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Any society has values which are generally shared by its members.

Values are
conceptions of the desirable. They influence an individuals choices and actions. They define to a
large extent the patterns of relationships in a society. Socio-cultural values play an important role
in motivation and behaviour.

Among Filipino, four concepts have been found to be useful in explaining behaviour
patterns.

1. Amor-propio or Self esteem. This is a deep sense of dignity a desire to be treated as a


human being rather than as a thing. A Filipino is very sensitive to words or actions of
others which might be construed as violating his amor-propio.
2. Hiya or embarrassment. This refers to a feeling of inferiority, shyness, and alienation
which is a painful experience. This usually leads a Filipino to avoid hiya by behaving in
what is deemed to be an acceptable way.
3. Utang na loob or Obligastion. This is a sense of gratitude for favors or help received from
others. Because he has utang na loob, a Filipino would exert effort to be able to repay
sometime in the future a favor given to him though not necessarily in the same form as it
was granted.
4. Pakikisama or Getting Along Together. This is a desire for smooth interpersonal relations
(SIR). Filipinos place a high value in developing or maintaining good feelings with
others. In group work, the tendency is to maintain rather than ignore pakikisama which is
may lead to inefficiencies.

Certain motives come about as a result of the cultural environment in which a person
lives. The manager should understand that these are some of the motives that employees bring
with them when they enter the organization. Such motives will affect how they view their work
and how important it is to them.

In Western societies, Mc. Clleland identified three of the more important motives as
achievement motive, affiliation motive, and power motive.

Achievement Motive. People with a high need for achievement have an intense desire for
success. They work hard and take carefully calculated risks. They take personal responsibility for
getting a job done. They want concrete feedback as to how well they are doing. Accomplishment
is important for its own sake, not for the rewards that follow it.

Affiliation Motive. People with a high need for affiliation are concerned with maintaining
pleasant social relationship. They want friendly interactions with others.

Power Motive. People with a high need for power have a great desire to influence people
and control situations. They seek leadership positions and are willing to take risks to get there.
In many parts of Asia, the Confucian tradition places a higher value on community and
harmony than on individual drives. Asian societies typically emphasize family ties, group
cohesion, conformity, loyalty, hard work, and perseverance. This contrasts with the Western
liberalism that emphasizes individual achievement. The difference emphasis is a critical one in
motivating individuals. The manager blends his approach whit the cultural environment.

They need for relationship for other people is one of the strongest of human drives.

Social needs are among the most compelling, Potent and powerful on-the-job motivators.
The people who compose an organization behave as members of groups. Their membership
helps shape their attitudes and work behaviour toward the organization and the job.

Motivational studies show affiliation (Maslow), relatedness (Alderfer), social


consciousness (Mayo) as strong needs. Because of the potent effects of group influence, groups
have been found to be effective sources of social change including those in the work setting.

Changing group opinion is more effective than changing opinions of individuals. This is
borne by researches done in the Philippines and aboard. Utilizing and exercise on values
identification and clarification, Conception R. Martires conducted experimental studies on her
students the last three years. These experiments aimed at determining the differences in decision
making made individually and in group. The exercise was answered first individually and results
were noted down. Groups were formed with the same individuals and results of decision making
per group were then compared with the result of the individual decision making activity. The
findings showed that answers of about 70 per cent of the participants changed remarkably. The
change was avowed to be due to group influence and/ or pressure. The most astounding change
was on the quality of replies from individualistic to groupistic tome and from slightly negative
values to highly positive values.

Management of Human Behavior in Organization by: Concepcion Rodil Martires,


Galileo S. Fule pg. 5, 6, and 97.