Prediction of Stress Paths, Strains
1. Drained Test: Normally compressed clay
a. Since stress path is fixed in _{q} _{:} _{p} _{'} space, end point on CSL is known.
b. Initial and end points known in v : p ' space.
c. Referring to figure, at B, sketch current yield locus. Project down to current URL to locate B in v : p ' space.
d.
To determine strains for increment BC: First determine δε
e
v
from δp
'
BC
and δε
p
v
from
δp . Then determine δε
0
p
s
from δε
p
v
and normality criterion. Note that as η increases, so
δε
p
v
δε
p
s
decreases.
Yield locus
^{η} =
M
ln
^{p} o
p '
Hence
Or
Now
δη
M
=
δp δp
0
'

p
0
p '
δp
0
=
p
0
δη _{+} δp
'
M
p '
q
= ηp '
δq = ηδp _{'}_{+} _{p} _{'} δη
Conventional compressional test _{δ}_{q} = 3 _{δ}_{p} '
Hence
And
δη =
δp
'
p '
δp
0
=
p
0
3 η
−
+
δp
'
M
p '
2
(c) At point B in _{v} _{:} _{p} _{'} space, draw current URL. Then project up to current yield locus in
q : p ' to locate B in stress space.
(d) Determine shear strain for BC.
For undrained test,
δε
From figure above, plastic volumetric strain is related to vertical separation of URL through B
and C whereas elastic volumetric strain comes from change in p ' along URL. Thus the path BC
can be considered to be comprised of BY ( δp _{'} = _{0} ⇒ entirely plastic volumetric collapse of soil
δp
skeleton) and YC ( = 0 ⇒
0
entirely elastic expansion of soil skeleton).
Regard BC as BY: constant p ' , entirely plastic
Plus YC: 
constant 
p 
' 

δv 
BY 
+ δv 
BC 
= 0 

)δp 
' 

_{⇒} (λ _{−} κ 
0 
= 
− κ 
δp 

p 0 
p ' 

δp 
0 
− κ 
δp 
' 

= 

p 
0 
λ 
− 
κ 
p ' 
4
but
hence
δη
M
=
δp
0
δp
'

p
0
p '
from yield locus
δη
M
=
−
1
δp
'
Λ
p '
where Λ =
(λ − κ )
λ
5
δ
q
δ
p '
=
η
M
−
Λ
We note that for η = M ,
δ q 
≠ 0 
δ p ' 

' 
(whereas yield locus has zero slope on CSL)
Then
δε p 
= 
− κ δp 
' 

v 
v 
p ' 

δε p 
= 
1 
δε p 

s 
M 
− η 
v 

− 
κ 
δp 
' 

= 

(M 
− η )v 
p ' 

e 
κ δp 
' 

δε 
= 

v 
v 
p ' 

δε e 
1 
δq 

= 

= 
s − 
3G 1 3G M Λ − η 
δp ' 
6
δu =
δ
q
3
−
δ
p
'
=
1
η
M
−
3
Λ
1
We can write
δε
p
s
=
Λ
κ
δη
vM M −
And integrate this to give
or
p
ε =
s
κΛ
ln
vM
1
1 −
η
M
η
M
= 1exp
− Mv
ε
p
s
Λ
κ
4. Undrained Test: Overconsolidated clay
(a) Initial stress state is inside current yield locus.
(b) There is plastic volume change until stress path reaches yield locus.
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an elastic isotropic material.
Intersection of URL with V= constant in
v : p '
space is a single point and δp ' = 0 until locus is
reached.
5 Energy components
qδε
S
+ p ' δε
v
= qδε
p
S
+ qδε
e
S
+ p ' δε
p
v
+ p ' δε
e
v
8
Consider plastic component:
qδε
p
S
+ p ' δε
p
v
= Mp ' δε
p
S
Consider elastic component: neglecting
qδε ,
e
S
q
δε
e
S
+
p'
δε
e
v
≅
p'
δε
e
v
≅
p'
κδ
p'
vp'
Hence
q
δε
p
S
+
p'
δε
p
v
+
p'
δε
e
v
=
Mp'
δε
p
S
+
κδ
p' p'
vp'
9
Hence, if the Cam Clay work equation is satisfied, plot of q
W
VS p ' will show that all test points
lie on the line
q = Mp '
W
6. State Boundary Surface
State boundary surface is the limiting attainable region of _{q} _{:} _{p} _{'} _{:} _{v} space.
For a normally compressed clay, stress path lies entirely on state boundary state.
For undrained test on normally compressed clay
η
1
=
'
ln
p i
M
Λ
p
'
10
Λ
η
(
Γ − v
)
M
i
λ
+
ln
p
'
=
ln
p
'
= Λ +
which is the equation of the state boundary surface in _{q} _{:} _{p} _{'} _{:} _{v} space.
Alternatively, define
v λ
= v + λ ln p '
then 
1 
η = 

M 

Note that when 

η 
= 
0, v 

η 
= 
M , v
( 
v λ − Γ 
) 

( λ − 
κ ) 

λ 
= Γ + 
λ 
− 

λ = Γ 
which is another form of the equation for the state boundary surface.
κ
ie. The NCL
11
7. Pore Pressure Parameters
Behaviour of soils is often better described in terms of effective stresses. However, equilibrium
of soil structures is often more conveniently represented in terms of total stresses. To predict
effective stresses from total stress, we need pore pressures. Recall that, inside yield locus, the
effective stress path (ESP) is vertical and only the changes in the mean total stress p (ie. ∆p) is
producing pore pressure. On the state boundary surface, q will also have an effect since soil will
normally either compress or dilate upon application of q.
We can divide the change in pore pressure ∆u into two parts:
one due to ∆p
one due to ∆q (suppressed dilatancy)
Recall Skempton's pore pressure equation:
∆u = B {∆σ _{3} + A(∆σ _{1}  ∆σ _{3} )}
B is related to the degree of saturation whilst A can be shown to have value of 1/3 if soil is elastic
and isotropic. In real soils, A is often not equal to 1/3 and needs to be determined empirically.
We can actually rewrite the pore pressure equation in terms of ∆p and ∆q. Note that ∆q = ∆σ _{1} 
∆σ _{3} , so that the equation can be rewritten as
∆u = B {∆σ _{3} + A∆q}
Furthermore, ∆p = (∆σ _{1} + 2 ∆σ _{3} )/3 in a triaxial test. Eliminating ∆σ _{1} gives ∆σ _{3} = ∆p 
^{∆}^{q} so that
3
the pore pressure equation can be expressed as
∆u = B [∆p + (A /3) ∆q]
For normally consolidated Cam Clay
12
Critical state is attained with _{η} = _{M} _{,} then
p '
i
p
f
= exp Λ
And ∆u = ∆p +
p − p
i
'
f
'
= ∆p +
(exp
Λ −
p
f
'
= ∆ p +
exp Λ − 1
M
q
f
⇒ Α
f
−
1
exp
Λ −
1
=
3
M
Where
Α
f
is the value of A at critical state. Obviously A will be different for other values of η
and is not a constant.
Note: In an undrained test, effective stresses are independent of TSP since the pore pressures will
adjust itself to compensate for ∆p .
For overconsolidated Cam clay
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For initial path path within yield locus
∆p _{'} = _{0}
∆u = ∆p
For initial path path within yield locus, ∆p' = 0
and 
∆u = ∆p 

hence 
A = 
/3 
which is consistent with the behaviour of an elastic isotropic
material.
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