biggest threats in the market
place today are powerloom products
world. 85 per cent of the global
and cheap imports. Powerloom cloth
handloom production occurs here.
is cheaper, easier and quicker to make.
Other handloom nations like Sri Lanka,
Moreover, a lay man cannot distinguish
Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia and
between powerloom from handloom.
Indonesia manufacture very limited
Consequently, unfair trade practices
range of products. These are mainly are rampant, powerloom products
for domestic consumption. In contrast, are clandestinely sold in the name of
our export of handloom products handloom. There is an urgent need
whichwas US$ 260 million in 2009- for branding. The Handloom Mark
10, increased to US$ 370 million in is a guarantee to the buyer that the
2013-14, registering a growth of over product is genuinely hand woven,
40 per cent. and not a powerloom or mill made
This growth rate brings to light the item. It certifies the authenticity of the
huge potential of the sector. India has article. But unfortunately, people are
the capability to meet the demand for not familiar with this mark. There is
handmade products across the globe a need to generate awareness among
due to its demographic advantage and the general public. Something as
simple as a one -line commercial
versatile cultural heritage. Thisrequires
during the daily soaps could be
a targeted approach aligning with
instrumental in enlightening the target
the demands of the new era which Diversified Products group. Only products carrying the
are multifarious, fast-changing and
Handloom Mark should be exhibited
complex. The weaving industry needs While designers add value to a in government sponsored expos in the
to reflect our rich legacy, and at the product, another crucial dimension in country and abroad. Apart from raising
same time, imbibe modern designs. the value chain is marketing. Today, consciousness, this would ensure that
the industry fails to recognise the only genuine handloom weavers derive
A Benarasi or Chanderi weaver earns varied needs of the distinct segments
more if he contemporises his saree. The benefits of the schemes.
of the market. Market segmentation
earnings increase further if he diversifies needs to be understood, appreciated
into exportable accessories like stoles, and exploited. Premium products
scarves, ties, belts, bags, pouches and like the Patan Patola, the Kani,the
hand bands or home furnishings such Baluchari and the Jamdani should be
as cushion covers, table runners and projected as niche products. With
curtains. This product development their deft blending of myths, faiths
and product diversification calls for and symbols, weavers provide an
a strong collaboration of weavers appealing dynamism to these unique
with designers. National Institute fabrics. With their inimitable designs
of Fashion Technology (NIFT) has and distinct weaving techniques,
made a good beginning by including they should be targeted only at
cluster attachment in the curriculum. the affluent, and not the common The social impact, heritage and
On one hand, a visit to handloom man. Targeting the Niche market sheer love for handmade articles are
and handicraft clusters sensitizes the segment would get the returns they some of the critical elements that will
students to our invaluable tradition, and deserve. make handloom sustainable. However,
on the other, the weavers and artisans this strategy is intended only for the
benefit in terms of radical design highly skilled weavers with whom
inputs. Jhabua bead dolls can fetch designers associate to help them
20 times as much when converted into diversify the product base, directed
ear rings and car danglers and upto 100 at the elite discerning customers.
times when coordinated with handloom These constitute only 20 per cent of
pieces for making coasters and napkin the weavers who, no doubt, produce
holders. Conducting diagnostic studies, 80 per cent of the high-value items.
documenting them and developing Though this approach serves only
market-friendly products would be a a limited segment, it is expected
meticulous way of taking this initiative to ensure sustainable revival of the
forward. Many more of such long -term sector. The remaining 80 per cent of

YOJANA October 2015 43

the weavers, for whom handloom is a with the help of
sole occupation, would need to be dealt mills. I wish to
with in a different way. emphasise that
the two sectors
Large Employment Potential: are equally
Threats and measures important
We cannot lose sight of the fact but are very
that the sector provides direct and different and
indirect employment to more than 43 require distinct
lakh people, all of whom cannot be strategies. The
trained immediately to make intricate two sectors
high- end niche products. However, should not
handloom still remains a major source compete with
of livelihood in rural and remote each other. In
areas. r e a l i t y, t h e y chain opposes these two measures
complement and supplement each vehemently. But the need of the hour
A big threat comes from the other; while one can clothe the world, is to continue with these dispensations
powerloom and mill sectors because the other can provide employment to as they provide some protection to
it is possible to replicate most of the millions. Our government has been the vulnerable handloom sector. In
handloom products on powerloom following a policy of promoting and fact, the need is to strengthen the
which are easier and quicker to make. encouraging both the sectors. However, implementation machinery and ensure
Some of the weavers have chosen to this article limits itself to the handloom effective enforcement in the field.
update their skillset in mass production. sector and protection thereof.
Powerloom has certainly made lives of Another cause of concern is the
these weavers easier as it offers scale, To protect handlooms from availability of credit to the sector. The
accuracy, efficiency and speed. But it powerlooms and mill sector, the 3rd Census shows that 61 per cent
has actually taken away the livelihood Handlooms (Reservation of Articles are independent weavers, 34 per cent
from many others. People who do not for Production) Act was enacted in work under master weavers / private
have the means or resources for going 1985. Under the Act, 11 textile articles owners and only 5 per cent are under
into alternative gainful occupations or are at present reserved exclusively for institutional employment. Further, it is
even for switching over to powerlooms, production on handlooms (with certain mentioned in the weavers profile that
especially when there is acute shortage technical specifications). These are not weavers are generally not cash rich.
of power in the country, are the worst allowed for production on powerloom Agents, master weavers, mediators do
sufferers. or in mills. Violation of the Reservation not always allow the weavers to get
Order invites penalty. the value for money for their effort.
In this scenario, it is essential to The handloom weavers are not only
implement schemes with the sole aim Government also provides cash-strapped, but also less educated
of helping the sector and safeguarding subsidized yarn to handloom and less resourceful. Their distress is
the livelihood of lakhs of handloom weavers through National Handloom compounded by the fact that they do
weavers. However, I wish to give Development Corporation. With not have access to formal sources of
a clarification here for the sake of the objective of ensuring adequate credit.
those who argue otherwise, believing availability of yarn to handloom
that handloom is an antidote to weavers at reasonable prices, a Acknowledging the financial crisis
development and mass production mechanism has been put in place faced by them, the, government, in
under the Essential 2011, announced a financial package
Commodities of Rs 3000 crore for waiving off the
Act, 1955. This is loans of weavers and cooperative
called Hank Yarn societies. The objective was to open
Obligation. This the choked credit lines and make them
makes it mandatory eligible for loan again. With very
for spinning mills liberal guidelines and interpretation,
to produce certain only about a thousand crore rupees
percentage of their of loan was waived off across all
yarn in hank form, states and only about fifty thousand
which is required for individual weavers benefitted, apart
handlooms. from handloom societies. The outcome
was an eye opener for many. It revealed
The mill sector that not much credit had flown to the
across the value sector over the last many decades.

44 YOJANA October 2015

This called for radical measures and handlooms involves three primary review the definition with an aim to
the government then decided to extend motions: Shedding, Picking and achieve better productivity and reduce
loan to the sector at 6 per cent rate of Beating. Shedding motion separates manual intervention.
interest. This highly subsidized loan warp threads, according to the desired
can be used for creation of capital pattern to allow for weft insertions. I wish to argue that the existing
assets as well as working capital. This Inserting the length of weft through definition does not exclude
scheme can prove to be a game changer the shed is the Picking operation. mechanization of the primary and
if implemented in the right earnest. After that, the reed pushes or beats up secondary motions. Mechanization
This can provide the much needed the weft to the fell of the cloth. These does not imply use of power. it simply
working capital to the weavers, apart three motions are carried out by a means usingmechanical energy, tools
from helping in putting up facilities weaver without using power. There is a and technique to improve efficiency
for dyeing, processing and finishing of tremendous scope of mechanizing these and reduce drudgery. It simply means
handloom fabric. motions, without using electricity.In using machines.

As regards the educational level of addition, the pre-loom motions like In fact, handloom itself is a
the weavers, the Census indicates that winding and sizing and post-loom machine. But it is observed that the
83 per cent of the weavers are under operations can also be mechanized, conventional looms structure is not
HSLC level and only 17 per cent are reducing the drudgery to a large extent. scientifically and ergonomically
HSLC and above. This points to a very This dimension, so far,has remained designed. Conventional techniques
worrying mindset: that the profession is unnoticed and unexplored. Research involve tedious processes, full-time
meant for the less educated. This takes in this area will reduce toil without involvement, physical discomfort,
away all the sense of pride associated destroying the essence of weaving by and lesser monetary return. According
with the occupation. If we want to hand. to a survey, continuous exposure to
keep the next generation in the sector, A huge debate is going on in the such horrendous processes caused
we have to start treating handloom country on this issue of mechanization body soreness and chronic nervous
weaving as a modern profession like of handloom. In 2013, the Planning disruption in the palm, hands and legs
fine arts, photography, music etc. As Commission hadsuggested to re-define of the weavers.
a first step, institutes like NIFT can handloom as any hybrid loom on What bothers is that there is not
start imparting training in handloom
which at least one process of weaving much technology induction in the
clusters. Their prestigious programs
requires manual intervention or human handloom sector, due to the limited
meant for professionals, like the
energy for production. The Ministry research and inherent scope. The
Continuing Education Programme,
had suggested the use of hybrid looms, traditional techniques are still most
can be started exclusively for the
using power for accomplishing some popular. As a result, hand weaving
wards of handloom weavers. A NIFT
of the motions involved. As expected,
certificate will instill a sense of pride in remains labour-intensive and low
them, apart from upgrading and broad the idea was opposed by the weaver productive as ever.
basing their skills, which will then community across the country, and
widespread agitations followed. I In order to increase the production
become standardized, employable and
would say this opposition was right of fabrics on handloom, innovation
marketable. It must be remembered
that the sector has been sustained by because the move could have crucified and improvisation become necessary.
the art of handloom in years to come. Mechanization will improve the
transferring skills from one generation
Powerloom products which are efficiency of the weaver and the quality
to another and it is crucial to keep Gen
Next in the profession. today being clandestinely sold in the of the woven fabric with existing levels
name of handloom, would then be of operational skills. The first step
Need for technological rightfully competing with genuine towards technological upgradation was
upgradation handloom products and defeating the flying shuttle patented by John Kay
them hands down. Powerloom in 1773. It was a key development in
As per Section 2(b) of the Handloom weaving because it made manual skill
weavers (outnumbering handloom
(Reservation of Articles for Protection) redundant in the Picking motion. Later,
weavers) would have cornered the
Act, 1985, Handloom means any as a part of the developmental activities,
benefits of government schemes
loom other than powerloom. As
being implemented for protection various technical interventions have
per the Bureau of Indian Standards,
and development on handloom sector. been made in the form of dobby and
Handloom is a hand operated machine
This would have ensured that the sun jacquard for complex weaving patterns,
for producing cloth by weaving.
sets for handloom sector sooner rather SPS Korvoi sley and Catch cord system
In some instances, the shedding is
than later. Thankfully, in 2014, the for weaving solid borders and multiple
performed by foot operation.
Textile Ministry took a stand to retain buti sley for making many butis
Let us go into the technical details the existing definition of handloom simultaneously. These have improved
of the process of weaving by hand. as any loom other than power loom . the weavers efficiency manifold. Twin
As discussed above, weaving in At the same time, itrecommended to cloth weaving mechanism for weaving

YOJANA October 2015 45

mats, stoles, etc of narrow width and discussed above, it could be process manifest as large scale employment
multiple box motion for continuous technology in terms of technique of and production.
weaving of two different kinds of weft production, usage of machinery and
also reduce fatigue. processing of raw materials or finished The scenario where handloom fabric
goods. Innovations in process which is routinely produced on a commercial
If we wish small units in the save human effort, time and energy scale poses problems of marketing.
handloom sector to take weaving at a are the need of the hour. The secondary This is where the government would
commercial level, the work hours spent motions,i.e., pre-loom and post-loom be required to step in again. A demand
on loom would be quite longer. The motions could all be mechanized. from the sector is to link it with
requirements for commercial purpose In fact, they can even be motorized MGNREGA. This is worth pondering
are different from that of domestic because they do not form part of the over. As on date, states supplies free
weaving which requires modification weaving process. In addition, the uniforms to school children and
of the workstations. Semi-automatic three primary motions need to be seen anganwadi workers. A decision can
handlooms are a good solution for the individually and tried for technical the be taken to use only hand woven fabric
common weavers. These could also be improvements by operations research for this purpose. Handloom workers
coupled with automatic take-up and so that the strain levels of the weaver enrolled under MGNREGA and can be
let-off mechanism. Roller temple could reduce. These motions could then be given the wages if they manufacture the
be used in place of wooden/bamboo performed mechanically without using prescribed length of cloth which can
electricity. then be supplied to the schools and
temple and warp & fabric beams could
be provided on the existing handloom. The biggest challenge is adoption anganwadi centres.
These would combine versatility with of the new technologies developed. The challenge for our researchers
ease of operation. This is due to lack of dissemination and scientists is to introduce
and also reluctance on the weavers technology for enlarging the
There is a need for focussed part to adopt them due his belief in
incentive schemes towards handloom production base and upgrade the
the age-old traditional technique he is
research. Technological innovation process without compromising the
used to. This would require focused
can create new possibilities for design Unique Selling Proposition, the
attention by making them an integral
development and production process. part of all government schemes. distinctive features and the emotional
Apart from product technology in The R&D coupled with its effective aspect of handloom.  q
terms of equipment and machinery percolation down to the field would (


46 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 47

Megha-LAMP project launched in Meghalaya

M egha-Lamp project was launched in Meghalaya this September by the Chief Minister of Meghalaya. The scheme
aims at improving family incomes and quality of the life in the mountain state. Megha-LAMP - Meghalaya
Livelihoods and Access to Markets Project is a key initiative, which focuses on developing markets and value chains
for sustainable livelihoods, and ensures that those livelihoods are adapted to Meghalayas geographical context
and to the effects of climate change. Three components of the project are natural resource management and food
security, enterprise and livelihood development and knowledge management. The project is being implemented
as a part of the Integrated Basin Development and Livelihoods Programme and assisted by the International Fund
for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Megha-LAMP is expected to develop 47,000 enterprises to be set up by
rural communities across all 39 blocks and set up 54 value chain and livelihood clusters across at least 18 blocks,
touching a total of 1,40,000 households.

Northeast to have its own Film Institute

he Government has announced the setting up of a Film Institute in the North-east. A film institute in the region will
T help in boosting the film industry of the Northeast and will also enable film makers from Bollywood, Tollywood
and other parts of the country to explore the scenic beauty of the region which can match with the most beautiful
locations in the world.

Cabinet nods to formation of five new districts in Assam

he Assam Government in September approved the proposal to set up five new districts in the State - Biswanath
T Chariali, Hojai, South Salmara-Mankachar, Charaideo and West Karbi Anglong. A Cabinet sub-committee will
conduct public hearings and demarcate the border of these two new districts on the basis of the opinion of local


T wo new plan schemes were launched by the Ministry of Tourism in the North Eastern region namely SWADESH
DARSHAN for integrated development of Circuits around specific themes and PRASAD for National Mission
on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual Augmentation Drive. Under Swadesh Darshan Scheme , Coastal Circuit,
Buddhist Circuit, North East India Circuit, Himalayan Circuit and Krishna Circuit have been identified initially .Seven
more circuits were added to it namely Desert Circuit, Spiritual Circuit, Ramayana Circuit, Tribal Circuit, Eco Circuit,
Wild Life Circuit and Rural Circuit. Under PRASAD, scheme 12 cities have been identified out of which ,Kamakhaya
in Assam features under the scheme.
The Centre has also taken some initiatives to promote tourism in North Eastern Region. They include: Provision
of complimentary space to the North Eastern States in India Pavilions set up at major International Travel Fairs and
Exhibitions; 100 per cent Central financial assistance for organizing fairs & festivals in the North Eastern States ; Ministry
of Tourism, as part of its on-going activities, annually releasing print, electronic, online and outdoor media campaigns
in the international and domestic markets to promote various tourism destinations and products of the country, including
the lesser known destinations which have tourism potential. The Ministry of Tourism has undertaken special campaigns
on NE Region on TV channels to promote tourism in the regions ; Besides these, International Tourism Mart (ITM) are
organized annually with the objective of showcasing the largely untapped tourism potential of North East region in the
domestic and international markets.


W ith the aim for North-East States come at par with the national average on achieving full child immunization, the
Government of India had launched Mission Indradhanush in last December. So far, it has conducted four rounds
in 33 high focus districts of North East states, targeting areas with partial immunization and no immunization. During
these rounds, 5.6 lakh children and 0.53 lakh pregnant women were vaccinated in North East states.
Under the National Health Mission (NHM), mobility support has been provided to strengthen the supervision,
alternate vaccine delivery from the last cold chain point at PHC/CHC to session site. ASHA workers have also been
provided incentives for mobilizing beneficiaries to the session site and also for full immunization of a child.

48 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 49

bridging the skill GaP
cutting edge

Skill Development : Capitalizing Resources &

Manoj Joshi, Arun Bahadauria, Shailja Dixit

n the context of growth through massive poverty

economic progress reduction and entitlements based
supported by economic programs, such as the Mahatma
growth, it is imperative Gandhi National Rural Employment
that skill development Guarantee Act, National Rural
be given top priority Livelihood Mission and National
in a country like India, abundant with Skill Development Corporation.
youth power. It is understood that Further, Make in India Initiative is
economic progress can be achieved to accomplish the goal of overall
by two methods, one by increasing prosperity and growth. In fact,
efficiency in the existing systems through such initiatives, resources
Improving the process of the that support economy and harnessing are tapped up to its optimum and
development, maintenance growth. The second one is by creating new resources are identified and
and use of skills is a new framework that supports an sometimes created out of need based
ecosystem for self-employed youths, research and innovation.
increasingly recognised as entrepreneurs by providing them
a core element of the policy productive skill sets, which fuels the Skill India Initiative is the concrete
package necessary to support economic progress additionally. Both effort in this direction. When it comes
have their potentials and boundaries to livelihood security of the masses,
sustainable long-term growth
as discussed later in the framework. the first attribute that hits the debate
and employment creation however, the skill development is skill based learning. Livelihood
and contribute to a fairer emerges as the centre of discussion index considers skill, availability and
distribution of income and in this proposed policy paper. accessibility of avenues for successful
Nevertheless, the notion of economic venture and well-being. Further, skill
opportunities. The recently progress and development resulting development seldom comes on its
released OECD Skills Strategy into economic prosperity has to find own. It is to be nurtured through
(OECD, 2012b) identifies ways through existing and enhanced endless working to tap opportunity
set of skills and optimum resources and living beyond the edge. In the
three key areas for action by utilization. ensuing debate on skill development
governments by developing in contemporary academia and
Institutional efforts and lessons
relevant skills, activating these policy making, the larger emphasis
skills and putting these skills is laid upon skill set pertaining to
In recent years, Government of entrepreneurship. Venture capitalists
to some use
India has been keen on making large and other investors are looking
investment to promote inclusive forward for start-ups in order to tap

The author is Professor of Strategy, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Amity Business School, Amity University, Lucknow Campus,
Uttar Pradesh, He is a fellow of institution of engineers. He is the co author of "THE VUCA company ", Asia Editor of International
Journal of entrepreneurship and Innovation, Regional Editor India, Journal of Family Business Management besides being in the
editorial board of several international journals. Shailja Dixit is an Associate professor of marketing with interest in entrepreneurship.
Arun Bhadauria is an Assistant Professor of Economics with additional interest in agribusiness.

50 YOJANA October 2015

the unlooked innovative opportunities of the population in the working age Risk report (WEF, 2011) cautions that
so far in business domain as well group of 15-59 years, and more than developing countries like India and
as skill proliferation and polishing. 54 per cent of the total population Brazil will also face huge skill gaps
Still, capabilities seldom result in below 25 years of age. By 2022, due to low employability. There is a
successful venture and creating India will have a surplus of 56 million wide gap between the skills required
s u ff i c i e n t p o o l o f e m p l o y a b l e working people. Even as on today, in industry and those provided by the
resources. The social destitution and around 12 million youth enter the education system. Despite the efforts
concerned sociological issues are workforce each year, which, if skilled of the National Skills Development
hindrances in the realization of the and educated properly, can become a Mission, the task of achieving the
goal of economic prosperity, growth great human resource pool, capable targeted 500 million skilled manpower
and development. of serving not only the booming by 2022 is enormous.
Indian market, but also feed the global
Skill Development and Economic Gaps in opportunities utilization
economy. (Planning Commission
Progress and economic growth
Policy Document, Twelfth Five Year
Skill development can be defined Plan, ) 1. The structural vulnerability
as proficiency that is acquired or of livelihood systems in Less
developed through training or Indias population, long considered Developed Countries (LDCs)
experience. Global Leaders have a curse, has turned into a desirable such as skewed distribution
acknowledged the role and impact of demographic dividend. But a of resources, subdivision and
skill development via their national demographic dividend does not fragmentation of land holdings,
policies. This strengthens the ability of poor connectivity and of course
individuals to adapt to changing market mean just people; it means skilled,
low level of awareness and
demands and benefit from innovation educated or employed people. Low education, backward and inhibitory
and entrepreneurial activities. Apart labour-cost and a rich talent pool approach towards developmental
from primary determinants of skills are distinct advantages available to processes led to poor, non-
development, it is also essential
to address the opportunities and
India, liveable, economically weaker
and unsustainable dwellings;
challenges to meet new demands of
India, like many other Asian 2. Focusing and deliberating upon
changing economies in the context of
competitiveness. countries, is going through five labour improved technology of production
market transitions: farm to non-farm, and processing to stabilize yields
The future prosperity of countries rural to urban, unorganised to organised, through diversification into agro-
depends ultimately on the number subsistence self-employment to ecologically appropriate crops,
of persons in employment and how decent wage employment and school natural resource management,
productive they are at work. Its a to work. Indias population, long filing up of voids in economic
dynamic scenario where the most considered a curse, has turned into and political distribution system,
successful or progressive nations a desirable demographic dividend. c o s t e ff e c t i v e a n d b u s i n e s s
shall be one that can counter VUCA But a demographic dividend does not oriented measures are brazenly
(Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, mean just people; it means skilled, required. (e.g. soil and water
Ambiguity) (Abidi & Joshi, 2015). educated or employed people. Low conservation);
Hence, skill development can be labour-cost and a rich talent pool 3. Operational approach to create
connected to a broader growth, are distinct advantages available to alternative income-generating
employment and development India, clearly powering its global activities for attainment of the
mandating government intervention. competiveness as a knowledge-based goal of self-sustained system
society. (Sabarwal, 2013)
India competitive edge existing (e.g. activities to develop small
Bridging the skill gap: Opportunities enterprise);
A study by the Boston Consulting
for skills training 4. Need of reinforcing coping
Group reveals that the world is
expected to encounter a shortage of strategies that are economically,
While the global population is
47 million working people by 2020. environmentally, globally and of
ageing rapidly, India, with one of the
On the other hand, India is on a course locally sustainable (e.g.
youngest populations in the world, is
growth trajectory and its potential seasonally appropriate off-farm
at a strategic advantage with regards
demographic dividend is making to demographic dividend. However, employment);
headlines all over the world. Today, almost three fourths of Indias 5. Improvement in on-site inventory
it is one of the youngest nations in population is unskilled. The World management and implementation
the world with more than 62 per cent Economic Forums Global Talent capacity to increase the availability

YOJANA October 2015 51

of buffer stocks in order to provide that are aligned and the creation of 10. Political & Legal Security.
cushions from shocks; an ecosystem where preparation of
educated and skilled workers is in line Human capital / skills augmentation
6. Improvement through community economic growth
participation in common property with the requirements of the future.
and logistics management. The key challenges that the education Desirable skill set to fill gaps
system faces are high dropouts at
Matching and Connecting Supply various stages of education. About 1. Skill set is required to be reset
to Demand 35 per cent of students who start for masses living at the bottom
school do not reach grade 10. Of the of the pyramid. Accessibility and
Measured unemployment does not
26 million who take the grade 10 adaptability have been the critical
fully reflect the availability of workers
exit examinations, 10 million do not reason for failure in creating
to be hired, so too the measured level
pass. Eight million of the 16 million sufficient skill pool till date.
of vacancies does not fully reflect the
who take the grade 12 examinations
availability of jobs (Diamond 2011). 2. perception based ability is
fail to clear them. Only 5 million of
Employment and productivity patterns desirable in youth to recognize
the 8 million who successfully go
reveal important mismatches. Ninety- the opportunity and grab it.
past grade 12 examinations go on
three percent of the workforce in India
to college. Preparing a robust pool 3. Basic entrepreneurial skill set
is in informal employment, which
of educated and skilled workers and is desirable in youth and those
suffers from subscale enterprises
professionals requires improved
and overall low productivity. Fifty- involved in the business in any
completion and transition rates at
eight percent of the workforce is form.
lower levels of education (Sabarwal,
in agricultural employment that 2013) Improving the process of the
contributes to only 15 per cent of GDP.
development, maintenance and use
Only 12 per cent of the workforce The proportion of poor and
of skills is increasingly recognised as
is in manufacturing employment, disadvantaged is also higher among
those who drop out early from the a core element of the policy package
compared to 50 per cent in the
Peoples Republic of China (PRC). education system which makes necessary to support sustainable long-
Low-skilled organised manufacturing tertiary education enrolments and term growth and employment creation
would create a mezzanine layer that attainments inherently inequitable. and contribute to a fairer distribution
would enable the difficult farm to The desirable skill set is needed of income and opportunities. The
non-farm transition. More than half of to be created through unclaimed recently released OECD Skills Strategy
Indias labour force is self-employed, security and protection towards the (OECD, 2012b) identifies three key
which unfortunately does not signal basic necessities pertaining to health, areas for action by governments by
entrepreneurial energy as most self- education and of course society. developing relevant skills, activating
employed are working poor (Mc Moreover, resultant livelihood is these skills and putting these skills to
Kinsey, 2014). dependent on various components some use.
such as:
Most people focus on flow the Framework for Skill Development
1. Security of Business Opportunity
one million young people joining the As said earlier in the starting of
and development;
labour force every month for the next
2. Economic security (income, skills, the paper, that economic progress
20 years but a bigger opportunity
time); can be achieved by two methods. The
is stock retooling the 200 million
first one is by increasing efficiency
who are already in the labour force 3. Nutritional security (Shelter,
in the existing systems that support
but stuck at low productivity in farms Mother and child care health
including water and sanitation); economy and harnessing growth. but
and elsewhere. In 2011, Indias 1,200
this has limited scope. The second
employment exchanges run by the 4. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Aw a r e n e s s one is by creating a newer framework,
government provided only 300,000 Security;
jobs against the 40 million people who which supports an ecosystem towards
5. E d u c a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t o r y self-employment or as entrepreneurs
are registered in these employment security;
exchanges (Mc Kinsey, 2014). by providing them skill sets that are
6. C o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n productive, which directly fuel the
Pool of Educated and Skilled (gender, ethnic group, religious economic progress and that it has
Workers Required affiliation); immense scope.
The broad principles for a better 7. Habitat security;
The authors propose a corrective
educational regime have to do with 8. Food security ; framework towards exploiting
better regulation of quality, incentives 9. Health security; opportunities via skill development.

52 YOJANA October 2015

Figure 1: Framework for Skill India Initiative (Source- Authors Joshi, Dixit, Bhadauria)


efficiency in
Existing Create a New
Systems Framework

Productivity by Create
adding Skills Entrepreneurs

Limited Scope Scope

Existing Untapped Create New

Opportunities Opportunities

Capabilities Enhancing

Resources Capabilities

Skill (s)
Progressive Providing
and Developed different
India Skills

Participation In (Productivity, Matching
Economic Employability, Opportunities
Growth Entrepreneurship) (Existing, New)

Route 1: this route can be exploited as we between employability and existing

understand that there are opportunities opportunities due to lack in skill
Harnessing growth by increasing which havent been taken up due to sets.
the efficiencies of work force by lack in employability of incumbents.
providing them skill sets within the Its evident that there is a large Route 2:
current economic systems. Hereby, gap, which disallows incumbents This is more of an entrepreneurial
it implies providing with skill sets lacking in pre-requisite skills for framework by creating newer
that are required by existing industry employability. Traditional industries opportunities both in the new economy
(firms) but are about to reach saturation in the old and new economy are the currently and as envisaged for the
with limited scope. However, even universe, where we can find gaps next twenty years. There is a latent

YOJANA October 2015 53

desire to create an entrepreneurial them for the newer challenges technology opportunity: Transforming
ecosystem, which offers unlimited proposed. work, empowering people
scope. However, even this has two Planning Commission Sub-Committee
sub paths. Both routes must match on Re-Modeling Indias Apprenticeship
opportunities that are new or either Regime (2009,February). Report and
Route 2, path A: existing with the pre-requisite skills recommendations, New Delhi.
desired that assists employability. Sabharwal, M. (2013), Education,
There must be existing untapped
This in turn will lead to increase E m p l o y a b i l i t y, E m p l o y m e n t a n d
opportunities that need to be harnessed
in productivity, employability and Entrepreneurship: Meetingthe Challenge
by increasing the employability of
entrepreneurship. The complete of the 4Es R. Maclean et al. (eds.), Skills
the youth, by empowering them with
process will have participation from Development for Inclusive and Sustainable
additional skill sets. This implies,
major incumbents thereby leading Growth in Developing Asia-Pacific,
enhancing capabilities.
towards a progressive and developed Technical and Vocational Education and
Route 2, path B: Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects
19, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-5937-4_4,
This focusses upon creating Readings Asian Development Bank
entirely new sets of opportunities Website of Planning Commission, http://
in the new economy powered Abidi, S., Joshi, M. (2015), THE
by entrepreneurs always in look VUCA COMPANY, Jaico Publishing house,
Skill%20Development.pdf retrieved on
out for enhanced capabilities to Mumbai, India
foster economic progress. This D i a m o n d , P. ( 2 0 1 1 , J u n e ) .
Website of world economic forum,
entails both resource and capability Unemployment, vacancies, wages.
augmentation and providing skill American Economic Review,American
talent-risks-report-2011 retrieved on
development that orients incumbents Economic Association, Vol. 101, No. 4,
09/09/2015  q
to exploit newer opportunities in the pp. 10451072.
offering at the same time preparing Mc Kinseys, ( 2014), Report on Indias (


54 YOJANA October 2015








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upscaling the disadvantaged

Improving Employability of The Disadvantaged

sunita Sanghi

emographic advantage basic and portable skills including

that India enjoys in teamwork, problem solving, ICT,
terms of more than literacy and numeracy. These skills
65 per cent of its enhance employability. Large number
population in the of policy initiatives, programmatic
working age group, and systemic interventions have been
is a one-time occurrence during made in the last seven years to improve
demographic transition. The latest the availability of skilled manpower
UN population report, 2015 indicates to take up wage employment and
that by the year 2020, the average age entrepreneurship for all segments of
in India would be 29 years compared society and also targeted interventions
to 37 years in China and US and 45 for disadvantaged groups.
years in Europe. This demographic
...skill development advantage is an opportunity for India
This article focuses on
characteristics of labour market,
is an effective tool to to be the human resource factory of
key policy challenges and policy
the world and meet the requirement
overcome exclusion imperatives for improving skills of
of aging economies of the world also.
disadvantaged groups.
but it is necessary to This necessitates appropriate skilling
/reskilling /upskilling of the existing Disadvantaged Groups, Labour
monitor the outcome labour force as also fresh entrants to Market and Skill Development
the labour force in tune with market
of education in terms requirements both domestic and The central question is who are
of learning levels overseas. However, this poses a huge disadvantaged? A person can be
challenge given that there is lack of disadvantaged both on the basis of
and training in terms aspiration for vocational education; economic factors such as income
poverty and social factors such as
of improvement in weak or no linkage between education
gender, ethnic, geographical isolation
and world of work; shortage of quality
employability which trainers and diverse skill requirement with poor access to quality education/
job opportunities; school dropouts
would facilitate not across diverse regions /groups.
and differently abled people1. The
only entry into labour I L O Yo u t h E m p l o y m e n t disadvantage therefore emanates due
Network in 2001 identified four Es- to multiple factors and groups are
market but also social Employability, Equal Opportunities not mutually exclusive.. Given that
inclusion for all; Entrepreneurship and education and training empowers young
Employment creation as priority areas people for decent work by enhancing
for youth employment. ILC resolution their core skills, the illiterate, school
in 2000 indicated that individuals are drop outs and least educated youth are
most employable when they have the most disadvantaged as exclusion
broad based education and training, from the education and training may

The author is Advisor (PC), Niti Aayog, New Delhi.

56 YOJANA October 2015

lead them to enter the labour market low productivity level and under perhaps due to skill mismatch and
at an early age2, in low paid and poor or unemployment. Most of those in non-availability of appropriate jobs.
quality jobs leading to vicious cycle agriculture sector are self employed. It is observed that the disadvantaged
of inter-generational poverty and Besides, a huge proportion was in the youth, irrespective of category, are
social exclusion. 3 Therefore, it is low paid non- manufacturing sector at higher risk of marginalisation and
necessary to understand the labour i.e. construction. social exclusion. The available NSSO
market scenario to understand the data shows that the 15-24 year old
implications for skill development. It is also noticed that differently
abled as per 2011 Census were cohorts faces higher risk of working
The labour market in India is 2.68 crore of which 1.57 crore are poverty as they enter the labour market
dualistic with 92.9 per cent (435.66 in the working age group. Their opting for low paid jobs and withdraw
million) in the informal sector and just need for meaningful employment from the market when they fail to get
about 8.1 per cent (38.56 million) in largely remains unmet in spite of suitable employment. This high level
the formal sector.4 Further, bulk of this implementation of the Persons with of unemployment can be due to failure
employment is in the rural areas in Disability Act, 1995. The proportion to find a job or lack of competency or
unorganised sector where 68 per cent of differently abled is higher in rural training opportunity or low demand
of the population lives. The labour areas accentuated by poor access to for skills acquired leading to skill
market is also experiencing falling health services and general poverty mismatch. The higher unemployment
female participation rate particularly considerations. The rural disabled are of youth has ramifications for loss
in the rural areas where for all age significantly disconnected from the in output, erosion of skills, reduced
groups (0+) it is around 22.5 per skills and the labour market.6 levels of activity and increased social
cent. divisions. However, skill development
...skill development alone is alone is not sufficient to address the
In terms of educational
disadvantage, 30 per cent of the
not sufficient to address the unemployment problem, there is need
entrants to the labour market are unemployment problem, there for availability of job opportunities
illiterate and another 24 per cent are is need for availability of job for those skills. This analysis of the
disadvantaged groups categorisations
having just about primary education. opportunities for those skills. This brings out problems and challenges
In terms of proportion of labour force
with basic education, just about 30
analysis of the disadvantaged that are required to be addressed for
per cent are with secondary education groups categorisations brings improving employability through skill
and above5. The sharp drop out both out problems and challenges that development.
for girls and boys at the middle and are required to be addressed for Problems and challenges of the
the secondary level complicates the
improving employability through Disadvantaged group
matter. As per UDISE data (2013-
14), 20 per cent drop out before skill development. The ILOs life cycle approach
completing class-V and 47.4 per cent indicates that the vulnerabilities and
drop out before completing secondary The youth have been found to be gaps need to be addressed at an early
education. This low level of education very vulnerable. As per NSSO EUS age so as to support the transition of
leads to low level of skills. The 2011-12, unemployment rate was 2.4 people into the decent jobs.8 Given
number of people entering the labour per cent for males and 3.7 per cent for
that in India around 70 per cent of
force with formal skills is 3 per cent females for all age groups, while for
population still reside in rural setting
and another 7 per cent in the labour youth(15-29 years) it varied between
helping families in agriculture, there
market have acquired skill informally. 6.1 per cent to 15.6 per cent across
different categories. The urban female is need to skill them in agriculture
(EUS 2011-12). In other words, 90 per and related activities with appropriate
cent of the labour force do not have at 15.6 per cent experienced the
highest unemployment rate. It could linkages with product, finance and
any skills to meet the requirement labour market.. This would facilitate
of skill based occupations. Within be because of family support to remain
unemployed for want of suitable increase in women participation and
the total workforce the proportion
opportunities or social restrictions. restrict the migration from rural to
of females receiving formal training
Within the 15-29 age group, it was urban areas for low paid jobs. The
(2.79 mn) is very low vis-a-vis male
very bad for 15-19 group perhaps due poor quality of education and low
(8.63 mn). Same is the case with
to mismatch in the available jobs and level of skills forces children out of
informal training also.
expectations.7 More youth in the rural school and into child labour to take up
In terms of sectoral distribution areas are engaged in agriculture. The low paid jobs in the informal sector.
48 per cent are working in agriculture unemployment rate was also found The challenge is to provide quality
sector which contributes only about to be very high among the formally education and counselling to children
16 per cent of GDP, suggestive of educated and vocationally trained and parents about the advantages of

YOJANA October 2015 57

education and training in accessing preparing labour market information programmes for economically,
good jobs. and national career service. socially disadvantaged, minority and
disabled groups aims to improve the
There are very few programmes From above it emerges that the participation and retention of students
to address the skill requirement of the challenge for skilling is complex from these groups in the school and
informal sector which is spread across given the diversity of target groups complete basic education. In addition,
different geographical locations. The in terms of locations, geography, scholarships/fellowships are provided
workers take up low paid jobs and gender, social and religious groups; to facilitate the pursuance of higher
learn work there only. The challenge low education and skill levels. The education for different groups.9 The
is to link apprenticeship training with rapid economic growth and changing efforts to increase female teachers,
formal schooling so that young people technology requires youth to enhance improving community involvement
have incentives to remain in school their capacities for accessing decent and construction of toilets under the
to learn core skills required for work. jobs. This also necessitates access to Swatch Bharat Mission are some
The proportion of girls dropping out education, training, and employment measures to improve the participation
is much higher than the boys due opportunities which continues to be of females in education and training
to factors such as unavailability of determined by socioeconomic, gender, process. But much more needs to
female teachers, hostel and transport geographic locations, infrastructural be done in terms of broad basing
facilities. The skill programmes are facilities etc. trades and sensitising community
biased towards trades which are more and teachers to avoid occupational
favourable to men. reinforcing the I n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r i m p ro v i n g
Education and Skills segregation on gender basis. National
exclusion of girls. There is challenge Literacy Mission (NLM) impart,
of providing such facilities to girls as Given that huge proportion of functional literacy to non-literates in
also introducing flexible courses in those in the labour market or entering the age group of 15-35 years in a time
terms of time for better participation. the labour market do not have basic bound manner.
There is need for sustained
it emerges that the challenge In the area of skill development,
intervention to deal with the
functional literacy among 15-24 age for skilling is complex given the programmes so far have been state
driven and in some cases the industry
groups. The employment prospects the diversity of target groups in
retrains the employee to make them
of disadvantaged children can be terms of locations, geography, job competent. The need is to have
increased if they can be retained in
gender, social and religious groups; demand driven skill development
schools to be functionally literate and
numerate. This requires interventions low education and skill levels. which meets the requirement of the
industry. The National Policy on Skill
in the form of subsidies, special The rapid economic growth and
Development & Entrepreneurship,
preschool programme and attention changing technology requires 2015 envisages inclusion irrespective
to quality of schooling.
youth to enhance their capacities of any divide through equal access to
The differently abled people also for accessing decent jobs. This also skill development by marginalized
face several barriers to enter the labour necessitates access to education, g r o u p s l i k e S C s , S Ts , O B C s ,
market such as lack of education and minorities, women, school dropouts,
training; lack of financial resources; training, and employment differently abled and those living
the nature of the workplace or opportunities which continues to in difficult geographical locations
occupation and employer-perceptions be determined by socioeconomic, to enhance their employability,
of differently abled. The key players gender, geographic locations, entrepreneurship and access to decent
viz. persons with disability himself/ employment opportunities. Various
herself, government, employers and infrastructural facilities etc. targeted initiatives have been taken
NGOs Which faces challenges and education and lack employable by the Governments both at the centre
limitations which act as a barrier skills, there is need for appropriate and states to address the challenges of
for scalable employment of persons initiatives for education and training. Employability, Equal Opportunities for
with disability in India. For all and The measures such as Right to all; Entrepreneurship and Employment
particularly the disadvantaged group, Education Act, 2009 and Rashtriya creation to address the skill requirement
there is the challenge of tracking post Shiksha Madhyamik Abhiyan aimed of these disadvantaged groups as
training, integrating entrepreneurial at reducing out of school children given in Annex. The perusal of these
training with technical training to and improving the basic education initiatives indicates the necessity
prepare youth for self-employment; upto secondary level. The Kasturba of capacity expansion, innovative
providing support structure in terms Gandhi Balika Vidhyalaya Residential delivery approaches and active
of product, finance and employment programme aims to improve retention participation of private sector. It also
market linkages; technical training in of girls in school. The scholarship emerges that there is need to focus on

58 YOJANA October 2015

Initiatives to address challenges faced by disadvantaged in skill development

S.No Name of Scheme Particulars/Objectives of the Scheme

For School Drop-outs
1 Craftsmen Training Scheme The major objectives of the scheme are to:
i. Provide semi-skilled/skilled workers to industry by systematic training to school
leavers; and
ii. Reduce unemployment among educated youth by equipping them with suitable
skills for industrial employment.
The scheme is implemented through government run ITIs and private
2 Apprenticeship The objectives of Apprentice training are:
Training Scheme i. To regulate the programme of training of apprentices in the industry so as
to conform to the syllabi, period of training etc. as laid downby the Central
Apprenticeship Council; and
ii. To utilisefully the facilities available in industry for imparting practical training
with a view to meetingthe requirements of skilled manpower for industry.
Apprentice ProtsahanYojana (APY) has been launched with the objective of Sharing
of 50 per cent of prescribed stipend by the Government of India for first two years
of apprenticeship training for 1,00,000 apprentices to be engaged by establishments
covered under the Apprentices Act, 1961.
3 TRIFED- Skill TRIFED - a National level Cooperative Body under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs,
development/upgradation and Government of India, is engaged in the marketing development of tribal products
capacity building for Handicrafts/ and skill development/up-gradation & capacity building trainings of tribal handicraft
Handlooms artisans and tribal people in Skill Development & Capacity Building training of
Minor Forest Produce gatherersand Training of Tribal Handicraft Artisans engaged
in making Handlooms, Handicrafts, Tribal Paintings etc.
Women and Adolescent Girls
4 Support to Training & Employment The scheme has a two-fold objective viz.
Program (STEP) i. To provide skills that give employability to women.
ii. To provide competencies and skills that enable women to become self-employed/
5 Priyadarshini scheme to organize The Women Empowerment and Livelihood Programme in Mid Gangetic Plains
women into effective self help also called Priyadarshini Programme envisages holistic empowerment of 1,08,000
group poor women and adolescent girls through formation of 7200 SHGs. The programme
originally being implemented in six districts including four districts in Uttar Pradesh
6 SwadharGreh/Short Stay Under the scheme, new Swadhargreh will be set up in every district with capacity of
Home (Skill improvement for 30 women with the following objectives:
rehabilitation) i. To cater to the primary need of shelter, food, clothing, medical treatment and
care of the women in distress and who are without any social and economic
ii. To enable them to regain their emotional strength that gets hampered due to their
encounter with unfortunate circumstances.
iii. To provide them with legal aid and guidance to enable them to take steps for
their readjustment in family/society.
iv. To rehabilitate them economically and emotionally.
7 SABLA Rajiv Gandhi Scheme The objective is to improve the nutritional and health status of adolescent girls in the
for Empowerment of age group of 11-18 years and empower them by providing education in life-skills,
Adolescent Girls health and nutrition, the Government of India introduced the SABLA in November,
2010. The Scheme also aims at equipping girls with information on family welfare,
health and hygiene, existing public services, etc., and to draw out-of-school girls into
the formal or non-formal education systems.

YOJANA October 2015 59

8 Skill Up-gradation The programme is aimed at enhancing the vocational skills of women in the border
Training Programme for Women or tribal or backward districts and also at helping them to acquire self- employment.
in 200 Border/Tribal/ Backward The programme enables women participants to supplement their income in existing
Districts occupation, improve productivity and learn new skills for which there is a good
demand in the market.
Rural Poor
9 Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Aims at training 10 lakh (1 million) rural youths for jobs by 2017.
Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (earlier The skills imparted under the scheme will now be benchmarked against international
known as Aajeevika) standards and will complement the Prime Ministers Make In India campaign.
The KaushalyaYojana will also the address the need for imparting training to the
differently-abled persons and chip in private players including international players
to impart the skills to the rural youths.
10 Rural Self Employment and Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs) across the country as institution
Training Scheme (RSETI) to mitigate the unemployment and underemployment problem among youth in the
country. RSETIs are non-profit institutions established with the support of State and
Central Governments. The objective of this institute is to generate self-employment
in rural areas through training for capacity building and by facilitating in settlement
in vocations. RSETIs are imparting comprehensive quality training in personality
and skill development areas to the rural youth and it facilitates them in settlement
in vocations. Settlement is facilitated by enabling the trained candidates to launch
profitable micro enterprises either with or without the credit linkage from financial
Urban Poor
11 National Urban Livelihoods Skill training to be provided for both Wage Employment (job placement) and
Mission (NULM)-- Employment Enterprise Development.
through Skill Training and i. Implementation in PPP mode through strong linkage and coordination with
Placement (EST&P) industry, technical universities / academic institutions, private skill training
providers, industry approved certification and placement.
ii. Identification of training needs based on city level skill gap analysis.
iii. Imparting of soft skills, professional etiquettes, etc. and pre-training
Minority Youth
12 Multi Sectoral Development The programme aims at improving the socio-economic conditions of minorities and
Programme (MSDP) providing basic amenities to them for improving the quality of life of the people and
reducing imbalances in the identified minority concentration areas
13 Seekhoaur Kamao i. To bring down unemployment rate of minorities
ii. To conserve and update traditional skills of minorities and establish their
linkages with the market.
iii. To improve employability of existing workers, school dropouts etc. and ensure
their placement.
iv. To generate means of better livelihood for marginalised minorities and bring
them in the mainstream.
v. To develop potential human resource for the country.
14 Parvaaz The main objective of this program is to mainstream the minority BPL youth of
the country by empowering them with education, skills & employment. It is geared
towards helping the learners attain minimal education required for employability
and also upgrading the necessary skills needed to step into a new world thereby
graduate into their next phase of their lives.
Youth from J&K
15 Himayat Himayat is a placement linked skill development scheme for youth from J & K
target of covering 1 lakh youth in the next 5 years. It is implemented through
competent training providers, from the private sector and non-profit organisations.
16 Udaan The Special Industry Initiative, known as Udaan, targets the youth of J&K,
specifically graduates and postgraduates, who are seeking global and local
opportunities. It aims at providing corporate India with exposure to the rich talent
pool available in the State.

60 YOJANA October 2015

LWE Affected Areas
17 Roshni A special scheme called Roshni with separate guidelines has been launched that
takes into account the peculiar situation in 27 critical Left Wing Extremist affected
(LWE) districts. In particular it provides for training programs over different time
periods. Currently these are for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months.
18 Skill Development in 34 Districts The scheme is to create Skill Development infrastructure in these districts closer to
affected by Left Wing Extremism the people by establishing one ITI & two Skill Development Centers (SDCs) in each
district and to run demand driven vocational training courses.
North Eastern Region
19 Capacity Building and Technical The scheme implemented by M/o DoNER aims to provide funding for skill
Assistance (CBTA) scheme development, enhancing of employability and competencies and promotion of
self-employment and entrepreneurship amongst youth. For the Government sector,
it seeks to enhance the knowledge and skills of mid-level functionaries for good
20 Enhancing Skill Development This scheme aims at the up-gradation of 20 ITIs in NE States and Sikkim,
Infrastructure in NE States & supplementing infrastructure deficiencies in 28 ITIs in NE States and Sikkim, and
Sikkim funding Monitoring Cells at Central & State Level.
SC/ST Youth
21 Special Central Assistance to The main objective is to give a thrust to family oriented schemes of economic
Scheduled Castes Sub Plan (SCA to development of SCs below the poverty line, by providing resources for filling the
SCSP) critical gaps and for providing missing vital inputs so that the schemes can be more
meaningful. Since the schemes / programmes for SCs may be depending upon the
local occupational pattern and the economic activities available, the States/UTs have
been given full flexibility in utilizing SCA with the only condition that it should be
utilized in conjunction with SCP and other resources available from other sources like
various Corporations, financial institutions etc.
22 National Scheduled Tribe Finance Financial assistance in the form of grant is provided through the channelizing agencies
and for imparting skills and entrepreneurial development training to eligible Scheduled
Development Tribes so as to create opportunities for employment/self-employment.
Persons with Disabilities
23 Vocational Rehabilitation Centre for Take care of vocational rehabilitation of the handicapped person enabling him to
Handicapped (VRCs) secure suitable employment through adjustment training and skill training with a view
to integrate them in the economic mainstream and make them productive citizens of
the country. About 20 VRCs are functioning in different parts of the country. In order
to facilitate speedy rehabilitation of the handicapped, seven Skill Training Workshops
(STWs) have also been attached to seven VRCs.
24 Skill Development Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped (AYJNIHH), Pt.
programmes by Deendayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped, National Institute
training institutions on disability of Mentally Handicapped (NIMH), National Institute of Visually Handicapped
(NIVH), National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities
(NIEPMD), National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Swami
Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation, Training& Research (SVNIRTAR),
National Institute of Social Defence (NISD), conduct various training programe and
degree courses
25 Self-employment Capacity Building of entrepreneurs through Entrepreneurship Development
Programme (SEP) Programme (EDP) of 3-7 days. EDP Training to be organized through RSETIs &
reputed institutes.
26 Entrepreneurship Development Entrepreneurship Development Programmes are being organized regularly to
Programs (IMC/EDP/ESDP/ nurture the talent of youth by enlightening them on various aspects of industrial
MDP) scheme activity required for setting up MSEs. These EDPs are generally conducted in ITIs,
Polytechnics and other technical institutions, where skill is available to motivate
them towards self-employment.

YOJANA October 2015 61

Generic- Socioeconomically backward and educationally disadvantaged
27 Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) as a Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) are established to provide vocational training to non-
component of Scheme of Support literate, neo-literate, as well as school drop outs by identifying skills as would have a
to Voluntary Agencies for Adult market in the region of their establishment.
Education and Skill Development The Scope of Work of Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) will include the following:
i. Develop/ Source appropriate curriculum and training modules covering
vocational elements general awareness and life enrichment components.
ii. Wherever possible, JSS are encouraged to undertake training equivalent to
courses designed by the Directorate of Adult education, National Institute of
Open Schooling and Director General Employment & Training.
iii. Provide training to a pool of resource persons and master trainers for conducting
training as also availability of infrastructure and training specific equipment.
iv. Administer simple tests and award certificates
v. Network with employers and industries for trainees to get suitable placements.

the outcome and not the output of the National Institute for Open Schooling from class IX would incentivise
programme in terms of only number of is a step in this direction. There is children to remain in school and
trainees and also to converge various need to provide second chance to learn core skills required for work.
overlapping programmes for better be in school. Pratham has taken an This would facilitate linking e
result. The increased investment in initiative in this regard. The Pratham apprenticeship training with formal
education and training would have an Open School of Education (POSE) schooling. Given the preponderance of
impact on employability of workers, program assists girls and women small enterprises and the fact that large
enhance productivity of enterprises who have dropped out of school to demographic dividend exists in the
and would lead to inclusive economic successfully complete their secondary rural areas, Apprenticeship Protsahan
growth and social cohesion10. education while acquiring life skills Yojana introduced recently will go a
to make them more employable and long way in linking the education with
Way Ahead utilizes interventions to prevent school the world of work. Since the training
Ensuring retention in the school: dropouts. There is need to scale up requirements differ across country and
There is need to ensure that students such efforts. the learning levels are also different
complete good quality education up there is need to have a system which
Improving School Infrastructure: addresses the requirement of the target
to secondary level. Governments both Retention is also linked to the
at Centre and State are providing group as also the local economy. There
availability of adequate and appropriate is need to coordinate and regulate the
various incentives in terms of direct school infrastructure both in terms of
benefit transfers of scholarships, vocational training courses to address
availability of physical infrastructure the requirement of different geographic
hostel facilities, mid-day meal in as also the human resources including
India etc which have improved the region, gender and economic diversity
female teachers. Many social and on the one hand and with industry
attendance in schools. Incentives are ethnic groups do not send their girls
also being provided to the parents in requirement on the other. The role
to school for want of female teachers. of local industry is very important
terms of social protection measures There is a huge shortage of teachers
such as MGNREGA for income particularly in the difficult regions or
and more so in demographically NE region from where the people do
security, food security, Atal Pension advantageous states. For creating
Yojana, PM Suraksha Bima yojana . It not want to move out. The systemic
a good learning environment, it is reform in terms of National Skills
is expected that these measures would necessary that good quality teachers
would incentivise parents to keep the Qualification Framework introduced
are recruited. In India, 11 per cent in 2013 seeks to integrate general
children in school and not to send primary school are single teacher
them for earning a living. The need is academic education, vocational
schools and 40 per cent teacher education, vocational training and
to oversee their implementation and positions are vacant. There is also
to ensure that children are attending higher education as a comprehensive
requirement to deploy the teachers system.
classes. This necessitates keeping track equitably in all the regions.
and appropriate counselling to those Recognition of Prior Learning
children who may be contemplating Linking Education, Training (RPL): There are very few targeted
to dropout. To reach out to those with the world of Work: The need interventions for the unorganised
who are in the difficult areas, it is to establish link between education, sector. Given that 84 per cent are
necessary to scale up the distance training system and the world of employed in the unorganised sector
learning or e-learning methods for work has been duly recognised. The and another within the organised
providing at least basic education. The introduction of vocational education in the formal sector, there is need

62 YOJANA October 2015

to restructure the informal training to address the issue of employability. To conclude, skill development
so as to certify the skills levels of They need to be involved in designing is an effective tool to overcome
workers in the sector. Although they of curriculum, implementation and exclusion but it is necessary to monitor
may be having the requisite skills monitoring of training programmes the outcome of education in terms of
passed on from generations, but in etc.. although sector skill councils are learning levels and training in terms
the absence of any certificate they industry led bodies and are helping in of improvement in employability
are not able to take up decent job different facets of skill development which would facilitate not only entry
or start a venture. The artisans and but they are catering to the requirement into labour market but also social
dastakars of Banaras, Chikenkari, of basically the organised sector. The inclusion.
Metal works in Chhattisgarh, and Trade unions and the Employers Endnotes
in NE may be having skills but are organisation can collaborate to link 1 Skills for Employability, Policy Brief
categorised as unskilled for want education and the world of work viz. ILO
of certification. The RPL scheme identification of forms of training,
2 Of total 25.9 crore children about3.9
needs to be scaled up.To improve fostering school industry linkage
per cent are either wring or have
skills development, employment and (formal/informal), monitoring and
worked for some time in the labour
higher productivity of the minorities quality control of training, sponsorship
market. In addition. 6 per cent who
it is necessary to address barriers for and placement. Given that skill is not are marginal worker category and
their participation. There is need to aspirational the local community as seeking work. There are about 1.57
involve the business associations, trade also the local rural and urban bodies per cent who are non worker but seek-
unions and employers organisations and civil society organisations need to ing work in the labour market. In ad-
particular those operating in the be involved to inspire youth to go for dition there are 3 per cent children
informal sector. vocational education. who are neither active in labour mar-
Addressing the needs of Other Interventions: The ket nor in educational institution but
Difficult areas through Targeted disadvantaged groups are overlapping. are potential child labor.
Interventions There are a large number of government 3 Improving Skills and productivity of
departments both at the centre and disadvantaged group- David H Freed-
The targeted intervention such state which are implementing their men, 2008)
as UDAAN, HIMAYAT, PARVAS, NAI target group specific programmes.. 4 Employment and unemployment Sur-
ROSHINI, STEP UP etc have made vey 2011-12
This creates confusion and thinly
an impact on the employability of the spread the resources without much 5 Employment and unemployment Sur-
youth. Such targeted intervention outcome. There is need for inter- vey 2011-12
need to be scaled up. There is need to ministerial coordination between 6 Department of Disability Affairs,
combine training with employment education and skill development and GOI
and income generating opportunities as other ministries handling the targeted 7 Youth Unemployment in India, CII
training alone is not sufficient. scaling programme. Public private partnership Economy Matters
up of the programmes would improve needs to be used for achieving
the outreach and access in difficult 8 Improving Skills and Productivity of
skilling at scale with speed. PPP the Disadvantaged, ILO working pa-
areas ( LWE affected, hilly terrain, can help in post primary education per
terrorist affected). This may involve system to improve, expand, improving
using all training opportunities and 9 Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for
learning outcomes and overall Higher education in India , National
infrastructure such as public owned efficiency through greater choice
training institutions, private, NGOs, Overseas scholarship , Pre and Post
and completion. While government metrics Scholarship; Maulana Azad
civil society etc. is investing and creating conducive National Fellowship for Minority
Active involvement of conditions to enhance education and Students etc.
stakeholders: The skill challenge is training at all levels, enterprises can
10 ILO Policy Brief q
huge and requires participation of all provide the workplace training of their
the stakeholders particularly employers employees. (

Skills Training Centers in Three Madarasas inaugurated

Skill training centers in three Madarasas located in Patna, Motihari and Kesariya in Patna, Bihar were inaugurated
recently. Rs 3.60 crore has been provided to the 3 Madarasas, which will be spent on skill development of minority
community. These centers are being run as pilot project and will be extended to others madarasas.They will be given
certificates and loans at lower interest rates. The core objective of the scheme is to provide top quality skill training
at the neighbourhood as per the demand of the market to the students who are currently enrolled with traditional
educational institutions like Madarasas, Maktabs etc or have dropped out.

YOJANA October 2015 63


64 YOJANA October 2015

supporting the women workforce

Skill Development of Women : Enabling Factors

Dev Nathan

he question of Skilling and in the IT sector. In order to be

India is getting able to continue working through a
justifiable attention. womans child-bearing years, it is
But in dealing with important for her (and her family) to
the issue of skill be able to take care of children. In
development for India, there is no publicly provided
women, it is necessary to pay child care. In addition, patriarchal
attention to the factors that inhibit skill norms dictate that child care is the
development of women; or, to put it the womans responsibility. Thus, the order to promote other way around, to promote enabling entire burden of child care is put on
factors for the skill development of women.
skilling of women, it is women. The point is that it is not
sufficient to just increase the numbers In the IT sector (or, in other
necessary to deal with sectors such as the legal and medical
of women who are offered training in
three factors that inhibit skills. For an increase in the numbers professions), where women work
as professionals, their earnings are
it: the lack of publicly of skilled women in the economic life
sufficient to be able to take care of the
of the country itself, it is necessary to
provided child care that deal with (1) factors that inhibit women expenses of child care. In addition,
many IT firms, in order to retain trained
prevents women from from taking up skill training and, if
women, allow flexible working and that
they do, (2) factors that inhibit the
remaining in the labour employment of skilled women. too, partly from home. Consequently,
for such women professionals, child
force during child Why do more girls or young women birth and care does not have to mean
bearing years, the extra not come forward to be trained in the an abandonment of the professional
ITIs and other similar skill training career.
expense that particular institutes? While, at the same time,
employers incur when there are more young women in In manufacturing, on the other
computer (IT) training? In order to hand, the earnings of women workers
they employ women are nowhere near the levels required
justify the cost of acquiring training, it
and the notorious lack is necessary to be able to secure a job to afford child care. At the same time,
that pays a premium over an unskilled very few factories provide crches.
of safety of women Consequently, whether working as
job. Further, the young women should
travelling in public be able to work in that job or pursue a tailors in the garments industry or as
assemblers in the electronics industry,
spaces, particularly at career in that job.
women leave the factory on having
night Here, we can notice a difference children. Some of them, as in the
between women in manufacturing garments industry, subsequently take

The author is Visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development New Delhi and Visiting Research Fellow, Duke University,

YOJANA October 2015 65

to poorly-paid and part-time work from a cess or levy on employers, which aftermath of the December 2012
home. They can combine such flexible, could be imposed industry-wise to rape-murder, ASSOCHAM reported
but poorly paid work, along with their finance the payment of maternity and a sharp fall in womens attendance in
child care responsibilities-something related benefits to women workers. call centres in and around Delhi. Thus,
that is not possible with the regular Through a cess, the burden would we must add womens lack of safety in
hours required in factory work. fall on employers as a whole (or, on public spaces, particularly at night, as
those in particular industries), but not yet another factor inhibiting women
The lack of publicly or factory- on a particular employer employing from being skilled workers.
provided child care is then a supply women. Such a cess could be mandated
side factor that inhibits women from as a levy on profit, such as the CSR It is interesting to note that
seeking careers as skilled workers expenditure of 2 per cent of profit now Ester Boserup in her foundational
in manufacturing, more so than in required by law. The point of using a study of Womans Role in Economic
better-paid professions. In all the cess or levy to pay for the extra costs of Development (1970, New York St.
discussion on the declining labour employing skilled women is to remove Martins Press), pointed out, It is
force participation of women, there has the disincentive from the level of the less convincing to argue that rules for
been little attention paid to womens particular employer. maternity leave and for the provision
domestic, particularly child care of crches prevent the employment
responsibilities, as a factor inhibiting There is yet a third factor that of women, since it would be easy
women from entering the labour force, inhibits the employment of women as to shift the financial burden of these
particularly in manufacturing, which skilled workers in manufacturing. In special benefits from the employer of
requires regular work away from the order to use equipment to the fullest, the women who benefit from them,
home. and provided there is sufficient demand to all employers, independently of
for the product, factories need to work whether they employ women or not
What about the demand side? Why
(1970: 113). She goes on to say,
do employers not provide jobs to skilled Why do employers not provide jobs Where such financial equalization is
women, when they are available?
to skilled women, when they are not carried out, in spite of complaints
At present, the cost of employing a
woman, in terms of the maternity and available? At present, the cost of negative employment effects for
child care (crche) benefits are borne of employing a woman, in terms the women, it may be suspected that
for other and undisclosed reasons, it
by the employer. Looking to costs, an of the maternity and child care
employer will prefer to employ a man, is thought undesirable to increase the
(crche) benefits are borne by the recruitment of women for industry. In
where such maternity and child care
benefits do not have to be paid. employer. Looking to costs, an the aftermath of the horrific December
employer will prefer to employ a 2012 rape-murder in Delhi, there
Given that it is necessary for
maternity and child care benefits to be
man, where such maternity and were many who argued that women
should not be out in public spaces at
borne, is there a way of doing this in child care benefits do not have to night. Instead of providing safety for
such a way that it is not a disincentive to be paid. women in public spaces, they asked
employing women as skilled workers? that women refrain, or be refrained,
A way of doing this would be to shift full three shifts, including the night
from venturing out of their homes at
the extra cost of employing women shift. But, it hardly needs repeating that
night, which would, of course, inhibit
away from the particular employer India is notoriously difficult for women
the entry of women into skilled jobs
or firm. One possibility is for this to travelling in public spaces at night.
and professions.
be borne by the government, which The horrific rape-murder of the young
would mean through the tax system. woman training to be a pharmacist in The argument of this note is that in
Such tax-related maternity and child Delhi in December 2012, was only order to promote skilling of women, it is
care costs would not fall on any an example of the lack of safety in necessary to deal with three factors that
particular employer, but on tax payers public spaces, even in the capital city. inhibit it: the lack of publicly provided
as a whole. Call centres and IT offices are able to child care that prevents women from
somewhat overcome this constraint by remaining in the labour force during
But, it can well be argued that providing a fleet of cars and mini-buses child bearing years, the extra expense
there is no justification for tax payers, to transport their employees to and that particular employers incur when
including middle class income tax from work. But such an expense cannot they employ women and the notorious
payers and the whole population as be borne by manufacturing units where lack of safety of women travelling
indirect (commodity) tax payers, the profit margins are lower. in public spaces, particularly at
having to subsidize employers to
Even in call centres that provide night.  q
employ women. For this reason, it
would be better to have a system of transportation, in the immediate (E-mail:

66 YOJANA October 2015


YOJANA October 2015 67

designing employability

Building Human Capital through Skilling

Sachin Adhikari

tudies reveal that 2015, out of which only 34 per cent of

India, one of the fastest them would be employable as most of
growing economies in them lack necessary skills required for
the world, will be the any role in the industry. Employers are
youngest country with looking for candidates with developed
over 64 per cent of its domain specific and soft skills, which
population being of the working age. implies training alone is the key to
With the aid of talented and employable solving the crisis of employability.
workforce, Indias demographic A university degree alone can no
employability profile in 2020 will be longer guarantee a job in a reputed
a goldmine. organization. Most young candidates
...our primary education Considering the current high-paced have similar degrees and skill sets
when they apply for a job, but only a
system has been growth and dynamic investment climate
few amongst them get chosen. Though
in India, the demand for resources with
unsuccessful in improving high levels of technical and soft skills knowing technical skills can help one
quality of school education will only increase. It is estimated perform better in academia and an
that by 2015, India would require a interview, but it is the employability
being imparted at rural, workforce of 2.3 million employees skills of the candidate that finally gets
government schools. These in the IT and IT-enabled services him the job and helps him sustain it.
sectors. Unfortunately, over the past This is because we have transitioned in
school children will be a society where technical knowledge is
fifteen years, India has produced
our future workforce and only 1.6 million professionals which important but soft skills that determine
if the number of dropouts means it faces the uphill task of how effectively one can communicate,
producing another 0.8 million in the be a team player and gain the confidence
is so huge, we will be next two years. The World Economic to work in the corporate environment
facing a crisis. We need an Forum indicates that only 25 per is much more important. Here is where
cent of the total Indian professionals Transformational training can help
education system aligned are considered employable by the to integrate technical knowledge and
with skills that can help organized sector. The unorganized interpersonal and management skills,
students to be employable sector is not supported by any structured which can prepare students to keep
skill development and training system pace with the growing challenges of
and skilled by the time they of acquiring or upgrading skills. the corporate world.
pass out An estimated five million graduates A d d i t i o n a l l y, a c c o r d i n g t o
will be passing out in India, in the year NASSCOM (National Association

The author is Founder and Director of Global Success University, a Global Training, Education and an Empowerment system and
Chief Mentor of Viztar International Pvt. Ltd . He has worked with Maharashtra Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture
(MACCIA), Rajasthan Skills & Livelihoods Development Corporation (RSLDC), Centre for Entrepreneurship and Development
(CED), Government of Gujarat in the are a of skills training. He is currently authoring three books. Conferred The Udyog Rattan
Award in the field of Training and Development Activities across the globe and for 'Excellence' in productivity, Quality, Innovation
and Management . 'Success Prism' and '360 Human Transformation' are some of his acclaimed works.

68 YOJANA October 2015

of Software Companies), each year, who would like to contribute and share his life whether professional, personal
over 3 million graduates and post- their inputs with the team. Additionally, or social, culminating in career growth
graduates are added to the Indian what is also important is the students and success.
workforce but only 25 per cent of ability to familiarize with the corporate
technical graduates and 10-15 per environment, learn the processes, Considering that vocational training
cent of other graduates are considered understand people behavior and be a or any skill initiative cannot succeed in
employable by the industry. Not only positive contributor. isolation from education, the recently
does the current education system lack released ASER report clearly shows
Some of the traits which how our primary education system
its focus on training young people in
organizations look for in potential has been unsuccessful in improving
employability skills that can provide
candidates include interpersonal skills, quality of school education being
them with employment opportunities,
communication skills, and behavioral imparted at rural, government schools.
but also a large section of Indias
traits such as attitude, motivation, These school children will be our
labour force has outdated skills. With
time management, leadership skills future workforce and if the number
the expected economic growth, this
and social grace. To be employable, of dropouts is so huge, we will be
challenge is going to only increase
students should participate in trainings facing a crisis. We need an education
further, since more than 75 per cent of
which helps build employability skills system aligned with skills that can help
new job opportunities are expected to
parallel with their formal education so students to be employable and skilled
be skill based. The government, thus,
that they are ready for their professional by the time they pass out. At the same
strongly emphasizes on upgrading
roles when they pass out from their
Peoples Skills by providing vocational time, the quality and ratio of trainer/
educational institutes.
education along with training to teachers need to be at par, who can
them. build interest and knowledge in their
training on soft skills/employability
Considering human resources will skills becomes all the more
also be involved in different levels relevant in a country like India Globalisation and trade liberalisation
of leadership and decision-making in India have led to a series of changes
activities, employers are aware that where the education system does in the Indian labour market. The
professional and technical skills alone not delve enough into personality direct consequences are the inflow
cannot help achieve organizational development. Corporates need of technology, encouraged by the
goals and objectives. They will also to have an open mindset where economic reforms, and its impact on
need to communicate effectively within the growth of a skill-based workforce,
the organization with their customers they are receptive to new ideas, opening up a whole new window
and other stakeholders and therefore, a suggestions and recommendations of opportunity even for the small
person who is better equipped in such from the entrants who would enterprises in the informal sector. Skills
employability skills is more likely to
like to contribute and share their are a method of improving human
be hired. capital, which ensure income security
inputs with the team. Additionally, to the workers, particularly for the
There is a constant debate about what is also important is the
whether it is possible to imbibe poorly educated workers in developing
employability/soft skills in a person students ability to familiarize countries such as India, and therefore
through external training, especially with the corporate environment, a key to enriching this huge workforce
which can directly and indirectly help
when one considers the fact that a learn the processes, understand
person has lived with those traits all his boost the market.
people behavior and be a positive
life. It is true that the basic personality
traits of a person are difficult to contributor. The term informal economy
refers to all economic activities by
change but we need to understand that workers and economic units that
effective training metaphors can help Transformational training can
areeither in law or in practicenot
strengthen the latent traits that lie in help bridge this gap and prepare
covered or insufficiently covered by
every individual. organizations to keep pace with the
formal arrangements. In developing
growing challenges of the corporate
In fact, training on soft skills/ world. Such training has a 360 degree countries, informal labour force is
employability skills becomes all the approach and aims at developing its primarily comprised of self-employed
more relevant in a country like India trainees from within and equip them people working from home or street-
where the education system does with employability skills. vending. They have neither official
not delve enough into personality nor permanent places of business.
development. Corporates need to One of the most important factors Experts agree that in most developing
have an open mindset where they are of soft skill development training countries, the informal economy
receptive to new ideas, suggestions and is that they can help one be a better is a crucial economic force for the
recommendations from the entrants person, which reflects in all aspects of foreseeable future.

YOJANA October 2015 69

The present generation is born in National Policy for Skill
the age of technology and will respond Development and Entrepreneurship 2015
much better if internet and M-learning
are used as tools of learning. These National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015
technologies have high portability, supersedes the policy of 2009. The primary objective of this policy is to
small size and low price, and can reach meet the challenge of skilling at scale with speed, standard (quality) and
out to large numbers at once. If mobile sustainability. It aims to provide an umbrella framework to all skilling
applications can be developed to make activities being carried out within the country, to align them to common
learning possible through personal standards and link skilling with demand centres. In addition to laying
phones, it is the easiest and cheapest down the objectives and expected outcomes, the policy also identifies
way to educate millions of youth across the overall institutional framework which will act as a vehicle to reach
the globe. the expected outcomes. Skill development is the shared responsibility of
the key stakeholders viz. Government, the entire spectrum of corporate
The National Commission for sector, community based organizations, those outstanding, highly
Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector qualified and dedicated individuals who have been working in the skilling
(NCEUS), an advisory body of the and entrepreneurship space for many years, industry and trade organisations
government, was set up in 2004 to bring and other stakeholders. The policy links skills development to improved
about improvement in productivity in employability and productivity in paving the way forward for inclusive
this sector by generation of large- growth in the country. The skill strategy is complemented by specific
scale employment opportunities on a efforts to promote entrepreneurship in order to create ample opportunities
sustainable basis, particularly in rural for the skilled workforce.
areas. India currently has 59 million
enterprises that provide work to 127 find these skills lacking in the pool of different ministries, state governments
million people, of which 17 million potential workers. and industry. Skilling and placement
new enterprises have been added since targets have been set at aggregate and
Embedding new skills in a sectoral levels and a robust national
2005. widely varied workforce is crucial tracking system is in place.
The informal segment of the for determining how productivity
workforce is defined by a number of growth can translate into employment The goal of Skill India is to create
common characteristics: On limited growth, and for whom. Developing opportunities, space and scope for
professional skills, low incomes, low human capital in the informal economy the development of the talent of
productivity and low capital investment. requires highly effective, market-driven Indians and identify new sectors for
Developing new marketable job skills education and training programmes. skill development. It aims to provide
through education and training can training and skill development to 500
disrupt cyclical poverty by increasing Employers should articulate their million youth by 2020.
productivity and job opportunities in own needs to ensure that their labour
demand is correctly aligned with We have to design training
the informal economy and workers
the newly-trained workforce supply. programmes on the lines of global
formal-sector employability. Thus,
Complementary education and training standards so that the youth of our
it is important to train this group to
programmes include school-based country can not only meet the domestic
optimise their productivity and uplift
education, on-the-job learning, and demands, but also of other countries
the nation.
learning through non-governmental such as the US, Japan, China, Europe
Increasing informal economy and for-profit private training centres. and those in West Asia.
productivity requires a holistic approach
by raising informal workers education Raising skill levels of informal However, it is not that we do not
and skill levels. However, merely economy workers can contribute to have any skill development programs.
investing in workforce programmes economic growth and wealth creation. The government has always considered
doesnt necessarily result in greater But merely investing in workforce skill development as a national priority
productivity. It is not that the current programmes doesnt necessarily result but earlier, the emphasis was on
population is not receiving any training in greater productivity. The effects traditional jobs whereas skill India
or education, but where they may be will now focus on all kinds of jobs.
skill development can have on the
going wrong is that they focus solely Structurally, also the government has
productivity of informal workers
on technical skills without integrating made changes for instance; earlier
cannot be separated from other changes
the responsibility was divided among
non-cognitive or soft skills. Across in their economic environments.
various ministries but this time, these
industries, skills to communicate
The National Skill Development are being clubbed together, only to
effectively, organise efficiently, and
Agency has been partnering with make the system more efficient and
solve unanticipated problems are
several organisations to coordinate transparent. q
desired, and often required, in a
valuable worker. Employers often various disorganized training efforts of (

70 YOJANA October 2015

skilling tribes

Skill Development for Tribal Youth in India:

Existing Status and Future Strategies
Rajendra Singh Gautam
Navin T and Shashank Singh

overnment of India school dropout rate and educational

has accorded high levels also continues to be low among
priority to promote tribal communities. This places huge
skill development from burden on tribal youth who end up
the last decade with taking traditional occupations and
launching of various low skilled occupations. Though the
initiatives. Based on an empirical changes taking place in the economy
study, the paper argues that despite is throwing up the need for skilled
the affirmative actions by various workforce, ST communities have not
stakeholders, the skill development been able to benefit from the same.
policies and institutions have not been The country needs to benefit from
able to address the specific and diverse demographic dividend which is more
needs of Scheduled Tribes which so in the case of ST communities.
The skill development could translate to their sustainable
Tribal youth in India are at a
livelihood. It recommends adopting
programme of tribal crossroad. Tribals used to be dependent
a multi-pronged approach to address
on the triad of natural resources Jal,
the skill development needs and
youth should include all aspirations of tribal youth aimed at:
Jangal, Jameen (water, forests and
land) which are either depleting or
four aspects of skill viz., l Expanding the existing livelihood being expropriated, thus adversely
Life skills, Enterprise system by tapping potential affecting the lives and livelihoods of
livelihood activities i.e., agriculture, tribals. They are confronted with a
/Management horticulture, livestock, fisheries, situation whereby they need to adapt
non-farm enterprises, forestry, etc.
development, to the changes in the mainstream
l Focus on employment building economy which creates stresses
Technical skills and skills for the job market outside and and strains on their way of life. The
rural non-farm sector (RNFS), and; resource base and the socio-cultural
Practical training. heritage of the tribal population is
l Enterprises nurturing self-
The skill development employed and entrepreneurs (for eroding through a combination of
micro-enterprises) for promotion of attempts at commercial exploitation of
programme should individual and group enterprises. resources and misguided development
give adequate stress S c h e d u l e s Tr i b e s ( S Ts ) a r e

all four aspects of skill poorly placed in human development While the forces of economic and
indicators. As per 2011 Census, the socio-cultural change are disrupting
development literacy rate among ST is 59 per cent, the tribal way of life, this has not been
with male literacy being 68.5 per cent accompanied by efforts to prepare the
and female literacy rate being 49.4 per tribal youth to cope with the changes.
cent which is much lower than other The aspirations of tribal youth are
communities. There is high level of rising in the midst of expanding
Rajendra Singh Gautam, Navin T. &Shashank Singh are associated with Institute of Livelihood Research and Training Associate
Dean and Senior Faculties.

YOJANA October 2015 71

economic opportunities, but they find and the United Nations Development government and non-government to
it quite challenging to achieve most Program (UNDP) commissioned a assess their suitability for the tribal
of those aspirations mostly due to study Skill Development for Tribal youth.
lack of skills and non-existent access Youth to Institute of Livelihood
Key Findings of the Study
to capital. As a result, this segment Research and Training and BASIX
of the population is getting further Academy for Building Lifelong Low levels of education - The
marginalised. Employability (B-ABLE). The study study showed low levels of education
sought to understand the contribution of tribal youth. Out of 480 youth,
Vocational education holds a of central and state schemes in only a little more than a quarter (27.6
promise to tackle the problem of contributing to skills development of per cent) of tribal youth are able to
tribal youth unemployment. Skill tribal youth; constraints in accessing move beyond high school education.
development got an impetus in the 11th these and possibilities for enhancing Two-third tribal youth dropped out
and 12th Five Year Plans. Beginning employability opportunities for due to family problems and financial
with National Skill Development tribal youth through designing difficulties.
Policy 2009 to the recently announced skill development programme and
National Policy for Skill Development Poor employment status with
and Entrepreneurship, skill engagement in unskilled work - The
development focus of Government Methodology tribal youth are mostly engaged either
of India has increased. The National in traditional or unskilled work. Two-
The study was empirical in nature
Skill Development initiative aimed third are engaged as cultivators and
which followed both quantitative
to target 500 million people by 2022. workers more so in the case of females.
and qualitative approach for in-depth
The policies aim to create pro-skill About three-fifths (59 per cent) were
environment, employability and help in The aspirations of tribal youth are engaged as unskilled workers. This
automatically meant engagement in
securing decent work. National Skill rising in the midst of expanding insecure, informal, low and irregular
Development Corporation (NSDC)
economic opportunities, but income employment. About half
and National Skill Development
Authority (NSDA) were created to they find it quite challenging to (49 per cent) are into work on daily
play pivotal roles in pushing skill achieve most of those aspirations basis, 20 per cent on temporary basis
and one-eighth (14 per cent) on short
development programs. mostly due to lack of skills and term basis.
The existing employment non-existent access to capital.
Low access to skill training -
generation programmes such as As a result, this segment of the Access to skilled training was very
MGNREGA, SGSY, SJSRY, PMEGP, population is getting further limited. Only one-ninth (11 per cent)
STEP-UP are also being organically marginalised. received some form of skill training
half (52 per cent) of which were from
linked with skill development
investigation and analysis of various non-formal players. Only 15 per cent
programmes to enhance their of those who received skill training
aspects related to skill development of
effectiveness, efficiency and impact. tribal youth. For understanding macro- had a formal ITI certification.
For certification and accreditation, perspective, the entire country was
Sector Skill Development Councils Aspirations incommensurate
chosen as universe of the study while
have been created and industry with existing status - While the
for understanding micro dynamics,
associations are being roped in. existing position of tribal youth
Chhattisgarh state was selected.
The Skill Development Initiative seemed to be poor, however, their
The study was conducted in three
Scheme (SDIS) was launched with aspirational levels tended to be
phases i) Consultation and interviews
an intent to provide certification in with national level stakeholders for
towards seeking social mobility. Half
Modular Employability Skills (MES). (49 per cent) youth aspired for higher
understanding macro perspective
Region specific skill development education - college graduation and
in terms of policy, schemes and
efforts were launched for North- above. About one-ninth (11 per cent)
programmes of skill development in
east, Jammu & Kashmir and left prefer professional education. This
the country especially in tribal areas
wing extremism (LWE) affected showed a preference for white collar
ii) survey and interview of 480 youth
areas. Industry initiatives are being jobs among tribal youth.
(both male and female) between
encouraged under public-private age group 13 to 30 years1 from 240 The study also showed preference
partnership (PPP) model. Each of households of 24 Gram Panchayats / of tribal youth for regular / permanent
the line departments has its own skill villages from 12 blocks of 6 districts employment. About half (52 per cent)
initiatives and targets. of the Chhattisgarh state and iii) study preferred salaried employment and a
In this backdrop, Ministry of of various skill development models quarter (26 per cent) preferred self-
Tribal Affairs, Government of India evolved by different agencies viz. employment. About nine-tenth (89

72 YOJANA October 2015

per cent) preferred employment in opportunities are arising2 in the tribal Multi-pronged strategy is required
government. areas and therefore require skill to promote skills among the youth.
development among tribal youth. Following key strategies are suggested
Service sector skills a preferred
for skill development of tribal youth
choice - In relation to preference Green sectors - this is a
for skill training, about one-sixth predominant sector in the tribal areas
(17 per cent) preferred training in l Awareness generation about
which is pursued by large portion
computers, one-sixth (16 per cent) in vocational education and labour
of tribal population for livelihood.
textile related skills, driving and civil market among the tribal youth.
Green sectors includes -sustainable
construction (4 per cent each), health, In addition, orientation and
agriculture, floriculture, organic
electrical and mechanical (2 per cent induction of tribal youth on skill
production, horticulture forestry, development and employability
each). Overall, about a quarter (24 animal husbandry, renewable energy
per cent) preferred green skills such through organizing awareness
production and distribution, waste camps/sensitizing workshops/
as agriculture, agri-allied activities, management and eco-tourism. These
and forestry and NTFP based skills. achievement motivation trainings.
are the growth sectors of the future This initiative needs to be started
The female youth largely preferred and are also sustainable.
green skills because of their higher at high school level.
engagement in such activities. Grey sectors this is the second l Need to evolve various models
largest employer of tribal youth. The of skill development such as full
Preference for skill training or partial subsidy based/revenue
to be done locally with subsidy grey sector largely includes non-
farm sector such as manufacturing based, residential and/or outreach
support Around half (50 per cent) training, long and short duration
prefer training within the village/ of agricultural implements, furniture
making, handlooms, wooden art, vocational courses and so on to
cluster and another three-tenth (31 cater to the needs of different
per cent) within the block. In terms of metal art, construction, transportation,
and related activities. segments of tribals and sectors of
willingness to pay for skills training, livelihoods.
two-fifth (44 per cent) opted joining
a course without fees payment. About Go-anywhere service sectors such l Collaboration with existing
government ITIs and private
one-third (34 per cent) are not willing as electrician, plumber, mason, Vocational Training Institutions
to pay more than Rs. 1,000.
carpenter, IT-enabled services, (VTIs)/ Vocational Training
Conclusion and Recommendations telecom, financial and distance Providers (VTPs) for optimum
The tribal youth is lowly educational services, etc., can be utilization. The collaboration could
be done for co-creating modules and
educated, unskilled and engaged adopted particularly in tribal area co-offering the same while utilizing
in unskilled/semi-skilled and low
paying occupations. However, tribal wherein the tribal communities the existing infrastructure. Along
youth aspire to be engaged in skilled have progressed significantly socio- with technical education, focus
should be given on improving the
occupations with better employment economic and educationally. soft and life skills (communication,
terms, higher wage rates, better
working conditions, etc. They prefer attitudes, and behavioural aspects
to become skilled so as to get better Service sector is growing rapidly etc.).
employment or self-employment in tribal areas too with growth of l Establishing new VTIs at block and
opportunities. Indian economy. The service sector cluster levels in tribal areas under
can be sub-divided into Geo-local PPP model. External accreditation
The study recommended for a service sectors, which are services and certification of the courses
comprehensive programme for skill provided at a specific point such as to be ensured through external
development of tribal youth to: repairs, hotel & restaurant, retail trade, agencies.
l a d d r e s s y o u t h l i v e l i h o o d transport service, healthcare, tailoring, l Diversification in present courses
aspirations; fabrication, leather work, beautician, in terms of increasing options -
l promote entrepreneurial activities hair cutting, catering, screen printing, green skills, grey skills and service
in tribal areas; photocopy, videography, etc., and the sector skills in selecting trades
l address industry demand for skilled Go-anywhere service sectors such as based on demand of labour market
workforce, and; electrician, plumber, mason, carpenter, and local economy.
IT-enabled services, telecom, financial l Building a resource pool of
l address Government of India intent
and distance educational services, etc., vocational trainers who are
in skilling tribal youth for better
employability. can be adopted particularly in tribal sensitized to tribal culture and
area wherein the tribal communities customs. In addition, build a cadre
The study shows that there are four have progressed significantly socio- of vocational trainers from within
major sectors in which employability economic and educationally. educated tribal youth who will be

YOJANA October 2015 73

more acceptable to tribal youth in should give adequate stress all four Ministry of Statistics and Programme
the process of imparting skills. aspects of skill development. Implementation.
6. Planning Commission, Draft Report of
l Use of ICT for vocational education
For designing of syllabus and Working Group on Higher Education,
and for support for employment and course content, it must be prepared 11th Five Year Plan, Government of
self-employment that will help in jointly by the educators and the India;
wider outreach. industry together and should be 7. Skill Development Landscape in
l Leveraging existing government regularly updated. There is a need to India and implementing Quality Skills
schemes for youth skill development create balance among various aspects Training, ICRA Management Consulting
and employability, of skill development viz. technical Services Ltd., August 2010
l Sensitizing the industries and skills, managerial skill, soft skills and 8. Skills Development Sector Profile,
their associations and promoting life skills based on the nature of the FICCI
interface between them and VTIs occupation. 9. Third Annual Report to the People on
through creating Employment Employment, 2012, MoLE, Govt of
Exchange Forums in tribal areas India
1. Census 2011
to provide employment to skilled Endnotes
youth, 1 Under the new youth policy of
l Assured post training job placement 3. Government of India (2012), the male
and handholding for establishing 4. Karegouda, M. & Thakur, J. (2013) and female under age group 13 to 35
micro-enterprises so as to ensure .The status of Scheduled Tribe in India: years are considered as youth. The same
greater employability of the tribal Problems and Prospects .Indian Streams age group is considered as youth under
youth. present study.
Research Journal. 3(6) Retrieved on
November 28, 2013 from http://www. 2 This fourfold classification was posited
The skill development programme Uploaded Data/2710.pdf first by Vijay Mahajan, Chairman
of tribal youth should include all
of BASIX Social Enterprise Group
four aspects of skill viz., Life skills, 5. National Sample Survey Organization
in Livelihood Strategy for Sikkim,
Enterprise /Management development, (NSSO) Report: Status of Education
Technical skills and Practical training. 2011  q
and Vocational Training in India 2004-
The skill development programme 2005 (Report no.517, 61/10/03). India: (E-mail:


74 YOJANA October 2015