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ISSN 2378-5620

Volume 3 Number5
I N T E R N A T I O N A L J O U R N A L O F E L E C T R O N I C S & DATA COMMUNICATION

Development of a PLC Controlled Drilling Machine


Md Ruhul Amin1, Himangshu Bhowmik1,2, Md Mainuddin1 and S. M. Khalid Hossain1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology (DUET)
Gazipur-1707, Bangladesh
2
Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering
College of Engineering
Dhofar University
Salalah, Sultanate of Oman
Email: hbhowmik@du.edu.om
ABSTRACT
The cutting speed and drilling depth of a drilling machine while drilling manually is very difficult to measure. In many cases,
after completing the drilling work, it is also very difficult to measure the depth; especially for thin holes. However, this
paper aimed to design and fabricate an automated drilling machine based on PLC to produce holes of any diameter and
depth on the work piece. The automatic drilling machine performed the drilling operations accurately according to the
drilling depth and cutting speed. The mechanical movement of the drilling machine is controlled with induction motor, the
cutting time input through the Human Machine Interface (HMI) with respect to drilling depth. The control circuit is
designed with Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and its control logic plays vital role to automate the drilling
machine. At the end of this project, the result shows that the designed automated system was able to run the drilling
process independently on the desired sequence.

Keywords
Drilling machine, Sensor, HMI, VFD, PLC.

Academic Discipline And Sub-Disciplines


Engineering, Automation, Control system, Data Communication

SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION
Electronic Control System

TYPE (METHOD/APPROACH)
Experimental Analysis

INTRODUCTION
The drilling process is the most common machining process in industries to make hole on wood or other materials. This
machine uses a drilling tool with cutting edge at its point to remove material from the work piece. The cutting tool is held in
the drill machine by a chuck taper and is rotated and feed in to the work piece. This machine can also be used to perform
other operations like boring, counter boring, countersinking, spot facing etc. Simple drilling machines like hand held
portable drilling machines where human force is required cannot be used for number of machining operations for
specific applications. Because the drilling depth cannot be estimated properly and thus the work piece may spoil. In
addition, different size holes cannot be drilled without changing the drill bit that consumes lot of time for doing
repeated multiple jobs. To overcome all these problems, the automated drilling machine are designed which is
aimed to drill the holes automatically and can maintain the depth of hole accurately. Among the various types of available
automation systems PLC [1] can be used because it has available hardware and software connection for any type of
industrial automation. PLCs are used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on
factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. Its development time is less, ease to use and a cost effective
solution. It also has the flexibility to change the program with the requirements.
The main concept of this project is to design and fabricate an automatic drilling machine that performs the
function of drilling according to the specified drilling depth and cutting speed. As the machine contains drill motor, the
movement is controlled accurately. The integration of mechanical, electronic engineering & control technology
contribute crucially in this design. Especially the control circuit designed with PLC and its control logic plays
dominant role in this project work.

HARDWARE CONNECTION AND SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Hardware Connection
The automation of drilling machine with depth and speed can be controlled using PLC, shown in Figure 1. In drilling
machine two components are used, one is proximity sensor as input device and another is AC motor as output device.

148 | P a g e D O I : 10.24297/ijedc.v3i5.4002
November 2016 www.cirworld.com
ISSN 2378-5620
Volume 3 Number5
I N T E R N A T I O N A L J O U R N A L O F E L E C T R O N I C S & DATA COMMUNICATION

Proximity sensor located on the working table and connected with PLC. The main motor connects with Inverter 1 and
auxiliary motor connects with inverter 2. The two inverters and HMI [2] connect accordingly with the PLC.

HMI

PLC SENSOR

DRILL
AC SOURCE INVERTER
MACHINE
Fig 1: Components of the automation system

Programmable logic controller (PLC)


PLCs are used for system automation designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature
ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. The programs to control machine operation
are stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory [3].

Inverter (VFD)
Variable frequency drive (VFD) (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or
inverter drive is a type of adjustable speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and
torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage [4, 5].

System wiring and implementation


A sensor connected with PLC input port I 5 used to start the main motor. The frequency ports (P6, P7, P8) of inverter are
controlled by PLC output port Q1, Q2, Q3 with respect to the I1, I2, I3 input port as shown in Figure 2. A starting switch
connected with I4 uses for auxiliary motor. The forward and reverse speed port of inverter are connected with Q4 & Q5 port
of PLC output, forward and reverse speed can be changed automatically with respect to the program. A switch with
respect to PLC input port I6 is still for reset or emergency shut down of the whole system.

Fig 2: System wiring shows the connection of each part

Proximity sensor
A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. It emits an
electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation like infrared, and sense any change in the field and finally
produce a return signal. Different proximity sensor targets different materials. For example, a capacitive or photoelectric
sensor suitable for a plastic target and an inductive proximity sensor suitable for metal target [6].

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Human machine interface (HMI)


The user interface where the interaction between humans and machines are occurred is termed as HMI. The goal of this
interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human and simultaneously gives the feeds
back information that aids the operators' decision making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces
include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, and
process controls [2]. In this system HMI SIEMENS TD 100C model is used.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND WORKING PROCEDURES


The schematic diagram of the setup is shown in Figure 3. Here the two motors are used: one is main motor to control the
cutting speed and another is auxiliary motor to control the depth of cut. Main motor is connected to the inverter with three
ports P6, P7 and P8 designated for low, medium and high frequency. When the port P 6 is connect, then the main motor
rotates at low speed and for P7 and P8 the main motor rotates at medium and high speed respectively. However, in PLC
the motor speeds are controlled according to the following equation [7]:
120 f
Ns (1)
P
Where,
Ns = Speed of motor (rpm)
f = Input power frequency
P = No of poles of motor

Auxiliary motor has low speed and high torque, which is used to control depth of cut by forward and reverse speed.
Forward speed for feed and reverse speed for withdrawn drill bit from work piece. The auxiliary motor starts by a switch
and run at forward speed at pre-selected time. When the cutting tool reach at the sensing area of the sensor the sensor
gives pulse to the PLC to start the main motor at selected speed. The time for auxiliary motor is calculated according to
the following equation:
60 L
T (2)
dNa
Where,
L = length of cut = S/2+t+D/3 (as in Figure 3)
d = distance travel per revelation of auxiliary motor
Na = rpm of auxiliary motor
T = Time (sec)
After this time period the auxiliary motor run at reverse speed and when the cutting tool travel from the sensing area of
sensor, the whole system is shut down.

Fig 3: Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

PLC PROGRAMMING AND PROGRAM LOADING


A PLC resolves the logic of a ladder diagram (program) rung by rung, from the top to the bottom. Usually, all the
outputs are updated based on the status of the internal registers. Then the input states are checked and
the corresponding input registers are updated [8] and the system layout is shown in Figure 4. In this system PLC
SIEMENS model LOGO 230 RC is used, the technical specifications are given in Table 1. Program compiles by LOGO

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soft comfort V6.1 software. After complete the desire program and program load in PLC. Whole system will be control by
PLC according to this program.

Fig 4: PLC system layout

Table 1. Technical specification of PLC SIEMENS LOGO 230 RC.

General Features
Power Supply AC/DC 115 V - 240 V
Input Type 8 AC/DC + 4 AC/DC
Output Type 4 RELAY/10A; 4 RELAY/5A
Dimension (WHD) (72 90 55) mm
Expansion Module Input: 4 AC/DC
Output: 4 RELAY/10A

The PLC has the following standard features [9]:

On line programming and Self documenting code.


Modularity in the hardware and software structure.
Ability to design a strategy for failure mode.
Self-inspecting for valid op code during execution.
Rigorous testing of each module to industry standards.
PLCs are highly reliable, fast, flexible and can communicate with other controllers.

Ladder diagram (Program)


Ladder diagrams are specialized schematics commonly used to document industrial control logic systems [8, 9]. They are
called ladder diagrams because they resemble a ladder, with two vertical rails (supply power) and as many rungs
(horizontal lines) as there are control circuits to represent. The simple ladder diagram shows a lamp that is controlled by a
hand switch, shown in Figure 5 as:

i. Ladder diagrams (sometimes called ladder logic) are a type of electrical notation shows how electromechanical
switches and relays are interconnected.
ii. Horizontal lines in a ladder diagram are called rungs, each one representing a unique parallel circuit branch between
the poles of the power supply.
iii. Wires in control systems are marked with numbers and/or letters for identification. These are all permanently connected
(electrically common) points bear the same label.

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I N T E R N A T I O N A L J O U R N A L O F E L E C T R O N I C S & DATA COMMUNICATION

Fig 5: The Ladder diagram of PLC

RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS


The desired hole of desired depth on the work piece is obtained at different speeds for different hardness and following
discussions can be made accordingly
i) Main switch supply the power in this system
ii) The HMI starts the auxiliary motor to forward speed.
iii) The main motor starts with forward and pre-selected speed when the drill bit enters in the sensing area of sensor. At
this time PLC counts the time.
iv) The auxiliary motor run until the pre-selecting time is reached; the time is calculated according to Eqn. (2). At the end of
this time the auxiliary motor stops and then main motor also stops. After two second the auxiliary motor runs at reverse
speed and bring back the drill bit from the work piece.

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v) Finally, the work piece removes from the vise and measure the drilling depth it is same as expected depth

CONCLUSIONS
The existing drill machine was successfully automated using PLC control system. Two motors need in this system. Main
motor is used to feed and controlled in different speeds according to work piece hardness. Auxiliary motor needs to control
depth of cut according to operation time. The tool bit automatically withdraws from work piece by reversible speed. The
step or step less drilling is possible in any type of job with very short time. The whole system is able to shut down
automatically after the drilling operation.

REFERENCES
[1] Niranjan, G., Chandini, A., Mamatha, P., 2013. Automated Drilling Machine with Depth Controllability International
Journal of Science and Engineering Applications. 2 (4), 90-93.
[2] Normanyo, E., Husinu, F., and Agyare, O. R., 2014. Developing a Human Machine Interface (HMI) for Industrial
Automated Systems using Siemens Simatic WinCC Flexible Advanced Software Journal of Emerging Trends in
Computing and Information Sciences. 5 (2).
[3] Parr, E. A., 1999. Industrial Control Handbook, Industrial Press Inc., ISBN 0-8311-3085-7.
[4] Jaeschke, Ralph, L., 1978. Controlling Power Transmission Systems. Cleveland, OH: Penton/IPC. 210215.
[5] Siskind, Charles, S., 1963. Electrical Control Systems in Industry, New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc. 224, ISBN 0-07-
057746-3.
[6] Abueejela, Y. M., Albagul, A., Mansour, I. A. and Abdallah, O. M., 2015. Automated Drilling Machine Based on PLC
International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Tech. 2 (3) 520-525.
[7] Theraja, B. L., Theraja, A. K., A Text Book of Electrical Tech. I, Ch.-11, pp. 430
[8] Tony R. Kuphaldt , Vol. IV-Digital, Ch-6.
[9] Burali, Y. N., 2012. PLC Based Industrial Crane Automation & Monitoring International Journal of Engineering and
Science. 1 (3) 1-4.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Our thanks go to the department of Mechanical Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur
1700, Bangladesh for giving all technical supports to conduct the experimental analysis.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
D O I : 10.24297/ijedc.v3i5.4002

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