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TISSUE

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TISSUE
group of cells with similar structure and function
plus extracellular substance (matrix)

Histology
microscopic study of tissue structure

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The structure of each tissue type is related to its
function

The structure of the tissue in an organ is related


to the organs function
Types of Tissues

1. Epithelial

2. Connective

3. Muscular

4. Nervous

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EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Epithelial Tissues
Covers the body (internal and external)
Surface of the body
Outer layer of skin
Lining of cavities
Airways
Blood vessels

- Ex. Skin, kidney, trachea, glands, etc.

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Characteristics:

- cells close together (very little extracellular


matrix)
- form most glands

- Free surface
not in contact with other cells
- Basal surface
attaches epithelial cells to underlying tissues

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Basement membrane
Secreted partly by epithelial cells and partly by
the cells of the underlying tissues.

Can function as filter and barrier to the


movement of cells

Can also help prevent the spread of the cancer


cells into the underlying tissues
Functions of Epithelial Tissues
1. Protection
Ex. Skin
2. Act as a barrier
Ex. Skin keeps bacteria out
3. Diffusion and Filtration
Ex. Lungs and kidneys
4. Secretion
Ex. Sweat glands
5. Absorption
Ex. Small intestine

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Classification of Epithelial Tissue
Number of cell layers

Cell shape

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Number of Cell layers

Simple
Single layer of cells

Stratified
More than one layer of epithelial cells with some cells
sitting on top of the others.
Cell shape
Squamous
flat

Cuboidal
Cubelike

Columnar
Tall and thin

Transitional
Cuboidal to columnar when not stretched
Squamous when stretched
Types of Epithelial Tissues
Simple Epithelium
Structure: 1 layer of cells

Stratified Epithelium
Structure: many layers of cells

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Simple Squamous
Structure: 1 layer of flat, tile-like cells

Function: diffusion and filtration


prevents abrasion

Location: blood vessels, lungs, heart, kidneys

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Simple Cuboidal

Structure: 1 layer of square-shaped cells; greater


volume and more organelles can be found
*some has microvilli absorption and secretion

Function: active transport, facilitated diffusion or


secretion

Location: glands, ovaries, kidneys


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Simple Columnar

Structure: 1 layer of tall, narrow cells

Function: secrete mucus and digestive enzymes


absorption

Location: stomach, intestines, resp. tract

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Pseudostratified Columnar
Special type of simple epithelium

Structure: 1 layer of tall, narrow cells all attached


to the basement membrane
appears stratified but isnt

Function: secrete mucus and propel debris out of


respiratory tract (cilia)

Location: nasal cavity and trachea


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Stratified Squamous

Structure: many layers of flat, tile-like cells

Function: protect against abrasion and acts as a


mechanical barrier

Location: skin, mouth, throat, esophagus

TYPES:
Keratinized squamous epithelium
-outer layer of the skin
Non-Keratinized squamous epithelium
-moist surface
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Stratified Cuboidal

Structure: many layers of cuboidal cells

Function: absorption, secretion and protection

Location: (rare) sweat glands duct, ovarian


follicular cells and salivary glands
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Stratified Columnar

Structure: many layers of epithelial cells but only


the surface cells are columnar

Function: absorption, secretion and protection

Location: (rare) mammary gland ducts, larynx


and portion of male urethra
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Transitional Epithelium

Structure: special type of stratified epithelial


changes shape
stretched - squamous
not stretched cuboidal

Function: hold fluids

Location: urinary bladder


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Structure-Function Relationship
Controlling the passage of materials through the
epithelium

Protection of the underlying tissues

CELL LAYER
Simple Epithelium diffusion, filtration
Stratified Epithelium protective function
Stratified Squamous protects from abrasion
Structure-Function Relationship

CELL SHAPE

Flat diffusion
Columnar or cuboidal secretion or absorption
Secretory vesicles filled with mucus which protects the
stomach linings
Digestive enzymes
Acids
Free Cell Surfaces
Surface not in contact with other cells

Smooth to reduce friction, Ex. Blood vessels

Microvilli:
- increase cells surface area
- cover the free surface of each cell involved in
absorption or secretion
- Ex. Small intestine

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Cilia:
- move materials across cells surface
- Ex. Trachea

Goblet cells:
- produce mucus
- Ex. Stomach

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Cell Connections
Tight junctions:
- bind adjacent cells together
- prevent the passage of materials between cells.
- Ex. Intestines

Desmosomes:
- mechanical links that bind cells together.

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Hemidesmosomes
- Modified desmosomes
- bind cells to basement membrane

Gap junctions:
- small channels that allow molecules to pass
between cells
- allow cells to communicate

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Glands
structures that secrete substances onto a surface,
into a cavity, or into blood

Exocrine glands:
glands with ducts
Ex. Sweat or oil glands

Endocrine glands:
no ducts (directly into bloodstream)
Ex. Thyroid, thymus, pituitary glands, etc.

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Types of Exocrine Glands
Simple:
no branches

Compound:
many branches

Tubular:
end of duct

Alveolus / Acinus
sac-like structure
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Type of Secretion
Merocrine Secretion
Most common type of secretion
Secretions are actively transported or in vesicles
Secretions from pancreas

Apocrine Secretion
Secretory products are released as fragments of gland
cell
Milk secretion

Holocrine Secretion
Shedding of the entire cell
Sebaceous oil glands of the skin
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Connective Tissues Characteristics

Cells far apart

Contain large amounts of extracellular matrix


contains 3 components (in varying amounts):
protein fibers
ground substance composed of proteins and sugars
Fluid

Ex. Blast cells build, clast cells carve

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Types of Protein Fibers

Collagen fibers
look like ropes and are flexible but resist stretching

Reticular fibers
supporting network that fills spaces between organs
and tissues

Elastic fibers
recoil after being stretched

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Connective Tissue Cells
Suffix -blast (germ)
Produce the matrix

Suffix -cytes (cells)


Cells contained and maintained the matrix

Suffix -clasts (break)


Break it down for remodeling
Other cells found in the
connective tissues
Macrophages
White blood cells
Ingest foreign material

Mast Cells
Release chemicals (Histamine)
Promote inflammation
Functions of Connective Tissue
1. Enclose and separate
Ex. around organs and muscles

2. Connect tissues
Ex. Tendons: connect bone to muscle
Ligaments: connect bone to bone

3. Support and Movement


Ex. bones, semi-rigid cartilage, joints

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4. Storage
Ex. bones store calcium and phosphate
adipose tissue stores fat

5. Cushion and insulate


Ex. adipose tissue protects organs and helps
conserve heat

6. Transport:
Ex. Blood

7. Protect:
Ex. Immune cells and blood provide protection
against toxins and microorganisms
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Types of Ordinary Connective Tissue

1. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Location: between organs, muscles, glands, skin

Structure: collagen fibers far apart

Function: support and protect

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3 Sub-divisions of Loose Connective Tissues
AREOLAR

Structure
Extracellular matrix composed mostly of collagen
fibers and some elastic fiber

Function
Packing, support and nourishment for the structure

Location
Widely distributed throughout the body. Epithelial
basement rest.
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ADIPOSE

Structure
Composed of large cells filled with lipids and small
extracellular matrix consists of loosely arranged collagen
and reticular fibers with some scattered elastic fibers.

Function
storage, insulate, cushion and protection of organs
against injury from being bumped.

Location
under the skin and around organs
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RETICULAR

Structure
Fine network of reticular fibers irregularly arranged

Function
Provides a superstructure for lymphatic and hemopoietic
tissues

Location
Within the lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow
2. DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Location: tendons, ligaments, skin

Structure: collagen fibers packed close together

Function: connect and can withstand pulling forces

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2 Major sub-categories of Dense Connective Tissue
DENSE COLLAGENOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Structure
Extracellular matrix is composed of collagen fibers.

Function
Withstand great pulling forces exerted in the direction of
fiber orientation due to great tensile and stretched
resistance

Location
Tendons- muscle to bone ; Ligaments bone to bone;
dermis of the skin; organ capsules and outer layer of blood
vessels
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DENSE REGULAR ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Structure
Extracellular matrix is composed of collagen fibers and
elastin fibers

Function
Capable of stretching and recoiling like a rubber band with
strength

Location
Elastic connective tissue in the vocal cords and in walls of
large arteries
SUPPORTING CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Cartilage
Composed of chondrocytes

Contains collagen

Withstands compressions

Provides support, flexibility, strength

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Types of Cartilage
HYALINE CARTILAGE

Location: covers ends of bones, costal cartilage of ribs

Structure: some collagen fibers, chondrocytes are


found in spaces - Lacunae

Function: growth of long bones, provides rigidity and


reduces friction (cushion)

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FIBROCARTILAGE

Location: between vertebra, articular disks (knee)

Structure: lots of collagen fibers arranged in thick


bundles

Function: flexible and can withstand compression


such as pressure
ELASTIC CARTILAGE

Location: ear and tip of nose

Structure: similar to hyaline but it has elastin fibers

Function: provides rigidity with even more flexibility


because it can recoil and go back to original shape

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Bone
Hard connective tissue
Mineralized matrix support and protect other tissues
and organs
Living cell

Composed of osteocytes located in the lacunae

2 types: compact and spongy

Provide great strength and support and attachment


sites for muscles and ligaments
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FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Blood
Unique
Matrix is fluid enabling the blood to move through
blood vessels

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets

Transport food, oxygen, waste, hormones

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MUSCULAR TISSUE
Characteristics
Ability to contact or shorten making movement
possible

Muscle contraction results form contractile


protein located in the muscle cells

Muscle fibers also called as muscle cells


Resembles tiny thread
3 types of Muscle Tissue
SKELETAL

Structure
Fibers appear striated (banded) cells are large, long and
cylindrical with many nuclei

Function
Movement of the body under voluntary control

Location
Attached to bone or other connective tissue
CARDIAC

Structure
Cylindrical and striated with single nucleus. Branched and
connected to one another by intercalated disks containing
the gap junction

Function
Pumps the blood under involuntary control

Location
Heart
SMOOTH

Structure
Tapered at each end, not striated with single nucleus

Function
Movement of food through the digestive tract and emptying
the urinary bladder
Controlled involuntarily

Location
Hollow organs such as stomach, intestine, skin and eyes
Muscle Tissue Types
Muscle Number of Nucleus With
Type Nucleus Location Striation
Skeletal
Peripheral/
(most many YES
surface
muscle)
Cardiac
1 central YES
(heart)
Smooth
1 central NO
(organs)
NERVOUS TISSUE
Nervous Tissue
Found in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves

Controls and coordinates body movements

Consist of neurons or nerve cells


Parts of nerve cells
Axons nerve cell processor
Dendrites receive stimuli leading to electrical changes
Cell bodies- contain the nucleus; site of general cell functions

Neuroglia
Support cells of the nervous system which nourish, protect
and insulate the neurons
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Tissue Membranes
Membrane
Thin sheet or layer of tissue that covers a structure
or lines the cavity.

Skin or Cutaneous external membrane

3 major categories of internal membrane


Mucous
Serous
Synovial
Cutaneous Membrane
External membrane

Composed of squamous epithelium and dense


connective tissue
Mucous Membranes
Consists of various kind of epithelium resting on a
thick layer of loose connective tissue

Many but not all have mucous glands which


secretes mucus.

Digestive, Respiratory and Reproductive tracts


and nasal passages

Functions
Protection, absorption and secretion
Serous Membrane
Consists of simple squamous epithelium resting
on a delicate layer of loose connective tissue.

Secrete serous fluid which covers the surface of


the membrane

Line the trunk cavities and cover the organs

Prevent damage from abrasion


Serous membrane named after their location
Pleural
Associated with lungs

Pericardial
Associated with heart

Peritoneal
Abdominopelvic

PLEURISY
inflammation of the pleural membrane
Synovial Membrane
Made up only of connective tissue

Produce synovial fluid which makes the joint very


slippery - lubrication

Line inside the joint cavities

Reduce friction and smooth movement of the


joint
Tissue Damage and
Inflammation
Inflammation

Occurs when tissues are damaged

Signals the bodys defenses (white blood cells) to


destroy foreign materials and damaged cells so
repair can occur.

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Symptoms of Inflammation
1. Redness: blood vessels dilate

2. Heat: due to increased blood flow

3. Swelling: from water and proteins

4. Pain: nerve endings are stimulated by


damage and swelling

5. Disturbance of function
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Chemical Mediators
Released after injury
Cause dilation of blood vessels

Ex. Histamines and Prostaglandins

EDEMA
Swelling of the tissues due to the accumulation of water,
proteins and other substance from the blood to the tissues

NEUTROPHIL
Phagocytic white blood cells that enters the tissue for
protection
PUS- accumulation of dead neutrophil, other cells and fluid
Chronic Inflammation

Results when the agent causing the injury is not


removed or something else interferes with the
healing process
Tissue Repair
Substitution of dead cells for viable cells

Regeneration:
cells of same type develop (no scar)
Accompanied by STEM CELLS

Replacement/ Fibrosis
Predominant repair mechanism
cells of a different type develop (scar)

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CLOT
Threadlike proteins fibrin and stops the bleeding

SCAB
Seals the wound and prevent infection

GRANULATION TISSUE
Granular-appearing connective tissue that consists of
fibroblasts, collagen and capillaries

WOUND CONTRACTURE
Contraction of fibroblast
Reduce size of the wound
Speeds healing
Effects of Aging on Tissue
Cells divide more slowly as people age

Injuries heal more slowly

Extracellular matrix containing collagen and


elastic fibers becomes less flexible and less
elastic

Wrinkled skin appearance, elasticity in arteries is


reduced and bones break easily.