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Prediction of Stress Paths, Strains

• 1. Drained Test: Normally compressed clay

• a. Since stress path is fixed in q : p ' space, end point on CSL is known.

• b. Initial and end points known in v : p ' space.

• c. Referring to figure, at B, sketch current yield locus. Project down to current URL to locate B in v : p ' space.

d.

To determine strains for increment BC: First determine δε

e

v

from δp

'

BC

and δε

p

v

from

δp . Then determine δε

0

p

s

from δε

p

v

and normality criterion. Note that as η increases, so

δε

p

v

δε

p

s

decreases.

Yield locus

η =

M

ln

p o

p '

Hence

Or

Now

δη

M

=

δp δp

0

'

-

p

0

p '

δp

0

=

p

0

δη + δp

'

M

p '

q

= ηp '

δq = ηδp '+ p ' δη

Conventional compressional test δq = 3 δp '

Hence

And

δη =

### (3 − η )

δp

'

p '

δp

0

=

p

0

 

3 η

+ M  

δp

'

M

p ' (λ − κ )
(3 − η + M )
δp
'
(λ − κ )
3 η
+ M 
δq
p
Thus
δε
=
=
v
v
M
p '
v
3
M
q
p
δε
λ
κ
 3 −
η
+ M 
δp
'
p
v
δε
=
= 
s
M −
η
v
M M −
(
η
)
p '
λ
κ
 3 −
η
+ M
δq
= 
v
3
M M −
(
η
)
q
κ δ
p '
κη δ
q
e
δε
=
=
ν
v
p '
3 v q
1
e
δε
=
δ
q
s
3 G '
q
at any stage of test,
p p
'
=
'
+
i
3
p
δε
v
r =
p
δε
s
As yield
locus
increases, r is
decreased at
CSL, r = 0

2 q
c
on CSL
q
=
q
=
Mp = M p
'
' +
c
x
x
i
3
3
M
q
=
p
' - holds for both nc & oc clays
c
i
3 − M
2.
Drained Test: Overconsolidated Clay
3.
Undrained test Normally compressed clay
Graphically,
(a)
State path is fixed in v : p ' space (horizontal straight line) with end point on CSL.
(b)
We know initial and final points in q : p ' space. Final pore pressure
u
can be computed
f
from total stress path.
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• (c) At point B in v : p ' space, draw current URL. Then project up to current yield locus in

q : p ' to locate B in stress space.

• (d) Determine shear strain for BC.

For undrained test,

δε p
e
p
e
= δε
+ δε
but δε
and δε
can be separately non-zero.
v
v
v
v
v
= 0

From figure above, plastic volumetric strain is related to vertical separation of URL through B

and C whereas elastic volumetric strain comes from change in p ' along URL. Thus the path BC

can be considered to be comprised of BY ( δp ' = 0 entirely plastic volumetric collapse of soil

δp

skeleton) and YC ( = 0

0

entirely elastic expansion of soil skeleton).

Regard BC as BY: constant p ' , entirely plastic

Plus YC:

constant

p

• 0 entirely elastic

'

δv

BY

+

δv

BC

= 0

δp

'

### ⇒(

λ κ

0

=

κ

δp

p

0

p '

δp

0

κ

δp

'

=

p

0

λ

κ

p '

4

but

hence

δη

M

=

δp

0

δp

'

-

p

0

p '

from yield locus

δη

M

=

1

δp

'

Λ

p '

where Λ =

(λ κ )

λ η
1
' 
p i
Integrating this gives
=
ln 
M
Λ
p '
δη = − M δ
p'
Λ
p'
Where
p
'
is the initial value of
p ' at η = 0
i
Also
δq = ηδp ' + p ' δη
from q = ηp '
M 
= 
η
 δp '
Λ

5

δ

q

δ

p '

=

η

M

Λ

We note that for η = M ,

 δ q ≠ 0 δ p ' '

(whereas yield locus has zero slope on CSL) p i
also for
η = M ,
= exp Λ (with Λ < 1 )
p '

Then

δε

p

=

κ δp

'

v

v

p '

δε

p

=

1

δε

p

s

M

η

v

κ

δp

'

=

### η )v

p '

e

κ δp

'

δε

=

v

v

p '

δε

e

1

δq

=

=

s

3G

1

3G

M

Λ

η

δp '

6

δu =

δ

q

3

δ

p

'

=

1

η

M  −

3

Λ

1

We can write

δε

p

s

=

Λ

κ

δη

vM M

### η )

And integrate this to give

or

p

ε =

s

κΛ

ln

vM

1

 

1

 

η

M

 

 

η

M

= 1-exp

Mv

ε

p

s

Λ

κ δp ' for ∆
σ
= 0
r
• 4. Undrained Test: Overconsolidated clay

• (a) Initial stress state is inside current yield locus.

• (b) There is plastic volume change until stress path reaches yield locus.

7 Undrained test ⇒ δv = 0 . Hence inside the yield locus,
δp
=
0
.
0
p
e
δ
p =
0
δε
=
0
δε
=
0
δ
p ' =
0
.
0
v
v
∆ q
1
Furthermore
u
= ∆
p
=
⇒ Α =
. Note A is the Skempton’s pore pressure parameter = 1 for
3
3
3

an elastic isotropic material.

Intersection of URL with V= constant in

v : p '

space is a single point and δp ' = 0 until locus is

reached.

• 5 Energy components

qδε

S

+ p ' δε

v

= qδε

p

S

+ qδε

e

S

+ p ' δε

p

v

+ p ' δε

e

v

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Consider plastic component:

qδε

p

S

+ p ' δε

p

v

= Mp ' δε

p

S

Consider elastic component: neglecting

qδε ,

e

S

q

δε

e

S

+

p'

δε

e

v

p'

δε

e

v

p'

κδ

p'

vp'

Hence

q

δε

p

S

+

p'

δε

p

v

+

p'

δε

e

v

=

Mp'

δε

p

S

+

κδ

p' p'

vp' Scatter is larger at low
q
= η
ration, decreases at η increases
p '
towards M
δε
κδ
p '
v
Or
q
=
q
+
p '
=
Mp
'
W
δε
V
δε
S
S

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Hence, if the Cam Clay work equation is satisfied, plot of q

W

VS p ' will show that all test points

lie on the line

q = Mp '

W

• 6. State Boundary Surface

State boundary surface is the limiting attainable region of q : p ' : v space.  p
0
From original Cam Clay model, ln
 =
1 . Hence vertical separation of NCL (for isotropic
p
C
p
0
loading) and CSL is (λ − κ ) ln 
 = λ − κ .
p
C
CSL:
v
= Γ − λ ln p '
NCL:
v = (
Γ + λ − κ
)
− λ
ln
p
'
i
(
Γ −
v
+
λ
κ
)
(
Γ −
v
)
⇒ ln
p
' =
= Λ +
i
λ
λ

For a normally compressed clay, stress path lies entirely on state boundary state.

For undrained test on normally compressed clay

η

1

=

'

ln

p i

M

Λ

p

'

10

Λ

η

(

Γ − v

)

M

i

λ

+

ln

p

'

=

ln

p

'

= Λ +

which is the equation of the state boundary surface in q : p ' : v space.

Alternatively, define

• v λ

= v + λ ln p ' then 1- η = M Note that when η = 0, v η =

M , v

 ( v λ − Γ ) ( λ − κ ) λ = Γ + λ − λ = Γ

which is another form of the equation for the state boundary surface.

κ

ie. The NCL

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7. Pore Pressure Parameters

Behaviour of soils is often better described in terms of effective stresses. However, equilibrium

of soil structures is often more conveniently represented in terms of total stresses. To predict

effective stresses from total stress, we need pore pressures. Recall that, inside yield locus, the

effective stress path (ESP) is vertical and only the changes in the mean total stress p (ie. p) is

producing pore pressure. On the state boundary surface, q will also have an effect since soil will

normally either compress or dilate upon application of q.

We can divide the change in pore pressure u into two parts:

one due to p

one due to q (suppressed dilatancy)

Recall Skempton's pore pressure equation:

u = B {∆σ 3 + A(∆σ 1 - ∆σ 3 )}

B is related to the degree of saturation whilst A can be shown to have value of 1/3 if soil is elastic

and isotropic. In real soils, A is often not equal to 1/3 and needs to be determined empirically.

We can actually rewrite the pore pressure equation in terms of p and q. Note that q = ∆σ 1 -

∆σ 3 , so that the equation can be rewritten as

u = B {∆σ 3 + Aq}

Furthermore, p = (∆σ 1 + 2 ∆σ 3 )/3 in a triaxial test. Eliminating ∆σ 1 gives ∆σ 3 = p -

q so that

3

the pore pressure equation can be expressed as

u = B [p + (A- /3) q]

For normally consolidated Cam Clay

12 η
 1 
 p
' 
i
= 
 ln 
M
Λ
p '

Critical state is attained with η = M , then

p '

i

p

f

= exp Λ

And u = p +

p p

i

'

f

'

## )

= ∆p +

(exp

Λ −

### 1)

p

f

'

= p +

exp Λ − 1

M

q

f

⇒ Α

f

1

exp

Λ −

1

=

3

M

Where

Α

f

is the value of A at critical state. Obviously A will be different for other values of η

and is not a constant.

Note: In an undrained test, effective stresses are independent of TSP since the pore pressures will

adjust itself to compensate for p .

For overconsolidated Cam clay

13 For initial path path within yield locus

p ' = 0

u = ∆p

For initial path path within yield locus, p' = 0

 and ∆u = ∆p hence A = /3

which is consistent with the behaviour of an elastic isotropic

material.

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