Bipolar transistor Logic Circuits

2.1 Types of Devices
2.2 Propagation Delays

2.3 Power Dissipation
2.4 Fan-IN and Fan-OUT 2.5 Noise Margin
-Surendra Shrestha Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Chip: miniature circuits on the surface of a small
piece of semiconductor material using advance

photolithographic process Integrated Circuit (IC):
The finished network is so small that need a

microscope to see the connection. Integral part
of the chip components are –transistor, diodes, resistors
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Bipolar Logic Family:
Saturated family
(IC are driven between cut-off and saturation states, e.g. inverter)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) Direct Coupled Transistor Logic (DCTL) Integrated Injection logic (I2L) Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) High Threshold Logic (HTL)

Non-saturated family

1. Schottky TTL 2. Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)

(transistors are operated between cut-off and active states)

Uni-polar logic family

1. PMOS (p-channel) and NMOS (n-channel) 2. CMOS (Complementary MOS)

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Bipolar Logic Family:
Based on the number of transistors (BJT or MOSFET)
1. Small Scale Integration (SSI) 2. Medium Scale Integration (MSI) 3. Large Scale Integration (LSI) transistors - 0 to 10 (or 12) - 10 (or 12) to 100 - 100 to 1,000

4. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) - 1,000 to 10,000 or thousands gates

5. Super-Large Scale Integration (SLSI) - 10,000 and 100,000 transistors
6. Ultra-Large Scale Integration (ULSI) - more than 1 million transistors
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Characterization of Digital ICs
The various characteristics of digital ICs that can be used to compare their performance are:

1. Speed of operation (propagation delay, tpLH and tpHL) 2. power dissipation (power consumption under static condition,
0,1; during the switching intervals or dynamic conditions)

3. Current and voltage parameters (High level input and output
voltages and low level input and output voltages; IiH, IoH, IiL, IoL)

4. Noise immunity (measure of how much stray noise voltage the
device can handle without giving any error at the output level)

5. Fan-out (No. of gates that gate in HIGH output state can feed without
voltage dropping by more than the allowable noise margin (NM)H)
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL):
Resistor-transistor logic gates
use Transistors to combine multiple input signals, which

also amplify and invert the
resulting combined signal. Often an additional transistor is included to re-invert the output signal. This combination provides clean output signals and either inversion or non-inversion as needed.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

A simple N-input RTL NOR Gate

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) …
Advantages:

- RTL gates are almost as simple as DL gates, and remain inexpensive. - Using low power supply for each gate.
- RTL integrated circuits are sometimes used as inexpensive smallsignal amplifiers, or as interface devices between linear and digital circuits.

Limitations: - RTL gates cannot switch at the high speeds used by today's computers

- These are not designed for linear operation
- low noise margin
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) …

VinA VinB

Vo

L L H H

L H L H

H L L L

Logical NOR Gate

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) …
VinL = 0.2 (LOW input to both transistors) Under this condition, both transistors will be cutoff, making the output high. The circuit diagram with circuit models for the cutoff transistors is shown in Figure. The output voltage then is 3.0 Volts. At no-load condition when there is no load connected to the output.

VoH = 3.0 Volts (No-Load)
IinL = 0
VinLmax = 0.5 Volts.
RTL gate with both inputs low. The transistors are replaced by the cutoff model.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) …
INPUT HIGH Transistor to be saturated. Either transistor saturated will cause the output to go low, to 0.2 volts. In figure, the circuit with one of the transistors cutoff, although both saturated would produce the same result. To determining the minimum input current that will keep the transistor in saturation.

the minimum input voltage that will be guaranteed to be recognized as a "high"

RTL gate with one input high
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) …
Any input voltage greater than or equal to 0.866 volts will cause the transistor to be saturated, and thus be recognized as a "high". We previously found VinLmax =0.5 volts. Any input voltage between 0.5 and 0.866 is an invalid logic level and the manufacturer assumes no responsibility if it provide an input voltage in that range. For the gate with no load, the relationships between input and output voltages are presented graphically in Figure. Noise Margins (High, H and Low, L) NMH and NML.
Graphical representation of input voltage ranges and output voltages for the unloaded RTL gate.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Resistor Transistor Logic (RTL) …
Terminal specifications for the RTL Gate

load requires a minimum of 0.146 mA as input current,

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL):
By letting diodes perform the logical AND or OR function and then

amplifying the result with a transistor, we can avoid some of the
limitations of RTL. DTL takes diode logic gates and adds a transistor to the output, in order to provide logic inversion and to restore the signal to

full logic levels.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
the diode AND function on the front end and the transistor NOT at the output end. The extra resistors and diodes are used to maintain appropriate currents, to maintain proper functioning, and to guarantee certain noise margins.

Digital NAND circuit Diode logic and truth tables
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
If all inputs are high, (+5v), no current will come out of the input diodes at the input and current will flow down through the first 5K resistor and through the diodes D1and D2 toward the base of the transistor. Some current will split off and go down through the lower 5K resistor to ground. However, most of the current will go into the base of the transistor causing it to saturate, pulling the output low, VO = 0.2 Volts. We will show this condition quantitatively shortly. If one or more of the inputs to the gate are held low (0.2 V), then the current down through the 5K resistor will go out the input diode, away from the transistor base. Under this condition, the transistor will be cutoff and the output will be high with VO = 5 Volts.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
ANALYSIS WITH INPUT LOW
Quantitatively, we will start with one or more inputs held low, at 0.2 Volts. From the logic function of the NAND gate, we know that the output is supposed to be high. Therefore, the transistor must be cutoff. To begin with, we will assume the two diodes D1 and D2 in series will also be cutoff. All the current coming down through the 5K resistor must all go out through the input diode, causing it to be on.

The voltage at point P is VP = 0.2 + 0.70 = 0.90 Volts.

DTL gate model with input low
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
The voltage is low enough that the two series diodes and the transistor will be cutoff. The argument is that if either diode carries current, then both must. Since 0.9 Volts is not enough across the pair to maintain conduction, then neither conducts. Given that the diodes are off, then the voltage at the base of the transistor is zero, and is also cutoff. The input diode is conducting by observing that current I1 is I1 = (5-0.9)/5K = 0.82 mA. This current leaves through the input diode, hence it is on. The current entering the input terminal is Iin = - I1 = -0.82 mA
The negative sign occurs because the input current is defined as going into the terminal.

The output voltage is 5 Volts because the transistor has been shown to be cutoff. VO = 5.0 Volts

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
One other characteristic of the DTL gate that can be obtained at this point is the range of input voltages that will be recognized as a "low". From the logic function of the NAND gate, this can be translated into the question of how high the input voltage may rise and still keep the transistor cutoff. The transistor will remain cutoff as long as the voltage at the base does not rise above 0.5 volts. At this voltage, there will be current down through the lower 5K resistor to ground. This current must come from the +5 supply down through the upper 5K resistor and the diodes, D1 and D2. Hence the diodes must be conducting. This current will be 0.1 mA. The voltage at point P will be VP = 0.5 + 0.7 + 0.7 = 1.9 Volts The current I1 is I1 = (5-1.9)/5K = 0.62 mA The current going out through the input diode will be Iin = -(0.62 - 0.1) = -0.52 mA
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
indicating that the input diode is still conducting. The maximum voltage at the input that is guaranteed to be recognized as a low is
VinLmax = 1.9 -0.7 =1.2 Volts.

DTL circuit model with Vin = VinLmax
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
ANALYSIS WITH ALL INPUTS HIGH
When all inputs are high, all current down through the upper 5K resistor will go toward the base of the transistor, causing it to saturate. The series diodes will obviously be conducting, and the input diodes are cutoff.
The voltage at point P is VP = 0.8 + 0.7 + 0.7 = 2.2 volts Thus, I1 is I1 = (5-2.2)/5K = 0.56 mA

Current going down through the 5K resistor will be I2 = 0.8/5K = 0.16 mA The base current then is IB = 0.56 - 0.16 = 0.4 mA

DTL circuit model with inputs high

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
If the transistor is to be saturated, the maximum collector current is ICmax = βIB = 30 0.4 mA = 12.00 mA
at saturation, the current coming down through the 2.2K collector resistor is

I3 = (5-0.2)/2.2K = 2.182 mA this current is much less than the maximum saturation current and with no load, the transistor will, indeed, be in saturation. In fact, there is excess capacity in collector saturation current. This excess capacity can be used to sink external load current. This current is called Io or load current. The maximum load current this gate can sink is IoLmax = 12.00 mA - 2.182 mA = 9.818 mA Note that this current is entering the terminal of the gate, hence, is positive.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
CALCULATION OF FANOUT
If several load gates are connected to the output terminal of the gate, at the current output drive capability compared to the input current requirements of the load gates. Because the input current is zero when high, an N number of load gates can be driven when high. However, the DTL gate requires current when the input is low. This situation is shown in Figure. IinLmax = - 0.82 mA. Negative meaning that it is coming out of the input terminal. The output of a gate can sink 9.818 mA when it is low.

DTL driver gate with N identical DTL load gates
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Comparison of Vout and Vin voltages for DTL gate.

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL): …
Terminal Specification for the DTL GATE
VinLmax = 1.2 V VoL = 0.2 V

VinHmin = 1.6 V

VoH = 5 (at IoH =0) = 1.6 (at IoH = max) IoLmax = 9.818 mA
IoHmax = -1.545 mA (at VoH=VinHmin)

IinL = - 0.82 mA
IinH = 0 Fanout = 11

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Other logical functions:

DTL AND gate

DTL NOR gate

DTL OR gate

DTL AND-OR-INVERT gate

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

930 Series DTL (ca 1964 A.D.):

One of the series diodes is replaced by Q1, providing more base drive for Q2 and improving the fan-out (Nmax= 45)

tPLH >> tPHL tPLH = tS+tr /2
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL):
Why TTL? - The DTL input uses a number of diodes which take up considerable chip area.

- In TTL, a single multi-emitter BJT replaces the input diodes, resulting in a more area-efficient design.
- DTL was removed by faster TTL gates by 1974.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL): …

Basic TTL NAND gate
- ALL INPUTS HIGH. • Q1 is reverse active. • Q3 is saturated. • VOL = VCES - ANY INPUT LOW. • Q1 is saturated. • Q3 is cut off. • VOH = VCC

Figure 2

Figure 1

The diode D2 from DTL circuit can be replaced by a transistor whose collector is pulled up to the power supply; transistor Q2 in Figure1. The p-n junction of D2 is replaced by the BE junction of Q2 and with the current gain of the transistor, the current going into the base of Q3 is greatly increased, increasing the fanout.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL): …

- input diodes and D1 are replaced by the multi-emitter NPN transistor, Q1, - additional modifications to this circuit to improve its performance further. - The analysis of this circuit follows very much the same path as the analysis of the DTL gate. - input transistor, Q1, to act just like two diodes. The transistor Q2, however, will operate in all three regions. The treatment of the output voltages and currents will be treated the same as the DTL gate and Q3 will either be cutoff or saturated, corresponding to an output high and an output low, respectively.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

ANALYSIS WITH ONE OR MORE INPUTS LOW

TTL circuit model with one input low

Figure 3

TTL circuit model to determine VinLmax. Figure 4
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

ANALYSIS WITH ONE OR MORE INPUTS LOW … - With an input low, Q3 should be cutoff. - If Q2 is cutoff, then there can be no current coming out of the collector of Q1, hence its base-collector junction can be modeled as an open circuit. - The base-emitter junction of Q1 will be conducting. The circuit with these models substituted for the transistors (in Figure 3). - Note the similarity to the DTL circuit under the same conditions. The two unused inputs are assumed to be high, and are thus, modeled as open. - VoH = 5 volts with no load, and IinL = -I1 = -(5-0.9)/4K = -1.025 mA
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

ANALYSIS WITH ONE OR MORE INPUTS LOW … To finding VInLmax. Vin will be considered as a low as long as Q3 is kept cutoff. If the base voltage for Q3 can be raised to 0.5 Volts without turning it on, then there will be 0.5 mA current in the 1KΩ resistor. This current can only come from Q2, which means it must be conducting. Assuming all this 0.5 mA comes through the collector of Q2, the voltage drop across the 1.4 KΩ resistor will be 0.7 Volts, not enough to cause the transistor to saturate. Thus, the active model for Q2 is appropriate as shown in Figure 4. If β=30, base current in Q2 is
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

ANALYSIS WITH ONE OR MORE INPUTS LOW … Because this current is coming out of the collector of Q1, the basecollector junction of Q1 is on, and is modeled as a diode in Figure 4. The voltage at B1, the base of Q1, is VB1 = 0.5 + 0.7 + 0.7 = 1.9 Volts The current coming down through the 4 KΩ resistor, I1, is I1= (5.0-1.9) / 4K = 0.775mA This is considerably more than is going into the base of Q2, therefore, the input BE junction of Q1 will also still be conducting. The maximum voltage at the input is VinLmax = 1.9 - 0.7 = 1.2 Volts
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

CALCULATIONS WITH INPUT HIGH Both Q2 and Q3 are modeled as saturated, an assumption that must be verified. With the inputs high, Q1 is modeled as two diodes with the B-E diodes cutoff, and B-C diode conducting. The voltage at the base of Q1 is VB1 = 0.8 + 0.8 + 0.7 = 2.3 Volts.

The current down through the 4 KΩ resistor,
I1 = (5.0-2.3) / 4K = 0.675mA
Figure 5 TTL gate circuit model with all inputs high
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

CALCULATIONS WITH INPUT HIGH … All this current goes into the base of Q2. IB2 = 0.675 mA If Q2 is saturated, voltage at its collector terminal is VC2 = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1.0 Volts And the collector current is IC2 = I2 = (5.0 – 1.0) / 1.4K = 2.857mA If β = 30, βΙB2 > IC2 , and, therefore, Q2 is saturated.

The current coming out of the emitter of Q2 is the sum of the base and collector currents. Part of this current will go down through the 1 KΩ resistor to ground and the rest will enter the base of Q3. IB3 = IB2 + IC2 - I3 = 0.675 + 2.857 - 0.8 = 2.732 mA
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

CALCULATIONS WITH INPUT HIGH … The maximum collector current that Q3 can carry and still be in saturation is βIB3 = 81.96 mA, assuming β=30. The maximum current the gate can sink when the output is low IoLmax = ICsatmax - I4 = 81.96 - 1.2 = 80.76 mA The input voltage to be high as long as no current goes out the input terminal. Thus, to keep the input voltage high enough so that the B-E p-n junction of Q1 does not turn on. Thus, VinHmin = 2.3 - 0.6 = 1.7 Volts
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

TTL FAMILIES As the designers of TTL gates became more sophisticated, they

developed modifications which would provide special
characteristics. The original series of TTL was designated as 74XX, where the XX is replaced by logic function ( 00 is a quadruple 2input NAND, 04 is a hex inverter, etc.) The 74LXX series is a low power family. 74HXX is a high speed family. 74SXX is a family based on Schottky diodes and transistors. 74LSXX is a family of low power Schottky. A 54xXX is also provided as a companion family to the 74xXX families. The 54... families are identical to the

74... families, except for operating temperature range and tolerance
on power supply voltage.
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

TTL Versions and their Characteristics
Power Dissipati-on (mW) SpeedPower Product (pJ)

TTL Series Name

Prefix

Fanout

Propagati-on Delay (ns)

Standard Low-power High-speed Schottky Low-power Schottky Advanced Schottky Advanced low-power Schottky

74 74L 74H 74S 74LS 74AS

10 20 10 10 20 40

10 1 22 19 2 10

9 33 6 3 9.5 1.5

90 33 132 57 19 15

74ALS

20

1

4

4

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, T.U.

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) … … ECL gates use differential amplifier configurations at the input stage. A bias configuration supplies a constant voltage at the midrange of the low and high logic levels to the differential amplifier, so that the appropriate logical function of the input voltages will control the amplifier and the base of the output transistor. The propagation time for this arrangement can be less than a nanosecond, making it for many years the fastest logic family. ECL family include the fact that the large current requirement is approximately constant, and does not depend significantly on the state of the circuit. This means that ECL circuits generate relatively little power noise, unlike many other logic types which typically draw far more current when switching than quiescent, for which power noise can become problematic. In an ALU - where a lot of switching occurs - ECL can draw lower mean current than CMOS.

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) … …
The ECL circuits available on the open market usually operated with negative power supplies (-5.2 volts), and logic levels incompatible with other families (required additional interface circuits). The fact that the high and low logic levels are relatively close meant that ECL suffers from small noise margins, which can be troublesome. The drawbacks associated with ECL have meant that it has been used mainly when high performance is a vital requirement. Other families (particularly advanced CMOS variants) have replaced ECL in many applications, even mainframe computers. Uses:- Older high-end mainframe computers, such as the Enterprise System/9000 members of IBM's ESA/390 computer family, used ECL; current IBM mainframes use CMOS. The equivalent of emitter-coupled logic made out of FETs is called source-coupled FET logic (SCFL).

Integrated Injection Logic (I2L):
Integrated Injection Logic (IIL, I2L, or I2L) is a class of digital circuits built with multiple collector bipolar junction transistors (BJT). When introduced it had speed comparable to TTL yet was almost as low power as CMOS, making it ideal for use in VLSI (and larger) integrated circuits. The logic voltage levels are very close (High: 0.7V, Low: 0.2V), I2L has high noise immunity because it operates by current instead of voltage. I2L, sometimes also called Merged Transistor Logic (MTL), is relatively new in concept as well as realization. This is quite attractive for LSI/VLSI realization.

Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) … …
Operation The heart of an I2L circuit is the common emitter open collector inverter. An inverter consists of an NPN transistor with the emitter connected to ground and the base biased with a forward current. The input is supplied to the base as either a current sink (low logic level) or as a high-z floating condition (high logic level). The output of an inverter is at the collector. Likewise, it is either a current sink (low logic level) or a high-z floating condition (high logic level). To understand how the inverter operates, it is necessary to understand the current flow. If the bias current is shunted to ground (low logic level), the transistor turns off and the collector floats (high logic level). If the bias current is not shunted to ground because the input is high-z (high logic level), the bias current flows through the transistor to the emitter, switching on the transistor, and allowing the collector to sink current (low logic level). Because the output of the inverter can sink current but cannot source current, it is safe to connect the outputs of multiple inverters together to form a wired AND gate. When the outputs of two inverters are wired together, the result is a two-input NOR gate because the configuration (NOT A) AND (NOT B) is equivalent to NOT (A OR B). This logical relationship is known as De Morgan's Theorem.

Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) … …

Integrated Injection Logic (I2L) … … Important features are: - The circuit uses BJTs, both pnp and npn. Therefore operating speed is quite high. - The circuit is similar to RTL, except that there are no base resistors used. This minimizes the circuit area and simplifies the circuit layout. - All the gate transistors are operated in the inverted mode. Not only does this facilitate the use of low voltage supply for the circuit. - The circuit requires no isolation unlike the previous digital ICs. This facilitates higher packing density and also reduces the fabrication cost, as fewer masks (e.g. only four) are required for the complete process. - Parasitics in the circuit are greatly reduced. This also improves the operating speed of the IC.

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