Buddha-concept and persons

-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, IPS B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001 0671-2304172/2304433, (M) 9437034172 arunupadhyay30@yahoo.in, www.scribd.com/Arunupadhyay 1.Introduction- Buddhism flourished after Siddh rtha Buddha, born as son of uddhodana on 31-3-1986 BC in 24th generation of S rya-vam a starting with Ik v ku on 1-10-8576 BC after glacial floods in 10000-9500 BC. After Mah bh rata war on 1 to 18-10-3139 BC, they shifted to sal forest area south of Nepal. It is major tree of that region in pillar shape, called aka (strong) or sakhua in local language. aka tree of south India is teak called aka-vana (sagw n). So, he was called kyamuni. However, Buddhism as a thought and a way of life was much ancient and several Buddhas were born outside and within India. Essential idea of Buddhism is Buddhi =intellect which should be used to find correct path in manifold alternatives given in religious texts. That was preached beautifully by Bhagav n K a in G t as Buddhi-yoga (application of Buddhi). That was meant to be selection of best or middle path from 2 main streams since long past-S nkhya (knowledge) and Yoga (action). A third stream was Bhakti (devotion) which is in fact division of Universe in self and God for link-though both are one. So, it is called devotion. (Bhakti = process of bh ga or division). In text form, teachings of Buddhism are based on verbal logic called Ny ya (justice) as this is mostly used in courts for justice. However, it has all the branches needed for improvement of man. 2. Philosophy-Bauddha dar ana (philosophy) is called Vain ika and is based on observation (Pratyak a) and logic (tarka). This has existed since start of language itself. There are 3 steps of v k (sound) within brain cavity (guh )-abstract thought (par ), visible (pa yant ) and formation of word sequence (madhyam = intermediate). So, it is called µGo¶ as µGa¶ is third consonant. Words expressed as sound or writing cannot give the full meaning due to limitations of language and man. So, it is called µtama¶ (dark). The link between inner and outer parts is called Go+tama = Gautama as author of Ny ya-s tras. In justice system, it is used to convert black (tama =false) into white (go =truth) and vice-versa. For 4 levels of men, there are 4 streams of Buddhist philosophy(1) M dhyamika (=middle path). This is also called nya-v da (zero principle) as it assumes sum total of world as zero. This is similar to Vai e ika (s tras by Ka da) (2) Vijñ n sti (science based)-This assumes that world has been created by intellect or universal consciousness called Puru a in Vedas. This is combination of verbal logic and S nkhya (s tras by Kapila) (3) Yog ch ra-External world is imagination of mind. Control of mind is science of Yoga (s tras by Patañjali) and conduct on this path is Yog ch ra. (4) Vaibh ika-This assumes vibh (vikalpa =alternates)- i.e. existence of inner and outer both worlds. This joins 2 mim ns s-p rva = primary (s tras by Jaimini) and Uttara = later or Ved nta. It is summarized in Brahma- s tras by Veda-vy sa called B dar ya a. There are 4 types of Puru a (man, or world, any object)-1. K ara-Decaying outer form, 2. Ak ara-Functional identity which is hidden. 3. Avyaya- As part of surroundings or chain of transformation-sum total is same. 4. Par tpara-At root level, there is no distinction. For these levels, there are 4 types of time or K la, which is perception of change-1. Nitya (eternal) K la ±which always decays the world and each object. 2. Janya (creative) K la ±This is time-cycle of a yajña (creation cycle) by which time units are defined for measuring time interval. 3. Ak aya (conserved) K la ±This is based on 5 types of conservation laws of physics (one in quantum theory) for a closed system. 4. Par tpara K la ±This is beyond perception at micro and macro levels.

Parallel to these, there are 4 levels of development of Buddhi (Intellect) and 4 types of evolution of manr vaka (aspirant)-common individual. Bodhisattva-Developing stage. Pratyeka Buddha-Developed stage of individuals, incarnations of Buddha. Samyak Buddha-Highest state of Buddha realized for brief moment. Samyak Buddha is a unique state, and there can be only one such Buddha. Pratyeka Buddha is its visible human form. For 7 lokas, 24 Prak ti, or 28 defects of Buddhi in S nkhya, there are 7, 24, or 28 Buddhas.

Times of Buddhas
(1) There are 2 Buddhas in list of 28 ± Siddh rtha and Gautama. Both are assumed to be same. 28 Buddhas are described in Chapter 27 of the Buddhavam a, plus Maitreya Bodhisattva, the future (and 29th) Buddha. The Buddhavam a is a text which describes the life of Gautama Buddha and the twenty-seven Buddhas who preceded him. The Buddhavam a is part of the Khuddaka (K udraka) Nik ya, which in turn is part of the Sutta (S tra) Pi aka. The Sutta Pi aka is one of three main sections of the P li Canon of Ther v da Buddhism. The 28 Buddhas are said to have attained enlightenment from the time Gautama Buddha received his first Niyatha Vivarana (permission to be the next enlightened one) from D pankara Buddha. The 28 Buddhas are not the only Buddhas believed to have existed. Indeed, Gautama Buddha preached that innumerable Buddhas have lived in past kalpas. (2) Siddh rtha was 24th in Ik v ku family after Mah bh rata starting on 1-10-3139 BC or K rttika Am v sy . 68 days after that, Bh ma had died on 24-12-3139 BC when north motion of sun had started. 5 days before that Yudhi hira had been crowned on 17-12-3139 BC. This date has been indicated by Albiruni and by Abul Fazal who has given concordance of Din-elahi with older calenders. That date of Mah bh rata is also confirmed by 5 inscriptions of Janamejaya in 29th year of his rule in 3014 BC which state all 5 elements of date of Indian calender and solar eclipse of 27-11-3014 BC also is confirmed by calculations. But so called historians of Oxford tradition tried only to wipe out any reference to any calendar and declared all kings starting calenders as fictitious. Despite stated policy of Wikipedia, no verifiable reference of date 483 BC for Buddha has been given. No basis has been given by any Oxford scholar where Boden chair in 1831 had been set up solely for uprooting Vedic culture. All writers-Weber, Wiliam Jones, Roth, Maxmuller etc have declared firm resolve to uproot Vedic tradition by any amount of forgery. Thus, recorded date of 31-3-1986 BC to 27-3-1807 BC for Siddh rtha Buddha is correct. (3) Gautama Buddha was following Gautama tradition of verbal logic, so he was called Gautama. The whole Buddhist literature is only verbal logic to counter Gautam¶s Ny yadar ana in his own style. Out of pride, there is no line in massive Bauddha literature about origin of word-Gautama Buddha. They only state that Siddhartha had become Buddha after enlightenment. This Buddha might be in 483 BC as stated by Wikipedia without any verification. (4) Vi u incarnation Buddha was born as son of Ajina Br hma a in K ka a (Magadha, present Bihar). In 756 BC, he formed a Yajña at Mount Abu to unite 4 kings of India for countering Assyrian (Asura) attacks who became powerful in west Asia in 800 BC. The 4 kings were called Agni-kula-Param ar, Pratih ra, Ch lukya and Ch hm na. The federation was under draka whose aka started in 756 BC on that occasion as described in Jyoti adarpa a. As it referred to a calendar, all records of draka are ignored under Boden policy of destruction. The federation lasted for 300 years when r -har a started his empire in Malva. That has been indicated both by Al-Biruni and Abul Fazal. Megasthenes also has called this as 300 years of democracy. As r -har a also started a calendar, he was declared fictitious and equated with Har avardhana of Kannauj in 605-646 AD. Finally, 6th king in

Ch hm n dynasty after draka wiped out Nineve. This has been described in several places in old testament that king of Medes in east of Indus destroyed Nineve in 612 BChttp://bible.tmtm.com/wiki/NINEVEH_%28Jewish_Encyclopedia%29 http://www.biblewiki.be/wiki/Medes This incarnation of Vi u as Buddha was for fooling Asuras as stated in Pur as. Siddh rtha Buddha never moved out of small area from Lumbini to R jgir. He tried only to influence Magadha kings for his political power, he never thought of south or west India, much less about Asuras. On destruction of Nineve, a calendar was started in 612 BC as indicated by Var hamihira in Brihat-samhit (13/3). King of Delhi has been called of Medes as it was Madhya-de a between Him laya and Vindhya. King Dil pa of Ayodhy also has been called king of middle country in Raghuvam a (2/42) by K lid sa. Till today, people of plain area of Nepal are called Madhes. A district of Bihar between Gang and Himalaya is also called Madhepur . Another Madhya-de a (Medes) was between Persia and Caspian sea. China was middle of 3 lokas of Indra-Russia, China and India-that too was called middle kingdom. (5) As there are 26 Buddhas before Gautama Buddha, listed in Wikipedia, he should not be called founder of Buddhism. (6) There is no contradiction about any account of Buddha in pur as or in Buddhist literature. Later Buddhists opposed idea of soul as it was in Vedas. But, then who was taking birth in 100 lives of Buddha in J taka stories? Similarly, Buddha has never been told incarnation of God. Whole emphasis of J taka stories is that Siddh rtha gradually developed in 100 lives. In same sense, Vi u pur a (4/33) has stated that son of uddhodana (Siddh rtha) was a form of M y (cover) and Moha (illusion). (7) 4 other Buddhas have been mentioned in Nigalihva inscription near S rnath by Ashoka Maurya (1472-1436 BC) and their birth places have been described by Chinese traveler Fahien. Krakucchanda Buddha was born 100 Kms south west of r vast , Kanakamuni 8 kms north of r vast , Ka yapa Buddha (second) was in Tandava village, 15 kms. West of r vast . He has also stated that 300 years after demise of Siddh rtha Buddha i.e. in 1507 BC, Maitreya Buddha was born in Dh nya Ka aka. This is modern Cuttack in Orissa where many places are still in name of Dh nya (paddy or rice) like Cahuliaganj, Salepur, Ali, Dhanmandal. That was old U ra from where rice was exported, so it was called Au r ya = product of U ra, that became Oryza in Greek and finally rice in English. Maitreya means solar, and his place was near place of sun at Ko rka. He preached M dhyamaka branch, explained later by N g rjuna. (8) At least 2 Buddhas were born in China. One is called Amit bha (Amid ) Buddha. He has been called K ka-Bhu u i in pur as, situated north east of P mir (pr -meru or geographical Sumeru)-see Yoga-v i ha-R m ya a, Nirv a k a, first half, chapters (1417). He taught Garu a of Kyrgyz (both mean the same) and also taught R va a, king of Lank . His teachings are called Lank vat ra-s tra. Va i ha had visited him as described in Som nanda commentary on Lalit -sahasran ma, as explanation to the name Sadgatiprad (verse 103, name 201). In time of R ma (4433-4361 BC), his teachings were popular as described in V lm ki R m ya a, Ayodhy k a, chapters 108-109 by J b li and refuted by r R ma. Here, Bauddha-jaina-Ch rv ka are placed in same anti-vaidika category. Buddha, Budha, Tath gata, akyatama ( kya) all are mentioned in verse (109/34). Another Buddha might be Fan who started script. Taittir ya samhit (6/4/7) tells that ngirasa-B haspati gave symbol for each word. (Mah bh ya 1/1/1 of Patañjali, gveda 10/71/1, Ny ya-mañjar , Maitr ya samhit 4/5/8 etc). That is still followed in China. atapatha Br hma a (1/2/3/22-25) tells that this B haspati or Brahma aspati was from China but had came to India also. He was Manju r Buddha and may be one of the 7 Brahm s described in Mah bh rata, nti parva, chapters 348-349. He must be near time of Sv yambhuva Manu (29102 BC). Gop n tha Kavir ja in his T ntrika S dhan aur Siddh nta, page 18 calls him

author of Tripur -Rahasya. Description of Bauddha form is in Bauddha Dharma Dar ana by ch rya Narendra Deva, page 180-182. (9) Sumedh Buddha is same as Sumedh i of Durg -sapta at of M rka eya-pur a or of Tripur -rahasya (2 volumes-Jñ na kha a and M h tmya kha a are available in about 4000 pages). He gave D k to Para ur ma (Kollam = Kalamba samvat of Kerala starts from 6177 BC on his death) on Mahendra mountain (Orissa). He taught 10 forms of akti called 10 Mah vidy in Vedic literature and 10 Prajñ -p ramit in Bauddha texts. Both have same meaning, but later Buddhists wanted to show separate philosophy. (10) D pankara Buddha taught Vajra-yoga started by king Suchandra. His line was called vajray na (methods of yoga). Buddha-tantra was propagated by Hevajra. His tradition was continued by Padma (Saroruha), Vajra, nanda-vajra, and Ananga-Vajra whose disciple was Indrabh ti, king of Orissa. His sister Lak m nkar spread his teaching still popular as Baul songs of Bengal. His son Padmasambhava started L m tradition in Tibet. L m means same as All m in Arabic in Islamic tradition. All m means Alam (everything) in Sanskrit-it is from first to last letter In Koran, it is combination of Aleph, lam, Mim. Old Aramaic words were used for some purpose in India. Gurus of Siddh rtha Buddha were called Kalama and equals were called Abus. In old Arabic, A, B, Z (c), D-indicated 1, 2, 3, 4 etc. This was followed in Roman script. Thus normal men knowing ABC are equals. Lower is 2 only, called Abe. K, l, m, n indicate count in 10¶s. So, kal m means teacher. (11) Old Buddhist temple in sect of Siddh rtha Buddha was built in 1100 BC in China. After about 600 years, Confucious and Laotse revived the distortions. Simultaneously, it was done in India by Kum rila Bha a (557-493 BC) and ankar ch rya (509-477 BC) as recorded in Jina-vijaya-mah k vya etc. All had highest regards for Siddh rtha, but had to correct bad trends which had crept in after 1000 years. Siddh rtha himself had foreseen it. Oxford pattern scholars put ankar ch rya in788-820 AD when Sindh was already under occupation of Mohammed-bin-Kasim in 712 AD and regions up to K was under severe Islamic attack. But ankar ch rya was unaware of any Islamic invasion and was debating in Sanskrit under rule of Arab invaders. However, same scholars in books of linguistics tell it era of Gorakhan tha who united Indian kings particularly N gabha a Pratih ra and Bapp R val of Mewar and his disciples started literature in modern Indian languages. (12) kyasimha Buddha had visited Nepal in time of king Jitedasti (Nepal Vam val by Kota Venkatachalam, quoted in Indian history and Culture, vol. 4 by BHISHMA-Sripad Kulkarni. who was killed in Mah bh rata war (1-18/10/3139 BC). Father of Jitedasti was Humati who went to forest with P avas (Mah bh rata, vana parva, Kair ta parva, chapters 38-41). This Buddha may be from same sal forest area or may be same family as Siddh rtha Buddha who was called kya-muni. Mah bh rata, nti parva, chapters 307308 describe teachings of this Buddha in detail (Vasi ha to Kar lajanaka). This also gives 4 stages of development of Buddha-abuddha, apratibuddha, budhyam na and uddha. (13) Ka yapa was teacher of Devas and Asuras both in about 17,500 BC around Caspian sea. In his time, Asuras were supreme. His teachings as Buddha are in Mah bh rata, nti parva, chapter 124 where asura king Prahl da teaches importance of la (a bauddha term) to Deva king Indra. There might be a later Ka yapa who was an author of yurveda in particular Agada-tantra (poison and toxicology). Follower of the later was P ra a- Ka yapa who might be an author on treatise of mathematics just after Mah bh rata (Bh skara-1 commentary on ryabha ya). His sect was routed by Siddh rtha Buddha. His place is Kasap in Rohtas district of Bihar. (Bauddha Dharma aur Bihar -Havaldar Tripathy Sahridaya) (14) Lokadh tu Buddha was in Kashmir who brought 48th Gonanda king Ashok (1448-1400 BC) under Bauddha influence due to which his kingdom was captured by Bauddhas of central Asia. Based on this verse of R jatarangi (1/101-102), Hultzch, Govt Epigraphist at madras (now Chennai) declared that Maurya Ashoka embraced Buddhism due to which

Maurya empire disintegrated. There was another Lokadh tu Buddha in Kashmir in time of Kani ka, 51st Gonanda king (1264-1234 BC). (15) Other Buddhas- Siddh rtha Buddha himself has stated that teachings of 3 Buddhas ± Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda and Ka yapa remained as they codified their teachings. Views of other Buddhas of immediate past vanished in absence of written literature-Vipa y , ikh , Vi vabh . (16) Bodhisattvas-N rada had 3 births in which he was authority on music, astronomy and Bhakti. His teachings are in N rada pur a. K rttikeya was commander of Devas in time of Asura king Bali who had gone to P t la-loka in Krauñcha-dv pa (north America in shape of flying bird). This was captured by K rttikeya by attack by akti (missile) and then captured by navy called May ra (peacock). Till today, islands of Pacific have same Maori language and culture from Hawai to Newzealand separated by 15000 kms of sea. In his time, north pole had shifted from Abhijit star (Vega) and year started with sun¶s entry in Dhani ( Delphini). (Mah bh rata, vana parva, 230/8-10). Then, Asura tradition of starting year with Var (rains in summer solstice) continued, so year was called Var a. That was in about 15,800 BC.

List of 28 Buddhas
(1) Ta ha kara, (2) Medh kara, (3) Sara a kara, (4) D pankara, (5) Ko añña, (6) Ma gala, (7) Sumana, (8) Revata, (9) Sobhita, (10) Anomadassi (Anoma-dar ), (11) Paduma (Padma) , (12) N rada, (13) Padumuttara (Padmottara), (14) Sumedha (Sumedh ), (15) Suj ta, (16) Piyadassi (Priyadar ), (17) Atthadassi (Antahdar ), (18) Dhammadass (Dharmadar ), (19) Siddhattha (Siddh rtha), (20) Tissa (Ti ya), (21) Phussa (Pu ya), (22) Vipass (Vipa y ), (23) Sikh ( ikh ), (24) Vessabh (Vi vabh ), (25) Kakusandha (Krakucchanda), (26) Ko gamana (Kanakamuni), (27) Kassapa (Ka yapa), (28) Gautama, (29) Maitreya.

List of bodhisattvas
In Buddhist thought, a Bodhisattva is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood. That is their reason for "being" or raison d'être. Conventionally, the term is applied to hypothetical beings with a high degree of enlightenment. Bodhisattva literally means an "enlightenment (bodhi) being (sattva)" in Sanskrit. The following is a partial list of bodhisattvas, respected in Mongolian, Tibetan, Japanese and Chinese traditions. List of Bodhisattvas (1) k agarbha - The Bodhisattva of infinite happiness generated by helping countless numbers of sentient beings. (2) Avalokite vara-The bodhisattva of compassion, the listener of the world's cries; the most universally acknowledged Bodhisattva in Mah y na Buddhism. Known as Guan Yin in East Asia, Chenrezig in Tibet, and Migjid Janraisig in Mongolia. (3) K itigarbha - The bodhisattva of the Hell beings, or the bodhisattva of great vows. (4) Mah sthamapr pta - Represents the power of wisdom, seen on the left of Amit bha in Pure Land Buddhism. (5) Maitreya - The Bodhisattva to be reborn and to become enlightened, thus succeeding Gautama Buddha in the future. Known for his benevolence. (6) Manju r - Bodhisattva of keen awareness and wisdom. (7) N g rjuna - The founder of the M dhyamaka (Middle Path) school of Mah y na Buddhism. (8) Ni - Two wrath-filled and muscular guardians of the Buddha, standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples in Japan and Korea under the appearance of frightening wrestler-like statues. They are manifestations of the Bodhisattva Vajrap i.

(9) Padmasambhava (Tib. Padma Jungne or Guru Rinpoche) - Most associated with Tibetan Buddhism and Bhutanese Buddhism. The Nyingma school regards Padmasambhava as a second Buddha. (10) Samantabhadra - Represents the practice and meditation of all Buddhas. (11) Sangh r ma - Only revered in Chinese Buddhism-Taoism, Sangh r ma refer to a group of devas who guard Buddhist monasteries and the faith, but the title is usually referring to the legendary Chinese military general Guan Yu, who became a Dharmap la through becoming a Buddhist and making vows. (12) ntideva - 8th century scholar, wrote about Bodhisattvas. (13) Sit tapatra - The goddess of the White Parasol and protector against supernatural danger. (14) Skanda - A Dharmap la who guards the Dharma, with links to Vajrap i and is somewhat the direct forbear to Murugan, a Hindu deity. Primarily worshipped in Chinese Buddhism. (15) Supu pachandra - Mentioned in ntideva's A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way Of Life (16) S ryavairocana - One of two attendants of Bhai ajyaguru Buddha. (17) T r - Female bodhisattva, or set of bodhisattvas, in Tibetan Buddhism. She represents the virtues of success in work and achievements. Also a manifestation of Avalokite vara. (18) Vajrap i - An early bodhisattva in Mah y na. (19) Vasudhara- Bodhisattva of abundance and fertility. Popular in Nepal.