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Original Title: Heat conduction in polar coordinates

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Facultad de Ingeniera

Departamento de Ingeniera Mecnica

Transferencia de Calor

Homework No. 3

Abstract

The unsteady state heat diffusion in a two-dimensional semicircular solid with internal heat

source and mixed boundary conditions was studied. The problem is solved using the finite

volume method in the program CONDUCT and by the finite difference method. A study of

the mesh effect was carried out. The results given by the program were quite similar with the

FDM .

2

Contents

1.Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3

2.Physical Situation ................................................................................................................ 3

2.1. Unsteady Conduction with Heat Generation ............................................................... 3

3.Mathematical Model ............................................................................................................ 4

4.Metodology.......................................................................................................................... 4

5. Computational Implementation .......................................................................................... 5

6.Results ................................................................................................................................. 5

7. Results Analysis and Discussion ........................................................................................ 7

8.Conclusions ......................................................................................................................... 7

9.Appendix ............................................................................................................................. 7

9.1. System of linear equations........................................................................................... 8

10.References ......................................................................................................................... 8

3

volume method (FVM) in the open source

program CONDUCT [2], and with the

1.Introduction finite difference method in a 7x7 grid.

There are three basic mechanism of heat

transfer, conduction, convection and

radiation. Conduction is the transfer of 2.Physical Situation

energy from the more energetic particles

of a substance to the adjacent, less 2.1. Unsteady Conduction with Heat

energetic ones as a result of interactions Generation

between the particles. Convection is the The physical layout for the 2D usteady

mode of heat transfer between a solid state heat diffusion in a semicircular solid

surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that with heat generation and mixed boundary

is in motion, and it involves the conditions is shown in the figure 1. We use

combined effects of conduction and fluid polar coordinates (, ) due to the

motion. Radiation is the energy semicircular geometry. The parameters are

emitted by matter in the form of dimensionless because are only reference

electromagnetic waves. All modes of heat for the understanding of this situation [2].

transfer require the existence of a

temperature difference, and all modes are

from the high-temperature medium to a

lower-temperature one [1].

conduction, like dwelling thermal

isolation, heat loss in heat exchangers, heat

transfer from finned surfaces, heat Figure 1. Semicircular solid with heat generation

between R1 and R2.

treatment, etc. Therefore, is important to

have a very good understanding of this 1 = 0.5 2 = 0.75 3 = 1.5 are

heat transfer mechanism, its governing radius.

equations and the different kinds of Where = 1000 is the source term (heat

boundary conditions that could be involve

generation); is the thermal conductivity.

in this sort of problems.

0 = 50 , = 100 , = 20 are

In the context of heat conduction in 2-D

temperatures, = 5 is the heat transfer

domains, we shall study a general problem

coefficient and = 60 is a constant heat

in a semicircular domain that involve

flux.

different kind of boundary conditions at

the same time, which is illustrated in In this case only one half of the domain is

Pantakars book Computation of being calculated owing to the symmetry of

Conduction and Duct Flow Heat the geometry.

Transfer [2].

4

The unsteady state 2D heat conduction in first discretize the domain in 49 nodes, 7

a semicircular solid with internal heat for each coordinate, and then write the

source is governed by a diffusion equation, partial differential equation in a difference

the heat equation in polar coordinates, a form with Taylor series, taking the

partial differential equation which is non- subscripts i, j for the coordinates ,

homogeneous: respectively.

1 1 ,+1 ,1

= ( ) + 2 ( ) + (1) [

2

The problem has the following properties ,1 2, + ,+1

+ (8)

and boundary conditions respectively: 2

1, 2, + +1,

+ ]+ =0

= 1000 (2) 2 2

= 1 = 1 (3) And rearranging to ease the formulation of

the linear system

(0.5, ) = 100 ; 0 (4)

2

(1.5, ) ( ),1 ( + )2,

= [(1.5, ) 5] (5)

+ ( + ),+1

1 (, 0) (9)

= 60 ; 0.5 1.5 (6) + 1, + +1,

(, 1) =

1 = 0 ; 0 0.7 (7) Where

Where 1 is for the unshaded area and 2

is for the shaded area as can be seen in = ; = 2; = 2 2 (10)

2

figure 1.

And finally applying the boundary

We can see the mixed boundary conditions conditions the linear system can be solved.

present in the problem, Dirichlet (4),

The linear system is shown in the

Neumann (6,7) and Robin (5).

appendix.

4.Metodology continuous domain in control volumes as

The partial differential equation that

shown in figure 2, and integrates with

govern this present problem, with the

respect each independent variable the PDE

boundary conditions previously shown

in every control volume.

were solved numerically using two

methods, the finite volume method in the

open source program CONDUCT [2], and

the steady state with the finite difference

method, which was implemented by hand

and the system of linear equations was

solved using Mathcad, a calculation

software.

5

CONDUCT the grid independence will be

analyzed, and compared with the MDF

results.

5. Computational

Implementation

As it was said the problem were solved

using the open source program

In (9) we have the 2D steady state

CONDUCT, and for the MDF calculations

diffusion equation. After the integration

it was used Mathcad. The post-processing

we have the balance of generation of the

of the data was realized in Tecplot and the

quantity and the fluxes through its cell

graphics were made in MATLAB.

faces (10). To reach an equation in terms

of we linear interpolate the gradients in The mesh used in the develop of the work

the faces and get (12). Rearranging its are the next:

equation, we have the general discretized

equation: CONDUCT MDF

7x7 7x7

12x12

22x22

In this case of heat diffusion we have that 40x40

Table 1. Numbers of control volumes.

= = .

The coefficients of the transport equation

This generate a system of equation which as next:

is solved by TDMA.

6.Results

First, the problem was solved with the

finite difference method in a 7x7 grid.

Then it was calculated in CONDUCT

using the grids shown in table 1 to see the

effect of the mesh resolution.

grid.

6

Figure 3. Temperature profile () given by MDF Figure 4. Temperature profile () given by MDF

Figure 5. Temperature comparison for the same Figure 6. Temperature comparison for different

grid between CONDUCT and MDF grid between CONDUCT and MDF

7

Discussion

As can be seen in the MDF results in table

3 and 4 the solid is being cooled by

convection, and if the radius decreases a

maximum value of T is found in the zone

with internal heat generation and constant

heat flux.

method are validated with the results given

by CONDUCT, as it can be seen in figure

5 and 6, its mean that the method and the

boundary condition was well

implemented.

exactly that FDM for the same node

numbers, as it can be seen in figure 6 with

FDM we got a solution like a given by

FVM with more nodes.

independence, of which we can affirm that

a 12x12 grid is enough to solve this kind

of problems.

8.Conclusions

Finite difference method was successfully

implemented in this problem with mixed

boundary conditions.

enough.

9.Appendix

8

The linear system that was solved in the finite difference method is shown as follow.

Where:

1

= ; = ; = ; =

1 + 1 +

10.References

[1] Y. A. Engel y A. J. Ghajar, Transferencia de calor y masa: fundamentos y

aplicaciones. Mxico, D.F.: McGraw-Hill Interamericana, 2011.

[2] Suhas V. Patankar, Computation of Conduction and Duct Flow Heat Transfer. CRC

Press LLC, 1991.

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