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Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 1

EVAPORATION
A. Single Effect Evaporator Analysis

F = Feed Rate
E = Evaporation Rate
Vo= Steam Rate
L = Thick Liquor rate
P = Operating Pressure
Po= Steam Pressure
TI= Boiling Pt of Solution L
Ts= Steam Temperature
To= Saturation Steam Temp
Tc= Condensate temp
T1=Boiling Pt of Pure Solvent
xF= fraction of solute in feed
xL= fraction of solute in
h = enthalpy of liquid
H = enthalpy of vapor

1. Material Balance:
OMB: F=L+E
Solute Bal: F xF = L xL (also known as throughput balance)
2. Enthalpy Balance:
Vo Hs + F hF = E HE + L hL + Vo hc
rearranging: Vo(Hs-hc) = E HE + L hL - F hF = q = rate of heat transfer

Conditions of Steam:
a) Condensing without subcooling: Ts = To = Tc
Hs = Ho at To hc = ho at To
q = Vo (Hs-hc) = Vo(Ho-ho) = VoLo

b) Superheated, condensing without subcooling: Ts>To=Tc


Hs = Ho + 0.45 (Ts-To) (BTU/lb)
= Ho + 1.884 (Ts-To) (J/g)
hc = ho
q = Vo(Hs-hc) = Vo[(Ho+1.884(Ts-To) - ho]
= Vo[Lo + 1.884(Ts-To)]

c) Superheated, condensing with subcooling: Ts>To>Tc


Hs = same as (b)
hc = ho - (1) (Ts-Tc) (BTU/lb)
= ho - 4.187 (Ts-Tc) (J/g)
q = Vo(Hs-hc) = Vo[Lo + 1.884(Ts-To) + 4.187(To-Tc)]

d) Condensing with subcooling: Ts=To>Tc


Hs = Ho and hc = same as (c)
q = Vo[Lo - 4.187 (To-Tc)]

note: Cp of steam is 0.45 BTU/lboF or 1.884 kJ/kgK


Cp of liquid water is 1 BTU/lboF or 4.187 kJ/kgK

For Right side of enthalpy balance equation:

Case I - Negligible Heat of Dilution: Using TI as reference Temperature:


Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 2

hF = CpF (TF - TI)


HL = CpL (TI - TI)
HE = 4.187 (T1-TI) + L1 + 1.884 (TI-T1)
E starts as liquid water at T I, boils at t 1 and
becomes superheated vapor at T I
or HE = L1 - 2.303(TI-T1) = L1 - 2.303 BPR
In Engl Units: HE = L1 - 0.55 BPR
Substituting into the Enthalpy balance eqn gives the following:

Heat Balance Equation:


q = Vo(Hs-hc) = E [L1 - 2.303BPR] + F CpF (TI-TF)

Case II - Considerable heat of dilution

Use Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram: for NaOH, see Fig 19.13/504F


hF is based on xF and TF
hL is based on xL and TI
HE = H1 + 1.884 BPR

3. Heat Transfer equation: U = Overall Heat transfer coeff


A = Evaporator area
q = U A (To - TI)

4. Economy of Evaporator = Total Evaporation/Steam Requirement


= E/Vo

Ex.1] A single effect evaporator will handle 18,000 kg/hr of an organic colloid in water. The solution
will be concentrated from 15% to 60% solids. Steam available is at 275 kPa and 140 oC. The feed
enters at 24oC with a specific heat of 3.768 kJ/kgK. A pressure of 660 mm Hg vacuum shall be
maintained in the vapor space. The solution has a negligible BPR. Overall heat transfer coefficient is
2840 W/m2K. Calculate the economy and evaporator area.

Given:

Req'd: a) Economy b) A
Sol'n:
OMB: 18000 = L+E
SB: 18000(.15) = L(.6)
L = 4500
E = 13500
at Po = 275 kPa, To = 130.6 oC, Lo = 2171.8 kJ/kg
at 660 mm Hg vac or 100 mm Hg abs (13.33 kPa), T 1 = 50.6oC L1 = 2379.1 kJ/kg
HBE: q = Vo[Lo + 1.884 (Ts-To)] = EL1 + F CpF (T1 - TF)
Vo[2171.8+1.884(140-130.6)] = 13500(2379.1)+18000(3.768)(50.6-24)
solving: Vo = 15492 kg/hr
a) Economy = E/Vo = 13500/15492 = 0.87
Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 3

HTE: q = UA (To-T1)
= 2840 (3600/1000) A ( 130.6-50.6)
solving : A = 41.47 m2

Ex 2] A single effect evaporator is used to concentrate 20,000 lb/hr of a 20% solution of NaOH to
50% solids. Saturated steam is at 20 psig and the vapor space at 100 mm Hg. Overall heat transfer
coefficient is 250 BTU/hr ft2-oF. The feed enters at 100oF. Calculate the economy and evaporator
area.

Given:

Reqd: a)Economy b) A
Soln:

OMB: 20000 = L+E


SB: 20000(.2) = L(.5)
L = 8000 E = 12000 lb/hr
EB:
q = VoLo = EHE + LhL - FhF

for steam at 20 psig or 34.7 psia, To = 258.7 oF


Lo = 939.5 BTU/lb
for vapor: at 100 mm Hg or 1.93 psia, T1 = 124.7oF
H 1 = 1115.6 BTU/lb
From Duhring's Chart: TI =(T1=124.7,xL=0.5) = 197oF
BPR = 197 -124.7 = 72.3 oF

From Enthalpy- Concentration Diagram:


hF = (TF=100oF, xF=0.2) = 55 BTU/lb
hL = (TI=197oF, xL=0.5) = 221 BTU/lb
Substituting in EBE:
Vo(939.5) = 12000 [1115.6 + .45(72.3)] + 8000(221) -20000(55)
Vo = 15375.8 lb/hr

a) Economy = 12000/15375.8 = 0.78


HTE: q = VoLo = UA(To-TI)
= 250 A (258.7-197)
A = 936 ft2

Multiple Effect Evaporator System


Multiple effect system is used to increase overall economy
Basic set-up uses steam in the first effect; subsequent effects are heated by vapor coming from a
preceding effect.
Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 4

Each effect normally has the same heat transfer area but have different operating pressures and
evaporation rate.
Methods of Feeding vary according to the condition of the feed

a) Forward Feeding: Used for warm feed and solutions with low viscosity.

b) Backward Feeding: Cold feed and viscous solutions

c) Mixed Feeding: Warm viscous feed

d) Parallel Feeding: For solutions that form precipitates


Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 5

Equations for Triple Effect Forward Feed Systems:


1. Material Balances:
OMB: F = L + V1 + V2 + V3
E = V1 + V2 + V3
SB: FxF = (F-V1) x1 = (F-V1-V2) x2 = LxL

2. Enthalpy Balance:

First Effect: Vo(Hs-hc) = V1HI + (F-V1)hF-V1 - FhF


2nd Effect: V1(HI-h1) = V2HII +(F-V1-V2)hF-V1-V2 -(F-V1)hF-V1
3rd Effect: V2(HII-h2) = V3HIII + LhL - (F-V1-V2)hF-V1-V2

Case I - Considerable heat of dilution:


HI = H1 + 0.45 BPR1 = H1 + 1.884 BPR1
HII = H2 + 0.45 BPR2 = H2 + 1.884 BPR2
HIII = H3 + 0.45 BPR3 = H3 + 1.884 BPR3

hF(xF,TF) hF-V1-V2(x2,TII)

hF-V1(x1,TI) hL(xL,TIII)

Case II - Negligible Heat of Dilution: Heat Balance Equations:

First Effect: Vo(Hs-hc) = V1(L1 - 0.55 BPR1) + FCpF(TI-TF)


2nd Effect: V1(HI-h1) = V2(L2-0.55 BPR2)+(F-V1) CpF-V1(TII-TI)
3rd Effect: V2(HII-h2) = V3(L3-0.55 BPR3) + (F-V1-V2)CpF-V1-V2 (TIII-TII)

for SI units, change 0.55 to 2.303

3. Heat Transfer Equations:

First Effect: Vo(Hs-hc) = U1A1 T1 ; T1 = To-TI


2nd Effect: V1(HI-h1) = U2A2 T2 ; T2 = T1-TII
3rd Effect: V2(HII-h2) = U3A3 T3 ; T3 = T2 -TIII

FOR NEGLIGIBLE BPR: TI=T1; TII =T2 and TIII = T3

General Calculation Procedures for Multiple Effect Problems:


A. Problem Type:
Given: F or E or L; U for all effects; T F, xF, xL, condition of steam and Pressure or temperature in
the last effect.

Required: Area per effect; Economy; pressure or temperature in all the effects.
Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 6

Solution:
1. Compute for F/E/L (whichever is missing) by material balance
2. Find Tn using pressure in the last effect; To using steam data
3. Find the Total Temperature Drop, T
For systems without BPR: T = To - Tn, then go to no.5
For systems with BPR: T = To -Tn - BPR
4. To get BPRs,
a) Assume equal evaporation rates:
V1 =V2 =V3...= Vn = E/n
b) Solve for missing x using solute balance(depends on the type of feeding)
c) Using xn and Tn, obtain BPRn
d) To estimate other BPR's use:
(1 x1 ) BPR1 (1 x2 ) BPR2 (1 xn ) BPRn
...
x1 x2 xn
5. To Distribute T, ASSUME q1 = q2 = q3 or negligible SENSIBLE HEAT of the feed solutions:

U1A1T1 = U2A2T2 = U3A3T3 =... UnAnTn


A1 = A2 = A3 =...An
U1T1 = U2T2 = U3T3 =... UnTn

T2=U1/U2 T1 T3=U1/U3T1 .... Tn=U1/UnT1


or:
T = T1 [1 + U1/U2 + U1/U3 + ...U1/Un]

T
T1 =
1+U1/U2+U1/U3+...U1/Un

Using above equations, solve for T1, T2, T3...Tn-1


For Tn, use: Tn = T - T1 - T2 -...Tn-1

6. Make a Temperature Distribution Diagram, identifying all temperatures To, T I, T1, TII, T2...TN,
Tn as well as all latent heats/enthalpies at each temperature

7. Set up the Enthalpy Balance equations(NaOH-H2O) or Heat Balance equations for each effect.
To get Cp knowing Cpo at xo : Cp = 1 - (1-Cpo) x/xo BTU/lb oF
Cpo = xo Cpsolute + (1- xo) Cpwater
Cp = x Cpsolute + (1- x) Cpwater where Cpsolute is constant and Cpwater=1BTU/lboF
Equate Cpsolute in the above equations and solve for Cp

Solve the equations simultaneously for Vo, V1, V2, V3...Vn.


For Problems without BPR, go to no.9

8. Check BPR's from step no.4 using the computed V1, V2, V3...Vn
9. Get Areas using Heat Transfer Equation
Find Aave = Ai/n ; for equal areas , each area must be within +/- 3% of the average
For Unequal areas, redistribute temperature Ti = (Ti)previous trial x Ai/Amean

where Amean = [ Ai(Ti)previous]/ T]

Repeat steps 6,7 and 9 (Skip 8 even with BPR)


Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 7

B. Problem Type:
Given: Area per effect (same for all), xF, xL, Pn, all U
Required: F or L or E
Solution: Make a basis for F, solve for L and E
Follow steps as in Problem Type A to solve for Acomputed
Use ratio and Proportion to find Factual
Fbasis F
actual
Acomputed Agiven

Ex1. A triple effect evaporator system connected for forward feeding is used to concentrate 5000
kg/hr of an organic feed containing 20% solute to a thick liquor of 50% solute. Saturated steam at
340 kPa is used. Pressure in the last effect is 660 mm Hg vacuum. The feed enters at 50 oC and Cp of
all solutions is constant at 4kJ/kgK. Overall coefficients are U 1=944.44, U2=611.11 and U3=333.33
W/m2K. Calculate the evaporator areas and steam economy.
Given:

Required:a) A b) Economy

Solution:
OMB: F = E + L = 5000
SB: 5000(.2) = L(.5) L = 2000 E = 3000 E = V1 + V2 + V3 = 3000

Temperature distribution: Temperature Distribution Diagram


T = To - T3 = 137.8 - 51.3 = 86.5oC
To=137.8 Lo=2149.7 kJ/kg
16.1
T1=121.7 L1=2196.3
24.9
T2=96.8 L2=2264.8
45.5
T3=51.3 L3=2377.9
86.5
T1 161
. oC
944.44 944.44
1
61111
. 333.33

T2 = (944.44)(16.1)/611.11 = 24.9 oC
T3 = 86.5 -16.1 - 24.9 = 45.5oC

HBE:
Vo(2149.7) = V1(2196.3) + 5000(4)(121.7-50)
V1(2196.3) = V2(2264.8) + (5000-V1)(4)(96.8-121.7)
Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 8

V2(2264.8) = V3(2377.9) + (5000-V1-V2)(4)(51.3-96.8)


3000 = V1 + V2 + V3

solving simultaneously:
Vo=1513.8787 V1=828.8417 V2=987.2097 V3= 1183.9486

Check Areas using HTE:


(1513.8787)(2149.7) = 944.44 (3600/1000) A1 (16.1)
(828.8417)(2196.3) = 611.11 (3600/1000) A2 (24.9)
(987.2097)(2264.8) = 333.33 (3600/1000) A3 (45.5)

A1 = 59.4517 A2 =33.2308 A3 = 40.9493 Aave=44.544


%diff 33.5 % 25.4% 8%

since areas are not equal:


Redistribute temperature:
Amean = [(59.4517)(16.1) + 33.2308(24.9) + 40.9493(45.5)] = 42.1712
T1 = (59.4517)(16.1)/42.1712 = 22.7oC
T2 = (33.2308)(24.9)/42.1712 = 19.6oC
T3 = 86.5 - 22.7 - 19.6 = 44.2oC

To=137.8 Lo=2149.7 kJ/kg


22.7
T1=115.1 L1=2214.8

T2=95.5
19.6 L2=2267.7

T3=51.3
44.2 L3=2377.9
substitute in HBE: Vo = 1485.86 V1=854.32 V2=977.72 V3=1167.95
Substitute in HTE:
A1 = 41.38 A2 = 43.88 A3 = 41.8 Aave=42.35
% diff = 2.3% 3.6% 1.3%

Redistribute temp:T1=22.3 T2=20.4 T3=43.8


Amean= 42.16 T1=115.5 T 2=95.1
Vo= 1486.26 V1= 851.56 V2=979.9 V3 =1168.53
A1 = 42.14 A2 = 42 A3 = 42.3 Aave= 42.15
%diff .024% 0.35% 0.37%

a) A = 42.15 m2
b) Eco = E/Vo = 3000/1486.26 = 2.018

Ex. 2 A triple effect evaporator connected for mixed feeding (II-I-III) is used to concentrate NaOH from 5 to
50%. Steam is at 130 oC and the last effect at 52 oC. Feed temperature is 38oC. Overall heat coefficients are
2270, 1700 and 1000 W/m2K for the first, second and third effects respectively. If the evaporator areas are
500 m2 each, calculate the feed rate.

Basis: 1000 lb Feed


OMB: 1000 = L + E
SB: (1000)(0.05) = L(0.5) L= 100 E = 900 = V1+V2+V3
Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 9

Determine BPRs: Assume V1 = V2 = V3 = 900/3 = 300


Throughput bal : F xF = (F-V2) x2 = (F-V1-V2)x1
1000(0.05) = (1000-300) x2 = (1000 - 300 - 300) x1
x2 = 0.07143 x1 = 0.125
From Duhrings Chart:
TIII = (T3=52 oC = 125.6 oF ; xL = 0.5) = 197 oF
BPR3 = 197 - 125.6 = 71.4
(1 x1 ) BPR1 (1 x2 ) BPR2 (1 xn ) BPRn
...
x1 x2 xn
(1 0125
. ) BPR1 (1 0.07143) BPR2 (1 0.5)( 71.4)
...
0125
. 0.07143 0.5
BPR1 = 10.2
BPR2 = 5.5
Temperature Distribution Diagram:

To=266 Lo=934.5 BTU/lb

TI=254.4
11.6 HI=1166.62

T1=244.2
10.2 H1 =1162.03 h1 =212.71

TII=228.7 15.5 HII=1157.1


T2 =223.2 5.5 H2 = 1154.6 h2 =191.46

TIII=197 HIII=1148.07
26.2

T3=125.6 71.4 H3 = 1115.94

Distribute Temp: Assume equal q; q1 = q2 =q3


T = To - T3 - BPR
= 266 - 125.6 - (71.4+5.5+10.2) = 53.3
53.3
T1 11.6o C
399.79 399.79
1
299.4 1761.
T2 = (399.79)(11.6)/299.4 = 15.5oC
T3 = 53.3 -11.6 - 15.5 = 26.2oC
hF = 65
hF-V2 = 184
hF-V1-V2 = 215
hL = 222

Enthalpy Balance:
Vo(934.5) = V1 (1166.62) - (1000-V1-V2)(190) +(1000-V2)(184)
V1(1166.62-212.71) = V2(1157.1) + (1000-V2)(184) - 1000(65)
V2(1157.1-191.46) = V3(1148.07) + 100(222) -(1000-V1-V2)(215)
900 = V1+V2+V3
Solving simultaneously: V1= 383.87 V2= 254 V3 = 262.13
Assumption of equal V not correct;
Assume V1= 383.87 V2= 254 V3 = 262.13
x1 = 0.138 x2 = 0.067 BPR1 = 11.6 BPR2 = 5.2
T1 = 11.3 T2 = 15.1 T3 =25.8
V1 = 389.34 V2= 254.46 V3 = 256.2 Vo = 554.84
Check Areas: A1 = 114.7 A2 = 81.18 A3 = 53.4
[Assumption of equal q not correct]
Amean = 74.72
T1 = 17.4 T2 = 16.4 T3 =18.4
V1 = 381.02 V2= 259.49 V3 = 259.5 Vo = 542.06
Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 10

A1 = 72.82 A2 = 74.44 A3 = 77.71 A ave = 74.99


2.9% 0.73% 3.6 %