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- 1. Central Tendency

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EXERCISE SHEET 3

1. A sample of rural county arrests gave the following set of offences with which

individuals were charged:

manslaughter arson theft arson burglary theft robbery

theft theft theft burglary murder murder theft

theft theft manslaughter manslaughter

Compile a simple frequency distribution and calculate each relative frequency and

the percentage distribution.

2. The following data give the results of a sample survey. The letters A, B and C

represent the three categories.

A B B A C B C C C A

C B C A C C B C C A

A B C C B C B A C A

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all categories

c) What percentage of the elements in this sample belong to category B?

d) What percentage of the elements in this sample belong to category A orC?

e) Draw a bar graph for the frequency distribution.

supermarket checkout line. Here, C refers to cash, CK to check, CC to credit card,

D to debit card, and O stands for other.

C CK CK C CC D O C

CK CC D CC C CK CK CC

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all categories.

c) Draw a pie chart for the percentage distribution.

1

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

4. The distribution of the primary sites for cancer is given in table below for the

residents of Dalton County.

Digestive system 20

Respiratory 30

Breast 10

Genitals 5

Urinary tract 5

Other 5

Construct a bar graph and a pie chart for the frequency distribution above.

5. The following data gives the number of orders received for a sample of 30 hours

at the Timesaver Mail Order Company.

34 44 31 52 41 47 38 35 32 39

28 24 46 41 49 53 57 33 27 37

30 27 45 38 34 46 36 30 47 50

first class and 7 as the width of each class.

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all classes.

c) For what percentage of the hours in this sample was the number of orders

more than 36?

6. The following data give the amounts spent on video rentals (in dollars) during

2002 by 30 households randomly selected from those households that rented

videos in 2002.

55 155 760 405 90 205 70 180 88 70

808 100 240 127 83 310 350 160 22 15

first class and $200 as the width of each class.

b) How many classes with equal width can you classified the data?

c) What percentage of the households in this sample spent more than $400 on

video rentals in 2002?

d) Construct a stem-and-leaf plots for the data.

2

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

3.2 QUANTITATIVE DATA

1. A large furniture company charts the availability of its vans on a daily basis. The

following data give the number of vans available over a sixty day period.

1 2 2 5 1 1 4 2 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 3

5 5 3 1 3 6 3 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 3 2 1 0

1 4 2 3 8 3 1 1 3 2 2 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 1

Compile a simple frequency distribution and calculate each relative frequency and

the percentage distribution.

2. Table below gives a frequency of the Standard-Binet intelligence test scores for

75 adults.

IQ score Frequency

80 - 94 8

95 - 109 14

110 - 124 24

125 - 139 16

140 - 154 13

Construct a table consists of class limits, class boundaries, class width and class

midpoints.

3. The following table gives the frequency distribution of the number of checks

written during 2002 by a sample 100 students selected from a large university.

0 - 99 39

100 - 199 21

200 - 299 18

300 - 399 15

400 - 499 7

b) Do all classes have the same width? If yes, what is this width?

c) Prepare the relative frequency and percentages distribution columns.

d) What percentage of these students wrote 200 or more checks in 2002?

4. The table below shows a frequency distribution of the lifetimes of 400 radio tubes

tested at the L & M Tube Company with reference to the table determine the:

(a) (i) Upper class boundary of the fifth class

(ii) Lower class boundary of the eighth class

(iii) Class boundaries of the seventh class

(iv) Class width of the sixth class

(v) Percentage of tubes whose lifetimes do not exceed 600 hours

3

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

(vi) Percentage of tubes whose lifetimes are greater than or equal to

900 hours

(vii) Percentage of tubes whose lifetimes are at least 500 but less than

1000 hours

300 399 14

400 499 46

500 - 599 58

600 - 699 76

700 - 799 68

800 - 899 62

900 - 999 48

1000 - 1099 22

1100 - 1199 6

(b) (i) With the data above, construct a cumulative frequency table

(ii) Construct an ogives.

5. The mileages recorded for a sample of company vehicles during a given week

yielded the following data:

146 158 140 147 136 148 152 144

168 126 138 176 163 119 154 165

146 173 142 147 135 153 140 135

161 145 135 142 150 156 145 128

(a) Using the data tabulate a grouped frequency distribution starting with '110

but under 120.

(b) How many classes of equal width can you classified the data?

(c) From your grouped frequency distribution table determine the following:

(i) the class boundaries of the 3rd class

(ii) upper class boundary of the second class

(iii) class width of all the classes

(iv) class limits of the 4th class

(v) class mid-point of the third class

(vi) class frequency of the fourth class

(i) a histogram

(ii) a polygon

(iii) an ogives.

4

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

6. Nixon Corporation manufactures computers terminals. The following data are the

numbers of computers terminals produced at the company for a sample of 30

days.

24 32 27 23 33 33 29 25 23 28

21 26 31 22 27 33 27 23 28 29

31 35 34 22 26 28 23 35 31 27

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all classes.

c) Construct a histogram and a polygon for the percentage distribution.

d) For what percentage of the days is the number of computer terminal

produced in the interval 27-29?

measurements of their diameters (in mm) are:

1.94 2.06 2.15 1.99 2.00 2.07 2.10 2.12 2.18 2.01

2.03 1.97 1.97 2.06 2.04 2.02 2.02 1.99 2.00 2.02

2.05 2.09 1.95 2.16 2.07 1.98 2.02 2.04 2.00 2.20

1.91 2.04 2.02 2.30 2.20 2.20 1.96 2.11 2.15 2.23

2.11 2.08 1.99 1.90 2.05 2.03 2.12 2.01 2.09 2.14

2.21 1.96 2.14 2.58 2.14 2.02 2.02 2.14 2.16 2.09

8. The time spent by cars in a car park in one day is given by the following

distribution.

(a) Draw a histogram for these data.

(b) Estimate the daily total number of hours spent by all cars in the park

during the day.

(c) Given that there are 400 parking spaces in the car park and it is open from

8:00 am to 8:00pm, estimate its percentage utilisation.

Up to 1 452

1 and up to 2 737

2 and up to 3 646

3 and up to 4 121

4 and up to 5 44

5 and up to 6 37

6 and up to 7 24

7 and up to 8 16

8 and up to 9 9

9 and up to 10 2

5

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

9. The following table shows data about the time taken, in minutes, for completing

each one of a series of seventy-five similar chemical experiments.

Time (minutes) 24 46 68 8 10 10 12

Number of experiments 4 13 22 26 10

(b) Draw an Ogive. Use the graph for the following:

(i) Find the number of experiments take less than 5 minutes.

(ii) Find the number of experiments take more than 9 minutes.

(iii) 72% experiments need less than x minutes to be completed. Find

the value of x.

10. Fifty community college students who were enrolled and were also working a

regular job were recently surveyed. The following data are the numbers of hours

per week each student was scheduled to work.

10 12 25 10 8 16 6 30 20 16

20 20 25 22 25 25 15 12 18 15

8 35 20 8 20 20 20 28 30 34

24 15 25 6 12 10 32 40 20 15

30 24 40 25 35 30 18 32 14 21

(a) Group the data into a frequency distribution, with classes 6 10, 11 15,

16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40.

(b) Draw a histogram to represent the data.

(c) Construct a cumulative frequency distribution.

(d) Draw a cumulative frequency polygon. Use the graph for the following.

(i) Find the number of students who work between 17 and 32 hours per

week.

(ii) 13 students work more than k hours in a week. Find the value of k.

11. The following data give the time (in minutes) that each of 20 students waited in

line at their bookstore to pay their textbooks in the beginning of Spring 2003

semester.

15 8 23 21 5 17 31 22 34 6

5 10 14 17 16 25 30 3 31 19

Construct a stem and leaf display for these data. Arrange the leaves for each stem

in increasing order.

6

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

12. Following are the total yards gained rushing during the 2002 season by 14

running backs of 14 college football teams.

1009 1275 857 933 1145 967 995

Prepare a stem and leaf display. Arrange the leaves for each stem in increasing

order.

13. The following frequency distribution table gives the age distribution of drivers

who were at fault in auto accidents that occurred during a one-week period in city.

Age f

18 - 20 7

20 - 25 12

25 - 30 18

30 - 40 14

40 - 50 15

50 - 60 16

60 and over 35

b) In what way is this histogram misleading?

c) How can you change the frequency distribution so that the resulting

histogram gives a clearer picture?

14. The data relating to weekly wages of employees of Salt Lake Ltd are as follows:

40 < wage 60 4

60 < wage 80 6

80 < wage 90 6

90 < wage 120 6

120 < wage 150 3

7

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

3.3 STATISTICAL MEASURES

1. A sample of 100 boxes of matches was taken and a record made of the number of

matches per box. The results were as follows:

Number of matches 47 48 49 50 51

Frequency 4 20 35 24 17

2. On a certain day the number of books on 40 shelves in a library was noted and

grouped as shown. Find the mean number of books on a shelf.

Number of books 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 - 45 45 - 50 51 - 55 56 - 60

Number of shelves 4 6 10 13 5 2

3. The table shows the masses of a group of male students at a college. Find the mean

Mass (kg) 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 84 85 - 89

Frequency 4 27 42 60 35 12

(a) 4, 6, 18, 25, 9, 16, 22, 5, 20, 4, 8

(b) 192, 217, 189, 210, 214, 204

(a)

x 5 6 7 8 9 10

f 6 11 15 18 6 5

(b)

x 12 13 14 15 16 17

f 3 9 11 15 7 5

shown in the table below:

Frequency 14 18 29 45 54 22 17

Construct a cumulative frequency table and use it to estimate the median mark.

7. The length of life ( to the nearest hour) of each of 50 electric light bulbs is noted and

the results shown in the table below. Calculate the median length of life.

Length of life (h) 650 - 669 670 - 679 680 - 689 690 699 700 - 719

Frequency 3 7 20 17 3

8

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

8. The marks of 5 students in a mathematics test were 27, 31. 35, 47, 50. Calculate the

mean mark and the standard deviation.

9. The score for a round of golf for each 50 club members was noted. Find the mean

score for a round and the standard deviation.

Score, x 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73

Frequency, f 2 5 10 12 9 6 4 2

10. The scores in an IQ test for 60 candidates are shown in the table. Find the mean score

and the standard deviation.

Frequency 8 13 24 11 4

11.

Age 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30-49

f 1 1 5 8 17 19 15 9 8 6 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 6

The table above gives the ages in completed years of the 113 persons convicted of

shop-lifting in a British town in 1995. Working in years and giving answers

correct to 1 place of decimals, calculate

(a) the mean age and the standard deviation.

(b) the coefficient of skewness given by (mean - mode ) / standard deviation

(c) the median and modal age.

(d) which do you consider to be best as a representative average of the

distribution - the mean, median or mode / Give reasons for your choice.

12. In a borehole the thickness, in mm, of the 25 strata are shown in the table below:

Number of strata 2 5 9 8 1 0

(b) Construct a cumulative frequency table and draw a cumulative frequency

polygon. Hence, or otherwise, estimate the median and the inter-quartile

range of these data.

(c) Find the proportion of the strata that are less than 28 mm thick.

13. The following data give the weights (in pounds) lost by 15 members of a health

club at the end of two months after joining the club.

15 8 23 21 5 17 31 22 34 6

5 10 14 17 16 25 30 3 31 19

b) Calculate the range, variance and standard deviation.

c) Are the values of the summary measures in parts (a) and (b) population

9

WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

parameters or sample statistics (parameters).

d) Prepare a box-and-plot. Comment on the skewness of these data.

14. The mean time taken to learn the basics of a word processor by all students is 200

minutes with a standard deviation of 20 minutes.

a) Using Chebyshevs theorem, find at least what percentage of students will

learn the basics of this word processor in 160 to 240 minutes.

b) Find the percentage of students will learn the basics of this word processor

in 160 to 240 minutes if the times taken have a bell shaped distribution.

c) Based on question (b), find the interval that contains the time taken by

99.7% of all students to learn this word processor.

15. The following are the ages of nine employees of an insurance company:

47 28 39 51 33 37 59 24 33

a) Find the values of the three quartiles. Where does the age of 28 fall in

relation to the ages of these employees?

b) Find the interquartile range.

0 3 6 9

1 2 8 5

2 5 1 6

3 8

4 1

5

6 2

b) Compute the range, variance and standard deviation

c) Compute the first and third quartiles

d) Compute the interquartile range

e) When would it be preferable to use the standard deviation when measuring

variation?

36 43 28 52 41 59 47 61

24 55 63 73 32 25 35 49

31 22 61 42 58 65 98 34

Does this data set contain any outliers? Comment on the skewness of these data.

11 8 26 31 62 19 7 3 14 75

33 30 42 15 18 23 29 13 16 6

Does this data set contain any outliers?

10

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