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Evapn Notes

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EVAPORATION

A. Single Effect Evaporator Analysis

F = Feed Rate

E = Evaporation Rate

Vo= Steam Rate

L = Thick Liquor rate

P = Operating Pressure

Po= Steam Pressure

TI= Boiling Pt of Solution L

Ts= Steam Temperature

To= Saturation Steam Temp

Tc= Condensate temp

T1=Boiling Pt of Pure Solvent

xF= fraction of solute in feed

xL= fraction of solute in

h = enthalpy of liquid

H = enthalpy of vapor

1. Material Balance:

OMB: F=L+E

Solute Bal: F xF = L xL (also known as throughput balance)

2. Enthalpy Balance:

Vo Hs + F hF = E HE + L hL + Vo hc

rearranging: Vo(Hs-hc) = E HE + L hL - F hF = q = rate of heat transfer

Conditions of Steam:

a) Condensing without subcooling: Ts = To = Tc

Hs = Ho at To hc = ho at To

q = Vo (Hs-hc) = Vo(Ho-ho) = VoLo

Hs = Ho + 0.45 (Ts-To) (BTU/lb)

= Ho + 1.884 (Ts-To) (J/g)

hc = ho

q = Vo(Hs-hc) = Vo[(Ho+1.884(Ts-To) - ho]

= Vo[Lo + 1.884(Ts-To)]

Hs = same as (b)

hc = ho - (1) (Ts-Tc) (BTU/lb)

= ho - 4.187 (Ts-Tc) (J/g)

q = Vo(Hs-hc) = Vo[Lo + 1.884(Ts-To) + 4.187(To-Tc)]

Hs = Ho and hc = same as (c)

q = Vo[Lo - 4.187 (To-Tc)]

Cp of liquid water is 1 BTU/lboF or 4.187 kJ/kgK

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 2

HL = CpL (TI - TI)

HE = 4.187 (T1-TI) + L1 + 1.884 (TI-T1)

E starts as liquid water at T I, boils at t 1 and

becomes superheated vapor at T I

or HE = L1 - 2.303(TI-T1) = L1 - 2.303 BPR

In Engl Units: HE = L1 - 0.55 BPR

Substituting into the Enthalpy balance eqn gives the following:

q = Vo(Hs-hc) = E [L1 - 2.303BPR] + F CpF (TI-TF)

hF is based on xF and TF

hL is based on xL and TI

HE = H1 + 1.884 BPR

A = Evaporator area

q = U A (To - TI)

= E/Vo

Ex.1] A single effect evaporator will handle 18,000 kg/hr of an organic colloid in water. The solution

will be concentrated from 15% to 60% solids. Steam available is at 275 kPa and 140 oC. The feed

enters at 24oC with a specific heat of 3.768 kJ/kgK. A pressure of 660 mm Hg vacuum shall be

maintained in the vapor space. The solution has a negligible BPR. Overall heat transfer coefficient is

2840 W/m2K. Calculate the economy and evaporator area.

Given:

Req'd: a) Economy b) A

Sol'n:

OMB: 18000 = L+E

SB: 18000(.15) = L(.6)

L = 4500

E = 13500

at Po = 275 kPa, To = 130.6 oC, Lo = 2171.8 kJ/kg

at 660 mm Hg vac or 100 mm Hg abs (13.33 kPa), T 1 = 50.6oC L1 = 2379.1 kJ/kg

HBE: q = Vo[Lo + 1.884 (Ts-To)] = EL1 + F CpF (T1 - TF)

Vo[2171.8+1.884(140-130.6)] = 13500(2379.1)+18000(3.768)(50.6-24)

solving: Vo = 15492 kg/hr

a) Economy = E/Vo = 13500/15492 = 0.87

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 3

HTE: q = UA (To-T1)

= 2840 (3600/1000) A ( 130.6-50.6)

solving : A = 41.47 m2

Ex 2] A single effect evaporator is used to concentrate 20,000 lb/hr of a 20% solution of NaOH to

50% solids. Saturated steam is at 20 psig and the vapor space at 100 mm Hg. Overall heat transfer

coefficient is 250 BTU/hr ft2-oF. The feed enters at 100oF. Calculate the economy and evaporator

area.

Given:

Reqd: a)Economy b) A

Soln:

SB: 20000(.2) = L(.5)

L = 8000 E = 12000 lb/hr

EB:

q = VoLo = EHE + LhL - FhF

Lo = 939.5 BTU/lb

for vapor: at 100 mm Hg or 1.93 psia, T1 = 124.7oF

H 1 = 1115.6 BTU/lb

From Duhring's Chart: TI =(T1=124.7,xL=0.5) = 197oF

BPR = 197 -124.7 = 72.3 oF

hF = (TF=100oF, xF=0.2) = 55 BTU/lb

hL = (TI=197oF, xL=0.5) = 221 BTU/lb

Substituting in EBE:

Vo(939.5) = 12000 [1115.6 + .45(72.3)] + 8000(221) -20000(55)

Vo = 15375.8 lb/hr

HTE: q = VoLo = UA(To-TI)

= 250 A (258.7-197)

A = 936 ft2

Multiple effect system is used to increase overall economy

Basic set-up uses steam in the first effect; subsequent effects are heated by vapor coming from a

preceding effect.

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 4

Each effect normally has the same heat transfer area but have different operating pressures and

evaporation rate.

Methods of Feeding vary according to the condition of the feed

a) Forward Feeding: Used for warm feed and solutions with low viscosity.

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 5

1. Material Balances:

OMB: F = L + V1 + V2 + V3

E = V1 + V2 + V3

SB: FxF = (F-V1) x1 = (F-V1-V2) x2 = LxL

2. Enthalpy Balance:

2nd Effect: V1(HI-h1) = V2HII +(F-V1-V2)hF-V1-V2 -(F-V1)hF-V1

3rd Effect: V2(HII-h2) = V3HIII + LhL - (F-V1-V2)hF-V1-V2

HI = H1 + 0.45 BPR1 = H1 + 1.884 BPR1

HII = H2 + 0.45 BPR2 = H2 + 1.884 BPR2

HIII = H3 + 0.45 BPR3 = H3 + 1.884 BPR3

hF(xF,TF) hF-V1-V2(x2,TII)

hF-V1(x1,TI) hL(xL,TIII)

2nd Effect: V1(HI-h1) = V2(L2-0.55 BPR2)+(F-V1) CpF-V1(TII-TI)

3rd Effect: V2(HII-h2) = V3(L3-0.55 BPR3) + (F-V1-V2)CpF-V1-V2 (TIII-TII)

2nd Effect: V1(HI-h1) = U2A2 T2 ; T2 = T1-TII

3rd Effect: V2(HII-h2) = U3A3 T3 ; T3 = T2 -TIII

A. Problem Type:

Given: F or E or L; U for all effects; T F, xF, xL, condition of steam and Pressure or temperature in

the last effect.

Required: Area per effect; Economy; pressure or temperature in all the effects.

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 6

Solution:

1. Compute for F/E/L (whichever is missing) by material balance

2. Find Tn using pressure in the last effect; To using steam data

3. Find the Total Temperature Drop, T

For systems without BPR: T = To - Tn, then go to no.5

For systems with BPR: T = To -Tn - BPR

4. To get BPRs,

a) Assume equal evaporation rates:

V1 =V2 =V3...= Vn = E/n

b) Solve for missing x using solute balance(depends on the type of feeding)

c) Using xn and Tn, obtain BPRn

d) To estimate other BPR's use:

(1 x1 ) BPR1 (1 x2 ) BPR2 (1 xn ) BPRn

...

x1 x2 xn

5. To Distribute T, ASSUME q1 = q2 = q3 or negligible SENSIBLE HEAT of the feed solutions:

A1 = A2 = A3 =...An

U1T1 = U2T2 = U3T3 =... UnTn

or:

T = T1 [1 + U1/U2 + U1/U3 + ...U1/Un]

T

T1 =

1+U1/U2+U1/U3+...U1/Un

For Tn, use: Tn = T - T1 - T2 -...Tn-1

6. Make a Temperature Distribution Diagram, identifying all temperatures To, T I, T1, TII, T2...TN,

Tn as well as all latent heats/enthalpies at each temperature

7. Set up the Enthalpy Balance equations(NaOH-H2O) or Heat Balance equations for each effect.

To get Cp knowing Cpo at xo : Cp = 1 - (1-Cpo) x/xo BTU/lb oF

Cpo = xo Cpsolute + (1- xo) Cpwater

Cp = x Cpsolute + (1- x) Cpwater where Cpsolute is constant and Cpwater=1BTU/lboF

Equate Cpsolute in the above equations and solve for Cp

For Problems without BPR, go to no.9

8. Check BPR's from step no.4 using the computed V1, V2, V3...Vn

9. Get Areas using Heat Transfer Equation

Find Aave = Ai/n ; for equal areas , each area must be within +/- 3% of the average

For Unequal areas, redistribute temperature Ti = (Ti)previous trial x Ai/Amean

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 7

B. Problem Type:

Given: Area per effect (same for all), xF, xL, Pn, all U

Required: F or L or E

Solution: Make a basis for F, solve for L and E

Follow steps as in Problem Type A to solve for Acomputed

Use ratio and Proportion to find Factual

Fbasis F

actual

Acomputed Agiven

Ex1. A triple effect evaporator system connected for forward feeding is used to concentrate 5000

kg/hr of an organic feed containing 20% solute to a thick liquor of 50% solute. Saturated steam at

340 kPa is used. Pressure in the last effect is 660 mm Hg vacuum. The feed enters at 50 oC and Cp of

all solutions is constant at 4kJ/kgK. Overall coefficients are U 1=944.44, U2=611.11 and U3=333.33

W/m2K. Calculate the evaporator areas and steam economy.

Given:

Required:a) A b) Economy

Solution:

OMB: F = E + L = 5000

SB: 5000(.2) = L(.5) L = 2000 E = 3000 E = V1 + V2 + V3 = 3000

T = To - T3 = 137.8 - 51.3 = 86.5oC

To=137.8 Lo=2149.7 kJ/kg

16.1

T1=121.7 L1=2196.3

24.9

T2=96.8 L2=2264.8

45.5

T3=51.3 L3=2377.9

86.5

T1 161

. oC

944.44 944.44

1

61111

. 333.33

T2 = (944.44)(16.1)/611.11 = 24.9 oC

T3 = 86.5 -16.1 - 24.9 = 45.5oC

HBE:

Vo(2149.7) = V1(2196.3) + 5000(4)(121.7-50)

V1(2196.3) = V2(2264.8) + (5000-V1)(4)(96.8-121.7)

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 8

3000 = V1 + V2 + V3

solving simultaneously:

Vo=1513.8787 V1=828.8417 V2=987.2097 V3= 1183.9486

(1513.8787)(2149.7) = 944.44 (3600/1000) A1 (16.1)

(828.8417)(2196.3) = 611.11 (3600/1000) A2 (24.9)

(987.2097)(2264.8) = 333.33 (3600/1000) A3 (45.5)

%diff 33.5 % 25.4% 8%

Redistribute temperature:

Amean = [(59.4517)(16.1) + 33.2308(24.9) + 40.9493(45.5)] = 42.1712

T1 = (59.4517)(16.1)/42.1712 = 22.7oC

T2 = (33.2308)(24.9)/42.1712 = 19.6oC

T3 = 86.5 - 22.7 - 19.6 = 44.2oC

22.7

T1=115.1 L1=2214.8

T2=95.5

19.6 L2=2267.7

T3=51.3

44.2 L3=2377.9

substitute in HBE: Vo = 1485.86 V1=854.32 V2=977.72 V3=1167.95

Substitute in HTE:

A1 = 41.38 A2 = 43.88 A3 = 41.8 Aave=42.35

% diff = 2.3% 3.6% 1.3%

Amean= 42.16 T1=115.5 T 2=95.1

Vo= 1486.26 V1= 851.56 V2=979.9 V3 =1168.53

A1 = 42.14 A2 = 42 A3 = 42.3 Aave= 42.15

%diff .024% 0.35% 0.37%

a) A = 42.15 m2

b) Eco = E/Vo = 3000/1486.26 = 2.018

Ex. 2 A triple effect evaporator connected for mixed feeding (II-I-III) is used to concentrate NaOH from 5 to

50%. Steam is at 130 oC and the last effect at 52 oC. Feed temperature is 38oC. Overall heat coefficients are

2270, 1700 and 1000 W/m2K for the first, second and third effects respectively. If the evaporator areas are

500 m2 each, calculate the feed rate.

OMB: 1000 = L + E

SB: (1000)(0.05) = L(0.5) L= 100 E = 900 = V1+V2+V3

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 9

Throughput bal : F xF = (F-V2) x2 = (F-V1-V2)x1

1000(0.05) = (1000-300) x2 = (1000 - 300 - 300) x1

x2 = 0.07143 x1 = 0.125

From Duhrings Chart:

TIII = (T3=52 oC = 125.6 oF ; xL = 0.5) = 197 oF

BPR3 = 197 - 125.6 = 71.4

(1 x1 ) BPR1 (1 x2 ) BPR2 (1 xn ) BPRn

...

x1 x2 xn

(1 0125

. ) BPR1 (1 0.07143) BPR2 (1 0.5)( 71.4)

...

0125

. 0.07143 0.5

BPR1 = 10.2

BPR2 = 5.5

Temperature Distribution Diagram:

TI=254.4

11.6 HI=1166.62

T1=244.2

10.2 H1 =1162.03 h1 =212.71

T2 =223.2 5.5 H2 = 1154.6 h2 =191.46

TIII=197 HIII=1148.07

26.2

T = To - T3 - BPR

= 266 - 125.6 - (71.4+5.5+10.2) = 53.3

53.3

T1 11.6o C

399.79 399.79

1

299.4 1761.

T2 = (399.79)(11.6)/299.4 = 15.5oC

T3 = 53.3 -11.6 - 15.5 = 26.2oC

hF = 65

hF-V2 = 184

hF-V1-V2 = 215

hL = 222

Enthalpy Balance:

Vo(934.5) = V1 (1166.62) - (1000-V1-V2)(190) +(1000-V2)(184)

V1(1166.62-212.71) = V2(1157.1) + (1000-V2)(184) - 1000(65)

V2(1157.1-191.46) = V3(1148.07) + 100(222) -(1000-V1-V2)(215)

900 = V1+V2+V3

Solving simultaneously: V1= 383.87 V2= 254 V3 = 262.13

Assumption of equal V not correct;

Assume V1= 383.87 V2= 254 V3 = 262.13

x1 = 0.138 x2 = 0.067 BPR1 = 11.6 BPR2 = 5.2

T1 = 11.3 T2 = 15.1 T3 =25.8

V1 = 389.34 V2= 254.46 V3 = 256.2 Vo = 554.84

Check Areas: A1 = 114.7 A2 = 81.18 A3 = 53.4

[Assumption of equal q not correct]

Amean = 74.72

T1 = 17.4 T2 = 16.4 T3 =18.4

V1 = 381.02 V2= 259.49 V3 = 259.5 Vo = 542.06

Single & Multiple Effect Evaporation System page 10

2.9% 0.73% 3.6 %

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