CONTENTS

1 PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND 1-1
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1-1
1.2 MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM PALM OIL INDUSTRY 1-5
1.3 BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND 1-8
2 PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS & MATERIAL FLOWS 2-1
2.1 PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS 2-1
2.2 MATERIAL FLOW 2-6
3 MIS INTRODUCTION 3-1
3.1 BACKGROUND 3-1
3.2 OBJECTIVES OF MIS APPLICATION 3-1
3.3 BENEFITS OF MIS APPLICATION 3-2
3.4 MIS PRINCIPLES 3-2
4 APPLYING MIS PROCESS TO PALM OIL INDUSTRY 4-1
4.1 PRODUCTION PROCESS MODEL 4-1
4.2 DATA COLLECTION AND CONSOLIDATION 4-4
4.3 DATA PROCESSING 4-21
4.4 INFORMATION REPORTING & ANALYSIS 4-29

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1a Oil Palm Plantation in Thailand 1-2
Table 1.1b List of Palm Oil Factories and Milling Capacity 1-2
Table 1.2a Examples of Eco-Efficiency improvement 1-6
Table 3.4a Suggested Tools for MIS Implementation with their Pros and Cons 3-14
Table 4.2a Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Primary Production Process
Section (Section#1) 4-7
Table 4.2b Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Oil Room Section (Section#2) 4-10
Table 4.2c Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Dry Process Section (Section#3) 4-13
Table 4.2d Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Wastewater Treatment and
Biogas System Section (Section#4) 4-16
Table 4.2e Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Utility Section (Section#5) 4-19
Table 4.2f Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Internal Control Values 4-20
Table 4.3a Management Information derived from Data Processing 4-22
Table 4.4a Summary of Management Information 4-34


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1a Distribution of Thailand’s Vegetable Oil Production 1-1
Figure 2.1a Standard Palm Oil Mill Process 2-1
Figure 2.2a Material Flow of Palm Oil 2-7
Figure 2.2b Material Flow of Water 2-8
Figure 2.2c Material Flow of Energy 2-9
Figure 3.4a General MIS Information Flow Diagram 3-8
Figure 3.4b Examples of Tools Used for MIS Process 3-13
Figure 4.1a Production Process Model for Palm Oil Industry 4-3
Figure 4.2a Locations of Data Collection in Primary Production Process (Section#1) 4-6
Figure 4.2b Locations of Data Collection in Oil Room (Section#2) 4-9
Figure 4.2c Locations of Data Collection in Dry Process (Section#3) 4-12
Figure 4.2d Locations of Data Collection in Wastewater Treatment and
Biogas System (Section#4) 4-15
Figure 4.2e Locations of Data Collection in Utility (Section#5) 4-18

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AFTA Asean Free Trade Area
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CPO Crude Palm Oil
DG Diesel Generator
DIW Department of Industrial Works
EFB Empty Fruit Bunch
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning
FFA Free Fatty Acids
FFB Fresh Fruit Bunch
GTZ German Society for Technical Cooperation
GUI Graphical User Interface
ICT Information & Communication Technology
IPPCS Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Strategy
IT Information Technology
KPI Key Performance Indicators
LAN Local Area Network
MIS Management Information Systems
MRP Manufacturing Resource Planning
MS Access Microsoft Access
MS Excel Microsoft Excel
NOx Oxide of Nitrogen
PEA Provincial Electricity Authority
PC Personal Computer
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

INTRODUCTION
The Department of Industrial Works (DIW) is implementing a project on
Management Information Systems (MIS) for Industrial Pollution Prevention
and Control Project, supported by German Society for Technical Cooperation
(GTZ). Main objectives of the MIS Project are to establish environmental
information database at the DIW, to introduce an MIS for improving eco-
efficiency of selected industries, to make consultancy services available to
industries locally, and to establish public information centre on industrial
pollution.

As part of this MIS Project, ERM-Siam has been commissioned to undertake
a study on “Elaboration of User Requirements and Capacity Assessment of
Palm Oil and Native Starch Industries”. The study results provide necessary
inputs for the design and development of MIS for enhancing competitiveness
and eco-efficiency for these two industries. One element of the study tasks is
to establish MIS guideline for improving eco-efficiency and competitiveness
for palm oil and native starch industries.

Scope of this guideline addresses the application of MIS for eco-efficiency
improvement for palm oil industry. The principal objectives of this
guideline are:

• To allow management representatives of palm oil factories to realise
the importance, principles and benefits of using MIS for improving
eco-efficiency and enhancing business competitiveness;

• To encourage palm oil factories for collecting and analysing eco-efficiency
data, and making use of information to aid decision-making of the
management; and

• To provide introductory guidance for applying MIS for improving
eco-efficiency in palm oil industry.

Contents of this MIS guideline comprise background information on palm oil
industry in Thailand, standard production process and material flows, MIS
introduction, MIS principles and MIS application for palm oil industry.

Aim of the guideline is to support the development and implementation of
a meaningful MIS for improving environmental performance and eco-
efficiency in palm oil industry.

For further information, please feel free to contact the Bureau of Water
Technology and Industrial Pollution Management of the Department of
Industrial Works, Ministry of Industry.

















Chapter 1
Palm Oil Industry
in Thailand
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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1 PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Palm oil production is one of the important agro-industries in Thailand with
major contribution to the country’s development during the past 20 years.
Palm oil is an agro industrial product, which has been listed for free trade by
Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA). However, Thailand had to request for
suspension of free trade in palm oil for a period of time, to give the palm oil
mill industry a chance to become more competitive, particularly with its
neighbouring countries Malaysia and Indonesia. Oil Palm tree varieties,
plantation management, extraction and refinery technology as well as down-
stream utilisation has to be developed and improved further to be competitive
with other palm oil producers in South East Asia.

The palm oil industry has a high potential for biomass energy utilisation and
therefore is one of the industrial sectors, which can contribute substantially to
the supply of alternative sources of energy. To be more competitive and to
ensure supply of alternative sources of energy the palm oil mills therefore
have to introduce suitable measures for eco-efficiency improvement including
improved energy/environmental management.

Total area for Oil palm plantation in Thailand is currently (2005) about 1.93
million Rai, allowing the production of about 4 million tones of Crude-Palm-
Oil (CPO) in 2005, which is an 8% increase compared with the CPO
production in 2003.

The share of palm oil in Thailand’s vegetable oil industry is about 58%,
indicating the importance of palm oil for the country’s supply of edible oil.
Details of vegetable oil production distribution are shown in Figure 1.1a.

Figure 1.1a Distribution of Thailand’s Vegetable Oil Production















Thailand Vegetable Oil Production 2003
822,397 Million Tons Refined Oil
Palm 58%
Soybean 21%
Palm Kernel 11%
Coconut 4%
Sunflower 3%
Rice Bran 3%
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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The majority (98%) of oil palm plantation and palm oil mill industry in
Thailand is located in the South of Thailand, only one palm oil mills is located
in the Central Region i.e. Chonburi province. The provinces with large
plantation areas are Krabi, Surat Thani, Chumporn, Satun and Trang.

Details of oil palm plantation during 2002 – 2004 are provided in Table 1.1.a.

Table 1.1a Oil Palm Plantation in Thailand
Plantation Area (Rai
*
) Province
2002 2003 2004
Krabi 563.908 575,148 595,517
Surat Thani 460,567 502,966 545,365
Chumporn 317,648 352,853 374,921
Satun 73,508 74,524 77,752
Trang 55,828 63,410 73,535
Prachuab Khiri Khan 40,545 50,165 52,055
Chonburi 35,866 50,987 59,523
Pang Nga 31,241 39,031 48,068
Nakorn Si Thammarat 24,593 26,464 29,825
Songkla 13,389 14,529 14,529
Ranong 13,002 19,133 25,264
Rayong 6,106 7,597 9,088
Trad 3,600 10,146 10,971
Naradhiwas 1,671 7,171 11,556
Others 2,389 5,269 7,123
Total 1,643,861 1,799,393 1,935,092
Source: Agricultural Economic Office, Ministry of Agriculture (2005)
* 1 Rai = 1,600 Square metres

Currently there are a total of 38 palm oil factories using standard wet process
located in eight (8) provinces of Thailand. Total milling capacity is 1,610 ton-
FFB per hour. A list of the palm oil factories is provided in Table 1.1b below.

Table 1.1b List of Palm Oil Factories and Milling Capacity
Name of Palm Oil Mill Milling Capacity
(ton- FFB/hr)
Krabi Province
1. Thai Oil Palm Industry & Estate Co., Ltd (Univanich 1) 60
2. Siam Palm Oil & Refinery Industry Co., Ltd. (Univanich 2) 30
3. United Palm Oil Industry PCL 60
4. Asian Palm Oil Co., Ltd. 45
5. Srijaroen Palm Oil Co., Ltd 45
6. Siam Modern Palm Co., Ltd. 45
7. Nam Hong 45
8. Andaman Palm Oil Co., Ltd. 15
9. The Krabi Oil Palm Farmers Cooperative Federation Limited 45
10. Palmorich Co., Ltd. 15
11. Univanich Palm Oil PCL (Lamtap: Univanich 3) 45
12. Wong Bandit 10
Sub-total 460



Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Name of Palm Oil Mill Milling Capacity
(ton- FFB/hr)
Chumporn Province
1. Chumporn Palm Oil Industry Public Co., Ltd. 60
2. Vichitbhan Palm Oil Co., Ltd. 60
3. Swee Palm 45
4. Thung Thong 45
5. Lang Suan Cooperative (LSC) 15
6. Taweesilp Palm Oil Co., Ltd. 45
Sub-total 270
Surat Thani Province
1. The Southern Palm I (TSP I) 45
2. The Southern Palm II 60
3. Unipalm Co., Ltd. 60
4. Thai Talow & Oil I 45
5. Thai Talow & Oil II 90
6. Green Glory 45
7. Thachana Palm Oil 30
8. The Natural Palm 60
9. Jiras Palm 45
10. SPO Agro-industry 60
11.Kanjanadit 15
12. Ta Chang Palm 60
Sub-total 615
Ranong Province
1. Jaroen Palm Rachagroot 10
Sub-total 10
Trang Province
1. Trang Palm Oil Co., Ltd. 45
2. Lam Soon (Thailand) PCL 45
3. Otaco 45
Sub-total 135
Satun Province
1. Thai Palm Development Co., Ltd. 30
2. Satun Industries Co., Ltd. 15
Sub-total 45
Chonburi Province
1. Suksomboon Palm Oil Co., Ltd. 30
Sub-total 30
Prachuab Khiri Khan Province
1. AST Palm 45
Sub-total 45
Total 1,610
Source: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) & GTZ (2004)

Surat Thani province has a total of 12 palm oil mills, which is the highest number
of factories in a single province. Total production capacity of the mills in Surat
Thani province is 615 FFB per hour, followed by Krabi, Chumporn and Trang.

Locations of palm oil factories are close to the oil palm plantations, as shown in
Figure 1.1b.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 1.1b Palm Oil Factory Distribution




















































More than 10 factories
6 - 10 Factories
1 – 5 Factories
Chonburi
Songkla
Naradhiwas
Ranong
Surat Thani
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Pang Nga
Phuket
Krabi
Trang
Pattalung
Satun
Pattanee
Yala
Chumporn
Prachuab Khiri Khan
Numbers of Factories in each Province
Source: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) & GTZ (2004)
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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1.2 MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM PALM OIL
INDUSTRY
Palm oil production is characterised by the generation of substantial amount
of by-products accounting to more than 60% of the total production capacity
in terms of raw material input. Associated environmental impacts occur due
to the oil extraction process by steaming palm fruit, separating kernel and
extracting oil from the fruit (pericarp). A significant amount of water is used
in the production process, resulting in wastewater with high organic load
(BOD ≅ 30,000 mg/l, COD ≅ 90,000 mg/l and SS ≅ 34,000 mg/l).

The generated by-products are empty fruit bunch (EFB), fibre, shell, and
decanter sludge. In addition palm kernel are generated and subsequently used
for kernel oil production.

Good environmental management is necessary to ensure sustainability of the
palm oil producing industry. To achieve reduced environmental impacts
from palm oil processing, the environmental management practice has to be
integrated into the production process management system and include
efficient use of natural resources.

1.2.1 Considerations for Improvements in the Production Process
To avoid excessive generation of free fatty acids from enzymatic activities,
which would deteriorate the palm oil quality, the harvested Fresh Fruit
Bunches (FFB) have to be processed within 72 hours.

Losses in the production process can be avoided by, for example controlling
steam pressure and time during sterilisation to save energy, monitoring empty
fruit bunches to collect remaining palm fruits for re-sterilisation, controlling
the pressure during screw pressing to get maximum oil from fibre, etc.

Using inefficient types of equipment, insufficient machinery and plan
maintenance (including leakages/spillages) are major sources of oil loss in the
palm oil mills. This can be improved by the introduction of preventive
maintenance schemes ensuring that all equipment/machinery is in good
condition at all times.

Some examples of achieving improved eco-efficiency are shown in Table 1.za.








Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Table 1.2a Examples of Eco-Efficiency improvement
Processing
Step
Detail Step Prevention and Control Results
Raw
Material
Handling
- • Raw material should be
processed within 72 hrs
• Easy to extract and
provide better quality
oil
Sterilisation - • Steam pressure and time
should be controlled
• Saving energy and time
• Steriliser condensate
should not be mixed with
wastewater from oil room
• Easy to separate oil
since it contains low
concentration of
suspended solids
Bunch
Stripping
- • Fruit bunches containing
palm fruits should be
collected and re-sterilised
• Increasing oil yield
Oil
Extraction
Screw
pressing
• Pressure should be
controlled to get
maximum oil out of the
fibre and minimise the
cracking of palm seed
• Minimising oil loss
with fibre

Filtration • Vibrating screen should be
in good condition
• Separating small fibre;
Reducing the solid load
in crude oil; and
• Reducing water
consumption
Oil
Separation
Settling tank

• Retention time of oil in
settling tank has to be
controlled to avoid FFA
increase
• Oil quality improved
Desanding

• Wash wastewater should
be examined; and
• Desander should be
washed as scheduled
• Reducing oil loss
Decanter-
centrifuging

• Decanter should be used;
and
• Decanter should be
checked and washed as
scheduled
• Reducing oil loss;
• Reducing water
consumption; and
• Reducing solids in
wastewater
Final Oil
Trapping
Steriliser
condensate

• Condensate should be
separated from other
wastewater
• Easy to separate oil
Wastewater
from decanter
(or separator)
• One more separator
should be added into the
system
• Reducing oil loss
Washing and
cleaning
water
• Water should be
minimised: and
• Detergent usage should be
minimised
• Reducing water
consumption; and
• Reducing
emulsification
Cooling water
from boiler
and
evaporator
oil collection
• Water should be collected
for washing and cleaning
with routine collection; or
automatic skimmer should
be used for routine
control; and equipment
should be checked,
maintained and repaired
as soon as possible
• Recover good quality
oil back to the process;
• Reducing equipment
damage; and
• Reducing oil loss
through leakage and
accident
Source: Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry (1997)
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
1-7
1.2.2 Utilisation of Palm Oil Mill By-products and Residues
Solid residues from palm oil mill include empty fruit bunch (EFB), fibre, shell
and decanter cake. Liquid residue is palm oil mill effluent. Utilisation of
these residues could reduce factory’s waste disposal costs and reduce impacts
to the receiving environment simultaneously.

EFB can be used as organic fertiliser and soil conditioner as it maintains
humidity of the soil. It can be sold to local farmers for using as a substrate for
mushroom cultivation. Some mills introduce EFB pressing techniques to achieve
lower moisture content in the EFB, which can subsequently be used as biomass
fuel in suitable boiler systems for steam/electricity production.

Almost all fibre generated by the mills is used internally as fuel in the boiler for
steam and electricity generation. The amount of fibre generated by the palm oil
mills is sufficient to satisfy all steam and electricity requirements for Crude
Palm Oil (CPO) production. If excess fibre is generated, it can also be sold as
biomass fuel to other industries (i.e. cement and power plants).

Since the amount of fibre is generally sufficient as energy source for an individual
the palm oil mill, the majority of shells generated is sold to other industries (i.e.
cement and power plants) as biomass fuel or for the production of activated
carbon.

Decanter cake from the oil separation process is either dumped as solid waste
or sold to farmers to be used as fertilisers or animal feed ingredient.

Wastewater generated from the palm oil mill has a high organic and nutrient
(Nitrogen) content and therefore can be used after suitable treatment for
irrigation in the oil palm plantation. Some mills are using the raw wastewater for
biogas generation, which is subsequently used for electricity production.
Utilisation of raw wastewater for biogas and electricity generation is discussed in
Section 2.1.9.

Details of the integrated environmental management approach in palm oil
mills including the “Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Strategy”
(IPPCS) are provided in the Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil
Industry – Department of Industrial Works, Ministry of Industry (1997).











Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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1.3 BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND
Information provided by the Thai-German E3Agro Project indicate that the total
installed production capacity of all existing palm oil mills is around 43% higher
than the existing supply of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) from the available oil palm
plantation area. Since the supply of FFB does not meet the demand of palm oil
mills shortages of raw material (FFB) and FFB price increases obstruct
competitiveness and further development of the palm oil industry in Thailand.
As a result, the profit margin of palm oil mills is comparatively small.

Product quality requirements by customers have increased in recent years, which
require the palm oil mills to introduce and apply stringent quality monitoring
systems. In addition, the palm oil mills have to address environmental concerns
by both the customers and the population surrounding the mills by introducing
pro-active environmental management systems. Increased competitiveness is
therefore of major concern to the palm oil mills which is supported by several
governmental agencies for example through the active technical & financial
promotion of biogas system application, the improved utilisation of by products,
and measures for overall eco-efficiency improvement.

1.3.1 Introduction to Biogas System
In recent years, a biogas system has been introduced to palm oil industry as its
application is proven to be economically viable. Process wastewater from the
palm oil production process is used as input to a system to generate biogases
mainly methane. Biogases are fed into gas engine to generate electricity, which
can be sold to the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). This is one of the
means that palm oil industry can generate additional revenue apart from crude
palm oil production. The application of biogas system can also reduce the
organic loading of the process wastewater and eventually minimise effect on
water pollution.

1.3.2 Utilisation of By-products as Biomass Fuel
The palm oil industry has a high potential for biomass energy utilisation and
therefore is one of the industrial sectors, which can contribute substantially to the
supply of alternative sources of energy. Unused materials or by-products from
palm oil mills can be used as biomass fuel and sold to other industries, such as
shells, palm fibre and empty fruit bunch (EFB). Maximising the utilisation of
these by-products can contribute in improving business performance and provide
a competitive advantage to the palm oil industry.

1.3.3 Eco-efficiency Improvement
At present, there are a number of drivers, which encourage industries to pay
more attention to eco-efficiency improvement. Such drivers include cost
reduction, responsibility to communities, managing environmental risks and
liability, maintaining market share, profitability, customer demands for
“greener” product, and regulations. Therefore, improving eco-efficiency by
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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promoting the creation of products while optimising resource use and
reducing wastes and pollution, can accommodate the business needs together
with enhancing the business competitiveness.

In recent years, palm oil industry in Thailand has started to realise the
importance and benefits gained from eco-efficiency improvement. For
instance, palm oil mills have focused theirs efforts more on the management
of saleable by-products (i.e. shells and fibre), installation of biogas system, and
resource conservation activities.

















Chapter 2
Palm Oil Production
Process & Material Flows

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
2-1
2 PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS & MATERIAL
FLOWS
2.1 PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS
The principle of palm oil production process is to extract the oil from palm
fruit using steam and pressing machine. The oil is then purified by the
application of gravity inducing oil separation. A schematic flow diagram of
the standard process of palm oil mills is shown in Figure 2.1a.

Details of process are described in the following sections.
Figure 2.1a Standard Palm Oil Mill Process








































Sterilization
Threshing
Digestion
Screw Pressing
Vibrating Screen
Desanding
Decanter-Separator
Settling Tank
Fiber-Nut
Separation
Nut Drying and
Cracking
Underflow
Decanter Cake Wastewater
Purifier
Dryer
Crude Palm Oil
Storage
Sold
Wastewater
Treatment
Plant
Effluent
Biogas
Shell-Kernel
Separation
Kernel Drying
Fibre
Nuts
Shells
Palm
kernels
Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB)
Condensate
Empty Fruit
Bunch (EFB)
Steam
Generator
Electricity used or sold
to Grid
Steam
Press Cake Oil
Crude Oil
Boiler Steam
Hot Water
Stream
Turbine
Water
Blowdown Sludge Emission
Electricity
Chemical
Biogas
Plant
Pre-treated
wastewater
Diesel
Generator
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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2.1.1 Arrival and Storage of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)
In order to avoid an excessive production of free fatty acids due to a natural
enzymatic process in the mesocarp, transportation of the fresh fruit bunches
(FFB) from harvesting to sterilising should not exceed 72 hours. In normal
conditions, palm oil of fresh fruits contains about 1% free fatty acids (FFA).
This content tends to increase rapidly with the maturation of the fruits and
thus, could affect the value of the oil.

2.1.2 Sterilisation
FFB are sterilised in order to inactivate the natural enzymatic activity and
loosen the fruit, as well as to soften the mesocarp, resulting in easier
extraction of oil. Sterilisation is carried out in autoclaves of 20 to 30 tons FFB
capacity, with the application of “live steam”, at temperature of 130
°
Celsius
and pressure of 3.1 bars, during 90 minutes.

2.1.3 Threshing
The sterilised FFB are sent to rotary drum threshers to separate the sterilised
fruits from the bunch stalks. The generated residues from this process
include empty fruit bunches (EFB) which contain moisture. EFB can be used
as organic fertiliser and soil conditioner as it maintains humidity of the soil.
It can be sold to local farmers for using as a substrate for mushroom cultivation.
Some mills introduce EFB pressing techniques to achieve lower moisture content
in the EFB, which can subsequently be used as biomass fuel in suitable boiler
systems for steam/electricity production.

2.1.4 Digestion
The separated fruits are discharged into vertical steam-jacketed drums
(digesters) and treated mechanically to convert them into a homogeneous oily
mash. Hot water is added to the digester to facilitate homogenisation.
This mash is subsequently put into the oil extraction press (screw press).

2.1.5 Screw Pressing
Screw pressing is a process to extract palm oil from mash. The extracted oil
phase is collected and discharged to the purification section while the solid
parts comprising fibre and nuts are separated by physical means.
This recovery process is further detailed in Section 2.1.8.

2.1.6 Oil Purification (Clarification and Drying)
The process of oil purification is divided into four (4) sub-processes during
which the suspended matter is dissociated from the raw crude oil.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Vibrating Screen of Raw Crude Oil
Screening of raw crude oil is carried out in order to separate large size of
solids such as dirt, fibres and fragments of the pericarps from the liquid phase.

Water is added to the raw oil and passed through a vibrating screen (Johnson-
Screen or Sweco-Screen) in order to improve the separation process. After
sieving, the oil still contains small size solids and water. Due to large surfaces
of contact of oil with air, the oil quality can be affected as an oxidation process
can occur.

Separation of Suspended Solids from Oil
The process is carried out to produce raw crude oil with expected composition
of 90%oil and 10% water.

The conventional procedure of separation of oil from water and suspended
solids is the “oil separation tank” method. Oil is heated either by the
introduction of live steam or with closed steam heating coils which facilitates
gravity separation. Depending on the applied settling tank surface loading
rate and retention time, this procedure has a low-separation efficiency, which
is about 50%. As a result, either the separated oil still contains a high
concentration of suspended solids or the settled residue (settling tank bottom
sludge) contains a high content of oil. In addition, long retention times
combined with high temperature can also reduce oil quality. To improve the
separation process, some mills switch from the settling tank system to a more
efficient oil clarification system using a three-phase centrifuge (decanter).

The separated oil floating on top of the settling tank is then collected by
a funnel system and sent to the oil purification system. The settling tank
underflow is collected in the sludge tank and subsequently treated for
recovery of oil.

Purification
Purification is a final process during which fine suspended solids are
separated and removed from crude oil.

Raw crude oil from the settling tank (top oil) is combined with recovered oil
from the treatment of the settling tank underflow. This results in a total
crude-oil production of about 163 kg per ton of FFB being processed.
Centrifuges carry out this final oil purification step (solids removal).
For improved operation efficiency, these centrifuges are equipped with
an automatic cake discharge and cleaning system. As the suspended solids
content in raw crude oil is low, generated volumes of solid residues are
negligible leading to a lower impact on the environment.

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Oil Drying and Cooling
Due to high content of water in the purified crude oil, a treatment process
referred as oil drying and cooling is required.

The purified crude oil goes into a vacuum evaporation system. Subsequently,
the dried crude oil is kept in storage tanks and sold to an oil refinery.
This crude oil drying process-step has a lower environmental impact.

2.1.7 Recovery of Oil Separator Tank Underflow (Bottom Sludge)
The recovery process comprises two (2) sub-processes, which are carried out
in order to recover oil and to decrease the organic load of the liquid residue.

The bottom sludge from the “oil separation tank” is characterised by high oil
content (around 14%), high concentration of organic substances (both in the
dissolved form and suspended solids) and water-soluble substances.
In addition, the water phase contains fine fibres and sand.

Desanding
Desanding is a process to pre-clean the bottom sludge prior to being passed to
the decanter. Desanding is implemented to protect the equipment in the
subsequent process steps (in particular centrifuges) against clogging.

The bottom sludge is pre-cleaned by means of microstrainers/ hydrocyclones.
These “desanders” are frequently cleaned by discharging the accumulated
solids to the drain, followed by the injection of fresh water. Washwater
consumption for desanding is normally around 5 litres per ton of FFB.

Decanting-Separating
Decanting process recovers the oil contained in bottom sludge from separation
tank. The oil is then returned to oil separation tank.

The output of desanding process is discharged into decanter and separator,
producing recovered oil, decanter cake and wastewater, which is treated at
wastewater treatment plant.

2.1.8 Kernel Recovery Plant
After the solids parts leave the screw press, fibre and nuts are separated by
physical means. The fibre is used as biomass fuel in boiler on-site, whereas
the nuts are sent to the nutcracker or ripple mill section for recovery of palm
kernel, which is another product of palm oil mill besides crude palm oil
(CPO). The shell is separated from the kernel and collected for sale as fuel to
other industries. Only a small portion of shells is used as boiler fuel at
the palm oil mill.

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2.1.9 Utilities
The main utility system in palm oil mill includes boiler, wastewater treatment
plant and biogas system (which is applicable to some of the palm oil mills).

Boiler
Steam is utilised in various sub-process of palm oil production; for example,
sterilisation and digestion. Raw water is treated in a softener plant for
removal of Ca-hardness and subsequently used as boiler feed water. Fibre is
typically used as boiler fuel. Shell can also be used as boiler fuel in case of
fibre shortage.

Wastewater Management
Generated wastewater from the palm oil mill typically goes to a biological
wastewater treatment process to ensure that effluent quality meets industrial
standard. However, in some palm oil mills, this generated wastewater with
high organic content (BOD – 30,000 mg/l, and COD – 90,000mg/l) undergoes
anaerobic digestion process as part of the biogas system for generating
electricity. Details are provided in the following section.

Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry (1997) has provided
a review of suitable wastewater treatment technologies for palm oil industry,
including primary wastewater treatment, secondary wastewater treatment
and nitrogen removal.

Biogas System
Since palm oil wastewater has high organic load, it is suitable for producing
biogas by using an anaerobic treatment system. In the past, the most popular
wastewater treatment plant was pond treatment system, comprising anaerobic
pond, facultative pond, and polishing pond. Biogas generated from anaerobic
ponds was neither captured nor utilised. As energy price has significantly
increased in recent years, a biogas system has been introduced to palm oil
industry in order to reduce the cost of purchased energy.

Typically 1 m
3
of palm oil wastewater can produce 12-16 m
3
of biogas.
Consequently, biogas generated from the system is used for generating electricity
and selling back to grid. For example, 1 m
3
of biogas generally can generate
around 1-1.2 units of electricity. Moreover, biogas generated from 1 m
3
of treating
palm oil wastewater can generate around 29-39 Baht contributing to additional
revenue to palm oil industry (assuming that 70% peak and 30% off-peak is
applied, and average electricity price is 2.44 baht/unit).

In addition, organic loading of the processed wastewater can be reduced, which
eventually minimises effect on water pollution.


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2.2 MATERIAL FLOW
Performance of the palm oil production process can be determined by
considering the materials flows of production process. The materials include
inputs to the process (i.e. raw materials and energy) and outputs from the
process (products, wastes and emissions). A concept of material flows is
employed to identify, quantify and improve characteristics of products,
technical processes and eco-efficiency. Through this concept, analysis of
inventory based on balances of material and energy flows, and balance
evaluation are applied.

Assessment of production performance is made possible by material flows.
Thus material flow incorporates itself as a key decisive making factor in
production process. An example of how material flow is inclusive in decision-
making includes decision on response plans or tasks to be employed in order
to improve or solve any particular problems of production process.

In a typical palm oil mill, key materials influencing the eco-efficiency
performance are crude palm oil (CPO), water, and energy. These key
materials can reflect the causes of under-performing production. Material
flows associated with CPO, water and energy are shown in Figure 2.2a - 2.2c.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 2.2a Material Flow of Palm Oil

Thru CPO production since entering fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into production
process, losses of CPO occur in various sub-processes. Losses are via empty
fruit bunches (EFB), fibre, wastewater and decanter cake. According to
Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry (1997), about 56% of
the oil loss is through solid residues i.e. EFB and fibre, while the other 44 % is
discharged along with the liquid residues (mainly oil-room effluent).













































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Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 2.2b Material Flow of Water

Fresh water is converted into steam by boiler operation. Steam is mainly used
for sterilisation, and is used for digestion of fruit bunches. The steam is
partially lost in the exhaust of the sterilisation stage. Vibrating screen and
settling tank in the oil room section also require water to aid the processes.
Process wastewater mainly comes from the oil room section prior to being
treated, and discharged as effluent from the wastewater treatment plant.














































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Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 2.2c Material Flow of Energy
Remark
Oil room section consumes the highest electricity, compared with the other sections.

All machinery and equipment in all sections of the palm oil production
process consume electricity. Electricity is mainly generated by the steam
turbine to sustain the production process, and in absence of plant operations –
electricity is generated from the diesel generator. In some factories with
a biogas system – electricity is produced mainly for selling and distributing to













































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Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). The oil room section consumes the
highest electricity, compared with the other sections.

To improve eco-efficiency, materials flows need to be established and
employed in order to understand the inputs and outputs of the production
process. The result is the identification of improvement opportunities within
the process. The material balancing flows function as pointer of where
the data should be collected and behave as balancing evaluation of material
inventory. For instance, through material balancing flow, oil loss within
the production process could be identified including where the loss is
occurring.

However, data and information on eco-efficiency in palm oil industry are
not fully made available at present. Actual information on material balance
of water and energy usage is rarely available. As a consequence, most
information regarding eco-efficiency are not fully utilised by management
to aid decision-making.

Theoretically, analysis of material inventory and balance could be
successfully undertaken, when eco-efficiency data have been continuously
collected. Therefore, the development of data collection, verification,
evaluation and information reporting is of particular concern, and is
a starting point for management information process to support decision-
making.

In this Guideline, Management Information System (MIS) is introduced for
improving eco-efficiency in palm oil production. The following sections of
the Guideline will describe MIS concept, principles and how MIS could be
applied to palm oil production.




Chapter 3
Introduction to
MIS Application

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3 MIS INTRODUCTION
3.1 BACKGROUND
Management Information System (MIS) is defined as a system or process that
manages the collection, analysis and presentation of information to assist
decision-making and to enhance business competitiveness. MIS is typically
used as a tool by management to assess and monitor business performance
and to help compare or identify possible business alternatives, i.e.
introduction of new activities and process modification in industries.

Basic functions of MIS are to systematically capture data from operations; to
analyse data and transform into meaningful information; and to report and
make use of information such as monitoring performance and improving any
given process or activities.


3.2 OBJECTIVES OF MIS APPLICATION
Since businesses have to face higher competition, Information Technology (IT)
has proven to be a crucial part of business decision making to obtain a leading
edge. Moreover, IT is also applied to other parts of the business such as
marketing, human resources, production process and eco-efficiency.

Specific objectives of MIS application depend on individual organisation’s
strategy. In this guideline, the main objective of MIS application in palm oil
industry is to improve eco-efficiency and competitiveness.

A number of internal and external drivers encourage organisations to focus on
eco-efficiency practices.

These internal drivers include:

• Cost reduction;
• Increasing quality of products and services;
• Increasing innovations and employee motivation;
• Responsibility to community;
• Profitability;
• Managing environmental risks and liability; and
• Maintaining or increasing market share.

External drivers include:

• Customer demands for more “environmental-friendly” products;
• Competitive advantage by setting the trend or following market leader;
• Shareholders demanding accountability and transparency;
• Thai government regulations;
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• Public pressure for cleaner production; and
• Government regulations and directives where products are exported to
overseas such as European Countries;

Market globalisation has influenced companies to greatly improve the quality
and environmental soundness of products and services they provide while at
the same time to produce goods at the lowest possible cost. In such a context,
eco-efficiency improvement by promoting the creation of products while
optimising resource use and reducing wastes and pollution, can answer
the increasing business needs together with enhancing the business
competitiveness.

In this perspective, the introduction of MIS can provide valuable support for
successful decision-making at the management level in palm oil industry.
With such a tool, eco-efficiency improvement can be achieved while at
the same time, competitiveness can be enhanced.


3.3 BENEFITS OF MIS APPLICATION
It is important to understand how MIS technology can support decision-
making and help to improve business competitiveness. However MIS can also
lead to a number of practical benefits for improving eco-efficiency.
These benefits include:

• Encouraging palm oil industry to collect, analyse and transform
eco-efficiency data into meaningful information for the management in
a timely and systematic manner supporting order to support their
decision-making;
• Allowing the management of palm oil factories to identify gaps for
improvement, to monitoring performance (either for their own internal
benchmarking or industry benchmarking), and also to compare various
alternatives such as process modification and installation;
• Increasing palm oil productivity and maximising return on investment;
• Cost reduction measures (and increasing revenue) through more efficient
use of materials, resources and energy;
• Reducing risks and liabilities with appropriate environmental
management planning and avoiding the use of toxic substances;
• Enhancing brand image through efforts on marketing and communication;
and
• Improving environmental performance and reducing toxic emissions by
reusing and recycling unused materials.


3.4 MIS PRINCIPLES
Basic requirements for MIS application and implementation are categorised
into three (3) main elements comprising “People”, “Implementation Process”,
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and “Tools” (hardware and software). Principles and relationship between
these elements are elaborated in this section.

3.4.1 People
The most important element in MIS is the people involved since all objectives
and benefits will be addressed by understanding personnel who will also
oversee MIS process, information and tools.

An MIS operation comprises of several tasks; therefore, it is necessary to
group such tasks, based on relevance, and assign roles and responsibilities to
fulfil them. By doing so will not only clearly define roles and responsibilities
to perform MIS processes but also assist plant owners to be able to select and
recruit suitable personnel.

It should be noted that the amount of MIS personnel is based on plant owner
consideration. Typical roles and responsibilities in MIS implementation are
described as follows.

Roles, Responsibilities and Qualifications:
In general, there are three (3) levels of roles and responsibilities for personnel
involved in MIS implementation, comprising management role, supervision
role, and operation role.

Management Role

Every successful MIS requires management support and involvement.
Without management, all data collection and analysis for decision making will
not be meaningful. The main role of management is to bind MIS and other
operation together to implement the decision made from MIS reports and/or
decision-making process. Also, management needs to take an active role in
facilitating the followings:

• Use and interpret information from MIS reports for decision-making;
• Align MIS strategy and policy with business strategy;
• Guide MIS supervisors on objectives and benefits of implementing an MIS;
• Provide and manage MIS budget and personnel;
• Communicate the importance of MIS to all employees including
MIS personnel and all other department personnel; and
• Provide support in further development and improvement of MIS in the
future.

Supervision Role

Personnel in charge of MIS supervision can be someone who posses an overall
understanding on how to reach the objectives and realise the benefits, while
manage and supervise MIS operation. Thus MIS supervisor is not necessarily
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Information & Communication (ICT) trained or certified personnel. Typically,
the supervision role is undertaken by a plant manager, production manager,
or dedicated MIS supervisor. However, it will be beneficial if MIS supervisor
is comfortable with computer technology.

Supervision roles and responsibilities include:

• Oversee all MIS processes, information and tools, are implemented in
a correct and good manner with clear understanding of realising the
objectives and benefits;
• Introduce the MIS procedures and its objectives to MIS operation
personnel;
• Analyse data and create useful information;
• Report information findings and recommendations to management for
decision making; and
• Organise maintenance, troubleshoot, and upgrade all MIS hardware and
software (optional).

Operation Role

Operation role can be assigned to any plant staff, who is involved in any
particular process that needs data collection. Typically, the plant personnel
taking the operational role come from different departments such as
production staff and laboratory staff. Understanding that data collection and
MIS procedure implementation are different tasks from regular operation
tasks, selecting personnel for this role requires those who understand and able
to perform MIS tasks with comprehension and care.

At the plant floor, implementing MIS procedures are secondary to operational
tasks unless acquire dedicated MIS personnel. MIS supervisors need to make
sure that MIS operation personnel are trustworthy and honest to their
responsibilities. Otherwise, MIS procedures and data collected will be skewed
and not present actual findings, which will lead to poor analysis, poor
reporting and poor decision making. Above all, it will not assist in realising
the objectives and benefits set out to implement MIS in the first place; hence,
careful selection and monitoring of MIS operation personnel is vital.

Operational roles and responsibilities include:

• Implement MIS procedures and tasks at any particular process required;
• Collect and enter data into provided system (i.e. software) accurately and
honestly; and
• Organise maintenance and troubleshoot, and upgrade all MIS hardware
and software (optional).
It should be noted that dedicated MIS team/personnel is recommended to
supervise, monitor and implement MIS procedures, tasks and tools.

Nevertheless, this would depend on the plant owner insights, budget and
operations.
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3.4.2 MIS Implementation Process
People, as described in the previous section (Section 3.4.1), will need to adopt
MIS processes and understand the information flow to implement MIS, and
successfully meet its objectives and benefits. A methodology for applying an
MIS needs to be selected for MIS implementation.

Every industry is different and so are their processes, information flow and
methodology. Conversely, the MIS processes could be applied to the palm oil
industry. This section describes typical MIS processes, information flow and
methodologies for applying an MIS.

Typical MIS Processes
Preparation Stage

At this stage, people roles need to be assigned, tools need to be selected and
acquired; processes will need to be set and communicated to relevant
personnel and departments. Training is often required for personnel of
related process. Management shall take on the role in identifying the needs
for MIS implementation, setting the strategy, objectives, and the foundation
and its cooperation between internal departments and management, which in
turn determines the achievement of MIS commencement.

Personnel involved: Management, MIS, and Related Department Heads

Data Collection and Consolidation

Data collection and consolidation is a crucial process as it gathers actual data
from plant level. In most cases, this process is undertaken by existing plant
staff and not specifically dedicated MIS personnel; therefore, training and
reminders are often provided. To ensure the quality of data, a data audit
process shall be conducted from time to time.

After collection, data need to be consolidated and stored such as entering data
into software
1
to be systematically structured for further analysis.
This process is sensitive and is regarded as the most human error process in
MIS. Entering incorrect data, into the system would lead to poor analysis.
To prevent human error, data verification process based on each plant’s MIS
policy may need to be implemented.
Personnel involved: MIS Supervisor and Assigned Operator

Data Cleansing & Verification or Data Auditing

This process is optional depending on each plant’s MIS policy. This process
varies from industry to industry but is required for financial application

(1) Software-enabled method
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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processing such as credit card or loan. For palm oil industry, it varies from
plant to plant whether data collection and consolidation is adequate and
reliable. If not, MIS supervisors will need to allocate additional resources to
verify data collected. Consequently, this process will not be emphasized in
this guideline.

Data Processing

Processing of entered data will create sets of information that will allow
management to support decision-making. Each set of information will then be
compared and analysed to measure each production processes’ efficiency,
illustrated by key performance indicators (KPI), creating plant and industry
benchmarks. Data processing is generally carried out by software.

This process is viewed as the most vital process in MIS processes since data
processing will provide key information such as how efficient each process is,
how each data collected can help improve efficiencies, and how to initially
adjust each process for better throughput according to data analysis.

Personnel involved: MIS Supervisor and Management

Information Reporting and Analysis

Following analysis, set of information will need to be arranged in a
presentable format for reporting. The purpose is to formalise sets of
information in a simple visual format so that high-level executives or
management can easily review it.

In regards to time constraint on management to review the information, it is
critical to standardise reports so that management has little-to-no learning
curve understanding the information. MIS needs to design this displaying
information process into formatted reports while incorporating minimum
time usage as possible; automate such process will be ideal. Recent researches
indicate that significant MIS time and resources are allocated to report
creation rather than necessary processes.

Since different management require different information based on their
interests; therefore, MIS reports should be designed to provide necessary
information for decision-making in the viewpoint of their interests.

Decision-making

This process is mainly management’s responsibility. MIS takes a supportive
role. Undeniably, this process is the pinnacle of MIS processes as it
summarises all MIS effort and allows MIS to make recommendations to
management based on analysed information.

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Despite the outcome, implementing management’s decision is an assigned
departments’ responsibility which may need MIS support to fulfil such
implementation.

Information Flow
Relationship between MIS process and MIS roles and responsibilities is
summarised and shown by a typical information flow diagram in Figure 3.4a
as follows.

Methodologies
To capture and enter data through analyse and present information, all MIS
processes need to apply a methodology to centralise and store such data while
enable the information flow. Methodologies can be categorised as such:

Manual Method

This is the most labour intensive approach to carry out any process.
It requires involved personnel to utilise basic tools such as paper forms and a
calculator to perform process’ tasks. Filing of gathered or even analysed
information is at the heart of each method. The manual method requires
paper-based filing (storing) as actual working documents while act as back-up
copies at the same time.

This manual method requires the most resources when compare to the next
two methods but may present the most cost-effective approach due to low
investment in tools and low maintenance. However, this method presents
frequent human errors.

Unavoidably, as information technology becomes more sophisticated and
more economical, businesses grow to rely heavily on them; hence, the need of
continuity plan is becoming more important. It has been proven time and
time again, that when unforeseeable event occurs, technology cannot aid the
continuity of business processes. Although primitive technology-wise, this
method became the standard continuity process for MIS practice.
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Figure 3.4a General MIS Information Flow Diagram






























Data collection
& consolidation
Decision
making
Data calculation
Data
verification
Information
reporting &
analysis
Data storage
MIS Operation
MIS Supervisor
Management
Production Control
Process Modification
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Software-enabled Method

This method requires an interaction with software on a personal computer
(PC). A minimum set of a PC is at the base of this method.

As discussed in the section “Data Collection and Consolidation”, to
systematically structure entered data, the software interface (screen) is
extremely important. This part in software design is called Graphical User
Interface or GUI. GUI is not only formatting fields on a computer screen but it
is a psychological behaviour pattern that is interpreted into a screen layout so
that users can understand how to use it at best.

Decent GUI allows users to engage and interact with data whether entering,
formatting, calculating or so on with a low learning curve. However, good
GUI design also depends on the software functionality. If it serves simple and
straightforward functions such as data entry, it shall be designed to
accommodate the sequence of data to be entered for such industry specific
process.

No matter how well designed-software GUI is, error occurs at the interaction
of human and PC since human performs data input. In addition, data
auditing and process monitoring are viable options to assure better data
quality and lower human errors.

Calculation and analysis including other MIS processes except decision-
making can adopt software usage in two approaches: “file-based” and
“purchase”.

File-based is where MIS personnel create or adopt file associated to each MIS
processes and deploy them on role usage basis. For instance, data entry at
sterilisation process may have one PC with a file to enter data for such
particular processes involved. This approach, although widely practice,
presents problems of storage, analysis and reporting since data are scattered
in files on multiple PCs. To solve this problem, MIS can customise
productivity software such as Microsoft Excel and Access to service the
information flow. Such approach is an in-house software design, which
requires time, tools (network, cable wiring, database, server and so forth) and
resources and is not standard but highly customised to that particular
business. Consideration to take this approach depends on MIS know-how
and skill.

A viable and standard alternative is to use purchased software, which is
created by reputable companies who have deep knowledge in industry
processes. Supporting information flow for a palm oil mill may require
software that interconnects from each production process to process. This
particular type of software is called Manufacturing Resource Planning or
MRP. MRP is industry standard software but needs to be customised to fit
each plant’s production process, financial and accounting, and required
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information in other departments. It may be costly, but it is proven to be the
most productive tool to enable efficiency boosting.

Automated Method

A sophisticated approach, which entails investments beyond computer
hardware and software, requires control over each process using hardware
and electronics that are able to capture data, alert on out-of-setting events and
interconnect to a computer network. This method is generally controlled via
a network of electronic controls and computers. Details of this method vary
highly from process to process; therefore, will not be discussed in this
guideline.

3.4.3 Tools
This section introduces MIS tools from paper-based to sophisticated tool, and
their attributes to consider its suitability to adopt.

Paper, Pencil/Pen and Calculator
Paper, pencil/pen and calculator are the most basic tools for any business
operation, and also the fundamental tools for MIS. No matter how
sophisticated MIS implementation can be, these tools would always be
required in business, as they are extremely familiar to any level of business
operation and are mostly adopted. Thus, application of these basic tools in
MIS process is straightforward. The advantage of these tools is that they
require almost no explanation in usage. The manual methodology requires
these sets of tools as mentioned previously for business continuity planning
and support.

For MIS, these tools can be applied specifically to data collection and
calculation processes. Unavoidably, as manual it is, prone to errors it
becomes. Repetition and verification of each process may be required to
guarantee its correctness.

Personal Computer (PC) and Productivity Software
In the late 1970s and early 1980s the personal computer (PC) has made its way
into every business. The reason is because it can support several tasks in one
machine lending a lot of equipment obsolete such as the typewriter.
However, it is the software inside the PC that makes all the difference.
Software are computer programs designed to serve specific tasks. The most
widely adopted next to operating system (programs to make PC function) is
productivity software such as Microsoft Office.

In a package of productivity software combines a word processor,
spreadsheet, presentation, communication, small database version of software
for users to work on.

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The success of Microsoft Office made the standard productivity tools
synonymous with its brand name such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel,
Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Access respectively.
These software normally substitute any manual process due to its ease of use,
functionalities, and versatility; hence, it is standard for any business operation
to deploy PCs with productive software as it can serve any business.

File Cabinet and Database
The common purpose of these two is storage of data; the difference is in its
form. A file cabinet files paper-based documents, but database files digital
information in a digitally structured file cabinet.

A database is crucial to store data for data input such as entering data for data
collection and data output such as displaying data consolidation to perform
calculation or even as a report. Database is an electronic centralised place for
data storage. Normally the access of data is from many PCs; therefore, a
database is usually placed in a server on a network of PCs to access.

Before or after storing data electronically, the actual paper is used for writing
down data collection from any production process to print outs of data forms
to perform calculation or reports. All need a physical location to store, which
is the file cabinet.

File cabinets act as a backup location for database’s data printouts whether in
forms of raw data, data tables or reports. File cabinets are proven inadequate
to serve data input and output like databases. Hence, in business practice,
both coexist due to dependability. Procedures to guarantee the safety of
business data are also critically required; backup procedures are commonly
adopted.

Server and Local Area Network (LAN)
A server is a regular PC but dedicated as a public PC to allow other PCs to
access information on it such as a database.

A Local Area Network (LAN) comprises of multiple PCs, servers and network
equipment (i.e. hub, router, switch, etc.) to enable communication with other
PCs. The purpose of communication is to exchange information whether
being email, documents, data, and any forms of electronic information.
There are two (2) types of networks, which are wired/cable and wireless.

Wired/Cable Network

Wired/Cable network will use a physical network cable to physically connect
each PC. The advantage of using cable is that data transmission is reliable,
fast and cost-effective.


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Wireless Network

Wireless Network will use radio emission as media to carry the data over the
air between each PC. The advantage of wireless is the flexibility of location if
within radio emission reach, but it will sacrifice speed. When compare similar
size of networks, wireless networks are more expensive than wired.

MRP and ERP
MRP stands for Manufacturing Resource Planning; similarly ERP stands for
Enterprise Resource Planning. Both are software designed to connect
business processes and facilitate information flow using PCs, servers, and
network.

Each industry has its own specific MRP/ERP as processes are different.
For a given industry, MRP/ERP attempts to consolidate most processes by
using MIS. Currently, the average business that implements MRP/ERP can
bind 20% of the overall operation. This is due to the complexity of each
department and the interconnectivity to facilitate information flow.
Each department has its own sets of processes, which can create a complex
flow of information within the department. Implementing MRP/ERP requires
the management to to emphasize to all departments for cooperation. Over the
past two decades, Key Performance Indicator seems to be the driving force for
department cooperation.

Figure 3.4b illustrates different tools at each MIS process in accordance with
information flow.

A misconception of tools is to select, acquire and utilise the most advanced or
up-to-dated hardware and software when, functionality-wise, a moderate set
of computer hardware and software can perform such tasks adequately.
Adopting overqualified tools always irrationally causes increase in MIS
budget.

It should be noted that tools are to facilitate people to carry MIS processes and
information flow; understanding the methodologies, nonetheless, is more
essential than selecting and acquiring tools. The reason being that with such
understanding, MIS can better select and apply suitable tools that support
process requirements.

Table 3.4a addresses suggested tools for different methodologies (Manual,
Software-enabled and Automated) associated with MIS processes.
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Figure 3.4b Examples of Tools Used for MIS Process


Data
verification
Data calculation
Decision making
Data storage
Information
reporting & analysis
Production Control
Process Modification
Management
MIS Supervisor
MIS Operation
Data collection & consolidation
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Table 3.4a Suggested Tools for MIS Implementation with their Pros and Cons
Methodologies MIS
Process
Manual Software-enabled Automated
Data
Collection
Pen/paper form Pen/paper form Pen/paper form
Data Entry Pen/paper form Excel/Access Packaged
software/MRP
Combination of
hardware and
software to
control
production
process
equipment
Data
Calculation
Form/calculator Excel/Access Packaged
software/MRP
Analytical
software or
business
intelligence
Information
Analysis &
Reporting
Paper report Access/paper report Packaged software/
paper report
Automated
report creation
and distribution
Pros/ Cons Most basic/ low-to-
no investment
Widely adopted/
low investment
Currently best
practice/significant
investment
Highly effective/
high investment
Hard evidence
data/ high error rate

Ease of access to
MIS/Decentralised
data & storage
Ease of use and
access to all roles
with centralised
data storage/
customised on
Accurate data/
sensitive system

Labour intensive Computer literate
personnel required
Training required to
use software
Free up
resources/ rely
on solution
vendor

As shown in Table 3.4a above, a wide range of tools can be adopted
depending on the methodology selected. However, in the real practice, a mix
of methodologies is applied.

Whether noting down data on a piece of paper then enter into a database form
or key-in collected data into a software on the plant floor and printout to store
in a file cabinet, a mixture of tools are often used based on each plant’s
operation, familiarity and budget. Therefore, a pre-defined set of tools is often
mistaken.

In summary, each methodology (Manual, Software-enabled or Automated)
will evidently require different types of hardware. For example, Software-
enabled, file-based method, requires MIS personnel to design program
productivity software such as Microsoft Excel and Access, to create forms
(in MS Access), to interface with data entry formula sheets (in MS Excel) to
calculate such data and so forth.

Whereas, the automated method requires more complex and sophisticated PC
to communicate and enable the automation of data capturing via other
hardware such as steam gauge censor. This method minimally requires
a local area network (LAN) to facilitate the information flow.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
3-15
In conclusion, plant owners can select a methodology with comprehension
while being empowered with tool knowledge to be able to select suitable
software and hardware accordingly.










Chapter 4
Applying MIS Process to
Palm Oil Industry

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-1
4 APPLYING MIS PROCESS TO PALM OIL INDUSTRY
This section describes how an MIS process is applied to palm oil industry in
order to improve eco-efficiency. A production process model that facilitates
the MIS application for palm oil industry is hereby addressed. Also, the MIS
process for typical palm oil industry starting from data collection and
consolidation, data processing and to information reporting, is described.


4.1 PRODUCTION PROCESS MODEL
In order to facilitate data collection as part of the MIS process for improving
eco-efficiency, a representative “Production Process Model” for a typical palm
oil mill has to be established. As a consequence, a typical production process
of palm oil mill (shown in Figure 2.1a) can be arranged or sub-divided into
five (5) sections comprising: Primary Production Process; Oil Room; Dry
Process; Wastewater & Biogas; and Utility.

4.1.1 Primary Production Process (Section# 1)
Primary production process involves mainly with the conversion process of
raw material “Fresh Fruit Bunch” (FFB) into raw crude palm oil. This process
comprises sterilisation, threshing, digestion and screw pressing. Apart from
raw crude palm oil, a certain amount of Empty Fresh Fruit Bunch (EFB) is also
generated from this section (from threshing) which can be further used and
sold as biomass fuel or as media for mushroom cultivation.

4.1.2 Oil Room (Section# 2)
Once raw crude palm oil comes out from screw pressing step, it enters the Oil
Room. The main task of Section 2 is to purify the raw crude palm oil and to
improve physical property of crude palm oil. This section comprises vibrating
screen, oil separation tank, de-sander, decanter-separator, purifier and dryer.
This section also produces a significant volume of wastewater and decanter
cake.

4.1.3 Dry Process (Section# 3)
Dry process has a series of separation and drying activities of the fruit starting
from fibre-nut separation, nut drying and cracking, shell-kernel separation
and kernel drying. Kernel is one of the products from palm oil mills, which is
typically sold for further crude kernel palm oil production. During this
process, by-products are also generated such as fibre and shell. These by-
products can be used and sold as biomass fuels for other industries, such as
cement and power plants.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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4.1.4 Wastewater and Biogas System (Section# 4)
This section is mainly a wastewater treatment plant, which manages process
wastewater from palm oil production. Outputs from the treatment plant are
wastewater sludge and treated wastewater or effluent. In addition, some
palm oil mills have equipped the wastewater treatment plant with a biogas
system that generates electricity from the use of biogas generated from the
wastewater treatment process.

4.1.5 Utility (Section# 5)
This section comprises a process of plant steam and electricity generation.
Typical fuel that is used for boiler operation is fibre from the dry process.
Boiler is employed for generating steam to be used within the palm oil mills,
whereas a steam turbine is used for producing electricity for plant internal
use. Stack emissions from boiler are one of the pollution outputs from palm
oil mills.

A representative “Production Process Model “for MIS application for
improving eco-efficiency in palm oil industry is shown in Figure 4.1a.

IP-GTZ Department of Industrial Works
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Figure 4.1a Production Process Model for Palm Oil Industry



















































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IP-GTZ Department of Industrial Works
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4.2 DATA COLLECTION AND CONSOLIDATION
In order to apply MIS, a set of data will continuously need to be acquired for
further usage. The first step as described in MIS principal process will be
the data collection and entry of each section in MIS production process model
(Figure 4.1a). After collecting data from each section, MIS will need to
consolidate all data into one centralised place whether on paper or in
a computerised format such as an excel file or a database. This is to help
facilitate the information flow for further processes.

As a baseline, users’ requirements and palm oil mills representatives’ needs
have been identified. A set of proposed data to be collected has been
established based on their current data collection, analysis and information
usage, and their needs for applying MIS to enhance business competitiveness
and eco-efficiency. Table 4.2a-4.2f illustrate the proposed data collection
scheme for each simplified production process model/ section of palm oil
industry.

The data collection scheme addresses proposed data, measurement unit,
priority of data collection, objectives, collection frequency, responsibility, and
measurement methods. It should be noted that the proposed data set has been
prioritised into “Priority 1” and “Priority 2” based on the main purpose of
enhancing the palm oil mills to implement a meaningful MIS. Criteria for data
prioritisation are given below:

• Priority 1 – Data that are directly related to palm oil productivity and the
use of main raw materials as well as the management of value-added
unused materials where economically viable to palm oil mills. In addition,
environmental data required to be reported to the government are also
included (Examples of data include the use of fresh fruit bunch, the use of
water, saleable shell and effluent quality); and

• Priority 2 – Data that are indirectly related to productivity of the palm oil
mills including pollution outputs from the production process, and also
those data that play a key role in the production process however are
hardly or costly measured at present (Examples of data include disposal of
decanter cake and boiler stack emissions).

“Priority 1” data are the minimum data requirements for applying meaningful
MIS for increasing business competitiveness and enhancing eco-efficiency for
a typical palm oil mill. In addition, these data will be further processed into
information or performance indicators to allow the management to use and
make decisions based on the given information. A set of management
information is addressed in Table 4.4a of this Guideline.

Locations of data to be collected are illustrated in Figure 4.2a-4.2e.
The collecting locations addressed in Figure 4.2a-4.2e are indicated by code
consisting of a letter with numbering.

IP-GTZ Department of Industrial Works
4-5
Abbreviations of these numerical codes are provided as follows:

• P = Products and By-products (Valuable Unused Materials)
• S = Sales
• L = Efficiency and Losses
• C = Purchases
• I = Input Materials
• E = Energy and Fuel
• W = Waste and Emissions

Whereas, “Priority 2” data are optional data requirements that are useful and
help business competitiveness and eco-efficiency however these data are
considered as the second priority for the palm oil mills (with less concern than
“Priority 1” data). Thus, these data will not be transformed to the information
or performance indicators in this Guideline (but can be added on according to
the specific needs of individual palm oil mill).

In general, the collected data are first stored in a database and processed in
MIS software, and then key performance indicators (KPIs) are created and
these information are reported to management for decision-making.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 4.2a Locations of Data Collection in Primary Production Process (Section#1)




























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Table 4.2a Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Primary Production Process Section (Section#1)
No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
I1 Amount of Fresh Fruit Bunch
(FFB) being Purchased
Ton 1 To monitor the amount of FFB being
purchased and to be used to calculate daily
average cost of FFB being purchased
Daily Purchasing Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
I2 Use of FFB Ton 1 To monitor the amount of FFB being used
and to estimate and plan crude oil
production
Daily Production Weighing or estimated number of buckets
entering the sterilisation process
C1 Expense on FFB being Purchased Baht 1 To monitor daily expense of FFB being
purchased and to be used to calculate daily
average cost of FFB being purchased
Daily Purchasing N/A
C2 Unit Cost of Ripe FFB Baht/Ton 1 To monitor unit cost of ripe FFB bought on-
site. This data reflects the quality of FFB
being bought (ideally good quality)
Daily Purchasing N/A
C3 Unit Cost of Unripe FFB Baht/Ton 1 To monitor unit cost of unripe FFB bought
onsite and this data reflects the quality of
FFB being bought (ideally poor quality)
Daily Purchasing N/A
C4 Supplier of FFB N/A 2 To record the source of purchased FFB Daily Purchasing N/A
I3 Amount of Steam Used at
Sterilisation
Ton/Batch 2 To monitor the amount of steam that allows
proper timing and processing of FFB in the
sterilisation process
Per batch
of
sterilisation
Production Standard Flow Meter
L1 Oil Content in Condensate % 2 To trace the oil content contaminated in the
condensate stream from the sterilisation
process
Daily QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
P1 Generation of Empty Fruit Bunch
(EFB)
Ton 1 To monitor the amount of EFB generated.
This data can be further used to track on the
utilisation of EFB as either biomass fuel or
by-product


Monthly Production Weighing/ Scale
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
L2 Fruit Loss in EFB % 2 To help evaluate the efficiency of threshing
and monitor the contamination of fruit in
EFB
Daily QA Lab Weighing/ Scale
P2 Amount of EFB being Sold Ton 1 To help evaluate the efficiency of EFB
utilisation and estimate this value-added
by-product
Monthly Purchasing Weighing/ Scale
S1 Unit Market Price of EFB Baht/Ton 1 To help calculate the revenue from selling
EFB to external parties or customers
Monthly Purchasing/
Sale
N/A
E1 Amount of EFB Used as Biomass
Fuel (Internal)
Ton 2 To help evaluate the efficiency of EFB
utilisation internally
Monthly Utility Weighing/ Scale
W1 Amount of EFB being Disposed
Off
Ton 2 To estimate the volume of EFB being
disposed offsite or used by plantation
Monthly Purchasing Weighing/ Scale
Remark
* - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.

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Figure 4.2b Locations of Data Collection in Oil Room (Section#2)










































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Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Table 4.2b Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Oil Room Section (Section#2)
No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
I4 Installed Capacity Ton-FFB 1 To realise the maximum capacity of palm oil
production
Monthly Production Calculation
P10 Production Operating Hour Hour 1 To realise the actual operating hours of
palm oil production
Daily Production N/A
P3 Production of Crude Palm Oil
(CPO)
Ton 1 To monitor the production of CPO.
This data can be used further for the
analysis of oil yield
Daily Production Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
P9 Production of Crude Kernel Palm
Oil (CKPO)
Ton 2 To monitor the production of CKPO.
This data can be used further for the
analysis of oil yield
Daily Production Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
S2 Unit Market Price of CPO Baht/Ton 1 To help calculate the revenue from selling
CPO
Daily Purchasing N/A
S9 Amount of Sold CPO Ton 1 To monitor the amount of CPO being sold Daily Accounting Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
S10 Proceeds from Sold CPO Baht 1 To monitor value of sold CPO. This data is
used for calculating KPI “yield and loss
values of CPO” (see Table 4.3a)
Daily Accounting N/A
S13 Amount of Sold CKPO Ton 1 To monitor the amount of CKPO being sold Daily Accounting Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
S14 Proceeds from Sold CKPO Baht 1 To monitor value of sold CKPO. Daily Accounting N/A
I5 Use of Water m
3
1 To monitor the use of water as transport and
separation media in the production process
Daily Production/
Utility
Standard Flow Meter
L3 Oil Content in Decanter Cake % 1 To trace the oil content contaminated in the
decanter cake
Daily QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
L4 Oil Content in Wastewater % 1 To trace the oil content contaminated in the
wastewater from the oil room
Daily QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
W2 Generation of Decanter Cake Ton 1 To identify the amount of decanter cake
generated from the production and help
manage its disposal
Monthly Production Monthly estimation based on representative
weighing of decanter cake
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
W3 Amount of Decanter Cake being
Disposed Offsite
Ton 2 To monitor the amount of decanter cake
being disposed offsite
Monthly Production Weighing/ Scale
Remark
* - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 4.2c Locations of Data Collection in Dry Process (Section#3)






































Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-13

Table 4.2c Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Dry Process Section (Section#3)
No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
P4 Generation of Kernel Ton 1 To monitor the production of kernel.
This data can be further used for the
analysis of kernel yield
Daily Production Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
S3 Unit Market Price of Kernel Baht/Ton 1 To help calculate the revenue from selling
kernel
Daily Purchasing/
Sale
N/A
S11 Amount of Sold Kernel Ton 1 To monitor the amount of kernel being sold Daily Accounting Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge
S12 Proceeds from Sold Kernel Baht 1 To monitor value of sold kernel. This data is
used for calculating KPI “values of kernel
yield” (see Table 4.3a)
Daily Accounting N/A
L5 Oil Content in Fibre % 1 To trace the oil content contaminated in
fibre
Daily QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
P5 Total Generation of Shell Due to
Shell-Kernel Separation
Ton 1 To monitor the amount of shell generated
due to shell-kernel separation and this data
can be further used to track on the
utilisation of shell as biomass fuel or by-
product for selling
Monthly Production Monthly estimation based on
representative weighing of shell
L6 Kernel Content in Shell Due to
Shell-Kernel Separation
% 1 To help evaluate the efficiency of separator
in shell-kernel separation and monitor the
amount of kernel contained in shell using
separator
Daily QA Lab Weighing/ Scale
P6 Amount of Shell being Sold Ton 1 To help evaluate the efficiency of shell
utilisation as by-product for selling
Monthly Purchasing Weighing/ Scale
S4 Unit Market Price of Shell Baht/Ton 1 To help calculate the revenue from selling
shell to external parities or customers
Monthly Purchasing/
Sale
N/A
E2 Amount of Shell Used as Biomass
Fuel (Internal)
Ton 2 To help evaluate the efficiency of shell
utilisation as biomass fuel internally

Monthly Utility Weighing/ Scale
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
P7 Generation of Fibre Ton 1 To monitor the amount of fibre generated
within a month and this data can be further
used to track on the utilisation of fibre as
either biomass fuel or by-product
Monthly Production Monthly estimation based on
representative weighing of fibre
P11 Production of Fibre Ton 1 To monitor the amount of fibre produced
daily.
Daily Production Weighing/ Scale
P8 Amount of Fibre being Sold Ton 1 To help evaluate the efficiency of fibre
utilisation and estimate this value-added by-
product
Monthly Purchasing Weighing/ Scale
S5 Unit Market Price of Fibre Baht/Ton 1 To help calculate the revenue from selling
fibre to external parities or customers
Monthly Purchasing/
Sale
N/A
E3 Amount of Fibre Used as
Biomass Fuel (Internal)
Ton 2 To help evaluate the efficiency of fibre
utilisation internally within a month
Monthly Utility Weighing/ Scale or estimation based on the
generation of fibre
I7 Amount of Fibre Used at Boiler Ton 1 To realise the efficiency of fibre utilisation as
biomass fuel at boiler daily. This data is
used for calculating KPI “generation of
steam from boiler operation”
(see Table 4.3a)
Daily Utility Weighing/ Scale or estimation based on the
daily production of fibre
W4 Amount of Fibre being Disposed
Offsite
Ton 2 To estimate the volume of fibre being
disposed offsite or given to others
Monthly Purchasing Weighing/ Scale
Remark
* - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 4.2d Locations of Data Collection in Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4)




























Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Table 4.2d Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System Section (Section#4)
No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
I6 Chemical Usage for Wastewater
Treatment
kg 1 To monitor the use of chemicals for
wastewater treatment
Monthly Utility Weighting/ Scale
E4 Electricity Consumption for
Wastewater Treatment
kWh 1 To monitor the electricity consumption for
wastewater treatment
Daily Utility Electricity Meter
W5 Generation of Wastewater (Prior
to being sent for treatment)
m
3
1 To identify the amount of wastewater
generated and help the management and
treatment of this wastewater influent
Daily Utility Standard Flow Meter or Estimation by
Sampling
W6 Influent Wastewater
Characteristics (BOD) prior to
being passed to the treatment
system
mg/l 1 To provide information on influent quality
(BOD) and help the estimation of
wastewater loading prior to entering the
treatment system, in order to allow the in-
charge operator to properly control and
maintain the treatment efficiency
Weekly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
W10 Influent Wastewater
Characteristics (COD) prior to
being passed to the treatment
system
mg/l 1 To provide information on influent quality
(COD) and help the estimation of
wastewater loading prior to entering the
treatment system, in order to allow the in-
charge operator to properly control and
maintain the treatment efficiency
Weekly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
W7 Treated Wastewater
Characteristics (BOD) at the final
pond of the treatment system
mg/l 1 To provide information on compliance
status of treated effluent
Monthly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
W11 Treated Wastewater
Characteristics (COD) at the final
pond of the treatment system
mg/l 1 To provide information on compliance
status of treated effluent
Monthly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
W8 Effluent Characteristics (BOD)
from Biogas System
mg/l 1 To provide information on effluent quality
(BOD) from biogas system and can be used
to monitor biogas system efficiency

Weekly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
W12 Effluent Characteristics (COD)
from Biogas System
mg/l 1 To provide information on effluent quality
(COD) from biogas system and can be used
to monitor biogas system efficiency
Weekly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method
W9 Generation of Wastewater
Sludge
Ton 2 To help the management and offsite
disposal of wastewater sludge from the
treatment system
Annually QA Lab Weighing/ Scale
E5 Generation of Biogas m
3
1 To monitor the amount of biogas generated
from the system. This data can be used to
indicate the efficiency of methane
production
Daily Utility Gas Flow Meter
E6 Generation of Electricity from
Biogas System
kWh 1 To monitor the amount of electricity
generated from biogas system and this data
can be used to indicate the efficiency of
electricity generation from the biogas
system
Daily Utility Electricity Meter
S6 Unit Price of Electricity Sold
from Biogas System
Baht /
kWh
1 To help calculate the revenue from selling
electricity from biogas system
Daily Utility N/A
E11 Biogas Tank Volume m
3
1 To realise the maximum volume of biogas
tank for receiving wastewater from palm oil
production. This data is used for
calculating KPI “organic loading of biogas
system” (see Table 4.3a)
Annually Utility N/A
Remark
* - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Figure 4.2e Locations of Data Collection in Utility (Section#5)




























Boiler
Biomass
Fuel
Steam
Steam
Turbine
Water
Blowdown Emission
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Table 4.2e Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Utility Section (Section#5)
No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
E7 Generation of Steam from Boiler
Operation
Ton 1 To help evaluate the efficiency of steam
generation from boiler
Daily Utility Standard Flow Meter or Estimation by Mass
Balance
E8 Generation of Electricity from
Steam Turbine
kWh 1 To monitor the electricity generation and
this data can be used to indicate the
efficiency of electricity generation
Daily Utility Electricity Meter
E9 Consumption of Electricity
Purchased from Provincial
Electricity Authority (PEA)
kWh 1 To monitor the electricity consumption from
the PEA especially when the palm oil mill is
not running and producing its own
electricity
Monthly Utility Electricity Meter
E10 Generation of Electricity from
Diesel Generation
kWh 1 To monitor the electricity generated by the
diesel generator
Monthly Utility Electricity Meter
S7 Expense on the Purchased
Electricity from the PEA
Baht 1 To monitor an operating cost arising from
the purchase of electricity from the PEA
Monthly Purchasing N/A
S16 Average Cost of Purchased
Electricity from PEA
Baht /
kWh
1 To monitor an average operating cost
arising from the purchase of electricity from
the PEA
Monthly Purchasing N/A
S8 Expense on the Purchased Diesel
for Diesel Generator (DG) Set
Baht 1 To monitor an operating cost arising from
the purchase of diesel for DG Set
Monthly Purchasing N/A
S17 Average Cost of Purchased
Diesel for DG Set
Baht/l 1 To monitor an average operating cost
arising from the purchase of diesel for DG
Set
Monthly Purchasing N/A
W13 Boiler Stack Emissions
Characteristics (Particulate)
mg/l 2 To monitor characteristics of stack emissions
and evaluate legal compliance
Every Six
Months
Utility Analytical Standard Method
W14 Boiler Stack Emissions
Characteristics (NOx)
mg/l 2 To monitor characteristics of stack emissions
and evaluate legal compliance
Every Six
Months
Utility Analytical Standard Method
Remark
* - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Table 4.2f Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Internal Control Values
No Data Unit Priority* Objectives Collection
Frequency
Responsibility Measurement Methods
L7 Efficiency of Decanter-Separator
System
% 1 To benchmark performance of decanter-
separator system and to improve or correct
production performance. This data is also
used as internal control value for
calculating KPI “amount and value of oil
loss” (see Table 4.3a)
Annually Production
Manager
Production manager responses for setting
this internal control value
L8 Usual Oil Content in Wastewater % 1 To benchmark performance of production
process especially in oil room section and to
improve or correct production performance.
This data is also used as internal control
value for calculating KPI “amount and
value of oil loss” (see Table 4.3a)
Annually Production
Manager
Production manager responses for setting
this internal control value
L9 Usual Kernel Loss in Separation
Process
% 1 To benchmark performance of separation
process and to improve or correct
production performance. This data is also
used as internal control value for
calculating KPI “amount and value of kernel
loss” (see Table 4.3a)
Annually Production
Manager
Production manager responses for setting
this internal control value
L10 Usual Oil Content in Fibre % 1 To benchmark performance of palm oil
production process and to improve or
correct production performance. This data
is also used as internal control value for
calculating KPI “amount and value of oil
loss” (see Table 4.3a)
Annually Production
Manager
Production manager responses for setting
this internal control value
Remark
* - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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4.3 DATA PROCESSING
In order to enhance business advantage and eco-efficiency of the palm oil mill,
“Priority 1” data listed in the previous section are required to be processed and
transformed into information or key performance indicators using MIS
software that can allow the management of native starch factories to use such
information for their own analysis and making decision.

Table 4.3a illustrates these management information (or key performance
indicators), data calculation formula, and their definitions, whereas Table 4.4a
in the next section suggests on whom the management information are
reported to, and also the reporting frequency.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
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Table 4.3a Management Information derived from Data Processing
No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
Primary Production Process (Section#1)
PPP1 Average Unit Cost of
Acquired FFB
Daily [Expense on FFB Purchased /
Amount of FFB Purchased]

[C1 / I1] Baht/Ton-FFB The total cost of FFB purchased in each buy
depends on the quality of FFB (ripe or unripe).
Average unit cost of acquired FFB represents the
overall quality of FFB being purchased as a whole
in each day.
PPP2 FFB Quality Index Daily [(Average Unit Cost of FFB – Unit
Cost of Unripe FFB) / (Unit Cost of
Ripe FFB – Unit Cost of Unripe
FFB)] X 100
[(PPP1 – C3) / (C2 – C3)]
X 100
% FFB quality index represents the utilisation of good
and consistent quality FFB for palm oil production.
The higher the index is, the better quality (also
consistency) of the FFB is purchased for the
production.
PPP3 Generation of EFB Monthly [EFB Generated / FFB Used] X 100 [P1 / ∑
M
I2] X 100 % The ratio of EFB generated per the amount of FFB
used indicates the generation rate of EFB and
efficiency of the threshing process.
PPP4 Share of EFB Sold Monthly [EFB Sold / EFB Generated] X 100 [P2 / P1] X 100 % EFB is typically used for plantation such as
mushroom cultivation. Due to an increase demand
of biomass fuel, this EFB can be sold. Saleable EFB
represents the utilisation of EFB as value-added by-
product.
PPP5 Value of EFB Sold Monthly [EFB Sold X Unit Market Price of
EFB]
[P2 X S1] Baht The amount of money in Baht that is generated
from EFB being sold to external parties or
customers.
Oil Room (Section#2)
OIL1 Crude Palm Oil
(CPO) Yield
Daily [CPO Produced / FFB Used] X 100 [P3 / I2] X 100 % Crude palm oil leaving the oil room indicates the
overall oil yield of the mill and is an important
performance indicator of the palm oil mill.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-23

No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
OIL2 Value of CPO Yield Daily [(CPO Produced X Proceeds from
Sold CPO) / (Amount of Sold CPO
X FFB Used)]
[(P3 X S10) / (S9 X I2)] Baht/Ton-FFB The amount of money in Baht that is generated
from produced CPO.
OIL3 Value Added From
FFB to CPO
Daily [Unit Market Price of CPO – (CPO
Yield X Average Unit Cost of
Acquired FFB)]
[S2 - (OIL1 X PPP1)] Bath/Ton-FFB This figure indicates the value added from FFB to
CPO. Operating cost is not taken into account for
this figure.
OIL4 Generation of
Decanter Cake
Monthly [Decanter Cake Generated / FFB
Used] X 100
[W2 / ∑
M
I2] X 100 % The ratio of decanter cake generated per the
amount of FFB indicates the generation rate of
decanter cake and efficiency of the decanting
process.
OIL5 Oil Loss in Decanter
Cake
(1)

Daily,
Monthly
[% Oil Content in Decanter Cake - %
Efficiency of Decanter-Separator
System]
[L3 - L7] % Oil loss or gained in decanter cake represents or
reflects the efficiency of the decanter-separator
system.
OIL6 Value of Oil Loss in
Decanter Cake
(1)

Daily,
Monthly
[(% Oil Content in Decanter Cake -
% Efficiency of Decanter-Deparator
System) X Decanter Cake Generated
X (Summation of Proceeds from
Sold CPO / Amount of Sold CPO)]
[(L3 - L7) X W2 X
(∑S10/S9)]
Baht/Day The value of oil loss/gain in decanter cake is the
amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained
based on the contamination of oil in the decanter
cake.
OIL7 Oil Loss in
Wastewater
(1)

Daily,
Monthly
[% Oil Content in wastewater - %
Usual Oil Content in Wastewater]
[L4 - L8] % Oil loss or gained in wastewater stream indicates
oil room efficiency including the efficiency of
decanter-separator system. This indicator is a
typical and important performance indicator in the
palm oil mill.
OIL8 Value of Oil Loss in
Wastewater
(1)

Daily,
Monthly
[((%Oil Content - % Usual Oil
Content in Wastewater) X
Wastewater Generated X
(Summation of Proceeds from Sold
CPO / Amount of Sold CPO)]
[((L4 - L8) X ∑W5) X
(∑S10/S9)]
Baht/Day The amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained
based on the contamination of oil in the wastewater
stream.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-24

No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
OIL9 Water Consumption Daily,
Monthly
[Water Used / FFB Used] [I5 / I2] m
3
-Water/
Ton-FFB
Since water is an important transport and
separation media in the palm oil production
process, the ratio of water consumed per the
amount of FFB can indicate the utilisation of water
in the production process.
OIL10 Capacity Utilisation Monthly [FFB Used / Installed Capacity] X
100
[∑
M
I2 / I4] X 100 % This indicator demonstrates the actual production
capacity. The higher percentage of capacity
utilisation is, the more utilisation of installed
machine is.
Dry Process (Section#3)
DRY1 Kernel Yield Daily [Kernel Produced / FFB Used] X
100
[P4 / I2] X 100 % Kernel production rate indicates the overall kernel
yield of the mill and is one of the important
performance indicators of the palm oil mill.
DRY2 Value of Kernel Yield Daily [(Kernel Produced / FFB Used) X
(Summation of Proceeds from Sold
Kernel / Amount of Sold Kernel)]
[(∑P4 / ∑I2) X (∑S12 /
S11)]
Baht/Ton-FFB The value of Kernel yield is the amount of money
in Baht that is generated from kernel being
produced.
DRY3 Total Generation of
Shell Due to Shell-
Kernel Separation
Monthly [Shell Generated Due to Shell-
Kernel Separation

/ FFB Used] X
100
[P5 / ∑
M
I2] X 100 % Shell is typically by product of palm oil mill. The
generation of shell indicates overall proportion of
shell generated from FFB being used in production
process. This indicator can be used further to track
on the utilisation of shell as by-product.
DRY4 Total Kernel Loss
(1)

(Shell-Kernel
Separation)
Daily [% Kernel Content - % Usual Kernel
Loss in Separation Process]
[L6 - L9] % Kernel loss or gained in separation or cyclone
indicates the efficiency of shell-kernel separation
process.
DRY5 Value of Total Kernel
Loss
(1)
(Shell-Kernel
Separation)
Daily,
Monthly
[((% Kernel Content - % Usual
Kernel Loss in Separation Process )
X Shell Generated Due to Shell-
Kernel Separation X (Summation of
Proceeds from Sold Kernel /
Amount of Sold Kernel)]
[((L6 - L9) X P5) X (∑S12
/ S11)]
Baht/Day The amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained
based on the kernel content in shell-kernel
separation process.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-25

No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
DRY6 Shell Sold/ FFB Used Monthly [Shell Sold / FFB Used] x 100 [P6 / ∑
M
I2] Ton/Ton-FFB As shell is typically used as biomass fuel in power
and cement plants, this material is considered as
by-product and is generally sold. This index
represents the amount of shell that can be sold
compared to the amount of FFB used.
DRY7 Value of Shell Sold Monthly [(Shell Sold X Unit Market Price of
Shell) / FFB Used]
[(P6 X S4) / ∑
M
I2] Baht/Ton-FFB The amount of money in Baht that is generated
from palm shell being sold to external parties or
customers.
DRY8 Generation of Fibre Monthly [Fibre Generated / FFB Used] X 100 [P7 / ∑
M
I2] X 100 % Fibre is typically by product of palm oil mill. The
generation of fibre indicates overall proportion of
fibre generated from FFB being used in production
process within a month. This indicator can be
further used to track on the utilisation of fibre as
by-product.
DRY9 Oil Loss in Fibre
(1)
Daily,
Monthly
[% Oil Content in Fibre - % Usual
Oil Content in Fibre]
[L5 - L10] % Oil loss or gained in fibre represents or reflects the
efficiency of decanter-separator system.
DRY10 Value of Oil Loss in
Fibre
(1)

Daily,
Monthly
[((% Oil Content - % Usual Oil
Content in Fibre) X Fibre Generated
X (Summation of Proceeds from
Sold CPO / Amount of Sold CPO)]
[(L5 - L10) X P7 X (∑S10
/ S9)]
Baht/Day The value of oil loss/gain in fibre is the amount of
money in Baht that is lost based on the
contamination of oil in the fibre.
DRY11 Share of Fibre Sold Monthly [Fibre Sold / Generation of Fibre] X
100
[(P8 / P7) X 100] % Excess fibre is typically generated during peak
production periods. Due to an increase demand of
biomass fuel, this excess amount can be sold.
Saleable fibre indicates the utilisation of fibre as
value-added by-product.
DRY12 Value of Fibre Sold Monthly [(Fibre Sold X Unit Market Price of
Fibre) / FFB Used]
[(P8 X S5) / ∑
M
I2] Baht/Ton-FFB The value of fibre sold is the amount of money in
Baht that is generated from fibre being sold to
external parties or customers.


Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-26

No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4)
WAS1 Generation of
Wastewater (Influent
to the treatment
system)
Daily,
Monthly
[Wastewater Generated / FFB
Used]
[W5 / I2] m
3
/Ton-FFB Environmental impact from palm oil mills is
mainly from wastewater generated in the
production process and its associated pollution
load. This figure therefore indicates the need for
wastewater treatment and reflects overall water
utilisation efficiency.
WAS2 Wastewater
Treatment Efficiency
(BOD)
Monthly [(Influent Wastewater
Characteristics – Treated
Wastewater Characteristics) /
Influent Wastewater
Characteristics] X 100
[(AveW6 – W7) /
AveW6] X 100
% This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of
wastewater treatment plant.
WAS3 Wastewater
Treatment Efficiency
(COD)
Monthly [(Influent Wastewater
Characteristics – Treated
Wastewater Characteristics) /
Influent Wastewater
Characteristics] X 100
[(AveW10 – W11) /
AveW10] X 100
% This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of
wastewater treatment plant.
WAS4 Organic Loading of
Biogas System
Weekly [(Influent Wastewater
Characteristics X Wastewater
Generated) / Biogas Tank Volume]
/ 1,000
[(W6 X W5)
/ E11] / 1,000
kg/ m
3
of
Biogas Tank
Volume / Day
Organic loading of biogas system indicates how
much organic load enters into the system and
represents whether organic loading feeding to the
system is over the design value.
WAS5 COD Removal by
Biogas System
Weekly [(Influent Wastewater
Characteristics - Treated
Wastewater Characteristics from
Biogas System) / Influent
Wastewater Characteristics] X 100
[(AveW10 – AveW12) /
AveW10] X 100
% This indicator represents the COD removal
efficiency of the biogas system.
WAS6 Generation of Biogas Daily,
Monthly
[Biogas Generated / Wastewater
Generated]
[E5 / W5] m
3
Biogas / m
3
Wastewater
Biogas generation indicated how much biogas is
generated by wastewater per unit. This value
represents the biogas system efficiency.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-27

No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
WAS7 Generation of
Electricity from
Biogas System
Daily,
Monthly
[Electricity Generated from Biogas
System / Biogas Generated]
[E6 / E5] kWh/m
3
-
Biogas
The ratio of the amount of electricity generated
from biogas system per biogas volume indicates
efficiency of electricity generation from the system.
WAS8 Saleable Electricity
from Biogas System
Daily,
Monthly
[Electricity Generated X Unit Price] [E6 X S6] Baht/Day The amount of money in Baht from electricity
generation from the biogas system that is sold.
Utility (Section#5)
UTL1 Generation of Steam
from Boiler Operation
Daily,
Monthly
[Steam Generated / Amount of
Fibre Used at Boiler]
[E7 /I7] Ton-Steam/
Ton-Fibre
Fibre is typically used as biomass fuel for boiler to
produce steam to be used in the production
process. Steam generation per the use of fibre
reflects on optimum boiler design and operation
and is important for energy efficiency of the palm
oil mill.
UTL2 Total Electricity
Consumption
Monthly [Electricity-Steam Turbine +
Electricity-PEA + Electricity-Diesel
Generator]
[∑
M
E8 + E9 + E10] kWh Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil
mill comes from various sources comprising
electricity generation from the steam turbine and
diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased
from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA).
Total consumption reflects average electricity
required for all production process.
UTL3 Total Electricity
Consumption Rate
Monthly [(Electricity-Steam Turbine +
Electricity- PEA + Electricity-Diesel
Generator)/ FFB Used]
[(∑
M
E8 + E9 + E10) /

M
I2]
kWh/Ton-FFB Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil
mill comes from various sources comprising
electricity generation from the steam turbine and
diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased
from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA).
Total consumption rate reflects average electricity
required for one Ton of FFB.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-28

No Key Performance
Indicator
Reference
Timeframe
Calculation Formula Unit Description
UTL4 Electricity
Consumption from
the Steam Turbine
Generation
Monthly [Electricity Generated / Total
Electricity Consumption] X 100
[∑
M
E8 / UTL2] X 100 % Electricity is generally self-generated from steam
turbine of the oil mill and is fully consumed in the
oil mill. This electricity consumption rate
represents the utilisation of electricity generated
from steam turbine and can also contribute to the
efficiency of the steam turbine.
UTL5 Electricity
Consumption from
the Provincial
Electricity Authority
(PEA)
Monthly [Electricity Consumed from PEA /
Total Electricity Consumption] X
100
[E9 / UTL2] X 100 % Electricity is sometimes supplied from the PEA and
this consumption rate reflects the total purchased
electricity from PEA and the efficiency of other
electricity generators (steam turbine, diesel
generator and biogas system). This can also
contribute to the sufficiency of electricity generated
within factory.
UTL6 Electricity
Consumption from
Diesel Generator
Monthly [Electricity Generated from Diesel
Generator / Total Electricity
Consumption] X 100
[E10 / UTL2] X 100 % Electricity from diesel generator is required for the
oil mill, especially during the startup of boiler and
this consumption rate reflects the performance of
boiler especially during the startup. The less
percentage of the index, the better performance of
boiler is.
Remarks
(1)
- The amount of kernel and oil loss/gained depends on internal control value of individual palm oil mill factory.
(2)
– Use particular indicator from previous month
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-29

4.4 INFORMATION REPORTING & ANALYSIS
Minimum data requirements or “Priority 1” data need to be processed into key
performance indicators to assist management representatives of palm oil mills in
decision making. Apart from the defined key performance indicators, some of
“Priority 1” data can also provide valuable indicators to the management such as
daily use of fresh fruit bunches (FFB), daily production of products, unit costs and
prices of those materials, as well as data that are required to be reported to the
Department of Industrial Works (i.e. treated wastewater and usage of chemical
and electricity for wastewater treatment).

Information in various aspects can become important to different groups of people
in the organisation. Typical interested management personnel in the palm oil
mills are factory owner, factory manager, production manager and utility
manager.

Management personnel of the palm oil mills may require different information.
Typical reporting contents for each management personnel are addressed below
(It should be noted that the needs of information by these personnel have been
established base on the interviews with management representatives of selected
palm oil factories).

Owner
• CPO Yield
• Value of CPO Yield
• CPO Production
• Value Added From FFB to CPO
• Unit Market Price of CPO
• Amount of Sold CPO
• Proceeds from Sold CPO
• Amount of Sold CKPO
• Proceeds from Sold CKPO
• Production Operating Hour
• Capacity Utilisation
• Kernel Yield
• Kernel Production
• Value of Kernel Yield
• Unit Market Price of Kernel
• Amount of Sold Kernel
• Proceeds from Sold Kernel
• Value of Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes
• Use of FFB
• Total Expense of FFB
• FFB Quality Index
• Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB
• Water Consumption
• Shell Sold/ FFB Used
• Share of Saleable By-Products (Fibre and EFB)
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-30

• Value of Saleable By-Products (Shell, Fibre and EFB)
• Oil Losses in the Process (Decanter Cake, Wastewater and Fibre)
• Value of Oil Losses in Process (Decanter Cake, Wastewater and Fibre)
• Generation of Biogas
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Saleable Electricity from Biogas System
• Total Electricity Consumption
• Total Electricity Consumption Rate
• Expenses on Purchased Electricity from the PEA
• Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from the PEA
• Expense on Purchased Diesel for DG Set
• Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for DG Set
• Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater

Factory Manager
• CPO Yield
• Value of CPO Yield
• CPO Production
• Value Added From FFB to CPO
• Unit Market Price of CPO
• Amount of Sold CPO
• Proceeds from Sold CPO
• Amount of Sold CKPO
• Proceeds from Sold CKPO
• Production Operating Hour
• Capacity Utilisation
• Kernel Yield
• Kernel Production
• Value of Kernel Yield
• Unit Market Price of Kernel
• Amount of Sold Kernel
• Proceeds from Sold Kernel
• Value of Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes
• Use of FFB
• Total Expense of FFB
• FFB Quality Index
• Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB
• Shell Sold/ FFB Used
• Share of Saleable By-Products (Fibre and EFB)
• Value of Saleable By-Products (Shell, Fibre and EFB)
• Oil Losses in the Process (Decanter Cake, Wastewater and Fibre)
• Value of Oil Losses in Process (Decanter Cake, Wastewater and Fibre)
• Generation of By-Products (EFB, Decanter Cake, Shell, Fibre, and Wastewater)
• Production of Fibre
• Generation of Biogas
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-31

• Generation of Electricity from Biogas System
• Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation
• Saleable Electricity from Biogas System
• COD Removal by Biogas System
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Water Consumption
• Total Electricity Consumption
• Total Electricity Consumption Rate
• Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation, Provincial
Electricity Authority (PEA) and Diesel Generator
• Expenses on Purchased Electricity from the PEA
• Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from the PEA
• Expense on Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set
• Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set
• Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater

Production Manager
• CPO Yield
• Value of CPO Yield
• CPO Production
• Value Added From FFB to CPO
• Unit Market Price of CPO
• Amount of Sold CPO
• Proceeds from Sold CPO
• Amount of Sold CKPO
• Proceeds from Sold CKPO
• Production Operating Hour
• Capacity Utilisation
• Kernel Yield
• Kernel Production
• Value of Kernel Yield
• Unit Market Price of Kernel
• Amount of Sold Kernel
• Proceeds from Sold Kernel
• Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes
• Value of Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes
• Shell Sold/ FFB Used
• Share of Saleable By-Products (Fibre, and EFB)
• Value of Saleable By-Products (Shell, Fibre, and EFB)
• Oil Losses in the Process (Decanter Cake, Wastewater and Fibre)
• Value of Oil Losses in Process (Decanter Cake, Wastewater and Fibre)
• Use of FFB
• Total Expense of FFB
• FFB Quality Index
• Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-32

• Generation of By-Products (EFB, Decanter Cake, Shell, Fibre, and Wastewater)
• Production of Fibre
• Generation of Biogas
• Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation
• COD Removal by Biogas System
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Water Consumption
• Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation, Provincial
Electricity Authority (PEA) and Diesel Generator
• Total Electricity Consumption
• Total Electricity Consumption Rate
• Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater

Utility Manager
• Use of FFB
• Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB
• Production Operating Hour
• Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes
• Oil Losses in the Wastewater
• Water Consumption
• Generation of Wastewater
• Generation of Biogas
• Generation of Electricity from Biogas System
• Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation
• Saleable Electricity from Biogas System
• COD Removal by Biogas System
• Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (BOD)
• Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (COD)
• Influent Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) prior to being sent to the treatment
system
• Influent Wastewater Characteristics (COD) prior to being sent to the treatment
system
• Organic Loading of Biogas System
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment
system
• Chemical Usage for Wastewater Treatment
• Electricity Consumption for Wastewater Treatment
• Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation, Provincial
Electricity Authority (PEA) and Diesel Generator
• Total Electricity Consumption
• Total Electricity Consumption Rate
• Expenses on Purchased Electricity from the PEA
• Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from the PEA
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-33

• Expense on Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set
• Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set
• Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater

A set of the above-mentioned information and reporting frequency to various
interested personnel or management is summarised in Table 4.4a.


Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-34

Table 4.4a Summary of Management Information
No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
Primary Production Process (Section#1)
PPP1 Average Unit Cost of Acquired
FFB
Baht/Ton-
FFB
Daily Daily Daily Daily The total cost of FFB purchased in each buy depends on the quality
of FFB (ripe or unripe). Average unit cost of acquired FFB represents
the overall quality of FFB being purchased as a whole in each day.
PPP2 FFB Quality Index % Daily Daily Daily - FFB quality index represents the utilisation of good and consistent
quality FFB for palm oil production. The more percentage of the
index is, the better quality (also consistency) of the FFB is purchased
for the production.
I2 Use of FFB Ton/Day Daily Daily Daily Daily The use of FFB provides information on daily amount of FFB used
and helps production planning for crude palm oil.
PPP3 Generation of EFB % - Monthly Monthly - The ratio of EFB generated per the amount of FFB used indicates the
generation rate of EFB and efficiency of the threshing process.
PPP4 Share of EFB Sold % Monthly Monthly Monthly - EFB is typically used for plantation such as mushroom cultivation.
Due to an increase demand of biomass fuel, this EFB can be sold.
Saleable EFB represents the utilisation of EFB as value-added by-
product.
PPP5 Value of EFB Sold Baht Monthly Monthly Monthly - The value of EFB sold is the amount of money in Baht that is
generated from EFB being sold to external parties or customers.
C1 Total Expense of FFB Baht Daily Daily Daily - Daily expense of FFB being purchased can be used to calculate daily
average cost of FFB being purchased.
Oil Room (Section#2)
OIL1 Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Yield % Daily Daily Daily - Crude palm oil leaving the oil room indicates the overall oil yield of
the mill and is an important performance indicator of the oil mill.
P10 Production Operating Hour Hour Daily Daily Daily Daily Production operating hour indicates the actual time spent on palm
oil production.
P3 CPO Production

Ton/Day Daily Daily Daily - Daily production of CPO gives an indication on the total amount of
product that can be sold.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-35

No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
S2 Unit Market Price of CPO Baht/Ton Daily Daily Daily - Unit market price of CPO gives an indication to the management on
the demand and pricing of the product.
S9 Amount of Sold CPO Ton Daily Daily Daily - Actual amount of sold CPO gives an indication to the management
on the actual amount of CPO being sold daily
S10 Proceeds from Sold CPO Baht Daily Daily Daily - Proceeds from sold CPO gives an indication to the management on
the values from selling the product.
S13 Amount of Sold CKPO Ton Daily Daily Daily - Actual amount of sold CKPO gives an indication to the management
on the actual amount of CKPO being sold daily
S14 Proceeds from Sold CKPO Baht Daily Daily Daily - Proceeds from sold CKPO gives an indication to the management on
the values from selling the product.
OIL2 Value of CPO Yield Baht/Ton-
FFB
Daily Daily Daily - The value of CPO yield is the amount of money in Baht that is
generated from CPO being produced.
OIL3 Value Added From FFB to CPO Baht/Ton-
FFB
Daily Daily Daily - This figure indicates the value added from FFB to CPO. Operating
cost is not taken into account for this figure.
OIL4 Generation of Decanter Cake % - Monthly Monthly - The ratio of decanter cake generated per the amount of FFB indicates
the generation rate of decanter cake and efficiency of the decanting
process.
OIL5 Oil Loss in Decanter Cake
(1)
% Monthly Monthly Daily - Oil loss or gained in decanter cake represents or reflects the
efficiency of the decanter-separator system.
OIL6 Value of Oil Loss in Decanter
Cake
(1)

Baht/Day Monthly Monthly Daily - The value of oil loss/gain in decanter cake is the amount of money in
Baht that is lost or gained based on the contamination of oil in the
decanter cake.
OIL7 Oil Loss in Wastewater
(1)
% Monthly Monthly Daily Daily Oil loss or gained in wastewater stream indicates oil room efficiency
including the efficiency of decanter-separator system. This indicator
is a typical and important performance indicator in the palm oil mill.
OIL8 Value of Oil Loss in Wastewater
(1)

Baht/Day Monthly Monthly Daily - The value of oil loss/gain in wastewater is the amount of money in
Baht that is lost or gained based on the contamination of oil in the
wastewater stream.


Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-36

No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
OIL9 Water Consumption m
3
-Water/
Ton-FFB
Monthly Monthly Daily Daily Since water is an important transport and separation media in the
palm oil production process. The ratio of water consumed per the
amount of FFB can indicate the utilisation of water in the production
process.
OIL10 Capacity Utilisation % Monthly Monthly Monthly - This indicator indicates the actual production capacity. The higher
percentage of capacity utilisation is, the more utilisation of installed
machine is.
Dry Process (Section#3)
DRY1 Kernel Yield % Daily Daily Daily - Kernel production rate indicates the overall kernel yield of the mill
and is one of the important performance indicators of the oil mill.
P4 Kernel Production Ton/Day Daily Daily Daily - Daily production of kernel gives an indication on the total amount of
product that can be sold.
S3 Unit Market Price of Kernel Baht/Ton Daily Daily Daily - Unit market price of kernel gives an indication to the management
on the demand and pricing of the product.
S11 Amount of Sold Kernel Ton Daily Daily Daily - Actual amount of sold kernel gives an indication to the management
on the daily amount of kernel being sold.
S12 Proceeds from Sold Kernel Baht Daily Daily Daily - Proceeds from sold kernel gives an indication to the management on
the values from selling the by-product.
DRY2 Value of Kernel Yield Baht/Ton-
FFB
Daily Daily Daily - The value of Kernel yield is the amount of money in Baht that is
generated from kernel being produced.
DRY3 Total Generation of Shell Due to
Shell-Kernel Separation
% - Monthly Monthly - Shell is typically by product of palm oil mill. The generation of shell
indicates overall proportion of shell generated from FFB being used
in production process. This indicator can be further used to track on
the utilisation of shell as by-product.
DRY4 Kernel Loss
(1)
(Shell-Kernel
Separation)
% - - Daily Daily Kernel loss or gained in dry separation or cyclone indicates the
efficiency of shell-kernel separation process.
DRY5 Value of Kernel Loss
(1)
(Shell-
Kernel Separation)
Baht/Day Monthly Monthly Daily - The value of Kernel loss/gain is the amount of money in Baht that is
lost or gained based on the kernel content in shell-kernel separation
process.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-37

No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
DRY6 Shell Sold/ FFB Used Ton/Ton-
FFB
Monthly Monthly Monthly - As shell is typically used as biomass fuel in power and cement
plants, this material is considered as by-product and is generally
sold. This index represents the amount of shell that can be sold
compared to the amount of FFB used.
DRY7 Value of Shell Sold Baht/Ton-
FFB
Monthly Monthly Monthly The value of shell sold is the amount of money in Baht that is
generated from palm shell being sold to external parties or
customers.
DRY8 Generation of Fibre % - Monthly Monthly - Fibre is typically by product of palm oil mill. The generation of fibre
indicates overall proportion of fibre generated from FFB being used
in production process within a month. This indicator can be further
used to track on the utilisation of fibre as by-product.
P11 Production of Fibre Ton - Daily Daily - Fibre is typically by product of palm oil mill. This data indicates the
actual amount of fibre produced daily.
DRY9 Oil Loss in Fibre
(1)
% Monthly Daily Daily - Oil loss or gained in fibre represents or reflects the efficiency of
decanter-separator system.
DRY10 Value of Oil Loss in Fibre
(1)
Baht/ Day Monthly Daily Daily - The value of oil loss in Fibre is the amount of money in Baht that is
lost based on the contamination of oil in the fibre.
DRY11 Share of Fibre Sold % Monthly Monthly Monthly - Excess fibre is typically generated during peak production periods.
Due to an increase demand of biomass fuel, this excess amount can
be sold. Saleable fibre indicates the utilisation of fibre as value-
added by-product.
DRY12 Value of Fibre Sold Baht/Ton-
FFB
Monthly Monthly Monthly - The value of fibre sold is the amount of money in Baht that is
generated from fibre being sold to external parties or customers.
Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4)
WAS1 Generation of Wastewater
(Influent to the treatment
system)
m
3
/Ton-FFB - Monthly Monthly Daily Environmental impact from palm oil mills is mainly from
wastewater generated in the production process and its associated
pollution load. This figure therefore indicates the need for
wastewater treatment and reflects overall water utilisation efficiency.
WAS2 Wastewater Treatment
Efficiency (BOD)
% - - - Monthly This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of wastewater
treatment plant.
Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-38

No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
WAS3 Wastewater Treatment
Efficiency (COD)
% - - - Monthly This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of wastewater
treatment plant.
WAS4 Organic Loading of Biogas
System
kg/ m
3
of
Biogas Tank
Volume
- - - Weekly Organic loading of biogas system indicates how much organic load
enters into the system and represents whether organic loading
feeding to the system is over the design value.
WAS5 COD Removal by Biogas System % - Weekly Weekly Weekly This indicator represents the COD removal efficiency of the biogas
system.
WAS6 Generation of Biogas m
3
Biogas /
m
3
Wastewater
Monthly Monthly Monthly Daily Biogas generation indicated how much biogas is generated by
wastewater per unit. This value can be used to represent the biogas
system efficiency.
I6 Chemical Usage for Wastewater
Treatment

kg/Month - - - Monthly The amount of chemicals usage for wastewater treatment provides
an indication of proper treatment. This data is one of the data
required for reporting to the Department of Industrial Works.
E4 Electricity Consumption for
Wastewater Treatment
kWh/Day - - - Daily The amount of electricity consumption for wastewater treatment
indicates the functioning of wastewater treatment system. This data
is one of the data being required for reporting to the Department of
Industrial Works.
W6 Influent Wastewater
Characteristics (BOD) prior to
being sent to the treatment
system
mg/l - - - Monthly Influent characteristics of wastewater provides information on
influent quality and help the estimation of wastewater loading prior
to entering the treatment system, in order to allow the in-charge
operator to properly control and maintain the treatment efficiency
W10 Influent Wastewater
Characteristics (COD) prior to
being sent to the treatment
system
mg/l - - - Monthly Influent characteristics of wastewater provides information on
influent quality and help the estimation of wastewater loading prior
to entering the treatment system, in order to allow the in-charge
operator to properly control and maintain the treatment efficiency
W7 Treated Wastewater
Characteristics (BOD) at the
final pond of the treatment
system
mg/l Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Quality of treated wastewater at the last pond provides information
on compliance status of treated effluent.



Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-39

No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
W11 Treated Wastewater
Characteristics (COD) at the
final pond of the treatment
system
mg/l Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Quality of treated wastewater at the last pond provides information
on compliance status of treated effluent.
WAS7 Generation of Electricity from
Biogas System
kWh/m
3
-
Biogas
- Monthly - Daily The ratio of the amount of electricity generated from biogas system
per biogas volume indicates efficiency of electricity generation from
the system.
WAS8 Saleable Electricity from Biogas
System
Baht/Day Monthly Monthly - Daily Saleable electricity from biogas system is the amount of money in
Baht obtained from the sale of electricity generated from the biogas
system.
Utility (Section#5)
UTL1 Generation of Steam from Boiler
Operation
Ton-Steam/
Ton-Fibre
- Monthly Daily Daily Fibre is typically used as biomass fuel for boiler to produce steam to
be used in the production process. Steam generation per the use of
fibre reflects on optimum boiler design and operation and is
important for energy efficiency of the palm oil mill.
UTL2 Total Electricity Consumption kWh Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil mill comes from
various sources comprising electricity generation from the steam
turbine and diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased from
the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). Total consumption
reflects average electricity required for all production process.
UTL3 Total Electricity Consumption
Rate
kWh/
Ton-FFB
Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil mill comes from
various sources comprising electricity generation from the steam
turbine and diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased from
the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). Total consumption rate
reflects average electricity required for one Ton of FFB.
UTL4 Electricity Consumption from
the Steam Turbine Generation
% - Monthly Monthly Monthly Electricity is generally self-generated from steam turbine of the oil
mill and is fully consumed in the oil mill. This electricity
consumption rate represents the utilisation of electricity generated
from steam turbine and can also contribute to the efficiency of the
steam turbine.

Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement
4-40

No Management Information Unit Owner Factory
Manager
Production
Manager
Utility Description
UTL5 Electricity Consumption from
the Provincial Electricity
Authority (PEA)
% - Monthly Monthly Monthly Electricity is sometimes supplied from the PEA and this
consumption rate reflects the total purchased electricity from PEA
and the efficiency of other electricity generators (steam turbine,
diesel generator and biogas system). This can also contribute to the
sufficiency of electricity generated within factory.
UTL6 Electricity Consumption from
Diesel Generator
% - Monthly Monthly Monthly Electricity from diesel generator is required for the oil mill, especially
during the startup of boiler and this consumption rate reflects the
performance of boiler especially during the startup. The less
percentage of the index, the better performance of boiler.
S7 Expense on the Purchased
Electricity from the PEA
Baht/Month Monthly Monthly - Monthly The money spent on the purchased electricity from the PEA is one of
the important operating costs of the mill.
S16 Average Cost of Purchased
Electricity from PEA
Baht/kWh Monthly Monthly - Monthly The average money spent on the purchased electricity from the PEA
is also one of the important operating costs of the mill.
S8 Expense on the Purchased
Diesel for DG Set
Baht/Month Monthly Monthly - Monthly The money spent on the purchased diesel for boiler startup is one of
the important operating costs of the mill.
S17 Average Cost of Purchased
Diesel for DG Set
Baht/l Monthly Monthly - Monthly The average money spent on the purchased diesel for boiler startup
is also one of the important operating costs of the mill.
Remarks
(1)
- The amount of oil loss/gained depends on internal control value of individual palm oil mill factory.



References

REFERENCES
Agricultural Economic Office, Ministry of Agriculture (2005) 2004 Agricultural
Statistics of Thailand http://www.oae.go.th/statistic/yearbook47/ [Accessed
on 21 October 2005]

Cecelja, Franjo (2001) Manufacturing Information and Data Systems, First Edition :
Analysis, Design and Practice (Manufacturing Engineering Series)

Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) and
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ – GmbH (2004)
Thai-German Program for Enterprise Competitiveness, Eco-efficiency Component,
E3Agro- Project, Desk Study on Palm Oil Industry

Department of Industrial Works (DIW) and German Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (1997) Environmental Management
Guideline for Palm Oil Industry

Laudon, Kenneth C. (2005) Management Information Systems : Managing the
Digital Firm (9th Edition), Prentice Hall

Schwalbe, Kathy (2005) Information Technology Project Management, Fourth
Edition


General Information of Palm Oil
Factories from DIW’s Database

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CONTENTS

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND BACKGROUND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM PALM OIL INDUSTRY BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS & MATERIAL FLOWS PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS MATERIAL FLOW MIS INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES OF MIS APPLICATION BENEFITS OF MIS APPLICATION MIS PRINCIPLES APPLYING MIS PROCESS TO PALM OIL INDUSTRY PRODUCTION PROCESS MODEL DATA COLLECTION AND CONSOLIDATION DATA PROCESSING INFORMATION REPORTING & ANALYSIS

1-1 1-1 1-5 1-8 2-1 2-1 2-6 3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 4-1 4-1 4-4 4-21 4-29

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1a Table 1.1b Table 1.2a Table 3.4a Table 4.2a Table 4.2b Table 4.2c Table 4.2d Table 4.2e Table 4.2f Table 4.3a Table 4.4a Oil Palm Plantation in Thailand List of Palm Oil Factories and Milling Capacity Examples of Eco-Efficiency improvement Suggested Tools for MIS Implementation with their Pros and Cons Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Primary Production Process Section (Section#1) Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Oil Room Section (Section#2) Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Dry Process Section (Section#3) Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System Section (Section#4) Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Utility Section (Section#5) Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Internal Control Values Management Information derived from Data Processing Summary of Management Information 1-2 1-2 1-6 3-14 4-7 4-10 4-13 4-16 4-19 4-20 4-22 4-34

4b Figure 4.2a Figure 4.2b Figure 2.2c Figure 4.1a Figure 2.2e Distribution of Thailand’s Vegetable Oil Production 1-1 Standard Palm Oil Mill Process 2-1 Material Flow of Palm Oil 2-7 Material Flow of Water 2-8 Material Flow of Energy 2-9 General MIS Information Flow Diagram 3-8 Examples of Tools Used for MIS Process 3-13 Production Process Model for Palm Oil Industry 4-3 Locations of Data Collection in Primary Production Process (Section#1) 4-6 Locations of Data Collection in Oil Room (Section#2) 4-9 Locations of Data Collection in Dry Process (Section#3) 4-12 Locations of Data Collection in Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4) 4-15 Locations of Data Collection in Utility (Section#5) 4-18 .4a Figure 3.1a Figure 4.2d Figure 4.2a Figure 2.2b Figure 4.2c Figure 3.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1a Figure 2.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AFTA BOD COD CPO DG DIW EFB ERP FFA FFB GTZ GUI ICT IPPCS IT KPI LAN MIS MRP MS Access MS Excel NOx PEA PC Asean Free Trade Area Biological Oxygen Demand Chemical Oxygen Demand Crude Palm Oil Diesel Generator Department of Industrial Works Empty Fruit Bunch Enterprise Resource Planning Free Fatty Acids Fresh Fruit Bunch German Society for Technical Cooperation Graphical User Interface Information & Communication Technology Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Strategy Information Technology Key Performance Indicators Local Area Network Management Information Systems Manufacturing Resource Planning Microsoft Access Microsoft Excel Oxide of Nitrogen Provincial Electricity Authority Personal Computer .

and to establish public information centre on industrial pollution. The principal objectives of this guideline are: • To allow management representatives of palm oil factories to realise the importance. MIS introduction. and To provide introductory guidance for applying MIS for improving eco-efficiency in palm oil industry. Ministry of Industry. MIS principles and MIS application for palm oil industry. and making use of information to aid decision-making of the management. to introduce an MIS for improving ecoefficiency of selected industries. The study results provide necessary inputs for the design and development of MIS for enhancing competitiveness and eco-efficiency for these two industries.INTRODUCTION The Department of Industrial Works (DIW) is implementing a project on Management Information Systems (MIS) for Industrial Pollution Prevention and Control Project. principles and benefits of using MIS for improving eco-efficiency and enhancing business competitiveness. ERM-Siam has been commissioned to undertake a study on “Elaboration of User Requirements and Capacity Assessment of Palm Oil and Native Starch Industries”. To encourage palm oil factories for collecting and analysing eco-efficiency data. One element of the study tasks is to establish MIS guideline for improving eco-efficiency and competitiveness for palm oil and native starch industries. please feel free to contact the Bureau of Water Technology and Industrial Pollution Management of the Department of Industrial Works. As part of this MIS Project. Aim of the guideline is to support the development and implementation of a meaningful MIS for improving environmental performance and ecoefficiency in palm oil industry. Main objectives of the MIS Project are to establish environmental information database at the DIW. standard production process and material flows. Department of Industrial Works MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . • • Contents of this MIS guideline comprise background information on palm oil industry in Thailand. For further information. to make consultancy services available to industries locally. Scope of this guideline addresses the application of MIS for eco-efficiency improvement for palm oil industry. supported by German Society for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).

Chapter 1 Palm Oil Industry in Thailand .

Details of vegetable oil production distribution are shown in Figure 1. To be more competitive and to ensure supply of alternative sources of energy the palm oil mills therefore have to introduce suitable measures for eco-efficiency improvement including improved energy/environmental management.1 PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND BACKGROUND INFORMATION Palm oil production is one of the important agro-industries in Thailand with major contribution to the country’s development during the past 20 years.1a Distribution of Thailand’s Vegetable Oil Production Thailand Vegetable Oil Production 2003 822. Figure 1. Palm oil is an agro industrial product. particularly with its neighbouring countries Malaysia and Indonesia. plantation management. Oil Palm tree varieties.93 million Rai. Total area for Oil palm plantation in Thailand is currently (2005) about 1. indicating the importance of palm oil for the country’s supply of edible oil. Thailand had to request for suspension of free trade in palm oil for a period of time. extraction and refinery technology as well as downstream utilisation has to be developed and improved further to be competitive with other palm oil producers in South East Asia.1a. However. which is an 8% increase compared with the CPO production in 2003. to give the palm oil mill industry a chance to become more competitive.397 Million Tons Refined Oil Sunflower 3% Coconut 4% Palm Kernel 11% Rice Bran 3% Palm 58% Soybean 21% Department of Industrial Works 1-1 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . which can contribute substantially to the supply of alternative sources of energy. allowing the production of about 4 million tones of Crude-PalmOil (CPO) in 2005. The share of palm oil in Thailand’s vegetable oil industry is about 58%.1 1. which has been listed for free trade by Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA). The palm oil industry has a high potential for biomass energy utilisation and therefore is one of the industrial sectors.

Wong Bandit Sub-total Milling Capacity (ton.. United Palm Oil Industry PCL 4.866 31.464 14. 7.508 55.648 73.828 40. Surat Thani..535 52. Siam Modern Palm Co.146 7. (Univanich 2) 3.002 6. The Krabi Oil Palm Farmers Cooperative Federation Limited 10.600 Square metres Currently there are a total of 38 palm oil factories using standard wet process located in eight (8) provinces of Thailand. Univanich Palm Oil PCL (Lamtap: Univanich 3) 12.1a Oil Palm Plantation in Thailand Province Krabi Surat Thani Chumporn Satun Trang Prachuab Khiri Khan Chonburi Pang Nga Nakorn Si Thammarat Songkla Ranong Rayong Trad Naradhiwas Others Total 2002 563. Siam Palm Oil & Refinery Industry Co. Ltd.671 2. 5.567 317.393 2004 595..971 11.148 502. Table 1.529 25.031 26. The provinces with large plantation areas are Krabi.610 tonFFB per hour. only one palm oil mills is located in the Central Region i.523 48. Ltd.389 13. Nam Hong 8..921 77.597 10.752 73.853 74.The majority (98%) of oil palm plantation and palm oil mill industry in Thailand is located in the South of Thailand.389 1.106 3.1b List of Palm Oil Factories and Milling Capacity Name of Palm Oil Mill Krabi Province 1..935.799. Asian Palm Oil Co.524 63.133 7.a. Total milling capacity is 1.1. Srijaroen Palm Oil Co.123 1. Palmorich Co.e. Satun and Trang. Andaman Palm Oil Co. Thai Oil Palm Industry & Estate Co. Chumporn.241 24. 11.825 14. 9..269 1. Table 1.529 19. Ltd.908 460. A list of the palm oil factories is provided in Table 1.545 35.556 7.171 5.FFB/hr) 60 30 60 45 45 45 45 15 45 15 45 10 460 Department of Industrial Works 1-2 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .517 545. Ltd 6.966 352..643.264 9. Ministry of Agriculture (2005) * 1 Rai = 1.055 59.600 1. Ltd. Ltd.068 29.365 374.165 50.1b below.861 Plantation Area (Rai*) 2003 575.410 50.088 10. Details of oil palm plantation during 2002 – 2004 are provided in Table 1. Ltd (Univanich 1) 2.092 Source: Agricultural Economic Office. Chonburi province.593 13.987 39.

. The Southern Palm II 3. Ltd. Locations of palm oil factories are close to the oil palm plantations.FFB/hr) 60 60 45 45 15 45 270 45 60 60 45 90 45 30 60 45 60 15 60 615 10 10 45 45 45 135 30 15 45 30 30 45 45 1. Trang Palm Oil Co. 2.. 2. SPO Agro-industry 11. Thai Palm Development Co. as shown in Figure 1. AST Palm Sub-total Total Milling Capacity (ton.Kanjanadit 12. Satun Industries Co. Unipalm Co. Thachana Palm Oil 8. followed by Krabi. 3. Otaco Sub-total Satun Province 1. Jiras Palm 10. Ltd. Taweesilp Palm Oil Co. Thai Talow & Oil II 6. Jaroen Palm Rachagroot Sub-total Trang Province 1. Ltd.. Sub-total Chonburi Province 1. Ltd. Ltd. Total production capacity of the mills in Surat Thani province is 615 FFB per hour. Ta Chang Palm Sub-total Ranong Province 1. Chumporn Palm Oil Industry Public Co.1b. Thai Talow & Oil I 5.. Vichitbhan Palm Oil Co. Department of Industrial Works 1-3 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Thung Thong 5. Swee Palm 4. Chumporn and Trang.. Ltd. Lam Soon (Thailand) PCL 3.. Lang Suan Cooperative (LSC) 6.. Ltd.Name of Palm Oil Mill Chumporn Province 1. The Natural Palm 9. Green Glory 7. Sub-total Surat Thani Province 1. which is the highest number of factories in a single province. 2.610 Source: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) & GTZ (2004) Surat Thani province has a total of 12 palm oil mills.. Ltd. The Southern Palm I (TSP I) 2. Sub-total Prachuab Khiri Khan Province 1. Suksomboon Palm Oil Co. 4.

Figure 1.10 Factories Surat Thani Pang Nga Krabi Nakhon Si Thammarat Phuket Trang Satun Yala Naradhiwas Pattalung Songkla Pattanee 1 – 5 Factories Source: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) & GTZ (2004) Department of Industrial Works 1-4 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .1b Palm Oil Factory Distribution Chonburi Prachuab Khiri Khan Chumporn Ranong Numbers of Factories in each Province More than 10 factories 6 .

insufficient machinery and plan maintenance (including leakages/spillages) are major sources of oil loss in the palm oil mills. and decanter sludge. resulting in wastewater with high organic load (BOD ≅ 30. Some examples of achieving improved eco-efficiency are shown in Table 1. Good environmental management is necessary to ensure sustainability of the palm oil producing industry. the environmental management practice has to be integrated into the production process management system and include efficient use of natural resources. the harvested Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) have to be processed within 72 hours. The generated by-products are empty fruit bunch (EFB). A significant amount of water is used in the production process.2. for example controlling steam pressure and time during sterilisation to save energy.000 mg/l and SS ≅ 34.1 Considerations for Improvements in the Production Process To avoid excessive generation of free fatty acids from enzymatic activities. fibre.2a. Associated environmental impacts occur due to the oil extraction process by steaming palm fruit.2 MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM PALM OIL INDUSTRY Palm oil production is characterised by the generation of substantial amount of by-products accounting to more than 60% of the total production capacity in terms of raw material input.000 mg/l. Department of Industrial Works 1-5 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Losses in the production process can be avoided by. controlling the pressure during screw pressing to get maximum oil from fibre. which would deteriorate the palm oil quality. To achieve reduced environmental impacts from palm oil processing. separating kernel and extracting oil from the fruit (pericarp). In addition palm kernel are generated and subsequently used for kernel oil production. COD ≅ 90.1. etc.000 mg/l). 1. This can be improved by the introduction of preventive maintenance schemes ensuring that all equipment/machinery is in good condition at all times. shell. Using inefficient types of equipment. monitoring empty fruit bunches to collect remaining palm fruits for re-sterilisation.

Reducing the solid load in crude oil. Reducing water consumption. and equipment should be checked. and Reducing water consumption Oil quality improved • Reducing oil loss • • • • Final Oil Trapping Steriliser condensate Wastewater from decanter (or separator) Washing and cleaning water Cooling water from boiler and evaporator oil collection • Reducing oil loss. Reducing equipment damage. and Reducing oil loss through leakage and accident Source: Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry (1997) Department of Industrial Works 1-6 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . or automatic skimmer should be used for routine control. and Decanter should be checked and washed as scheduled Condensate should be separated from other wastewater One more separator should be added into the system Water should be minimised: and Detergent usage should be minimised Water should be collected for washing and cleaning with routine collection. and Desander should be washed as scheduled Decanter should be used.2a Examples of Eco-Efficiency improvement Processing Step Raw Material Handling Sterilisation Detail Step Prevention and Control • Results • Raw material should be processed within 72 hrs Steam pressure and time should be controlled Steriliser condensate should not be mixed with wastewater from oil room Fruit bunches containing palm fruits should be collected and re-sterilised Pressure should be controlled to get maximum oil out of the fibre and minimise the cracking of palm seed Vibrating screen should be in good condition Easy to extract and provide better quality oil Saving energy and time Easy to separate oil since it contains low concentration of suspended solids Increasing oil yield - • • • • Bunch Stripping Oil Extraction - • • Screw pressing • • Minimising oil loss with fibre Filtration • • • Oil Separation Settling tank • Desanding • • Decantercentrifuging • • Retention time of oil in settling tank has to be controlled to avoid FFA increase Wash wastewater should be examined. and Reducing solids in wastewater Easy to separate oil • • Reducing oil loss • • • • • • • • Reducing water consumption. maintained and repaired as soon as possible • Separating small fibre.Table 1. and Reducing emulsification Recover good quality oil back to the process.

The amount of fibre generated by the palm oil mills is sufficient to satisfy all steam and electricity requirements for Crude Palm Oil (CPO) production. Department of Industrial Works 1-7 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .9.e. which can subsequently be used as biomass fuel in suitable boiler systems for steam/electricity production. the majority of shells generated is sold to other industries (i. fibre. Utilisation of raw wastewater for biogas and electricity generation is discussed in Section 2. which is subsequently used for electricity production.1. shell and decanter cake. Wastewater generated from the palm oil mill has a high organic and nutrient (Nitrogen) content and therefore can be used after suitable treatment for irrigation in the oil palm plantation.2 Utilisation of Palm Oil Mill By-products and Residues Solid residues from palm oil mill include empty fruit bunch (EFB). Utilisation of these residues could reduce factory’s waste disposal costs and reduce impacts to the receiving environment simultaneously. Since the amount of fibre is generally sufficient as energy source for an individual the palm oil mill.1. Decanter cake from the oil separation process is either dumped as solid waste or sold to farmers to be used as fertilisers or animal feed ingredient. cement and power plants) as biomass fuel or for the production of activated carbon. Almost all fibre generated by the mills is used internally as fuel in the boiler for steam and electricity generation. Some mills are using the raw wastewater for biogas generation.e.2. Details of the integrated environmental management approach in palm oil mills including the “Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Strategy” (IPPCS) are provided in the Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry – Department of Industrial Works. Some mills introduce EFB pressing techniques to achieve lower moisture content in the EFB. it can also be sold as biomass fuel to other industries (i. EFB can be used as organic fertiliser and soil conditioner as it maintains humidity of the soil. If excess fibre is generated. It can be sold to local farmers for using as a substrate for mushroom cultivation. cement and power plants). Ministry of Industry (1997). Liquid residue is palm oil mill effluent.

1. Maximising the utilisation of these by-products can contribute in improving business performance and provide a competitive advantage to the palm oil industry.3. improving eco-efficiency by Department of Industrial Works 1-8 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . and measures for overall eco-efficiency improvement. Therefore. which can be sold to the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). which can contribute substantially to the supply of alternative sources of energy. the profit margin of palm oil mills is comparatively small. Biogases are fed into gas engine to generate electricity. 1. 1. and regulations. which require the palm oil mills to introduce and apply stringent quality monitoring systems. This is one of the means that palm oil industry can generate additional revenue apart from crude palm oil production. which encourage industries to pay more attention to eco-efficiency improvement.2 Utilisation of By-products as Biomass Fuel The palm oil industry has a high potential for biomass energy utilisation and therefore is one of the industrial sectors. profitability. Process wastewater from the palm oil production process is used as input to a system to generate biogases mainly methane. Increased competitiveness is therefore of major concern to the palm oil mills which is supported by several governmental agencies for example through the active technical & financial promotion of biogas system application. the improved utilisation of by products. a biogas system has been introduced to palm oil industry as its application is proven to be economically viable. Since the supply of FFB does not meet the demand of palm oil mills shortages of raw material (FFB) and FFB price increases obstruct competitiveness and further development of the palm oil industry in Thailand. customer demands for “greener” product. The application of biogas system can also reduce the organic loading of the process wastewater and eventually minimise effect on water pollution. As a result. the palm oil mills have to address environmental concerns by both the customers and the population surrounding the mills by introducing pro-active environmental management systems. In addition.3.3. palm fibre and empty fruit bunch (EFB).1. there are a number of drivers. Product quality requirements by customers have increased in recent years. maintaining market share. responsibility to communities. such as shells.3 Eco-efficiency Improvement At present.1 Introduction to Biogas System In recent years. Unused materials or by-products from palm oil mills can be used as biomass fuel and sold to other industries.3 BUSINESS PERSPECTIVES IN PALM OIL INDUSTRY IN THAILAND Information provided by the Thai-German E3Agro Project indicate that the total installed production capacity of all existing palm oil mills is around 43% higher than the existing supply of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) from the available oil palm plantation area. Such drivers include cost reduction. managing environmental risks and liability.

can accommodate the business needs together with enhancing the business competitiveness.promoting the creation of products while optimising resource use and reducing wastes and pollution. Department of Industrial Works 1-9 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . For instance. palm oil mills have focused theirs efforts more on the management of saleable by-products (i. In recent years. shells and fibre). and resource conservation activities. installation of biogas system.e. palm oil industry in Thailand has started to realise the importance and benefits gained from eco-efficiency improvement.

Chapter 2 Palm Oil Production Process & Material Flows .

A schematic flow diagram of the standard process of palm oil mills is shown in Figure 2. Details of process are described in the following sections. The oil is then purified by the application of gravity inducing oil separation.1a Standard Palm Oil Mill Process Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) Steam Sterilization Condensate Threshing Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Steam Digestion Screw Pressing Hot Water Oil Press Cake Fiber-Nut Separation Nuts Crude Oil Vibrating Screen Fibre Settling Tank Purifier Nut Drying and Cracking Underflow Dryer Shell-Kernel Separation Shells Crude Palm Oil Desanding Storage Decanter-Separator Sold Kernel Drying Palm kernels Wastewater Decanter Cake Water Chemical Electricity Biogas Generator Stream Turbine Steam Boiler Wastewater Pre-treated Treatment wastewater Biogas Plant Plant Sludge Effluent Electricity used or sold to Grid Blowdown Emission Diesel Generator Department of Industrial Works 2-1 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .1 Figure 2. 2.1a.2 PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS & MATERIAL FLOWS PALM OIL PRODUCTION PROCESS The principle of palm oil production process is to extract the oil from palm fruit using steam and pressing machine.

could affect the value of the oil. In normal conditions.2 Sterilisation FFB are sterilised in order to inactivate the natural enzymatic activity and loosen the fruit. This content tends to increase rapidly with the maturation of the fruits and thus. Sterilisation is carried out in autoclaves of 20 to 30 tons FFB capacity. Hot water is added to the digester to facilitate homogenisation.1.1. The generated residues from this process include empty fruit bunches (EFB) which contain moisture.8. as well as to soften the mesocarp.5 Screw Pressing Screw pressing is a process to extract palm oil from mash. 2. This recovery process is further detailed in Section 2. It can be sold to local farmers for using as a substrate for mushroom cultivation.1 bars.1.1. at temperature of 130 °Celsius and pressure of 3. Department of Industrial Works 2-2 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This mash is subsequently put into the oil extraction press (screw press).2.3 Threshing The sterilised FFB are sent to rotary drum threshers to separate the sterilised fruits from the bunch stalks. palm oil of fresh fruits contains about 1% free fatty acids (FFA). 2. 2. with the application of “live steam”. which can subsequently be used as biomass fuel in suitable boiler systems for steam/electricity production. 2. The extracted oil phase is collected and discharged to the purification section while the solid parts comprising fibre and nuts are separated by physical means. resulting in easier extraction of oil. 2.6 Oil Purification (Clarification and Drying) The process of oil purification is divided into four (4) sub-processes during which the suspended matter is dissociated from the raw crude oil.1 Arrival and Storage of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) In order to avoid an excessive production of free fatty acids due to a natural enzymatic process in the mesocarp.1.1. EFB can be used as organic fertiliser and soil conditioner as it maintains humidity of the soil. transportation of the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) from harvesting to sterilising should not exceed 72 hours. Some mills introduce EFB pressing techniques to achieve lower moisture content in the EFB.4 Digestion The separated fruits are discharged into vertical steam-jacketed drums (digesters) and treated mechanically to convert them into a homogeneous oily mash. during 90 minutes.1.

As a result. In addition. the oil quality can be affected as an oxidation process can occur. this procedure has a low-separation efficiency. either the separated oil still contains a high concentration of suspended solids or the settled residue (settling tank bottom sludge) contains a high content of oil. Department of Industrial Works 2-3 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . The settling tank underflow is collected in the sludge tank and subsequently treated for recovery of oil. Depending on the applied settling tank surface loading rate and retention time. fibres and fragments of the pericarps from the liquid phase. After sieving. The conventional procedure of separation of oil from water and suspended solids is the “oil separation tank” method. Water is added to the raw oil and passed through a vibrating screen (JohnsonScreen or Sweco-Screen) in order to improve the separation process. Purification Purification is a final process during which fine suspended solids are separated and removed from crude oil. To improve the separation process. As the suspended solids content in raw crude oil is low. Due to large surfaces of contact of oil with air. The separated oil floating on top of the settling tank is then collected by a funnel system and sent to the oil purification system. which is about 50%. Raw crude oil from the settling tank (top oil) is combined with recovered oil from the treatment of the settling tank underflow. some mills switch from the settling tank system to a more efficient oil clarification system using a three-phase centrifuge (decanter). This results in a total crude-oil production of about 163 kg per ton of FFB being processed. these centrifuges are equipped with an automatic cake discharge and cleaning system. Centrifuges carry out this final oil purification step (solids removal). Oil is heated either by the introduction of live steam or with closed steam heating coils which facilitates gravity separation. long retention times combined with high temperature can also reduce oil quality. the oil still contains small size solids and water. Separation of Suspended Solids from Oil The process is carried out to produce raw crude oil with expected composition of 90%oil and 10% water. For improved operation efficiency. generated volumes of solid residues are negligible leading to a lower impact on the environment.Vibrating Screen of Raw Crude Oil Screening of raw crude oil is carried out in order to separate large size of solids such as dirt.

The bottom sludge from the “oil separation tank” is characterised by high oil content (around 14%). the water phase contains fine fibres and sand. whereas the nuts are sent to the nutcracker or ripple mill section for recovery of palm kernel. the dried crude oil is kept in storage tanks and sold to an oil refinery.1. high concentration of organic substances (both in the dissolved form and suspended solids) and water-soluble substances. Desanding is implemented to protect the equipment in the subsequent process steps (in particular centrifuges) against clogging. Department of Industrial Works 2-4 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . a treatment process referred as oil drying and cooling is required. The fibre is used as biomass fuel in boiler on-site. This crude oil drying process-step has a lower environmental impact. The shell is separated from the kernel and collected for sale as fuel to other industries. 2. Subsequently. Desanding Desanding is a process to pre-clean the bottom sludge prior to being passed to the decanter. The bottom sludge is pre-cleaned by means of microstrainers/ hydrocyclones. which are carried out in order to recover oil and to decrease the organic load of the liquid residue. producing recovered oil. which is treated at wastewater treatment plant.Oil Drying and Cooling Due to high content of water in the purified crude oil. Washwater consumption for desanding is normally around 5 litres per ton of FFB. Decanting-Separating Decanting process recovers the oil contained in bottom sludge from separation tank.7 Recovery of Oil Separator Tank Underflow (Bottom Sludge) The recovery process comprises two (2) sub-processes. which is another product of palm oil mill besides crude palm oil (CPO). In addition. The purified crude oil goes into a vacuum evaporation system. The oil is then returned to oil separation tank. decanter cake and wastewater. followed by the injection of fresh water. The output of desanding process is discharged into decanter and separator. 2.8 Kernel Recovery Plant After the solids parts leave the screw press. fibre and nuts are separated by physical means. Only a small portion of shells is used as boiler fuel at the palm oil mill.1. These “desanders” are frequently cleaned by discharging the accumulated solids to the drain.

2. Raw water is treated in a softener plant for removal of Ca-hardness and subsequently used as boiler feed water. sterilisation and digestion. Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry (1997) has provided a review of suitable wastewater treatment technologies for palm oil industry. biogas generated from the system is used for generating electricity and selling back to grid. Boiler Steam is utilised in various sub-process of palm oil production. a biogas system has been introduced to palm oil industry in order to reduce the cost of purchased energy. facultative pond.000 mg/l. Fibre is typically used as boiler fuel. Details are provided in the following section. comprising anaerobic pond. in some palm oil mills. Shell can also be used as boiler fuel in case of fibre shortage. 1 m3 of biogas generally can generate around 1-1. and COD – 90. organic loading of the processed wastewater can be reduced.000mg/l) undergoes anaerobic digestion process as part of the biogas system for generating electricity. For example. Department of Industrial Works 2-5 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . However. wastewater treatment plant and biogas system (which is applicable to some of the palm oil mills). which eventually minimises effect on water pollution. this generated wastewater with high organic content (BOD – 30. Biogas System Since palm oil wastewater has high organic load. for example. Typically 1 m3 of palm oil wastewater can produce 12-16 m3 of biogas. and polishing pond. As energy price has significantly increased in recent years. secondary wastewater treatment and nitrogen removal. including primary wastewater treatment. In the past.44 baht/unit).2 units of electricity. Biogas generated from anaerobic ponds was neither captured nor utilised. Wastewater Management Generated wastewater from the palm oil mill typically goes to a biological wastewater treatment process to ensure that effluent quality meets industrial standard.1. In addition. and average electricity price is 2. biogas generated from 1 m3 of treating palm oil wastewater can generate around 29-39 Baht contributing to additional revenue to palm oil industry (assuming that 70% peak and 30% off-peak is applied. Moreover. Consequently. the most popular wastewater treatment plant was pond treatment system. it is suitable for producing biogas by using an anaerobic treatment system.9 Utilities The main utility system in palm oil mill includes boiler.

These key materials can reflect the causes of under-performing production. Through this concept.2.e.2.2a . A concept of material flows is employed to identify.2c. raw materials and energy) and outputs from the process (products. wastes and emissions). Assessment of production performance is made possible by material flows. and energy.2 MATERIAL FLOW Performance of the palm oil production process can be determined by considering the materials flows of production process. Department of Industrial Works 2-6 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . quantify and improve characteristics of products. water. Thus material flow incorporates itself as a key decisive making factor in production process. technical processes and eco-efficiency. The materials include inputs to the process (i. analysis of inventory based on balances of material and energy flows. key materials influencing the eco-efficiency performance are crude palm oil (CPO). In a typical palm oil mill. Material flows associated with CPO. An example of how material flow is inclusive in decisionmaking includes decision on response plans or tasks to be employed in order to improve or solve any particular problems of production process. and balance evaluation are applied. water and energy are shown in Figure 2.

Losses are via empty fruit bunches (EFB). wastewater and decanter cake.Figure 2. while the other 44 % is discharged along with the liquid residues (mainly oil-room effluent). fibre. Department of Industrial Works 2-7 Oil loss in Wastewater Oil loss in Decanter cake MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . EFB and fibre. losses of CPO occur in various sub-processes.e.2a Material Flow of Palm Oil Oil in FFB Recovered Oil CPO to sell Thru CPO production since entering fresh fruit bunches (FFB) into production process. about 56% of the oil loss is through solid residues i. According to Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry (1997).

and discharged as effluent from the wastewater treatment plant. Process wastewater mainly comes from the oil room section prior to being treated.Figure 2. and is used for digestion of fruit bunches. Department of Industrial Works 2-8 Hot water Effluent MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .2b Material Flow of Water Fresh water is converted into steam by boiler operation. Steam is mainly used for sterilisation. Vibrating screen and settling tank in the oil room section also require water to aid the processes. The steam is partially lost in the exhaust of the sterilisation stage.

In some factories with a biogas system – electricity is produced mainly for selling and distributing to Department of Industrial Works 2-9 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement UTILITY .Figure 2. and in absence of plant operations – electricity is generated from the diesel generator. compared with the other sections. * All machinery and equipment in all sections of the palm oil production process consume electricity. Electricity is mainly generated by the steam turbine to sustain the production process.2c Material Flow of Energy PRIMARY PRODUCTION PROCESS WASTEWATER BIOGAS SYSTEM DRY PROCESS OIL ROOM Remark Oil room section consumes the highest electricity.

Management Information System (MIS) is introduced for improving eco-efficiency in palm oil production. Department of Industrial Works 2-10 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . The material balancing flows function as pointer of where the data should be collected and behave as balancing evaluation of material inventory. compared with the other sections. when eco-efficiency data have been continuously collected. data and information on eco-efficiency in palm oil industry are not fully made available at present. Theoretically. The following sections of the Guideline will describe MIS concept. As a consequence. through material balancing flow. In this Guideline. materials flows need to be established and employed in order to understand the inputs and outputs of the production process. most information regarding eco-efficiency are not fully utilised by management to aid decision-making. principles and how MIS could be applied to palm oil production. However. The oil room section consumes the highest electricity. evaluation and information reporting is of particular concern. For instance. The result is the identification of improvement opportunities within the process. verification. To improve eco-efficiency.the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). the development of data collection. oil loss within the production process could be identified including where the loss is occurring. analysis of material inventory and balance could be successfully undertaken. Actual information on material balance of water and energy usage is rarely available. and is a starting point for management information process to support decisionmaking. Therefore.

Chapter 3 Introduction to MIS Application .

e. Shareholders demanding accountability and transparency. Competitive advantage by setting the trend or following market leader. IT is also applied to other parts of the business such as marketing. These internal drivers include: • • • • • • • Cost reduction. and to report and make use of information such as monitoring performance and improving any given process or activities. A number of internal and external drivers encourage organisations to focus on eco-efficiency practices. analysis and presentation of information to assist decision-making and to enhance business competitiveness. Increasing quality of products and services. and Maintaining or increasing market share. Information Technology (IT) has proven to be a crucial part of business decision making to obtain a leading edge. Profitability. Thai government regulations. Responsibility to community. External drivers include: • • • • Customer demands for more “environmental-friendly” products.2 OBJECTIVES OF MIS APPLICATION Since businesses have to face higher competition. i. Increasing innovations and employee motivation. Managing environmental risks and liability. human resources. Moreover. production process and eco-efficiency. MIS is typically used as a tool by management to assess and monitor business performance and to help compare or identify possible business alternatives. 3. to analyse data and transform into meaningful information. MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement 3-1 Department of Industrial Works . Basic functions of MIS are to systematically capture data from operations.3 3. Specific objectives of MIS application depend on individual organisation’s strategy.1 MIS INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Management Information System (MIS) is defined as a system or process that manages the collection. introduction of new activities and process modification in industries. In this guideline. the main objective of MIS application in palm oil industry is to improve eco-efficiency and competitiveness.

Department of Industrial Works 3-2 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Reducing risks and liabilities with appropriate environmental management planning and avoiding the use of toxic substances. 3. Enhancing brand image through efforts on marketing and communication. and Improving environmental performance and reducing toxic emissions by reusing and recycling unused materials. to monitoring performance (either for their own internal benchmarking or industry benchmarking). However MIS can also lead to a number of practical benefits for improving eco-efficiency. These benefits include: • • • • • • • Encouraging palm oil industry to collect. analyse and transform eco-efficiency data into meaningful information for the management in a timely and systematic manner supporting order to support their decision-making. 3.• • Public pressure for cleaner production. Cost reduction measures (and increasing revenue) through more efficient use of materials. eco-efficiency improvement can be achieved while at the same time. With such a tool. and Government regulations and directives where products are exported to overseas such as European Countries.4 MIS PRINCIPLES Basic requirements for MIS application and implementation are categorised into three (3) main elements comprising “People”. competitiveness can be enhanced.3 BENEFITS OF MIS APPLICATION It is important to understand how MIS technology can support decisionmaking and help to improve business competitiveness. can answer the increasing business needs together with enhancing the business competitiveness. In this perspective. resources and energy. “Implementation Process”. and also to compare various alternatives such as process modification and installation. Market globalisation has influenced companies to greatly improve the quality and environmental soundness of products and services they provide while at the same time to produce goods at the lowest possible cost. Allowing the management of palm oil factories to identify gaps for improvement. Increasing palm oil productivity and maximising return on investment. eco-efficiency improvement by promoting the creation of products while optimising resource use and reducing wastes and pollution. In such a context. the introduction of MIS can provide valuable support for successful decision-making at the management level in palm oil industry.

Supervision Role Personnel in charge of MIS supervision can be someone who posses an overall understanding on how to reach the objectives and realise the benefits. it is necessary to group such tasks. while manage and supervise MIS operation. and assign roles and responsibilities to fulfil them. It should be noted that the amount of MIS personnel is based on plant owner consideration. all data collection and analysis for decision making will not be meaningful. Management Role Every successful MIS requires management support and involvement. supervision role. Provide and manage MIS budget and personnel. An MIS operation comprises of several tasks. Communicate the importance of MIS to all employees including MIS personnel and all other department personnel. based on relevance. By doing so will not only clearly define roles and responsibilities to perform MIS processes but also assist plant owners to be able to select and recruit suitable personnel.4. Guide MIS supervisors on objectives and benefits of implementing an MIS. comprising management role. Align MIS strategy and policy with business strategy. Responsibilities and Qualifications: In general. Also.1 People The most important element in MIS is the people involved since all objectives and benefits will be addressed by understanding personnel who will also oversee MIS process. and operation role. Thus MIS supervisor is not necessarily Department of Industrial Works 3-3 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . and Provide support in further development and improvement of MIS in the future. Principles and relationship between these elements are elaborated in this section. Typical roles and responsibilities in MIS implementation are described as follows. information and tools. Without management.and “Tools” (hardware and software). Roles. management needs to take an active role in facilitating the followings: • • • • • • Use and interpret information from MIS reports for decision-making. there are three (3) levels of roles and responsibilities for personnel involved in MIS implementation. The main role of management is to bind MIS and other operation together to implement the decision made from MIS reports and/or decision-making process. therefore. 3.

production manager. Above all. Operation Role Operation role can be assigned to any plant staff. • Collect and enter data into provided system (i. Introduce the MIS procedures and its objectives to MIS operation personnel. hence. Analyse data and create useful information. • Nevertheless. careful selection and monitoring of MIS operation personnel is vital. the supervision role is undertaken by a plant manager. MIS procedures and data collected will be skewed and not present actual findings. the plant personnel taking the operational role come from different departments such as production staff and laboratory staff. Otherwise. who is involved in any particular process that needs data collection. Typically. poor reporting and poor decision making. or dedicated MIS supervisor. it will be beneficial if MIS supervisor is comfortable with computer technology. However. troubleshoot. which will lead to poor analysis. are implemented in a correct and good manner with clear understanding of realising the objectives and benefits. implementing MIS procedures are secondary to operational tasks unless acquire dedicated MIS personnel. Operational roles and responsibilities include: Implement MIS procedures and tasks at any particular process required. At the plant floor. this would depend on the plant owner insights. and • Organise maintenance and troubleshoot. and Organise maintenance. tasks and tools. monitor and implement MIS procedures. and upgrade all MIS hardware and software (optional). Supervision roles and responsibilities include: • • • • • Oversee all MIS processes. Report information findings and recommendations to management for decision making. It should be noted that dedicated MIS team/personnel is recommended to supervise. software) accurately and honestly.Information & Communication (ICT) trained or certified personnel. Typically. Department of Industrial Works 3-4 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . MIS supervisors need to make sure that MIS operation personnel are trustworthy and honest to their responsibilities. and upgrade all MIS hardware and software (optional). information and tools. selecting personnel for this role requires those who understand and able to perform MIS tasks with comprehension and care. budget and operations. Understanding that data collection and MIS procedure implementation are different tasks from regular operation tasks. it will not assist in realising the objectives and benefits set out to implement MIS in the first place.e.

processes will need to be set and communicated to relevant personnel and departments. the MIS processes could be applied to the palm oil industry. Every industry is different and so are their processes. This process is sensitive and is regarded as the most human error process in MIS. therefore. and Related Department Heads Data Collection and Consolidation Data collection and consolidation is a crucial process as it gathers actual data from plant level. people roles need to be assigned.4. and successfully meet its objectives and benefits. information flow and methodologies for applying an MIS.3. information flow and methodology. a data audit process shall be conducted from time to time. this process is undertaken by existing plant staff and not specifically dedicated MIS personnel. MIS. After collection. To prevent human error. This process varies from industry to industry but is required for financial application (1) Software-enabled method Department of Industrial Works 3-5 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . as described in the previous section (Section 3. tools need to be selected and acquired. data need to be consolidated and stored such as entering data into software1 to be systematically structured for further analysis. In most cases. Management shall take on the role in identifying the needs for MIS implementation. Conversely. Typical MIS Processes Preparation Stage At this stage. which in turn determines the achievement of MIS commencement. Personnel involved: MIS Supervisor and Assigned Operator Data Cleansing & Verification or Data Auditing This process is optional depending on each plant’s MIS policy.4. objectives. training and reminders are often provided. Training is often required for personnel of related process. Personnel involved: Management. A methodology for applying an MIS needs to be selected for MIS implementation. into the system would lead to poor analysis. To ensure the quality of data.2 MIS Implementation Process People. and the foundation and its cooperation between internal departments and management. data verification process based on each plant’s MIS policy may need to be implemented. will need to adopt MIS processes and understand the information flow to implement MIS. This section describes typical MIS processes. setting the strategy. Entering incorrect data.1).

how each data collected can help improve efficiencies. and how to initially adjust each process for better throughput according to data analysis. Department of Industrial Works 3-6 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . MIS reports should be designed to provide necessary information for decision-making in the viewpoint of their interests. automate such process will be ideal. Undeniably. Recent researches indicate that significant MIS time and resources are allocated to report creation rather than necessary processes. The purpose is to formalise sets of information in a simple visual format so that high-level executives or management can easily review it. For palm oil industry.processing such as credit card or loan. Data Processing Processing of entered data will create sets of information that will allow management to support decision-making. it is critical to standardise reports so that management has little-to-no learning curve understanding the information. This process is viewed as the most vital process in MIS processes since data processing will provide key information such as how efficient each process is. MIS needs to design this displaying information process into formatted reports while incorporating minimum time usage as possible. Data processing is generally carried out by software. Decision-making This process is mainly management’s responsibility. creating plant and industry benchmarks. If not. this process will not be emphasized in this guideline. Since different management require different information based on their interests. In regards to time constraint on management to review the information. Each set of information will then be compared and analysed to measure each production processes’ efficiency. Personnel involved: MIS Supervisor and Management Information Reporting and Analysis Following analysis. it varies from plant to plant whether data collection and consolidation is adequate and reliable. MIS takes a supportive role. Consequently. therefore. MIS supervisors will need to allocate additional resources to verify data collected. this process is the pinnacle of MIS processes as it summarises all MIS effort and allows MIS to make recommendations to management based on analysed information. set of information will need to be arranged in a presentable format for reporting. illustrated by key performance indicators (KPI).

It requires involved personnel to utilise basic tools such as paper forms and a calculator to perform process’ tasks. this method presents frequent human errors. Department of Industrial Works 3-7 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . as information technology becomes more sophisticated and more economical. technology cannot aid the continuity of business processes. Information Flow Relationship between MIS process and MIS roles and responsibilities is summarised and shown by a typical information flow diagram in Figure 3. Methodologies can be categorised as such: Manual Method This is the most labour intensive approach to carry out any process. However. that when unforeseeable event occurs. Filing of gathered or even analysed information is at the heart of each method. This manual method requires the most resources when compare to the next two methods but may present the most cost-effective approach due to low investment in tools and low maintenance. the need of continuity plan is becoming more important. hence. Unavoidably. implementing management’s decision is an assigned departments’ responsibility which may need MIS support to fulfil such implementation. It has been proven time and time again. The manual method requires paper-based filing (storing) as actual working documents while act as back-up copies at the same time. Methodologies To capture and enter data through analyse and present information. this method became the standard continuity process for MIS practice.Despite the outcome. Although primitive technology-wise.4a as follows. all MIS processes need to apply a methodology to centralise and store such data while enable the information flow. businesses grow to rely heavily on them.

4a General MIS Information Flow Diagram Production Control Process Modification Decision making Management Data calculation Information reporting & analysis MIS Supervisor Data storage Data collection & consolidation Data verification MIS Operation Department of Industrial Works 3-8 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .Figure 3.

cable wiring. As discussed in the section “Data Collection and Consolidation”. tools (network. A viable and standard alternative is to use purchased software. it shall be designed to accommodate the sequence of data to be entered for such industry specific process. Such approach is an in-house software design. although widely practice. analysis and reporting since data are scattered in files on multiple PCs. Supporting information flow for a palm oil mill may require software that interconnects from each production process to process. File-based is where MIS personnel create or adopt file associated to each MIS processes and deploy them on role usage basis. which is created by reputable companies who have deep knowledge in industry processes. to systematically structure entered data. which requires time. calculating or so on with a low learning curve. error occurs at the interaction of human and PC since human performs data input. the software interface (screen) is extremely important. No matter how well designed-software GUI is. and required Department of Industrial Works 3-9 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . MIS can customise productivity software such as Microsoft Excel and Access to service the information flow. In addition. To solve this problem. If it serves simple and straightforward functions such as data entry. formatting. data entry at sterilisation process may have one PC with a file to enter data for such particular processes involved. good GUI design also depends on the software functionality. MRP is industry standard software but needs to be customised to fit each plant’s production process.Software-enabled Method This method requires an interaction with software on a personal computer (PC). Consideration to take this approach depends on MIS know-how and skill. financial and accounting. However. For instance. This part in software design is called Graphical User Interface or GUI. presents problems of storage. Decent GUI allows users to engage and interact with data whether entering. A minimum set of a PC is at the base of this method. Calculation and analysis including other MIS processes except decisionmaking can adopt software usage in two approaches: “file-based” and “purchase”. data auditing and process monitoring are viable options to assure better data quality and lower human errors. This approach. server and so forth) and resources and is not standard but highly customised to that particular business. GUI is not only formatting fields on a computer screen but it is a psychological behaviour pattern that is interpreted into a screen layout so that users can understand how to use it at best. database. This particular type of software is called Manufacturing Resource Planning or MRP.

and their attributes to consider its suitability to adopt. Paper. as manual it is. Department of Industrial Works 3-10 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This method is generally controlled via a network of electronic controls and computers. small database version of software for users to work on. pencil/pen and calculator are the most basic tools for any business operation. spreadsheet. It may be costly. Thus. Details of this method vary highly from process to process.3 Tools This section introduces MIS tools from paper-based to sophisticated tool. Software are computer programs designed to serve specific tasks. prone to errors it becomes. Pencil/Pen and Calculator Paper. and also the fundamental tools for MIS. The advantage of these tools is that they require almost no explanation in usage. requires control over each process using hardware and electronics that are able to capture data. No matter how sophisticated MIS implementation can be. For MIS. Unavoidably. However. therefore. as they are extremely familiar to any level of business operation and are mostly adopted. which entails investments beyond computer hardware and software. these tools can be applied specifically to data collection and calculation processes. In a package of productivity software combines a word processor. presentation.4. but it is proven to be the most productive tool to enable efficiency boosting.information in other departments. Personal Computer (PC) and Productivity Software In the late 1970s and early 1980s the personal computer (PC) has made its way into every business. The reason is because it can support several tasks in one machine lending a lot of equipment obsolete such as the typewriter. Repetition and verification of each process may be required to guarantee its correctness. 3. will not be discussed in this guideline. Automated Method A sophisticated approach. The manual methodology requires these sets of tools as mentioned previously for business continuity planning and support. it is the software inside the PC that makes all the difference. these tools would always be required in business. communication. alert on out-of-setting events and interconnect to a computer network. application of these basic tools in MIS process is straightforward. The most widely adopted next to operating system (programs to make PC function) is productivity software such as Microsoft Office.

File Cabinet and Database The common purpose of these two is storage of data. Microsoft PowerPoint. Wired/Cable Network Wired/Cable network will use a physical network cable to physically connect each PC. Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Access respectively. File cabinets are proven inadequate to serve data input and output like databases. data tables or reports. Before or after storing data electronically.e. The purpose of communication is to exchange information whether being email. functionalities. it is standard for any business operation to deploy PCs with productive software as it can serve any business. and versatility. servers and network equipment (i. backup procedures are commonly adopted. hence. documents. Procedures to guarantee the safety of business data are also critically required. File cabinets act as a backup location for database’s data printouts whether in forms of raw data. A Local Area Network (LAN) comprises of multiple PCs. switch. A file cabinet files paper-based documents. the difference is in its form. the actual paper is used for writing down data collection from any production process to print outs of data forms to perform calculation or reports. etc.The success of Microsoft Office made the standard productivity tools synonymous with its brand name such as Microsoft Word. Normally the access of data is from many PCs. Database is an electronic centralised place for data storage. which is the file cabinet. but database files digital information in a digitally structured file cabinet. data.) to enable communication with other PCs. both coexist due to dependability. and any forms of electronic information. which are wired/cable and wireless. in business practice. Microsoft Excel. The advantage of using cable is that data transmission is reliable. hub. router. Department of Industrial Works 3-11 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . A database is crucial to store data for data input such as entering data for data collection and data output such as displaying data consolidation to perform calculation or even as a report. There are two (2) types of networks. These software normally substitute any manual process due to its ease of use. a database is usually placed in a server on a network of PCs to access. therefore. fast and cost-effective. All need a physical location to store. Hence. Server and Local Area Network (LAN) A server is a regular PC but dedicated as a public PC to allow other PCs to access information on it such as a database.

acquire and utilise the most advanced or up-to-dated hardware and software when. the average business that implements MRP/ERP can bind 20% of the overall operation. Over the past two decades. servers. Adopting overqualified tools always irrationally causes increase in MIS budget.4a addresses suggested tools for different methodologies (Manual. similarly ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. Table 3. Key Performance Indicator seems to be the driving force for department cooperation. When compare similar size of networks. functionality-wise. Figure 3. The advantage of wireless is the flexibility of location if within radio emission reach. For a given industry. Implementing MRP/ERP requires the management to to emphasize to all departments for cooperation. Each industry has its own specific MRP/ERP as processes are different. Each department has its own sets of processes. but it will sacrifice speed. This is due to the complexity of each department and the interconnectivity to facilitate information flow.Wireless Network Wireless Network will use radio emission as media to carry the data over the air between each PC. Department of Industrial Works 3-12 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Currently. wireless networks are more expensive than wired. understanding the methodologies. which can create a complex flow of information within the department. It should be noted that tools are to facilitate people to carry MIS processes and information flow. A misconception of tools is to select. MRP/ERP attempts to consolidate most processes by using MIS. Software-enabled and Automated) associated with MIS processes. MIS can better select and apply suitable tools that support process requirements. Both are software designed to connect business processes and facilitate information flow using PCs. and network. is more essential than selecting and acquiring tools. The reason being that with such understanding. MRP and ERP MRP stands for Manufacturing Resource Planning.4b illustrates different tools at each MIS process in accordance with information flow. a moderate set of computer hardware and software can perform such tasks adequately. nonetheless.

4b Examples of Tools Used for MIS Process Production Control Process Modification Decision making Management Data calculation Data storage Information reporting & analysis MIS Supervisor Data collection & consolidation Data verification MIS Operation Department of Industrial Works 3-13 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .Figure 3.

However. in the real practice. a mixture of tools are often used based on each plant’s operation. familiarity and budget. to interface with data entry formula sheets (in MS Excel) to calculate such data and so forth. a mix of methodologies is applied. the automated method requires more complex and sophisticated PC to communicate and enable the automation of data capturing via other hardware such as steam gauge censor. to create forms (in MS Access).4a Suggested Tools for MIS Implementation with their Pros and Cons MIS Process Data Collection Data Entry Methodologies Manual Pen/paper form Software-enabled Pen/paper form Pen/paper form Automated Combination of hardware and software to control production process equipment Analytical software or business intelligence Automated report creation and distribution Highly effective/ high investment Pen/paper form Excel/Access Packaged software/MRP Data Calculation Form/calculator Excel/Access Packaged software/MRP Information Analysis & Reporting Pros/ Cons Paper report Access/paper report Packaged software/ paper report Most basic/ low-tono investment Widely adopted/ low investment Currently best practice/significant investment Ease of use and access to all roles with centralised data storage/ customised on Training required to use software Hard evidence data/ high error rate Ease of access to MIS/Decentralised data & storage Accurate data/ sensitive system Labour intensive Computer literate personnel required Free up resources/ rely on solution vendor As shown in Table 3. each methodology (Manual. Department of Industrial Works 3-14 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . For example. file-based method.Table 3. requires MIS personnel to design program productivity software such as Microsoft Excel and Access. Therefore. Whether noting down data on a piece of paper then enter into a database form or key-in collected data into a software on the plant floor and printout to store in a file cabinet. In summary. a pre-defined set of tools is often mistaken. a wide range of tools can be adopted depending on the methodology selected.4a above. This method minimally requires a local area network (LAN) to facilitate the information flow. Whereas. Software-enabled or Automated) will evidently require different types of hardware. Softwareenabled.

plant owners can select a methodology with comprehension while being empowered with tool knowledge to be able to select suitable software and hardware accordingly. Department of Industrial Works 3-15 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .In conclusion.

Chapter 4 Applying MIS Process to Palm Oil Industry .

A production process model that facilitates the MIS application for palm oil industry is hereby addressed. Oil Room. purifier and dryer. Wastewater & Biogas. This section also produces a significant volume of wastewater and decanter cake. 4. which is typically sold for further crude kernel palm oil production. Kernel is one of the products from palm oil mills. data processing and to information reporting. decanter-separator. it enters the Oil Room. de-sander.3 Dry Process (Section# 3) Dry process has a series of separation and drying activities of the fruit starting from fibre-nut separation. and Utility. a typical production process of palm oil mill (shown in Figure 2. Department of Industrial Works 4-1 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . a certain amount of Empty Fresh Fruit Bunch (EFB) is also generated from this section (from threshing) which can be further used and sold as biomass fuel or as media for mushroom cultivation. 4. the MIS process for typical palm oil industry starting from data collection and consolidation.1 PRODUCTION PROCESS MODEL In order to facilitate data collection as part of the MIS process for improving eco-efficiency. These byproducts can be used and sold as biomass fuels for other industries.1a) can be arranged or sub-divided into five (5) sections comprising: Primary Production Process. digestion and screw pressing.4 APPLYING MIS PROCESS TO PALM OIL INDUSTRY This section describes how an MIS process is applied to palm oil industry in order to improve eco-efficiency. threshing. During this process. Dry Process. This section comprises vibrating screen.1. Apart from raw crude palm oil. Also.2 Oil Room (Section# 2) Once raw crude palm oil comes out from screw pressing step.1. nut drying and cracking. 4. As a consequence.1 Primary Production Process (Section# 1) Primary production process involves mainly with the conversion process of raw material “Fresh Fruit Bunch” (FFB) into raw crude palm oil. 4. shell-kernel separation and kernel drying. such as cement and power plants. by-products are also generated such as fibre and shell. This process comprises sterilisation. is described.1. oil separation tank. a representative “Production Process Model” for a typical palm oil mill has to be established. The main task of Section 2 is to purify the raw crude palm oil and to improve physical property of crude palm oil.

1. In addition. Stack emissions from boiler are one of the pollution outputs from palm oil mills.4 Wastewater and Biogas System (Section# 4) This section is mainly a wastewater treatment plant. Outputs from the treatment plant are wastewater sludge and treated wastewater or effluent. Department of Industrial Works 4-2 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Typical fuel that is used for boiler operation is fibre from the dry process.1.1a.4. whereas a steam turbine is used for producing electricity for plant internal use. some palm oil mills have equipped the wastewater treatment plant with a biogas system that generates electricity from the use of biogas generated from the wastewater treatment process.5 Utility (Section# 5) This section comprises a process of plant steam and electricity generation. A representative “Production Process Model “for MIS application for improving eco-efficiency in palm oil industry is shown in Figure 4. which manages process wastewater from palm oil production. Boiler is employed for generating steam to be used within the palm oil mills. 4.

1a Production Process Model for Palm Oil Industry PRIMARY PRODUCTION PROCESS WASTEWATER BIOGAS SYSTEM Recovered Oil DRY PROCESS UTILITY OIL ROOM IP-GTZ 4-3 Department of Industrial Works .Figure 4.

the use of water. It should be noted that the proposed data set has been prioritised into “Priority 1” and “Priority 2” based on the main purpose of enhancing the palm oil mills to implement a meaningful MIS. The first step as described in MIS principal process will be the data collection and entry of each section in MIS production process model (Figure 4. IP-GTZ 4-4 Department of Industrial Works . users’ requirements and palm oil mills representatives’ needs have been identified. priority of data collection.2a-4. A set of proposed data to be collected has been established based on their current data collection. In addition.2e are indicated by code consisting of a letter with numbering. Criteria for data prioritisation are given below: • Priority 1 – Data that are directly related to palm oil productivity and the use of main raw materials as well as the management of value-added unused materials where economically viable to palm oil mills. and Priority 2 – Data that are indirectly related to productivity of the palm oil mills including pollution outputs from the production process.1a). In addition. and also those data that play a key role in the production process however are hardly or costly measured at present (Examples of data include disposal of decanter cake and boiler stack emissions).4. environmental data required to be reported to the government are also included (Examples of data include the use of fresh fruit bunch. Table 4. As a baseline. After collecting data from each section. and measurement methods. objectives. a set of data will continuously need to be acquired for further usage. measurement unit. and their needs for applying MIS to enhance business competitiveness and eco-efficiency. This is to help facilitate the information flow for further processes. The collecting locations addressed in Figure 4. • “Priority 1” data are the minimum data requirements for applying meaningful MIS for increasing business competitiveness and enhancing eco-efficiency for a typical palm oil mill.2f illustrate the proposed data collection scheme for each simplified production process model/ section of palm oil industry. Locations of data to be collected are illustrated in Figure 4.2e.4a of this Guideline. saleable shell and effluent quality).2 DATA COLLECTION AND CONSOLIDATION In order to apply MIS. responsibility.2a-4. these data will be further processed into information or performance indicators to allow the management to use and make decisions based on the given information. MIS will need to consolidate all data into one centralised place whether on paper or in a computerised format such as an excel file or a database. analysis and information usage. The data collection scheme addresses proposed data. A set of management information is addressed in Table 4.2a-4. collection frequency.

these data will not be transformed to the information or performance indicators in this Guideline (but can be added on according to the specific needs of individual palm oil mill). IP-GTZ 4-5 Department of Industrial Works . the collected data are first stored in a database and processed in MIS software.Abbreviations of these numerical codes are provided as follows: • • • • • • • P = Products and By-products (Valuable Unused Materials) S = Sales L = Efficiency and Losses C = Purchases I = Input Materials E = Energy and Fuel W = Waste and Emissions Whereas. Thus. and then key performance indicators (KPIs) are created and these information are reported to management for decision-making. In general. “Priority 2” data are optional data requirements that are useful and help business competitiveness and eco-efficiency however these data are considered as the second priority for the palm oil mills (with less concern than “Priority 1” data).

Figure 4.2a

Locations of Data Collection in Primary Production Process (Section#1)

Department of Industrial Works 4-6

PRIMARY PRODUCTION PROCESS

MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

Table 4.2a
No I1 Data

Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Primary Production Process Section (Section#1)
Unit Ton Priority* 1 Objectives To monitor the amount of FFB being purchased and to be used to calculate daily average cost of FFB being purchased To monitor the amount of FFB being used and to estimate and plan crude oil production To monitor daily expense of FFB being purchased and to be used to calculate daily average cost of FFB being purchased To monitor unit cost of ripe FFB bought onsite. This data reflects the quality of FFB being bought (ideally good quality) To monitor unit cost of unripe FFB bought onsite and this data reflects the quality of FFB being bought (ideally poor quality) To record the source of purchased FFB To monitor the amount of steam that allows proper timing and processing of FFB in the sterilisation process To trace the oil content contaminated in the condensate stream from the sterilisation process To monitor the amount of EFB generated. This data can be further used to track on the utilisation of EFB as either biomass fuel or by-product Collection Frequency Daily Responsibility Purchasing Measurement Methods Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge

Amount of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) being Purchased Use of FFB

I2

Ton

1

Daily

Production

Weighing or estimated number of buckets entering the sterilisation process N/A

C1

Expense on FFB being Purchased

Baht

1

Daily

Purchasing

C2

Unit Cost of Ripe FFB

Baht/Ton

1

Daily

Purchasing

N/A

C3

Unit Cost of Unripe FFB

Baht/Ton

1

Daily

Purchasing

N/A

C4 I3

Supplier of FFB Amount of Steam Used at Sterilisation Oil Content in Condensate

N/A Ton/Batch

2 2

Daily Per batch of sterilisation Daily

Purchasing Production

N/A Standard Flow Meter

L1

%

2

QA Lab

Analytical Standard Method

P1

Generation of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)

Ton

1

Monthly

Production

Weighing/ Scale

Department of Industrial Works 4-7

MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

No L2

Data Fruit Loss in EFB

Unit %

Priority* 2

Objectives To help evaluate the efficiency of threshing and monitor the contamination of fruit in EFB To help evaluate the efficiency of EFB utilisation and estimate this value-added by-product To help calculate the revenue from selling EFB to external parties or customers To help evaluate the efficiency of EFB utilisation internally To estimate the volume of EFB being disposed offsite or used by plantation

Collection Frequency Daily

Responsibility QA Lab

Measurement Methods Weighing/ Scale

P2

Amount of EFB being Sold

Ton

1

Monthly

Purchasing

Weighing/ Scale

S1 E1 W1

Unit Market Price of EFB Amount of EFB Used as Biomass Fuel (Internal) Amount of EFB being Disposed Off

Baht/Ton Ton Ton

1 2 2

Monthly Monthly Monthly

Purchasing/ Sale Utility Purchasing

N/A Weighing/ Scale Weighing/ Scale

Remark * - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.

Department of Industrial Works 4-8

MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

2b Locations of Data Collection in Oil Room (Section#2) OIL ROOM Department of Industrial Works 4-9 Recovered Oil MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .Figure 4.

Table 4.2b
No I4 P10 P3 Data

Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Oil Room Section (Section#2)
Unit Ton-FFB Hour Ton Priority* 1 1 1 Objectives To realise the maximum capacity of palm oil production To realise the actual operating hours of palm oil production To monitor the production of CPO. This data can be used further for the analysis of oil yield To monitor the production of CKPO. This data can be used further for the analysis of oil yield To help calculate the revenue from selling CPO To monitor the amount of CPO being sold To monitor value of sold CPO. This data is used for calculating KPI “yield and loss values of CPO” (see Table 4.3a) To monitor the amount of CKPO being sold To monitor value of sold CKPO. To monitor the use of water as transport and separation media in the production process To trace the oil content contaminated in the decanter cake To trace the oil content contaminated in the wastewater from the oil room To identify the amount of decanter cake generated from the production and help manage its disposal Collection Frequency Monthly Daily Daily Responsibility Production Production Production Measurement Methods Calculation N/A Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge

Installed Capacity Production Operating Hour Production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Production of Crude Kernel Palm Oil (CKPO) Unit Market Price of CPO Amount of Sold CPO Proceeds from Sold CPO

P9

Ton

2

Daily

Production

Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge

S2 S9 S10

Baht/Ton Ton Baht

1 1 1

Daily Daily Daily

Purchasing Accounting Accounting

N/A Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge N/A

S13 S14 I5 L3 L4 W2

Amount of Sold CKPO Proceeds from Sold CKPO Use of Water Oil Content in Decanter Cake Oil Content in Wastewater Generation of Decanter Cake

Ton Baht m3 % % Ton

1 1 1 1 1 1

Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Monthly

Accounting Accounting Production/ Utility QA Lab QA Lab Production

Weighing, i.e. the use of weigh bridge N/A Standard Flow Meter Analytical Standard Method Analytical Standard Method Monthly estimation based on representative weighing of decanter cake

Department of Industrial Works 4-10

MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

No W3

Data Amount of Decanter Cake being Disposed Offsite

Unit Ton

Priority* 2

Objectives To monitor the amount of decanter cake being disposed offsite

Collection Frequency Monthly

Responsibility Production

Measurement Methods Weighing/ Scale

Remark * - Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements, based on the criteria mentioned earlier.

Department of Industrial Works 4-11

MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

Figure 4.2c

Locations of Data Collection in Dry Process (Section#3)

Department of Industrial Works 4-12

MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement

the use of weigh bridge N/A L5 P5 Oil Content in Fibre Total Generation of Shell Due to Shell-Kernel Separation % Ton 1 1 Daily Monthly QA Lab Production Analytical Standard Method Monthly estimation based on representative weighing of shell L6 Kernel Content in Shell Due to Shell-Kernel Separation % 1 Daily QA Lab Weighing/ Scale P6 S4 E2 Amount of Shell being Sold Unit Market Price of Shell Amount of Shell Used as Biomass Fuel (Internal) Ton Baht/Ton Ton 1 1 2 Monthly Monthly Monthly Purchasing Purchasing/ Sale Utility Weighing/ Scale N/A Weighing/ Scale Department of Industrial Works 4-13 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This data can be further used for the analysis of kernel yield To help calculate the revenue from selling kernel To monitor the amount of kernel being sold To monitor value of sold kernel.3a) To trace the oil content contaminated in fibre To monitor the amount of shell generated due to shell-kernel separation and this data can be further used to track on the utilisation of shell as biomass fuel or byproduct for selling To help evaluate the efficiency of separator in shell-kernel separation and monitor the amount of kernel contained in shell using separator To help evaluate the efficiency of shell utilisation as by-product for selling To help calculate the revenue from selling shell to external parities or customers To help evaluate the efficiency of shell utilisation as biomass fuel internally Collection Frequency Daily Responsibility Production Measurement Methods Weighing. This data is used for calculating KPI “values of kernel yield” (see Table 4.e. i. i.Table 4.2c No P4 Data Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Dry Process Section (Section#3) Unit Ton Priority* 1 Objectives To monitor the production of kernel.e. the use of weigh bridge Generation of Kernel S3 S11 S12 Unit Market Price of Kernel Amount of Sold Kernel Proceeds from Sold Kernel Baht/Ton Ton Baht 1 1 1 Daily Daily Daily Purchasing/ Sale Accounting Accounting N/A Weighing.

No P7 Data Generation of Fibre Unit Ton Priority* 1 Objectives To monitor the amount of fibre generated within a month and this data can be further used to track on the utilisation of fibre as either biomass fuel or by-product To monitor the amount of fibre produced daily. Department of Industrial Works 4-14 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . based on the criteria mentioned earlier. This data is used for calculating KPI “generation of steam from boiler operation” (see Table 4.Priority of data collection is classified into two levels “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements. To help evaluate the efficiency of fibre utilisation and estimate this value-added byproduct To help calculate the revenue from selling fibre to external parities or customers To help evaluate the efficiency of fibre utilisation internally within a month To realise the efficiency of fibre utilisation as biomass fuel at boiler daily.3a) To estimate the volume of fibre being disposed offsite or given to others Collection Frequency Monthly Responsibility Production Measurement Methods Monthly estimation based on representative weighing of fibre P11 P8 Production of Fibre Amount of Fibre being Sold Ton Ton 1 1 Daily Monthly Production Purchasing Weighing/ Scale Weighing/ Scale S5 E3 I7 Unit Market Price of Fibre Amount of Fibre Used as Biomass Fuel (Internal) Amount of Fibre Used at Boiler Baht/Ton Ton Ton 1 2 1 Monthly Monthly Daily Purchasing/ Sale Utility Utility N/A Weighing/ Scale or estimation based on the generation of fibre Weighing/ Scale or estimation based on the daily production of fibre W4 Amount of Fibre being Disposed Offsite Ton 2 Monthly Purchasing Weighing/ Scale Remark * .

Figure 4.2d Locations of Data Collection in Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4) Department of Industrial Works 4-15 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .

2d No I6 E4 W5 Data Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System Section (Section#4) Unit kg kWh m3 Priority* 1 1 1 Objectives To monitor the use of chemicals for wastewater treatment To monitor the electricity consumption for wastewater treatment To identify the amount of wastewater generated and help the management and treatment of this wastewater influent To provide information on influent quality (BOD) and help the estimation of wastewater loading prior to entering the treatment system. in order to allow the incharge operator to properly control and maintain the treatment efficiency To provide information on compliance status of treated effluent To provide information on compliance status of treated effluent To provide information on effluent quality (BOD) from biogas system and can be used to monitor biogas system efficiency Collection Frequency Monthly Daily Daily Responsibility Utility Utility Utility Measurement Methods Weighting/ Scale Electricity Meter Standard Flow Meter or Estimation by Sampling Analytical Standard Method Chemical Usage for Wastewater Treatment Electricity Consumption for Wastewater Treatment Generation of Wastewater (Prior to being sent for treatment) Influent Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) prior to being passed to the treatment system W6 mg/l 1 Weekly QA Lab W10 Influent Wastewater Characteristics (COD) prior to being passed to the treatment system mg/l 1 Weekly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method W7 Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment system Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment system Effluent Characteristics (BOD) from Biogas System mg/l 1 Monthly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method W11 mg/l 1 Monthly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method W8 mg/l 1 Weekly QA Lab Analytical Standard Method Department of Industrial Works 4-16 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . in order to allow the incharge operator to properly control and maintain the treatment efficiency To provide information on influent quality (COD) and help the estimation of wastewater loading prior to entering the treatment system.Table 4.

Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements.No W12 Data Effluent Characteristics (COD) from Biogas System Generation of Wastewater Sludge Generation of Biogas Unit mg/l Priority* 1 Objectives To provide information on effluent quality (COD) from biogas system and can be used to monitor biogas system efficiency To help the management and offsite disposal of wastewater sludge from the treatment system To monitor the amount of biogas generated from the system.3a) Collection Frequency Weekly Responsibility QA Lab Measurement Methods Analytical Standard Method W9 Ton 2 Annually QA Lab Weighing/ Scale E5 m3 1 Daily Utility Gas Flow Meter E6 Generation of Electricity from Biogas System kWh 1 Daily Utility Electricity Meter S6 E11 Unit Price of Electricity Sold from Biogas System Biogas Tank Volume Baht / kWh m3 1 1 Daily Annually Utility Utility N/A N/A Remark * . This data can be used to indicate the efficiency of methane production To monitor the amount of electricity generated from biogas system and this data can be used to indicate the efficiency of electricity generation from the biogas system To help calculate the revenue from selling electricity from biogas system To realise the maximum volume of biogas tank for receiving wastewater from palm oil production. based on the criteria mentioned earlier. This data is used for calculating KPI “organic loading of biogas system” (see Table 4. Department of Industrial Works 4-17 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .

Figure 4.2e Locations of Data Collection in Utility (Section#5) From Threshing Water UTILITY E7 Steam Boiler Biomass Fuel Steam Turbine E8 E10 Electricity used or sold to Grid To Sterilisation Digestion W13 W14 Diesel Generator Steam Blowdown Emission Department of Industrial Works 4-18 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .

based on the criteria mentioned earlier.2e No E7 E8 Data Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Utility Section (Section#5) Unit Ton kWh Priority* 1 1 Objectives To help evaluate the efficiency of steam generation from boiler To monitor the electricity generation and this data can be used to indicate the efficiency of electricity generation To monitor the electricity consumption from the PEA especially when the palm oil mill is not running and producing its own electricity To monitor the electricity generated by the diesel generator To monitor an operating cost arising from the purchase of electricity from the PEA To monitor an average operating cost arising from the purchase of electricity from the PEA To monitor an operating cost arising from the purchase of diesel for DG Set To monitor an average operating cost arising from the purchase of diesel for DG Set To monitor characteristics of stack emissions and evaluate legal compliance To monitor characteristics of stack emissions and evaluate legal compliance Collection Frequency Daily Daily Responsibility Utility Utility Measurement Methods Standard Flow Meter or Estimation by Mass Balance Electricity Meter Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation Generation of Electricity from Steam Turbine Consumption of Electricity Purchased from Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) Generation of Electricity from Diesel Generation Expense on the Purchased Electricity from the PEA Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from PEA Expense on the Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator (DG) Set Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for DG Set Boiler Stack Emissions Characteristics (Particulate) Boiler Stack Emissions Characteristics (NOx) E9 kWh 1 Monthly Utility Electricity Meter E10 S7 S16 kWh Baht Baht / kWh Baht Baht/l 1 1 1 Monthly Monthly Monthly Utility Purchasing Purchasing Electricity Meter N/A N/A S8 S17 1 1 Monthly Monthly Purchasing Purchasing N/A N/A W13 W14 mg/l mg/l 2 2 Every Six Months Every Six Months Utility Utility Analytical Standard Method Analytical Standard Method Remark * .Table 4.Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements and “2” as optional data requirements. Department of Industrial Works 4-19 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .

Table 4.Priority of data collection is classified into two levels: “1” as minimum data requirements. This data is also used as internal control value for calculating KPI “amount and value of kernel loss” (see Table 4.3a) To benchmark performance of production process especially in oil room section and to improve or correct production performance. This data is also used as internal control value for calculating KPI “amount and value of oil loss” (see Table 4.3a) To benchmark performance of separation process and to improve or correct production performance. This data is also used as internal control value for calculating KPI “amount and value of oil loss” (see Table 4.3a) Collection Frequency Annually Responsibility Production Manager Measurement Methods Production manager responses for setting this internal control value Efficiency of Decanter-Separator System L8 Usual Oil Content in Wastewater % 1 Annually Production Manager Production manager responses for setting this internal control value L9 Usual Kernel Loss in Separation Process % 1 Annually Production Manager Production manager responses for setting this internal control value L10 Usual Oil Content in Fibre % 1 Annually Production Manager Production manager responses for setting this internal control value Remark * . Department of Industrial Works 4-20 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This data is also used as internal control value for calculating KPI “amount and value of oil loss” (see Table 4.2f No L7 Data Proposed Data Collection Scheme for Internal Control Values Unit % Priority* 1 Objectives To benchmark performance of decanterseparator system and to improve or correct production performance.3a) To benchmark performance of palm oil production process and to improve or correct production performance.

“Priority 1” data listed in the previous section are required to be processed and transformed into information or key performance indicators using MIS software that can allow the management of native starch factories to use such information for their own analysis and making decision. data calculation formula.4. whereas Table 4. Table 4.3a illustrates these management information (or key performance indicators). and also the reporting frequency.4a in the next section suggests on whom the management information are reported to.3 DATA PROCESSING In order to enhance business advantage and eco-efficiency of the palm oil mill. Department of Industrial Works 4-21 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . and their definitions.

the better quality (also consistency) of the FFB is purchased for the production. this EFB can be sold. Due to an increase demand of biomass fuel. The ratio of EFB generated per the amount of FFB used indicates the generation rate of EFB and efficiency of the threshing process.Table 4.3a No Management Information derived from Data Processing Reference Timeframe Calculation Formula Unit Description Key Performance Indicator Primary Production Process (Section#1) PPP1 Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB Daily [Expense on FFB Purchased / Amount of FFB Purchased] [C1 / I1] Baht/Ton-FFB The total cost of FFB purchased in each buy depends on the quality of FFB (ripe or unripe). Average unit cost of acquired FFB represents the overall quality of FFB being purchased as a whole in each day. The higher the index is. Department of Industrial Works 4-22 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . FFB quality index represents the utilisation of good and consistent quality FFB for palm oil production. The amount of money in Baht that is generated from EFB being sold to external parties or customers. Saleable EFB represents the utilisation of EFB as value-added byproduct. PPP2 FFB Quality Index Daily [(Average Unit Cost of FFB – Unit Cost of Unripe FFB) / (Unit Cost of Ripe FFB – Unit Cost of Unripe FFB)] X 100 [EFB Generated / FFB Used] X 100 [(PPP1 – C3) / (C2 – C3)] X 100 % PPP3 Generation of EFB Monthly [P1 / ∑MI2] X 100 % PPP4 Share of EFB Sold Monthly [EFB Sold / EFB Generated] X 100 [P2 / P1] X 100 % PPP5 Value of EFB Sold Monthly [EFB Sold X Unit Market Price of EFB] [P2 X S1] Baht Oil Room (Section#2) OIL1 Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Yield Daily [CPO Produced / FFB Used] X 100 [P3 / I2] X 100 % Crude palm oil leaving the oil room indicates the overall oil yield of the mill and is an important performance indicator of the palm oil mill. EFB is typically used for plantation such as mushroom cultivation.

% Efficiency of Decanter-Separator System] [(% Oil Content in Decanter Cake % Efficiency of Decanter-Deparator System) X Decanter Cake Generated X (Summation of Proceeds from Sold CPO / Amount of Sold CPO)] [% Oil Content in wastewater . Oil loss or gained in wastewater stream indicates oil room efficiency including the efficiency of decanter-separator system.L7) X W2 X (∑S10/S9)] Baht/Day OIL7 Oil Loss in Wastewater (1) Daily.(OIL1 X PPP1)] Bath/Ton-FFB OIL4 Monthly [W2 / ∑MI2] X 100 % OIL5 Oil Loss in Decanter Cake (1) Value of Oil Loss in Decanter Cake (1) Daily.L7] % OIL6 [(L3 . Monthly [% Oil Content in Decanter Cake . This indicator is a typical and important performance indicator in the palm oil mill.L8] % OIL8 Value of Oil Loss in Wastewater (1) Daily. Oil loss or gained in decanter cake represents or reflects the efficiency of the decanter-separator system.% Usual Oil Content in Wastewater] [L3 . Operating cost is not taken into account for this figure. Monthly [((%Oil Content .No OIL2 Key Performance Indicator Value of CPO Yield Reference Timeframe Daily Calculation Formula [(CPO Produced X Proceeds from Sold CPO) / (Amount of Sold CPO X FFB Used)] [Unit Market Price of CPO – (CPO Yield X Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB)] [Decanter Cake Generated / FFB Used] X 100 [(P3 X S10) / (S9 X I2)] Unit Baht/Ton-FFB Description The amount of money in Baht that is generated from produced CPO. Monthly [L4 .% Usual Oil Content in Wastewater) X Wastewater Generated X (Summation of Proceeds from Sold CPO / Amount of Sold CPO)] [((L4 . Monthly Daily. The amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained based on the contamination of oil in the wastewater stream. The value of oil loss/gain in decanter cake is the amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained based on the contamination of oil in the decanter cake.L8) X ∑W5) X (∑S10/S9)] Baht/Day Department of Industrial Works 4-23 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . OIL3 Value Added From FFB to CPO Generation of Decanter Cake Daily [S2 . The ratio of decanter cake generated per the amount of FFB indicates the generation rate of decanter cake and efficiency of the decanting process. This figure indicates the value added from FFB to CPO.

% Usual Kernel Loss in Separation Process] [((% Kernel Content .No OIL9 Key Performance Indicator Water Consumption Reference Timeframe Daily.L9] % DRY5 Daily. The generation of shell indicates overall proportion of shell generated from FFB being used in production process. OIL10 Capacity Utilisation Monthly [FFB Used / Installed Capacity] X 100 [∑M I2 / I4] X 100 % Dry Process (Section#3) DRY1 Kernel Yield Daily [Kernel Produced / FFB Used] X 100 [(Kernel Produced / FFB Used) X (Summation of Proceeds from Sold Kernel / Amount of Sold Kernel)] [Shell Generated Due to ShellKernel Separation / FFB Used] X 100 [P4 / I2] X 100 % Kernel production rate indicates the overall kernel yield of the mill and is one of the important performance indicators of the palm oil mill. This indicator can be used further to track on the utilisation of shell as by-product. The higher percentage of capacity utilisation is. Monthly Calculation Formula [Water Used / FFB Used] [I5 / I2] Unit m3-Water/ Ton-FFB Description Since water is an important transport and separation media in the palm oil production process. Shell is typically by product of palm oil mill. the ratio of water consumed per the amount of FFB can indicate the utilisation of water in the production process. This indicator demonstrates the actual production capacity. Monthly [((L6 . DRY2 Value of Kernel Yield Daily [(∑P4 / ∑I2) X (∑S12 / S11)] [P5 / ∑M I2] X 100 Baht/Ton-FFB DRY3 Total Generation of Shell Due to ShellKernel Separation Monthly % DRY4 Total Kernel Loss (1) (Shell-Kernel Separation) Value of Total Kernel Loss (1) (Shell-Kernel Separation) Daily [% Kernel Content . the more utilisation of installed machine is. The amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained based on the kernel content in shell-kernel separation process. The value of Kernel yield is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from kernel being produced.% Usual Kernel Loss in Separation Process ) X Shell Generated Due to ShellKernel Separation X (Summation of Proceeds from Sold Kernel / Amount of Sold Kernel)] [L6 .L9) X P5) X (∑S12 / S11)] Baht/Day Department of Industrial Works 4-24 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Kernel loss or gained in separation or cyclone indicates the efficiency of shell-kernel separation process.

The generation of fibre indicates overall proportion of fibre generated from FFB being used in production process within a month. DRY7 Value of Shell Sold Monthly [(Shell Sold X Unit Market Price of Shell) / FFB Used] [Fibre Generated / FFB Used] X 100 [(P6 X S4) / ∑MI2] Baht/Ton-FFB DRY8 Generation of Fibre Monthly [P7 / ∑M I2] X 100 % DRY9 DRY10 Oil Loss in Fibre (1) Value of Oil Loss in Fibre (1) Daily. This index represents the amount of shell that can be sold compared to the amount of FFB used.L10] [(L5 . Monthly [% Oil Content in Fibre . this material is considered as by-product and is generally sold.No DRY6 Key Performance Indicator Shell Sold/ FFB Used Reference Timeframe Monthly Calculation Formula [Shell Sold / FFB Used] x 100 [P6 / ∑M I2] Unit Ton/Ton-FFB Description As shell is typically used as biomass fuel in power and cement plants.L10) X P7 X (∑S10 / S9)] % Baht/Day DRY11 Share of Fibre Sold Monthly [(P8 / P7) X 100] % DRY12 Value of Fibre Sold Monthly [(Fibre Sold X Unit Market Price of Fibre) / FFB Used] [(P8 X S5) / ∑MI2] Baht/Ton-FFB Department of Industrial Works 4-25 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This indicator can be further used to track on the utilisation of fibre as by-product. The value of oil loss/gain in fibre is the amount of money in Baht that is lost based on the contamination of oil in the fibre. this excess amount can be sold. The value of fibre sold is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from fibre being sold to external parties or customers. The amount of money in Baht that is generated from palm shell being sold to external parties or customers. Saleable fibre indicates the utilisation of fibre as value-added by-product. Due to an increase demand of biomass fuel. Monthly Daily. Fibre is typically by product of palm oil mill. Oil loss or gained in fibre represents or reflects the efficiency of decanter-separator system.% Usual Oil Content in Fibre] [((% Oil Content .% Usual Oil Content in Fibre) X Fibre Generated X (Summation of Proceeds from Sold CPO / Amount of Sold CPO)] [Fibre Sold / Generation of Fibre] X 100 [L5 . Excess fibre is typically generated during peak production periods.

Treated Wastewater Characteristics from Biogas System) / Influent Wastewater Characteristics] X 100 [Biogas Generated / Wastewater Generated] [(AveW6 – W7) / AveW6] X 100 % WAS3 Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (COD) Monthly [(AveW10 – W11) / AveW10] X 100 % This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant.No Key Performance Indicator Reference Timeframe Calculation Formula Unit Description Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4) WAS1 Generation of Wastewater (Influent to the treatment system) Daily. Monthly [E5 / W5] m3 Biogas / m3 Wastewater Biogas generation indicated how much biogas is generated by wastewater per unit. This figure therefore indicates the need for wastewater treatment and reflects overall water utilisation efficiency.000 [(Influent Wastewater Characteristics . WAS5 COD Removal by Biogas System Weekly [(AveW10 – AveW12) / AveW10] X 100 WAS6 Generation of Biogas Daily. WAS2 Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (BOD) Monthly [(Influent Wastewater Characteristics – Treated Wastewater Characteristics) / Influent Wastewater Characteristics] X 100 [(Influent Wastewater Characteristics – Treated Wastewater Characteristics) / Influent Wastewater Characteristics] X 100 [(Influent Wastewater Characteristics X Wastewater Generated) / Biogas Tank Volume] / 1. Department of Industrial Works 4-26 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Monthly [Wastewater Generated / FFB Used] [W5 / I2] m3/Ton-FFB Environmental impact from palm oil mills is mainly from wastewater generated in the production process and its associated pollution load.000 kg/ m3 of Biogas Tank Volume / Day % Organic loading of biogas system indicates how much organic load enters into the system and represents whether organic loading feeding to the system is over the design value. This value represents the biogas system efficiency. This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant. This indicator represents the COD removal efficiency of the biogas system. WAS4 Organic Loading of Biogas System Weekly [(W6 X W5) / E11] / 1.

Total consumption reflects average electricity required for all production process. Monthly Calculation Formula [Electricity Generated from Biogas System / Biogas Generated] [Electricity Generated X Unit Price] [E6 / E5] Unit kWh/m3 Biogas Baht/Day Description The ratio of the amount of electricity generated from biogas system per biogas volume indicates efficiency of electricity generation from the system.PEA + Electricity-Diesel Generator)/ FFB Used] [(∑ME8 + E9 + E10) / ∑M I2] kWh/Ton-FFB Department of Industrial Works 4-27 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil mill comes from various sources comprising electricity generation from the steam turbine and diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). UTL2 Total Electricity Consumption Monthly [Electricity-Steam Turbine + Electricity-PEA + Electricity-Diesel Generator] [∑ME8 + E9 + E10] kWh UTL3 Total Electricity Consumption Rate Monthly [(Electricity-Steam Turbine + Electricity. Steam generation per the use of fibre reflects on optimum boiler design and operation and is important for energy efficiency of the palm oil mill. WAS8 [E6 X S6] Utility (Section#5) UTL1 Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation Daily. Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil mill comes from various sources comprising electricity generation from the steam turbine and diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). Monthly Daily. Monthly [Steam Generated / Amount of Fibre Used at Boiler] [E7 /I7] Ton-Steam/ Ton-Fibre Fibre is typically used as biomass fuel for boiler to produce steam to be used in the production process. Total consumption rate reflects average electricity required for one Ton of FFB.No WAS7 Key Performance Indicator Generation of Electricity from Biogas System Saleable Electricity from Biogas System Reference Timeframe Daily. The amount of money in Baht from electricity generation from the biogas system that is sold.

The less percentage of the index. (2) – Use particular indicator from previous month Department of Industrial Works 4-28 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . UTL5 Electricity Consumption from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) Monthly [Electricity Consumed from PEA / Total Electricity Consumption] X 100 [E9 / UTL2] X 100 % UTL6 Electricity Consumption from Diesel Generator Monthly [Electricity Generated from Diesel Generator / Total Electricity Consumption] X 100 [E10 / UTL2] X 100 % Remarks (1) . This electricity consumption rate represents the utilisation of electricity generated from steam turbine and can also contribute to the efficiency of the steam turbine. the better performance of boiler is. especially during the startup of boiler and this consumption rate reflects the performance of boiler especially during the startup. Electricity from diesel generator is required for the oil mill.The amount of kernel and oil loss/gained depends on internal control value of individual palm oil mill factory. Electricity is sometimes supplied from the PEA and this consumption rate reflects the total purchased electricity from PEA and the efficiency of other electricity generators (steam turbine. This can also contribute to the sufficiency of electricity generated within factory.No UTL4 Key Performance Indicator Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation Reference Timeframe Monthly Calculation Formula [Electricity Generated / Total Electricity Consumption] X 100 [∑ME8 / UTL2] X 100 Unit % Description Electricity is generally self-generated from steam turbine of the oil mill and is fully consumed in the oil mill. diesel generator and biogas system).

some of “Priority 1” data can also provide valuable indicators to the management such as daily use of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). production manager and utility manager. Apart from the defined key performance indicators.4 INFORMATION REPORTING & ANALYSIS Minimum data requirements or “Priority 1” data need to be processed into key performance indicators to assist management representatives of palm oil mills in decision making. factory manager. Management personnel of the palm oil mills may require different information.4. daily production of products.e. Typical interested management personnel in the palm oil mills are factory owner. treated wastewater and usage of chemical and electricity for wastewater treatment). as well as data that are required to be reported to the Department of Industrial Works (i. Owner CPO Yield • Value of CPO Yield • CPO Production • Value Added From FFB to CPO • Unit Market Price of CPO • Amount of Sold CPO • Proceeds from Sold CPO • Amount of Sold CKPO • Proceeds from Sold CKPO • Production Operating Hour • Capacity Utilisation • Kernel Yield • Kernel Production • Value of Kernel Yield • Unit Market Price of Kernel • Amount of Sold Kernel • Proceeds from Sold Kernel • Value of Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes • Use of FFB • Total Expense of FFB • FFB Quality Index • Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB • Water Consumption • Shell Sold/ FFB Used • Share of Saleable By-Products (Fibre and EFB) • Department of Industrial Works 4-29 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . unit costs and prices of those materials. Typical reporting contents for each management personnel are addressed below (It should be noted that the needs of information by these personnel have been established base on the interviews with management representatives of selected palm oil factories). Information in various aspects can become important to different groups of people in the organisation.

Fibre. Wastewater and Fibre) Generation of Biogas Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment system Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment system Saleable Electricity from Biogas System Total Electricity Consumption Total Electricity Consumption Rate Expenses on Purchased Electricity from the PEA Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from the PEA Expense on Purchased Diesel for DG Set Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for DG Set Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater Factory Manager • CPO Yield • Value of CPO Yield • CPO Production • Value Added From FFB to CPO • Unit Market Price of CPO • Amount of Sold CPO • Proceeds from Sold CPO • Amount of Sold CKPO • Proceeds from Sold CKPO • Production Operating Hour • Capacity Utilisation • Kernel Yield • Kernel Production • Value of Kernel Yield • Unit Market Price of Kernel • Amount of Sold Kernel • Proceeds from Sold Kernel • Value of Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes • Use of FFB • Total Expense of FFB • FFB Quality Index • Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB • Shell Sold/ FFB Used • Share of Saleable By-Products (Fibre and EFB) • Value of Saleable By-Products (Shell. Decanter Cake. Shell. and Wastewater) • Production of Fibre • Generation of Biogas Department of Industrial Works 4-30 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Wastewater and Fibre) • Value of Oil Losses in Process (Decanter Cake. Fibre and EFB) • Oil Losses in the Process (Decanter Cake. Wastewater and Fibre) Value of Oil Losses in Process (Decanter Cake.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Value of Saleable By-Products (Shell. Wastewater and Fibre) • Generation of By-Products (EFB. Fibre and EFB) Oil Losses in the Process (Decanter Cake.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Generation of Electricity from Biogas System Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation Saleable Electricity from Biogas System COD Removal by Biogas System Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment system Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment system Water Consumption Total Electricity Consumption Total Electricity Consumption Rate Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation. Fibre. and EFB) • Oil Losses in the Process (Decanter Cake. and EFB) • Value of Saleable By-Products (Shell. Wastewater and Fibre) • Use of FFB • Total Expense of FFB • FFB Quality Index • Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB Department of Industrial Works 4-31 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Wastewater and Fibre) • Value of Oil Losses in Process (Decanter Cake. Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) and Diesel Generator Expenses on Purchased Electricity from the PEA Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from the PEA Expense on Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater Production Manager • CPO Yield • Value of CPO Yield • CPO Production • Value Added From FFB to CPO • Unit Market Price of CPO • Amount of Sold CPO • Proceeds from Sold CPO • Amount of Sold CKPO • Proceeds from Sold CKPO • Production Operating Hour • Capacity Utilisation • Kernel Yield • Kernel Production • Value of Kernel Yield • Unit Market Price of Kernel • Amount of Sold Kernel • Proceeds from Sold Kernel • Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes • Value of Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes • Shell Sold/ FFB Used • Share of Saleable By-Products (Fibre.

Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) and Diesel Generator Total Electricity Consumption Total Electricity Consumption Rate Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater Utility Manager • Use of FFB • Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB • Production Operating Hour • Kernel Losses in Shell-Kernel Separation Processes • Oil Losses in the Wastewater • Water Consumption • Generation of Wastewater • Generation of Biogas • Generation of Electricity from Biogas System • Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation • Saleable Electricity from Biogas System • COD Removal by Biogas System • Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (BOD) • Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (COD) • Influent Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) prior to being sent to the treatment system • Influent Wastewater Characteristics (COD) prior to being sent to the treatment system • Organic Loading of Biogas System • Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment system • Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment system • Chemical Usage for Wastewater Treatment • Electricity Consumption for Wastewater Treatment • Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation. Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) and Diesel Generator • Total Electricity Consumption • Total Electricity Consumption Rate • Expenses on Purchased Electricity from the PEA • Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from the PEA Department of Industrial Works 4-32 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . Fibre. Decanter Cake.• • • • • • • • • • • • Generation of By-Products (EFB. and Wastewater) Production of Fibre Generation of Biogas Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation COD Removal by Biogas System Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment system Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment system Water Consumption Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation. Shell.

4a.• • • Expense on Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for Diesel Generator Set Legal Compliance regarding Treated Wastewater A set of the above-mentioned information and reporting frequency to various interested personnel or management is summarised in Table 4. Department of Industrial Works 4-33 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement .

The use of FFB provides information on daily amount of FFB used and helps production planning for crude palm oil. Saleable EFB represents the utilisation of EFB as value-added byproduct. PPP2 Daily Daily Daily - I2 PPP3 PPP4 Use of FFB Generation of EFB Share of EFB Sold Ton/Day % % Daily Monthly Daily Monthly Monthly Daily Monthly Monthly Daily - PPP5 C1 Value of EFB Sold Total Expense of FFB Baht Baht Monthly Daily Monthly Daily Monthly Daily - Oil Room (Section#2) OIL1 P10 P3 Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Yield Production Operating Hour CPO Production % Hour Ton/Day Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Crude palm oil leaving the oil room indicates the overall oil yield of the mill and is an important performance indicator of the oil mill. EFB is typically used for plantation such as mushroom cultivation. Daily production of CPO gives an indication on the total amount of product that can be sold. Average unit cost of acquired FFB represents the overall quality of FFB being purchased as a whole in each day.4a No Summary of Management Information Unit Owner Factory Manager Production Manager Utility Description Management Information Primary Production Process (Section#1) PPP1 Average Unit Cost of Acquired FFB FFB Quality Index Baht/TonFFB % Daily Daily Daily Daily The total cost of FFB purchased in each buy depends on the quality of FFB (ripe or unripe). The value of EFB sold is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from EFB being sold to external parties or customers.Table 4. Daily expense of FFB being purchased can be used to calculate daily average cost of FFB being purchased. The ratio of EFB generated per the amount of FFB used indicates the generation rate of EFB and efficiency of the threshing process. Department of Industrial Works 4-34 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . FFB quality index represents the utilisation of good and consistent quality FFB for palm oil production. The more percentage of the index is. the better quality (also consistency) of the FFB is purchased for the production. Production operating hour indicates the actual time spent on palm oil production. this EFB can be sold. Due to an increase demand of biomass fuel.

Oil loss or gained in decanter cake represents or reflects the efficiency of the decanter-separator system. Oil loss or gained in wastewater stream indicates oil room efficiency including the efficiency of decanter-separator system. Actual amount of sold CPO gives an indication to the management on the actual amount of CPO being sold daily Proceeds from sold CPO gives an indication to the management on the values from selling the product. The ratio of decanter cake generated per the amount of FFB indicates the generation rate of decanter cake and efficiency of the decanting process. Operating cost is not taken into account for this figure.No S2 S9 S10 S13 S14 OIL2 OIL3 OIL4 Management Information Unit Market Price of CPO Amount of Sold CPO Proceeds from Sold CPO Amount of Sold CKPO Proceeds from Sold CKPO Value of CPO Yield Value Added From FFB to CPO Generation of Decanter Cake Unit Baht/Ton Ton Baht Ton Baht Baht/TonFFB Baht/TonFFB % Owner Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily - Factory Manager Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Monthly Production Manager Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Monthly Utility - Description Unit market price of CPO gives an indication to the management on the demand and pricing of the product. The value of oil loss/gain in decanter cake is the amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained based on the contamination of oil in the decanter cake. OIL5 OIL6 Oil Loss in Decanter Cake (1) Value of Oil Loss in Decanter Cake (1) Oil Loss in Wastewater (1) % Baht/Day Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Daily Daily - OIL7 % Monthly Monthly Daily Daily OIL8 Value of Oil Loss in Wastewater (1) Baht/Day Monthly Monthly Daily - Department of Industrial Works 4-35 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . The value of oil loss/gain in wastewater is the amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained based on the contamination of oil in the wastewater stream. This figure indicates the value added from FFB to CPO. The value of CPO yield is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from CPO being produced. This indicator is a typical and important performance indicator in the palm oil mill. Actual amount of sold CKPO gives an indication to the management on the actual amount of CKPO being sold daily Proceeds from sold CKPO gives an indication to the management on the values from selling the product.

Proceeds from sold kernel gives an indication to the management on the values from selling the by-product. The generation of shell indicates overall proportion of shell generated from FFB being used in production process. The higher percentage of capacity utilisation is. This indicator indicates the actual production capacity. The value of Kernel yield is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from kernel being produced. This indicator can be further used to track on the utilisation of shell as by-product. Shell is typically by product of palm oil mill. Actual amount of sold kernel gives an indication to the management on the daily amount of kernel being sold. Daily production of kernel gives an indication on the total amount of product that can be sold. OIL10 Capacity Utilisation % Monthly Monthly Monthly - Dry Process (Section#3) DRY1 P4 S3 S11 S12 DRY2 DRY3 Kernel Yield Kernel Production Unit Market Price of Kernel Amount of Sold Kernel Proceeds from Sold Kernel Value of Kernel Yield Total Generation of Shell Due to Shell-Kernel Separation % Ton/Day Baht/Ton Ton Baht Baht/TonFFB % Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Monthly Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Monthly Kernel production rate indicates the overall kernel yield of the mill and is one of the important performance indicators of the oil mill. the more utilisation of installed machine is.No OIL9 Management Information Water Consumption Unit m3-Water/ Ton-FFB Owner Monthly Factory Manager Monthly Production Manager Daily Utility Daily Description Since water is an important transport and separation media in the palm oil production process. DRY4 DRY5 Kernel Loss (1) (Shell-Kernel Separation) Value of Kernel Loss (1) (ShellKernel Separation) % Baht/Day Monthly Monthly Daily Daily Daily - Department of Industrial Works 4-36 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . The value of Kernel loss/gain is the amount of money in Baht that is lost or gained based on the kernel content in shell-kernel separation process. Kernel loss or gained in dry separation or cyclone indicates the efficiency of shell-kernel separation process. The ratio of water consumed per the amount of FFB can indicate the utilisation of water in the production process. Unit market price of kernel gives an indication to the management on the demand and pricing of the product.

The generation of fibre indicates overall proportion of fibre generated from FFB being used in production process within a month. Oil loss or gained in fibre represents or reflects the efficiency of decanter-separator system. Saleable fibre indicates the utilisation of fibre as valueadded by-product. this material is considered as by-product and is generally sold. this excess amount can be sold. The value of fibre sold is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from fibre being sold to external parties or customers. Fibre is typically by product of palm oil mill.No DRY6 Management Information Shell Sold/ FFB Used Unit Ton/TonFFB Owner Monthly Factory Manager Monthly Production Manager Monthly Utility - Description As shell is typically used as biomass fuel in power and cement plants. This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant. The value of oil loss in Fibre is the amount of money in Baht that is lost based on the contamination of oil in the fibre. This indicator can be further used to track on the utilisation of fibre as by-product. This figure therefore indicates the need for wastewater treatment and reflects overall water utilisation efficiency. DRY7 Value of Shell Sold Baht/TonFFB % Monthly Monthly Monthly DRY8 Generation of Fibre - Monthly Monthly - Fibre is typically by product of palm oil mill. Excess fibre is typically generated during peak production periods. The value of shell sold is the amount of money in Baht that is generated from palm shell being sold to external parties or customers. Due to an increase demand of biomass fuel. This index represents the amount of shell that can be sold compared to the amount of FFB used. This data indicates the actual amount of fibre produced daily. WAS2 % - - - Monthly Department of Industrial Works 4-37 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . P11 DRY9 DRY10 DRY11 Production of Fibre Oil Loss in Fibre (1) Value of Oil Loss in Fibre (1) Share of Fibre Sold Ton % Baht/ Day % Monthly Monthly Monthly Daily Daily Daily Monthly Daily Daily Daily Monthly - DRY12 Value of Fibre Sold Baht/TonFFB Monthly Monthly Monthly - Wastewater Treatment and Biogas System (Section#4) WAS1 Generation of Wastewater (Influent to the treatment system) Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (BOD) m3/Ton-FFB Monthly Monthly Daily Environmental impact from palm oil mills is mainly from wastewater generated in the production process and its associated pollution load.

The amount of chemicals usage for wastewater treatment provides an indication of proper treatment. Organic loading of biogas system indicates how much organic load enters into the system and represents whether organic loading feeding to the system is over the design value. This data is one of the data required for reporting to the Department of Industrial Works. in order to allow the in-charge operator to properly control and maintain the treatment efficiency Quality of treated wastewater at the last pond provides information on compliance status of treated effluent. This indicator represents the COD removal efficiency of the biogas system. This data is one of the data being required for reporting to the Department of Industrial Works. Influent characteristics of wastewater provides information on influent quality and help the estimation of wastewater loading prior to entering the treatment system.No WAS3 WAS4 Management Information Wastewater Treatment Efficiency (COD) Organic Loading of Biogas System COD Removal by Biogas System Generation of Biogas Unit % kg/ m3 of Biogas Tank Volume % m3 Biogas / m3 Wastewater kg/Month Owner - Factory Manager - Production Manager - Utility Monthly Weekly Description This indicator represents the treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plant. in order to allow the in-charge operator to properly control and maintain the treatment efficiency Influent characteristics of wastewater provides information on influent quality and help the estimation of wastewater loading prior to entering the treatment system. Biogas generation indicated how much biogas is generated by wastewater per unit. WAS5 WAS6 Monthly Weekly Monthly Weekly Monthly Weekly Daily I6 Chemical Usage for Wastewater Treatment - - - Monthly E4 Electricity Consumption for Wastewater Treatment kWh/Day - - - Daily W6 Influent Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) prior to being sent to the treatment system Influent Wastewater Characteristics (COD) prior to being sent to the treatment system Treated Wastewater Characteristics (BOD) at the final pond of the treatment system mg/l - - - Monthly W10 mg/l - - - Monthly W7 mg/l Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Department of Industrial Works 4-38 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This value can be used to represent the biogas system efficiency. The amount of electricity consumption for wastewater treatment indicates the functioning of wastewater treatment system.

Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil mill comes from various sources comprising electricity generation from the steam turbine and diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). Total electricity consumption of the whole palm oil mill comes from various sources comprising electricity generation from the steam turbine and diesel generator as well as the electricity purchased from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). Electricity is generally self-generated from steam turbine of the oil mill and is fully consumed in the oil mill. Total consumption reflects average electricity required for all production process. Saleable electricity from biogas system is the amount of money in Baht obtained from the sale of electricity generated from the biogas system. Steam generation per the use of fibre reflects on optimum boiler design and operation and is important for energy efficiency of the palm oil mill. WAS8 Monthly Monthly - Daily Utility (Section#5) UTL1 Generation of Steam from Boiler Operation Ton-Steam/ Ton-Fibre Monthly Daily Daily Fibre is typically used as biomass fuel for boiler to produce steam to be used in the production process.No W11 Management Information Treated Wastewater Characteristics (COD) at the final pond of the treatment system Generation of Electricity from Biogas System Saleable Electricity from Biogas System Unit mg/l Owner Monthly Factory Manager Monthly Production Manager Monthly Utility Monthly Description Quality of treated wastewater at the last pond provides information on compliance status of treated effluent. WAS7 kWh/m3 Biogas Baht/Day - Monthly - Daily The ratio of the amount of electricity generated from biogas system per biogas volume indicates efficiency of electricity generation from the system. UTL2 Total Electricity Consumption kWh Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly UTL3 Total Electricity Consumption Rate kWh/ Ton-FFB Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly UTL4 Electricity Consumption from the Steam Turbine Generation % - Monthly Monthly Monthly Department of Industrial Works 4-39 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . This electricity consumption rate represents the utilisation of electricity generated from steam turbine and can also contribute to the efficiency of the steam turbine. Total consumption rate reflects average electricity required for one Ton of FFB.

The money spent on the purchased diesel for boiler startup is one of the important operating costs of the mill. UTL6 Electricity Consumption from Diesel Generator % - Monthly Monthly Monthly S7 S16 S8 S17 Expense on the Purchased Electricity from the PEA Average Cost of Purchased Electricity from PEA Expense on the Purchased Diesel for DG Set Average Cost of Purchased Diesel for DG Set Baht/Month Baht/kWh Baht/Month Baht/l Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly - Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Remarks (1) . Electricity from diesel generator is required for the oil mill. diesel generator and biogas system). The average money spent on the purchased electricity from the PEA is also one of the important operating costs of the mill. The less percentage of the index. The money spent on the purchased electricity from the PEA is one of the important operating costs of the mill.No UTL5 Management Information Electricity Consumption from the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) Unit % Owner - Factory Manager Monthly Production Manager Monthly Utility Monthly Description Electricity is sometimes supplied from the PEA and this consumption rate reflects the total purchased electricity from PEA and the efficiency of other electricity generators (steam turbine. This can also contribute to the sufficiency of electricity generated within factory. Department of Industrial Works 4-40 MIS Guideline for Eco-efficiency Improvement . the better performance of boiler. The average money spent on the purchased diesel for boiler startup is also one of the important operating costs of the mill. especially during the startup of boiler and this consumption rate reflects the performance of boiler especially during the startup.The amount of oil loss/gained depends on internal control value of individual palm oil mill factory.

References .

Prentice Hall Schwalbe. Kenneth C. Design and Practice (Manufacturing Engineering Series) Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ – GmbH (2004) Thai-German Program for Enterprise Competitiveness. First Edition : Analysis.th/statistic/yearbook47/ [Accessed on 21 October 2005] Cecelja. Franjo (2001) Manufacturing Information and Data Systems. E3Agro.Project.go. Fourth . Desk Study on Palm Oil Industry Department of Industrial Works (DIW) and German Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (1997) Environmental Management Guideline for Palm Oil Industry Laudon. Eco-efficiency Component. (2005) Management Information Systems : Managing the Digital Firm (9th Edition).REFERENCES Agricultural Economic Office. Kathy (2005) Edition Information Technology Project Management.oae. Ministry of Agriculture (2005) 2004 Agricultural Statistics of Thailand http://www.

General Information of Palm Oil Factories from DIW’s Database .

12. . 16. 11. F ก . F . F . F . F . 8. F F . 15. . 86110 11/1 F 2 .F F . ก F . 92000 4 F F 41 . .ก ก . 5. . . . 84210 30 F 4 . F .ก 81140 5 F9 .19 . F 84210 82 F 6 . . 91110 39 F 1 F ก. 2. 13.ก 182 12 F . 91130 29/3 F 5 . F 84210 2 . . 14. . 84150 86140 84160 .ก 81140 85 F 2 . F 84210 58 F 10 . ก . 6. 9. ก . . F F F 0-2314-4101-5 0-7727-4471 0-7727-4160-1 0-7746-1373-6 ก ก 60 15 30 45 45 45 45 90 45 30 60 15 60 15 15 45 ( / ) F ก 168 F 1 .ก 1. . F . F ก F . . F . F ก F ก ก ก F ก F F ก F ก ก F F F F ก F ก ก F 29 F 3 ก . 10. F ก . . . . F 84170 23 F 6 . . . 4. 179 F 1 . F F F F F F F F ก ก F ก F ก F ก ก F ก F F ก ก F 7. 3.ก 81110 148 F 5 ก . . . F . 86220 0-7752-0179 0-2237-1864 0-237-1864 0-7568-9522-3 0-2253-5770-3 0-2622-6225-7 0-7568-9276 0-7736-5130-2 0-7472-2558-9 0-7561-8043 0-7753-6207-9 .

27.1 .ก . F ก 224 53/3 84130 7 F 84150 231 . . . . ) F F ก ) ก F F F ก F F ก ก ก F ก F F F ก F (2521) ก F ก ( F . . . . 86140 . . 92150 . F9 F ก81160 F1 F ก. 86110 F .F ก 4/4 F 4 98 F 6 . . F F 41) . F ก . 20190 . . 4 F F2 F ก กF . 22. .ก 84210 . F 86130 . ก 26. 24. F .ก . . ( 28. 4 F ( F . 29.ก 81110 84210 .ก 81100 . ก 23.F ก . 21.4 . . 25. ก F . 97 .ก 142 F3 . F .ก 81120 . ก. F . 19. . ก ( 30. ก ก F ก ก ( ) ก F F ก F ) ก F ก F ก F 99/9 33/4 F4 146 296 F2 F2 . F . 18.ก 17. 20. . ก . F F . F . . . . F F 81110 F F 02361-8959-87 0-7561-2597-8 0-7736-9184-6 0-7754-4398 0-2697-9166-72 0-7561-8176 0-7727-0064-6 0-2541-4955-69 0-7727-7700 0-7727-3751 0-7563-4634 0-7568-1116 0-7563-4634 0-7568-1116 0-7753-1375 0-2744-1046-8 0-3821-9548-9 ก ก 45 45 60 15 60 45 45 60 60 60 45 45 60 30 ( / ) 39 .

ก 81110 81140 F F F 0-3261-9118 0-2321-5747 0-2321-5757 0-7526-7141 0-7720-5230-1 0-7563-4634 0-7568-1116 0-2254-2954-6 - ก ก 45 45 45 45 30 45 10 10 ( / ) กF ก ก (1993) ก ก F ก F ก ก F 55/5 24/5 258 F3 . 38. 99 F F8 F2 2 F F4 F2 . . 32. 36.ก 31. ก .F . .F . .F . 37. . F ก- ก .ก . 35.ก F . F F F ก ก .F ก F .ก . F F 77170 กF . 33.ก . F กก . 81110 92150 F 84130 ก . ก . 34. . ก . F F F ก . F . ก F . .

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