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# WLD20102 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

EXERCISE SHEET 3

## 3.1 QUALITATIVE DATA

1. A sample of rural county arrests gave the following set of offences with which
individuals were charged:

## rape robbery burglary arson murder robbery rape

manslaughter arson theft arson burglary theft robbery
theft theft theft burglary murder murder theft
theft theft manslaughter manslaughter

Compile a simple frequency distribution and calculate each relative frequency and
the percentage distribution.

2. The following data give the results of a sample survey. The letters A, B and C
represent the three categories.

A B B A C B C C C A
C B C A C C B C C A
A B C C B C B A C A

## a) Prepare a frequency distribution table

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all categories
c) What percentage of the elements in this sample belong to category B?
d) What percentage of the elements in this sample belong to category A orC?
e) Draw a bar graph for the frequency distribution.

## 3. The following data show the method of payment by 16 customers in a

supermarket checkout line. Here, C refers to cash, CK to check, CC to credit card,
D to debit card, and O stands for other.

C CK CK C CC D O C
CK CC D CC C CK CK CC

## a) Construct s frequency distribution table.

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all categories.
c) Draw a pie chart for the percentage distribution.

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4. The distribution of the primary sites for cancer is given in table below for the
residents of Dalton County.

## Primary site Frequency

Digestive system 20
Respiratory 30
Breast 10
Genitals 5
Urinary tract 5
Other 5

Construct a bar graph and a pie chart for the frequency distribution above.

5. The following data gives the number of orders received for a sample of 30 hours
at the Timesaver Mail Order Company.

34 44 31 52 41 47 38 35 32 39
28 24 46 41 49 53 57 33 27 37
30 27 45 38 34 46 36 30 47 50

## a) Construct a frequency distribution table. Take 23 as the lower limit of the

first class and 7 as the width of each class.
b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all classes.
c) For what percentage of the hours in this sample was the number of orders
more than 36?

6. The following data give the amounts spent on video rentals (in dollars) during
2002 by 30 households randomly selected from those households that rented
videos in 2002.

## 595 24 6 100 100 40 622 405 90 111

55 155 760 405 90 205 70 180 88 70
808 100 240 127 83 310 350 160 22 15

## a) Construct a frequency distribution table. Take \$1 as the lower limit of the

first class and \$200 as the width of each class.
b) How many classes with equal width can you classified the data?
c) What percentage of the households in this sample spent more than \$400 on
video rentals in 2002?
d) Construct a stem-and-leaf plots for the data.

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3.2 QUANTITATIVE DATA

1. A large furniture company charts the availability of its vans on a daily basis. The
following data give the number of vans available over a sixty day period.

1 2 2 5 1 1 4 2 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 3
5 5 3 1 3 6 3 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 3 2 1 0
1 4 2 3 8 3 1 1 3 2 2 0 1 3 1 1 0 0 0 1

Compile a simple frequency distribution and calculate each relative frequency and
the percentage distribution.

2. Table below gives a frequency of the Standard-Binet intelligence test scores for

IQ score Frequency
80 - 94 8
95 - 109 14
110 - 124 24
125 - 139 16
140 - 154 13

Construct a table consists of class limits, class boundaries, class width and class
midpoints.

3. The following table gives the frequency distribution of the number of checks
written during 2002 by a sample 100 students selected from a large university.

0 - 99 39
100 - 199 21
200 - 299 18
300 - 399 15
400 - 499 7

## a) Find the class boundaries and class midpoints.

b) Do all classes have the same width? If yes, what is this width?
c) Prepare the relative frequency and percentages distribution columns.
d) What percentage of these students wrote 200 or more checks in 2002?

4. The table below shows a frequency distribution of the lifetimes of 400 radio tubes
tested at the L & M Tube Company with reference to the table determine the:
(a) (i) Upper class boundary of the fifth class
(ii) Lower class boundary of the eighth class
(iii) Class boundaries of the seventh class
(iv) Class width of the sixth class
(v) Percentage of tubes whose lifetimes do not exceed 600 hours

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(vi) Percentage of tubes whose lifetimes are greater than or equal to
900 hours
(vii) Percentage of tubes whose lifetimes are at least 500 but less than
1000 hours

## Lifetime (hours) Number of tubes

300 399 14
400 499 46
500 - 599 58
600 - 699 76
700 - 799 68
800 - 899 62
900 - 999 48
1000 - 1099 22
1100 - 1199 6

(b) (i) With the data above, construct a cumulative frequency table
(ii) Construct an ogives.

5. The mileages recorded for a sample of company vehicles during a given week
yielded the following data:

## 138 164 150 132 144 125 149 157

146 158 140 147 136 148 152 144
168 126 138 176 163 119 154 165
146 173 142 147 135 153 140 135
161 145 135 142 150 156 145 128

(a) Using the data tabulate a grouped frequency distribution starting with '110
but under 120.
(b) How many classes of equal width can you classified the data?
(c) From your grouped frequency distribution table determine the following:
(i) the class boundaries of the 3rd class
(ii) upper class boundary of the second class
(iii) class width of all the classes
(iv) class limits of the 4th class
(v) class mid-point of the third class
(vi) class frequency of the fourth class

## (d) Using the grouped frequency distribution, construct

(i) a histogram
(ii) a polygon
(iii) an ogives.

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6. Nixon Corporation manufactures computers terminals. The following data are the
numbers of computers terminals produced at the company for a sample of 30
days.

24 32 27 23 33 33 29 25 23 28
21 26 31 22 27 33 27 23 28 29
31 35 34 22 26 28 23 35 31 27

## a) Construct a frequency distribution table with 5 classes starting with 21-23.

b) Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all classes.
c) Construct a histogram and a polygon for the percentage distribution.
d) For what percentage of the days is the number of computer terminal
produced in the interval 27-29?

## 7. A sample of 60 bolts is taken at random from a production line. The

measurements of their diameters (in mm) are:

1.94 2.06 2.15 1.99 2.00 2.07 2.10 2.12 2.18 2.01
2.03 1.97 1.97 2.06 2.04 2.02 2.02 1.99 2.00 2.02
2.05 2.09 1.95 2.16 2.07 1.98 2.02 2.04 2.00 2.20
1.91 2.04 2.02 2.30 2.20 2.20 1.96 2.11 2.15 2.23
2.11 2.08 1.99 1.90 2.05 2.03 2.12 2.01 2.09 2.14
2.21 1.96 2.14 2.58 2.14 2.02 2.02 2.14 2.16 2.09

## Compile a grouped frequency distribution for these data.

8. The time spent by cars in a car park in one day is given by the following
distribution.
(a) Draw a histogram for these data.
(b) Estimate the daily total number of hours spent by all cars in the park
during the day.
(c) Given that there are 400 parking spaces in the car park and it is open from
8:00 am to 8:00pm, estimate its percentage utilisation.

## Time parked (hours) Number of cars

Up to 1 452
1 and up to 2 737
2 and up to 3 646
3 and up to 4 121
4 and up to 5 44
5 and up to 6 37
6 and up to 7 24
7 and up to 8 16
8 and up to 9 9
9 and up to 10 2

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9. The following table shows data about the time taken, in minutes, for completing
each one of a series of seventy-five similar chemical experiments.

Time (minutes) 24 46 68 8 10 10 12
Number of experiments 4 13 22 26 10

## (a) Construct a cumulative frequency distribution.

(b) Draw an Ogive. Use the graph for the following:
(i) Find the number of experiments take less than 5 minutes.
(ii) Find the number of experiments take more than 9 minutes.
(iii) 72% experiments need less than x minutes to be completed. Find
the value of x.

10. Fifty community college students who were enrolled and were also working a
regular job were recently surveyed. The following data are the numbers of hours
per week each student was scheduled to work.
10 12 25 10 8 16 6 30 20 16
20 20 25 22 25 25 15 12 18 15
8 35 20 8 20 20 20 28 30 34
24 15 25 6 12 10 32 40 20 15
30 24 40 25 35 30 18 32 14 21

(a) Group the data into a frequency distribution, with classes 6 10, 11 15,
16 20, 21 25, 26 30, 31 35, 36 40.
(b) Draw a histogram to represent the data.
(c) Construct a cumulative frequency distribution.
(d) Draw a cumulative frequency polygon. Use the graph for the following.
(i) Find the number of students who work between 17 and 32 hours per
week.
(ii) 13 students work more than k hours in a week. Find the value of k.

11. The following data give the time (in minutes) that each of 20 students waited in
line at their bookstore to pay their textbooks in the beginning of Spring 2003
semester.

15 8 23 21 5 17 31 22 34 6
5 10 14 17 16 25 30 3 31 19

Construct a stem and leaf display for these data. Arrange the leaves for each stem
in increasing order.

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12. Following are the total yards gained rushing during the 2002 season by 14
running backs of 14 college football teams.

## 745 921 1133 1024 848 775 800

1009 1275 857 933 1145 967 995
Prepare a stem and leaf display. Arrange the leaves for each stem in increasing
order.

13. The following frequency distribution table gives the age distribution of drivers
who were at fault in auto accidents that occurred during a one-week period in city.

Age f
18 - 20 7
20 - 25 12
25 - 30 18
30 - 40 14
40 - 50 15
50 - 60 16
60 and over 35

## a) Draw a frequency histogram for this table

b) In what way is this histogram misleading?
c) How can you change the frequency distribution so that the resulting
histogram gives a clearer picture?

14. The data relating to weekly wages of employees of Salt Lake Ltd are as follows:

40 < wage 60 4
60 < wage 80 6
80 < wage 90 6
90 < wage 120 6
120 < wage 150 3

## Construct a histogram with equal class width.

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3.3 STATISTICAL MEASURES

1. A sample of 100 boxes of matches was taken and a record made of the number of
matches per box. The results were as follows:

Number of matches 47 48 49 50 51
Frequency 4 20 35 24 17

## Calculate the mean number of matches per box.

2. On a certain day the number of books on 40 shelves in a library was noted and
grouped as shown. Find the mean number of books on a shelf.

Number of books 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 - 45 45 - 50 51 - 55 56 - 60
Number of shelves 4 6 10 13 5 2

3. The table shows the masses of a group of male students at a college. Find the mean

Mass (kg) 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 84 85 - 89
Frequency 4 27 42 60 35 12

## 4. Find the median of each of the following sets of numbers:

(a) 4, 6, 18, 25, 9, 16, 22, 5, 20, 4, 8
(b) 192, 217, 189, 210, 214, 204

## 5. Find the median of each of the following frequency distributions:

(a)
x 5 6 7 8 9 10
f 6 11 15 18 6 5

(b)
x 12 13 14 15 16 17
f 3 9 11 15 7 5

## 6. The distribution of marks obtained by 199 students in a mathematics examination is

shown in the table below:

## Marks 10 -39 40 - 49 50 -54 55 - 59 60 -69 70 - 79 80 - 89

Frequency 14 18 29 45 54 22 17

Construct a cumulative frequency table and use it to estimate the median mark.

7. The length of life ( to the nearest hour) of each of 50 electric light bulbs is noted and
the results shown in the table below. Calculate the median length of life.

Length of life (h) 650 - 669 670 - 679 680 - 689 690 699 700 - 719
Frequency 3 7 20 17 3

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8. The marks of 5 students in a mathematics test were 27, 31. 35, 47, 50. Calculate the
mean mark and the standard deviation.

9. The score for a round of golf for each 50 club members was noted. Find the mean
score for a round and the standard deviation.

Score, x 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73
Frequency, f 2 5 10 12 9 6 4 2

10. The scores in an IQ test for 60 candidates are shown in the table. Find the mean score
and the standard deviation.

## Score 100-106 107-113 114-120 121-127 128-134

Frequency 8 13 24 11 4

11.
Age 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30-49
f 1 1 5 8 17 19 15 9 8 6 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 6

The table above gives the ages in completed years of the 113 persons convicted of
shop-lifting in a British town in 1995. Working in years and giving answers
correct to 1 place of decimals, calculate
(a) the mean age and the standard deviation.
(b) the coefficient of skewness given by (mean - mode ) / standard deviation
(c) the median and modal age.
(d) which do you consider to be best as a representative average of the
distribution - the mean, median or mode / Give reasons for your choice.

12. In a borehole the thickness, in mm, of the 25 strata are shown in the table below:

## Thickness (mm) 0-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70

Number of strata 2 5 9 8 1 0

## (a) Draw a histogram and determine the modal value.

(b) Construct a cumulative frequency table and draw a cumulative frequency
polygon. Hence, or otherwise, estimate the median and the inter-quartile
range of these data.
(c) Find the proportion of the strata that are less than 28 mm thick.

13. The following data give the weights (in pounds) lost by 15 members of a health
club at the end of two months after joining the club.

15 8 23 21 5 17 31 22 34 6
5 10 14 17 16 25 30 3 31 19

## a) Find the mean, median and mode for these data

b) Calculate the range, variance and standard deviation.
c) Are the values of the summary measures in parts (a) and (b) population
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parameters or sample statistics (parameters).
d) Prepare a box-and-plot. Comment on the skewness of these data.

14. The mean time taken to learn the basics of a word processor by all students is 200
minutes with a standard deviation of 20 minutes.
a) Using Chebyshevs theorem, find at least what percentage of students will
learn the basics of this word processor in 160 to 240 minutes.
b) Find the percentage of students will learn the basics of this word processor
in 160 to 240 minutes if the times taken have a bell shaped distribution.
c) Based on question (b), find the interval that contains the time taken by
99.7% of all students to learn this word processor.

15. The following are the ages of nine employees of an insurance company:

47 28 39 51 33 37 59 24 33

a) Find the values of the three quartiles. Where does the age of 28 fall in
relation to the ages of these employees?
b) Find the interquartile range.

0 3 6 9
1 2 8 5
2 5 1 6
3 8
4 1
5
6 2

## a) Compute the sample mean, median and mode

b) Compute the range, variance and standard deviation
c) Compute the first and third quartiles
d) Compute the interquartile range
e) When would it be preferable to use the standard deviation when measuring
variation?

## 17. Prepare a box-and-whisker plot for the following data:

36 43 28 52 41 59 47 61
24 55 63 73 32 25 35 49
31 22 61 42 58 65 98 34

Does this data set contain any outliers? Comment on the skewness of these data.

## 18. Prepare a box-and-whisker plot for the following data:

11 8 26 31 62 19 7 3 14 75
33 30 42 15 18 23 29 13 16 6
Does this data set contain any outliers?

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