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Inherent Safe Design

You want a valve that doesnt leak and you try everything
possible to develop one. But the real world provides you with
a leaking valve. You have to determine how much leaking
you can tolerate
Saturn 5 Rocket Scientist

Presented by:
Wynand van Dyk
Director
Arete Consultants
+27 83 655 1278
wynand.vandyk@mmsconsultants.co.za
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Content
Terminology
Human Element
Safe Design

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Terminology
Harm
Hazard
Unwanted Events
Near hits
Accidents
Controls/Defences
Risk

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Harm
Physical injury or damage to the health of
people, either directly or indirectly, as a
result of damage to property or the
environment.

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Hazard
A source of potential harm

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Energies the source of Hazards
Whenever injury or damage
occur, it is possible to identify
the energy which produced it.
The greater the magnitude of
the Energy, the greater the
Hazard
Have to release energy to do work
Uncontrolled/unwanted release of
energy
To identify the hazard we must
identify the energy
but its difficult to see/visualise
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energy
Common Energies
Biological Machine (mobile)
bacteria, viruses, contagious haulage trucks, LHDs, service
diseases, natural poisons, etc. vehicles, gen sets, tools, etc.
Chemical Noise
coal, gases, fuels, lubes, degreasers, from machines and other sources
solvents, paints, etc. Object
Electrical pressurised systems, cylinders,
high voltage, low voltage, batteries, springs, chains, flying bits, etc.
etc. People
Gravitational (objects) slip, trip, lift, strain, push/pull sprain,
falling coal, rock, tools, components, repetitive/postural strain
structures, etc. Thermal
Gravitational (people) conducted (contact), convected
falling from or into equipment, (airstreams), radiation
structures, ladders, sumps, etc. Vibration
Machine (fixed) from vehicles, equipment, tools, etc.
powered by electrical, hydraulic, Other
pneumatic, combustion, etc.
7 friction, wind, animal, bio-chemical
Terminology
Harm
Hazard
Unwanted Events
Near hits
Accidents
Controls/Defences
Risk

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Unwanted Events (Incidents)
Near Hits:
Also called a Near Miss or a Hazardous Situation
circumstance in which a person is exposed to a
hazard(s)
Accident
Also called a hazardous event
a hazardous situation which results in harm
Note: not all hazardous situations result in hazardous
events

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Energy Damage Model (Viner, 1991)

Injury and damage (harm)


are caused by energy

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Energy Damage Model (Viner, 1991)

Barrier/defence

Energy can be
controlled by a barrier

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Energy Damage Model (Viner, 1991)

For loss to occur, energy has to


penetrate a barrier...
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Energy Damage Model (Viner, 1991)

...and move to a recipient

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Energy Damage Model (Viner, 1991)

shield

Whether there is harm depends on whether the amount


of energy exceed the damage threshold of recipient

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Content
Harm
Hazard
Unwanted Events
Near hits
Accidents
Controls/Defences
Risk

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Controls/Defences

Unwanted
Event
Hazard

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Hierarchy of Controls
Different types of controls
not all as effective
(more holes in some)
More Effective

Handy way to look at


effectiveness of controls
The higher up on the
ladder, the more holes
in the control
Mining usually PPE &
Admin

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Truck vs 4x4 example

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Engineering Controls

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Swiss Cheese Model & Risk Management

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Swiss Cheese Model & Risk Management

Risk Management Controls


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Terminology
Harm
Hazard
Incidents
Near hits
Accidents
Controls/Defences
Risk

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Risk
The chance of something happening that
will have an impact on your objectives
Can be quantified by:

f( LIKELIHOOD OF EVENT
OCCURRING
& CONSEQUENCE
OF EVENT
)
Note: Risk is a measure of something a
person or object therefore cannot be a risk...
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Risk and Hazards
Remember that Hazards...
(anything that can cause harm)
...is not the same as Risk
(likelihood harm will occur and its severity)

Low Risk High Risk

The level of risk is determined by the control effectiveness


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Risk Revisited
Low Risk High Risk

The level of risk is determined by the control effectiveness


and the magnitude of the energy

? Lowest Risk

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Content
Terminology
Human Element
Safe Design

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Human Element
Decision Types
Human Error

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3 kinds of decisions
Strategic
Formal, planned, knowledge-based
Tactical
Informal, timely, rules-based Think
Operational
Almost subconscious, auto-pilot
Operational Decisions
Module 3 Content
Decision Types
Human Error

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Human error model (James Reason)
Somebody doing something that you wish they did not do
Design
Flaws
Slip

Distractions
Unintentional Lapse

Knowledge
Mistake
Human Error
Norm not to
Cultural
follow rules
Violation
Intentional
Deviant Only one not to
Violation follow rules
Type of Human Error?
Type of Human Error?
Content
Terminology
Human Error
Safe Design

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Ways to Reduce Human Error
Slips/Lapses
Design issues - Not forgiving enough

Mistakes
Competency - Training or job aids

Violations
Routine - Strategy to find out why &
address
Exceptional - Discipline
Human error during incidents

25 Serious Mining Incidents 28 Fatalities Narrow Reef Mining 21 Incidents Opencast Mining
The work-process model
(Nertney, adapted by GMIRM)

Safe
production
Work-process factors during incidents

25 Serious Mining Incidents 28 Fatalities Narrow Reef Mining 21 Incidents Opencast Mining
What is Human Factors Engineering?

Fitting the system to the person

including:
Equipment
Methods
Work environment
Human Factors Engineering

Accessibility
Work Space/Posture
Manual Handling
Visibility
Controls
Displays
Work Environment
Blackwater Mine Fatality

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Vehicle Crane Control Design
Operators station

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Basic Model

Conscious
(think)
Stimulus Response

See Subconscious Move


Hear (respond) Say
Touch Other
Taste reaction
Smell
Example Topographic Control Errors

Wipers Wipers
or or
Turn Turn
Inherent Safe Design
Prevent the uncontrolled release of energy
Magnitude of energy
Control Effectiveness
Hierarchy of controls & multiple controls
Impact of Decision types
Human Element
Human Error slip/lapse & mistakes
Human Factors Engineering

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