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the canine and molar teeth. There are two premolars per quadrant and are identified as first and second premolars. They have at least two cusps. There is always one large buccal cusp, especially so in the mandibular first premolar. The lower second premolar may, at times present with two lingual cusps. Premolar teeth by definition are permanent teeth distal to the canines preceeded by deciduous molars. In primitive mammals there are four premolars per quadrant. The most mesial two have been lost in New World monkeys, apes, and humans. Paleontologists refer to human premolars as Pm3 and Pm4. Maxillary First Premolar Facial: The buccal surface is quite rounded and this tooth resembles the maxillary canine. The buccal cusp is long; from that cusp tip, the prominent buccal ridge descends to the cervical line of the tooth. Lingual: The lingual cusp is smaller and the tip of that cusp is shifted toward the mesial. The lingual surface is rounded in all aspects. Proximal: The mesial aspect of this tooth has a distinctive concavity in the cervical third that extends onto the root. It is called variously the mesial developmental depression, mesial concavity, or the 'canine fossa'--a misleading description since it is on the premolar. The distal aspect of the maxillary first permanent molar also has a developmental depression. The mesial marginal developmental groove is a distinctive feature of this tooth. Occlusal: There are two well-defined cusps buccal and lingual. The larger cusp is the buccal; its cusp tip is located midway mesiodistally. The lingual cusp tip is shifted mesially. The occlusal outline presents a hexagonal appearance. On the mesial marginal ridge is a distinctive feature, the mesial marginal developmental groove.
Contact Points; Height of Curvature: The distal contact area is located more buccal than is the mesial contact area. Right and Left: Two distinctive traits help is distinguishing right and left. The mesial developmental depression and the mesially displaced lingual cups tips are consistent clues for determining right and left. When well defined, the mesial marginal ridge is also a clue to right and left. Root: About 80% of upper premolars have two roots; the next most common variant is a single root. Variation: Most upper first premolars of people in our society have two roots; however, a single root is found in about 20% of teeth. Three rooted premolars are found occasionally.
Right and Left: The one consistent clue to right and left is the lingual cusp tip which is shifted mesially. the distal contact area is located more cervically than is the mesial contact area. is more nearly as large as the buccal cusp. Occlusal: The crown outline is rounded.. The buccal cusp is shorter. When viewed from the facial. .. and more rounded than the first. Lingual: Again.. Variation: The occlusal anatomy is more variable in the second than in the first. and is less clearly defined than is the first. Root: The maxillary second premolar has a single root. . curvature.. The lingual cusp. Proximal: Mesial and distal surfaces are rounded. Height of Curvature. ovoid. less pointed. There is wide variability is root size. this tooth resembles the first. however.Maxillary Second Premolar Facial: This tooth closely resembles the maxillary first premolar but is a less defined copy of its companion to the mesial. Contact Points. The mesial developmental depression and mesial marginal ridge are not present on the second premolar. and form.
. Height of Curvature: When viewed from the facial. Occlusal: The occlusal outline is diamond-shaped. . From it descends a large. Variation: This is a variable tooth in both crown and root. It may.. Right and Left: The larger distal occlusal fossa and mesial lingual marginal developmental groove are consistent clues to right and left. the upper second is ovoid. more nearly resemble the lower second prmolar. . Root: There is a single root. Contact Points.) Proximal: The large buccal cusp tip is centered over the root tip. A distinctive feature is the mesiolingual developmental groove. You should keep in mind that the mesial marginal ridge is more cervical than the distal contact ridge. pointed buccal cusp. each contact area/height of curvature is at about the same height. affectionately known as 'snake eyes' when they are restored. each anticipate the shape of their respective adjacent teeth.Mandibular First Premolar Facial: The outline is very nearly symmetrical bilaterally... and the lower second is square.) The large buccal cusp dominates the occlusal surface. (Remember the mesial marginal developmental groove in the upper first premolar? That one is mesial. in some persons. displaying a large. Marginal ridges are well developed and the mesiolingual developmental groove is consistently present. Grooved and/or bifurcated roots do sometimes occur. Lingual: This tooth has the smallest and most ill-defined lingual cusp of any of the premolars. The very large buccal cusp and much reduced lingual cusp are very evident. The distal surface has a longer radius of curvature than does the mesial surface. well developed buccal ridge. There are mesial and distal fossae with pits. the lower first is diamond. about at the long axis of this tooth. The one on the lower is toward the lingual. (Review of premolar occlusal outlines: the upper first is hexagonal.
Root: The mandibular second premolar has a single root that is usually larger than that of the first premolar. well-developed profile. but the buccal cusp is less pronounced. In the three cusp version. Occlusal: The two or three cusp versions become clearly evident. The mesial of those is the larger of the two. Lingual: Two significant variations are seen in this view. The lingual cusp (or cusps) are much better developed than the first and give the lingual a full. The tooth is larger than the first. the larger of the two lingual cusps is to the mesial. Height of Curvature: From the facial. In the three-cusp version. In that variant. Why? The distal marginal ridge is lower than the mesial marginal ridge.Mandibular Second Premolar Facial: From this aspect. The most common is the three-cusp form which has two lingual cusps. Right and Left: In the two cusp version. while the upper first premolar is just slightly larger than the upper second. the lingual cusp tip is shifted mesially. In the two cusp version. the tooth somewhat resembles the first.) Contact Points. a single developmental groove crosses the transverse ridge from mesial to distal. the mesial contact is more occlusal than the distal contact. This tooth is sometimes missing. the lingual cusp tip is shifted to the mesial. . only the third molars and upper lateral incisors are missing more frequently than this tooth. The other form is the two-cusp for with a single lingual cusp. Proximal: The buccal cusp is shorter than the first. the developmental grooves present a distinctive 'Y' shape and have a central pit. (Review: the lower second premolar is larger than the first. Variation: There may be one or two lingual cusps.