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Morris, Jordan MSCE, PE, SE1; Hahn, Alan MSCE, PE, SE1, Almanzar, Leonel PhD, PE1

1

CDM Smith, 4835 East Cactus Road, Suite 360, Phoenix, AZ 85254. PH (602)281-7924, email:

morrisjl@cdmsmith.com; hahna@cdmsmith.com; almanzarli@cdmsmith.com

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ABSTRACT

(LCS) often rely on the Portland Cement Associations (PCA) publication, Rectangular

Concrete Tanks, to analyze two-way panels. Several scenarios are not included in the

publication that would benefit designers. This article expands on the scenarios presented in

PCAs publication. In lieu of printed tables, an excel database application has been developed to

publish desired tables. Designers often encounter partially filled panels, where contained fluid is

below the propped support. In addition, designers may want to check shear at a critical section

following ACI 350-06 Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete

Structures. The out-of-plane forces and displacements have been determined using finite

element software, and converted to non-dimensional coefficients in an Excel database. The

coefficient tables are automatically generated in a similar format as the PCA publication. These

tables are very useful for designers because LCS walls response can be obtained without finite

element analysis. Discussion of the formulation is presented, including relevant finite element

model information. Also, an example is presented using the tables in accordance with ACI 350-

06.

INTRODUCTION

This article expands the rectangular plate analysis tables for reinforced concrete Liquid

Containing Structures (LCS) published by the Portland Cement Association in Rectangular

Concrete Tanks. The results are presented in the form of an Excel database that presents

specific cases in a tabular format similar to the PCA publication. The expanded results cover

triangular and rectangular partial height loading. In addition, tables for deflection and shear

mapping of the complete panel geometry are included. All developed tables are consistent with

the PCA publications five boundary conditions, coefficients, and equations.

The different analysis scenarios have been developed by manipulating geometry, loading, and

boundary conditions of the wall. The geometry parameter is based on the length to height ratio

(b/a) of the plate, the loading conditions are out of plane pressures varying in height and shape

(rectangular and triangular), and the boundary conditions simulate different idealized support

restrictions around the plate that are commonly encountered. Figure 1 shows the typical input

parameter required, including the different boundary conditions table.

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1564

Results are presented in terms of coefficients as shown in PCA table format. Out of plane

bending moment, shear, and displacements can be computed using the same equations included

in the PCA publication. Coefficient tables are automatically generated based on user input for

any of the conditions including those already presented in the PCA publication.

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Boundary Conditions

# Base Top Side

1 Hinged Hinged Fixed

2 Hinged Free Fixed

3 Fixed Free Fixed

4 Fixed Hinged Fixed

5 Hinged Hinged Hinged

Figure 1: Input Parameters

The wall analysis has been developed using finite element models to simulate the plate theory

behavior of the system. Two finite element software packages, STAAD.Pro V8i (STAAD) by

Bentley System and SAP 2000 V15 by Computer and Structures (SAP), were evaluated to ensure

consistency with the results presented in the PCA publication. Each software analysis theory, as

well as out of plane bending moment, shear and deflection results were compared and evaluated

to determine adequacy and applicability to obtain the level of accuracy required for the two-way

plate tables.

SAP finite element models were compared using thick and thin-plate formulations. Thin plate

formulation only accounts for pure bending deformation; while the thick plate theory also

includes transverse shear deformation. The plate finite elements used by STAAD are based on

hybrid element formulation where thin plate theory is extended to account for shear deformation

through the thickness of the plate. During the course of the model reviews, it was found that all

three different finite element models resulted in similar outputs to the original published values

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1565

for cases where all the supports were either fixed or free. However, when considering cases with

either all pinned supports, or a combination of pinned and fixed supports, it was found that the

STAAD models and SAP thick plate models did not provide results that aligned with the original

published results contained with the PCA tables. Specifically, these types of finite element

models resulted in non-zero bending moments occurring within the plate at points of pinned

supports. The revised fifth edition of the PCA tables were also developed using a previous

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version of SAP with thin plates. Therefore, the thin plate SAP models were chosen to develop

the coefficient tables herein presented.

Developing these tables produces an extensive amount of data and it was necessary to provide a

high level of data management. There were several approaches that were employed to make sure

that the correct data was collected and published. First, an organized naming convention was

adopted. There were 1,000 scenarios and a total of 396,000 data points; each scenario included

six result types with 66 data points for each result type. Each scenario was given a load name as

a function of boundary condition, b/a ratio, load type, and load height ratio (x/a). Then for each

permutation deflections, Sx (shear), Sy (shear), Mx(bending), My (bending),

Mxy(bending/torsion) were collected and organized into tables. Figure 2 shows the scenario

matrix break down.

Inputs Outputs

Boundary Load Height Result

Conditions Load Type Panel Ratio (x/a) Type

1 Triangular 0.5 1 d Panel Coeff.

2 Rectangular 0.75 0.9 Sx

3 1 0.8 Sy

4 1.25 0.7 Mx

5 1.5 0.6 My

1.75 0.5 Mxy

2 0.4

2.5 0.3

3 0.2

4 0.1

Scenarios= 5 * 2 * 10 * 10 = 1,000

Data Points= 1,000 * 6 * 66 = 396,000

The shaded region in Figure 2 identifies the parameters introduced to create the additional

scenarios in the revised fifth edition of the PCA publication.

A Visual Basic for Application (VBA) macro was developed in Excel to minimize as much

human error as possible during the analysis model development and analysis. The macro

executes functions through SAP 2000 by using an Open Application Programming Interface

(OAPI). The macro created, built, ran, analyzed, and exported the models and data from the

finite element analysis software. The exported data was managed and organized into usable

results within Excel.

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1566

3x3 Plates

Figure 3 presents an example of the finite element

model used to obtain the required data for the

development of the expanded PCA tables. The

finite element mesh was kept in a 1:1 ratio, not

greater than the plate thickness. Several geometry

parameters, as well as support and load conditions

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model, maintaining constant thickness and material

for the plates.

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

During the sensitivity analysis evaluation, the Figure 3: Example Finite Element Model

results obtained from the models were isolated (Case 1, b/a=1.0)

using graphs to determine any possible correlations to specific parameters that may simplify the

response using tables or equations. The number of scenarios runs clearly indicated that graphical

methods alone would not provide a simplified presentation of the results. Figure 4 shows the My

coefficient correlation along the panel width for different load height ratios (x/a). This sensitivity

graph example represents a panel ratio (b/a) of 1.0, boundary condition No.3, rectangular load,

and bending moments at the mid-height of wall. Figure 5 shows the Sy coefficient correlation

along the panel height for different load height ratios (x/a). This sensitivity graph example

represents a panel ratio (b/a) of 2.0, boundary condition No.4, rectangular load, and shear at 0.4

ratio of wall width. Figure 6 shows a plot example of the deflection coefficients for different load

height ratios (x/a). This sensitivity graph example represents a panel width for a panel ratio (b/a)

of 1.5, boundary condition No.3, rectangular load, and deflection evaluation at mid-height of the

wall. From the sensitivity analysis graphs, a common distribution between load height was

evaluated; however to get to this distribution, numerous variables were already in place. In an

attempt to publish the correlation found, as many equations were developed as there are

tabularized coefficients.

Another major challenge with the graphical approach was the correlation at boundary conditions

and inflection points. At the boundary conditions the rate of change between the variables

becomes sporadic due to the change in stiffness. As the load and panel ratio changed, the

location of inflection points changed as well, making it difficult to provide a consistent

correlation. Therefore a well-defined correlation of the results for these coefficients and

locations, which could be manipulated through equations, was not determined.

A table of new coefficients to provide the results for lower load heights was also evaluated.

These new coefficients, based on a ratio of the full height to the lower height response, would be

multiplied by the original coefficients from PCA tables in order to obtain the desired results. For

the ratio approach to work, a horizontal straight line should be expected in Figure 7. While at the

center of the panel this seems to be a feasible approach, it is not adequate at the inflection point

and boundary conditions.

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1567

Last, an approach to correlate deflections using the Kirchhoff thin plate theory constitutive

relationship to produce bending and shear force was investigated. For this approach, it requires

not only deflection perpendicular to the wall, but also the publication of rotations and deflections

of the plates (X,Y,Z) at each physical coordinate. There are a total of six coefficients for one

point; therefore an extreme amount of data is produced. Then, the user must look up and solve

the generated data using approximate differential constitutive equations. In addition, just like the

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first approach, there was a clear trend at the presented wall location but sporadic behavior at the

boundaries.

RESULTS PRESENTATION

From the sensitivity evaluation, a unique correlation of results was not found that would allow

the results to be presented in trending equations that capture the obtained behavior across

different response parameters. Therefore, the results have been presented by using a user-friendly

mechanism able to sort and display the analysis response of any specific problem. The data has

been manipulated through an Excel database to automatically generate the tables. Since the

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1568

amount of data generated was extensive printed tables could not be included in this article, or be

practical in any future publication. As a result, an Excel application that is easier to use for

designers has been provided. The database management routine in Excel includes a specific data

input clearly identified as shown in the application example, Figure 10. Then the output tables

are automatically generated, as shown in Figure 11, based on the specific input data. In addition,

the Excel application uses linear interpolation of the b/a ratio and the x/a ratio, as shown in

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Linear Interpolation b/a= 0.5 4.0

b/aupper, x/a b/alower, x/a x/a= 0.1 1.0

Linear Interpolation

b/a, x/a

APPLICATION EXAMPLE

The following example describes how to use the coefficient table results to analyze a liquid

containing structure wall. Relevant explanation of results and specific references to the ACI 350-

06: Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete Structures are also included.

Figure 9 includes the plan and section of the tank where the wall being analyzed is shown,

including structural dimensions and expected water height.

As noted in the Figure 9, the tank is covered with an 8 reinforced concrete slab. The top

boundary condition is assumed to be pinned and all other boundaries have been assumed to be

fixed. Therefore, the system is classified as a propped wall, which corresponds to Boundary

Condition No.4.

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1569

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The first step is to input the wall geometry into the input portion of the Excel spreadsheet. As

shown in the Figure 9, the wall is 20-0 long and 10-0 high, which translates into a b/a ratio of

2.0. In order to maintain 2-0 of freeboard, the maximum operating height of the water is set to

8-0; an x/a ratio of 0.8. See Figure 10 for the input portion of the application.

Inputs

Boundary Condition No.= 4 Boundary Conditions

Panel Width, b = 28 ft # Base Top Side

Panel Height, a= 15 ft Ratio b/a= 1.86667 1 Hinged Hinged Fixed

2 Hinged Free Fixed

Load Type= Triangular 3 Fixed Free Fixed

Height of Load,x= 13 ft x/a 0.86667 4 Fixed Hinged Fixed

5 Hinged Hinged Hinged

After the inputs are entered into the application, the shear, deflection and bending moment

coefficient tables are automatically updated. It should be noted while inputting the design

conditions, that if the height of the load x is greater than the panel height a, an error is

returned and no coefficients are available. Figure 11 shows the resulting coefficient tables for

bending moments, shear force and panel deflection output by the application for the example

herein presented.

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1570

Coefficient Results

0.1b 0.2b 0.3b 0.4b 0.1b 0.2b 0.3b 0.4b

CMx END 0.5b CMy END 0.5b

0.9b 0.8b 0.7b 0.6b 0.9b 0.8b 0.7b 0.6b

TOP 0 0 0 0 0 0 TOP 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.9a -2 0 2 4 5 5 0.9a -8 -2 1 2 2 3

0.8a -3 1 4 8 10 10 0.8a -15 -3 3 4 5 5

0.7a -4 1 7 12 14 15 0.7a -22 -4 4 6 7 7

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0.5a -6 3 11 17 20 21 0.5a -30 -3 6 8 8 8

0.4a -6 4 11 16 18 19 0.4a -30 -2 6 8 8 7

0.3a -5 3 9 11 12 12 0.3a -25 -1 5 6 5 5

0.2a -3 1 2 1 0 0 0.2a -17 0 2 2 2 1

0.1a -1 -4 -11 -17 -21 -22 0.1a -6 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4

BOT. 0 -16 -35 -46 -51 -53 BOT. 0 -3 -7 -9 -10 -11

0.1b 0.2b 0.3b 0.4b 0.1b 0.2b 0.3b 0.4b

CMxy END 0.5b Cd END 0.5b

0.9b 0.8b 0.7b 0.6b 0.9b 0.8b 0.7b 0.6b

TOP 0 7 7 5 2 0 TOP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.9a 0 6 7 5 2 0 0.9a 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5

0.8a 0 6 6 4 2 0 0.8a 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.0

0.7a 0 4 4 2 1 0 0.7a 0.0 0.3 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.3

0.6a 0 2 2 1 0 0 0.6a 0.0 0.3 0.8 1.2 1.5 1.5

0.5a 0 0 1 1 1 0 0.5a 0.0 0.3 0.9 1.3 1.5 1.6

0.4a 0 3 4 3 1 0 0.4a 0.0 0.3 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.4

0.3a 0 6 6 4 2 0 0.3a 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.0 1.1

0.2a 0 7 6 4 2 0 0.2a 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6

0.1a 1 6 4 3 1 0 0.1a 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

BOT. 0 1 0 0 0 0 BOT. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.1b 0.2b 0.3b 0.4b 0.1b 0.2b 0.3b 0.4b

CSx END 0.5b CSy END 0.5b

0.9b 0.8b 0.7b 0.6b 0.9b 0.8b 0.7b 0.6b

TOP 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 TOP -0.04 -0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.06

0.9a -0.04 -0.03 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.9a -0.04 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06

0.8a -0.08 -0.05 -0.03 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.8a -0.04 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.06

0.7a -0.13 -0.08 -0.04 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.7a -0.03 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05

0.6a -0.18 -0.09 -0.04 -0.02 0.00 0.00 0.6a -0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.5a -0.21 -0.10 -0.04 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.5a 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.4a -0.22 -0.10 -0.03 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.4a 0.02 0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.05 -0.05

0.3a -0.21 -0.08 -0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.3a 0.04 -0.01 -0.05 -0.09 -0.10 -0.11

0.2a -0.15 -0.04 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.2a 0.06 -0.03 -0.11 -0.15 -0.18 -0.18

0.1a -0.05 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.1a 0.05 -0.09 -0.19 -0.25 -0.27 -0.27

BOT. 0.01 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.00 BOT. 0.01 -0.15 -0.28 -0.33 -0.35 -0.35

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1571

After the coefficients are determined for the specific design case, Equations 1, 2 and 3 are used

to determine the design shear force, bending moments and deflections at specific design

locations. Design locations often include the edges of the tank wall and at the center of the wall.

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Where,

q = magnitude of a rectangular load or the highest magnitude of a triangular load in pounds per

square foot (psf)

Designers should first check the shear capacity of the wall to ensure that the thickness of the

concrete section is adequate. Shear force should be checked along the edges where the shear

loads are the highest at the critical section. The critical section shall be determined in

accordance with ACI 350 11.1.3. If the loading and geometry of the panel meet the

requirements of 11.1.3 (a), (b), & (c) then the critical section can be taken at a distance d

from the support. For the design example presented here, the shear is the highest at the midpoint

along the base of the wall, and near the midpoint on the side of wall.

After checking the adequacy of the wall thickness, reinforcement should be designed using the

bending moments as determined from the coefficients; Mx for the horizontal reinforcement

requirements and My for the vertical. It is important to note that bending requirements may vary

significantly from the center of the wall to the edges. For a more economical design,

reinforcement may be varied by providing typical reinforcing sufficient to address positive

bending moments in the field of the wall and providing additional reinforcing at corners and the

base of the wall to address negative bending moments..

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1572

When designing water containing structures per ACI 350, the design bending moments and

excess shear resisted by reinforcing must be increased by the environmental durability factor (Sd)

per the code ( 9.2.6). Unlike previous versions of ACI 350, this factor is no longer equal to 1.3

and is instead based on reinforcing size and spacing as well as the type of loading. For the 15

wall in the example, reinforced with #6 bars spaced at 12 designed for water load only, Sd is

equal to 1.93.

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Depending on the type of load applied to the wall, the horizontal and vertical reinforcement

design may vary in each face of the wall. Several loading scenarios may be required to be

analyzed to properly design the reinforcement, including, but not limited to, hydrostatic loading

without exterior backfill, exterior backfill when the tank is empty, uplift from groundwater when

the tank is empty, soil seismic load when the tank is empty, and dynamic fluid loading combined

with hydrostatic force resisted by exterior backfill.

VERIFICATION

To verify the excel application a SAP model was developed to determine the percent error in the

PCA coefficient approach. The example problem above was used. The results of the example

problem vs SAP comparison are shown in Table 1. The percentage error is at maximum 1.31%.

This is an excitable percent error and the PCA approach is acceptable for determining result for

the expanded load scenarios.

Table 1

Location Coordinates PCA SAP % ERROR

Base Moment, k-ft 0.5b, BOT 9.62 9.63 0.10%

Vertical Moment k-ft, (4.5ft Projection) 0.5b, 0.3a 2.28 2.26 0.88%

Horizontal Moment, k-ft 0.5b,0.5a 1.51 1.53 1.31%

Corner Moment, k-ft END, 0.5a 5.51 5.54 0.54%

Shear @ "Use d=9 inches", k 0.5b, 0.05a 3.81 3.82 0.26%

Deflection @, in 0.5b, 0.5a 0.0173 0.0174 0.57%

SUMMARY

The expansion of the PCA tables is a useful to approximately obtain the structural response of

tanks under different load conditions. The designer has an available simplified tool to generate

wall response coefficient tables without developing a finite element model analysis. This tool

provides an expanded database that allows designers to perform more load scenarios analysis and

obtain a wider range of response locations in the wall. Moreover, users are also able to perform a

shear evaluation at critical section location, a better evaluation of tank freeboard conditions, and

partially buried tank analyses.

10

Structures Congress 2014 ASCE 2014 1573

REFERENCES

Concrete Structures and Commentary, ACI 350-06. Farmington Hills, MI.

Munshi, J. A. (1998). Rectangular Concrete Tanks 5th Edition. Portland Cement Association.

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11

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