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BLOOD

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Maintain Homeostasis
Transport of gases, nutrients, and waste products
O2 to blood to lungs to cells CO2to blood to lungs
nutrients and waste products towards kidney for elimination

Transport of processed molecules


for further use Vitamin D in the blood ; lactate to the liver

Transport of regulatory molecules


hormones and enzymes that regulate the process of the
body

Regulation of pH and osmosis


blood pH: normal limit- 7.35 to 7.45
Maintenance of body temperature
regulation of body temperature

Protection against foreign substances


microorganisms and toxins

Clot formation
for tissue repair and restoration of normal function
Characteristics of Blood
Type of connective tissue that consists of a liquid matrix

Sticky

Heavier than water

O2 content determines color

Temperature is slightly higher than rest of body

Make up 8% of total body weight

Males (5-6 L), females (4-5 L)


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Figure 11.1
Composition of Blood
Plasma
55% of total blood
pale, yellow liquid that surrounds cells
91% water, 7% proteins, and 2% other

Formed Elements
45% of total blood
cells and cell fragments
erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes

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Plasma Proteins
Albumin*
58% of plasma proteins
helps maintain water balance

Globulins*
38% of plasma proteins
helps immune system- contains antibodies
*transport molecule they bind to hormones

Fibrinogen
4% of plasma proteins
aids in clot formation
conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin- form blood clots

Serum
blood without the clotting factor
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Formed Elements
95%
Red blood cells Erythrocytes

5%
White blood cells Leukocytes
Platelets Thrombocytes
Hematopoiesis
process of blood cell production

In an infant, occurs in liver, thymus gland, spleen,


lymph nodes, and red bone marrow.

Adults occurs mainly in red bone marrow.

Stem cell / Hemocytoblasts


original cell line

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Erythrocytes
Red blood cells (RBC)
Disk-shaped with thick
edges
Nucleus and most of the
organelles are lost during
development
Live for 120 days male
and 110 days for female
1/3 contain Hemoglobin

Function
transport O2 to tissues
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Hemoglobin
Main component of erythrocyte

Consists of 4 protein chains called globin and 4 heme


groups
Each globin protein is attached to a heme molecule- red
pigmented molecule

Each heme contains one iron atom


O2 binds to iron 98.5% of oxygen in the blood and 1.5% in
plasma

Oxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin with an O2 attached
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Production of Erythrocytes
Proerythroblasts
precursor molecule of RBC

1. Decreased blood O2
levels cause kidneys to
increase production of
erythropoietin.
2. Erythropoietin stimulates
red bone marrow to
produce more
erythrocytes.
3. Increased erythrocytes
cause an increase in
blood O2 levels.
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Fate of Old Erythrocytes and Hemoglobin
1. Old RBCs are removed from blood by macrophages in
spleen and liver
2. Hemoglobin is broken down. Globin is broken down
into amino acids
3. Hemoglobins iron is recycled
4. Heme is converted to bilirubin. Bilirubin is taken up by
liver and released into small intestine as part of bile.

Jaundice build up of bilirubin


Intestine feces brown color
Blood further modified by kidneys and excreted in urine
(yellow color of urine)
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Leukocytes
White blood cells (WBC)
Lack hemoglobin
Larger than erythrocytes
Contain a nucleus
can leave the blood and travel by amoeboid movement

Functions
fight infections
remove dead cells and debris by phagocytosis

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Types of Leukocytes
GRANULOCYTES
contain granules

1. Neutrophils
most common
lobed nuclei varying from 2 to
4
remain in blood for 10-12 hours
then move to tissues
phagocytize microorganisms
and other foreign substances

PUS accumulation of dead


neutrophils

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2. Eosinophils
2 lobed nucleus
reduce inflammation
responses to allergies and
asthma
destroying worm parasites

3. Basophils
least common
release histamine and heparin
which prevent the formation
of clot

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AGRANULOCYTES
no granules

1. Monocytes
largest
produce macrophages

2. Lymphocytes
immune response
several different types (T cells
and B cells)
lead to production of
antibodies and other chemicals
destroy microorganisms,
contribute allergic reactions,
reject grafts,
control tumors, and
regulate the immune system
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Platelets

minute fragments of cells


produced in red bone
marrow
blood clotting cells
prevent blood loss

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Blood Loss
When blood vessels are damaged, blood can leak into other
tissues and disrupt normal function.

Blood that is lost must be replaced by production of new


blood or by a transfusion.

Blood loss can be minimized by 3 process:


Vascular spasm
temporary constriction of blood vessel

Platelet plug formation


accumulation of platelets that can seal up small
breaks in blood vessels

Blood clotting / Coagulation


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Platelet Plug Formation
Blood Clotting
when a blood vessels is severely damaged.

Clot
network of thread-like proteins called fibrin that trap blood
cells and fluid
depends on clotting factors

Clotting factors
proteins in plasma
only activated following injury
made in liver
require vitamin K diet (milk infant / vitamin K injection)
and microorganisms in the large intestine.
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Steps in Clot Formation
1. Injury to a blood vessel causes inactive clotting factors
to become activated due to exposed connective tissue
or release of thromboplastin

2. Prothrombinase (clotting factor) is formed and acts


upon prothrombin

3. Prothrombin is switched to its active form thrombin

4. Thrombin activates fibrinogen into its active form fibrin

5. Fibrin forms a network that traps blood (clots)


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Control of Clot Formation
Clots need to be controlled so they dont spread
throughout the body

Anticoagulants
prevent clots from forming
Ex. Heparin and antithrombin

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Clot Retraction and Fibrinolysis
Clot retraction
condensing of clot
serum in plasma is
squeezed out of clot
helps enhance healing

Fibrinolysis
process of dissolving clot
plasminogen (plasma
protein) PLASMIN breaks
down clot (fibrin)

STREPTOKINASE
genetically engineered
bacterial enzyme that
dissolve clots
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Blood Reactions
Injury or surgery can lead to a blood transfusion

Transfusion reactions
clumping of blood cells (bad)

Antigens
molecules on surface of erythrocytes

Antibodies
proteins in plasma

Blood groups
named according to antigen (ABO)
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ABO Blood Groups
used to categorize human blood
2 types of antigen on the surface of the rbc

Type A B AB O
Antigen A B A&B None
Antibodies Anti-B Anti-A None Anti-A&B
Common 2nd 3rd 4th 1st

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DONOR
person who gives blood

RECIPIENT
person who receives it.

O are universal donors because they have no antigens

Type A can receive A and O blood

Type B can receive B and O blood

Type AB can receive A, B, AB blood

Type O can only receive O blood


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Rh Blood Group

Rh positive means you have Rh antigens

95-85% of the population is Rh+

Ex. Type A A antigen- anti-B antibodies and Rh A+

Antibodies only develop if an Rh- person is exposed to


Rh+ blood by transfusion or from mother to fetus

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Example of Rh Reaction
If mother is Rh- and fetus is Rh+ the mother can be
exposed to Rh+ blood if fetal blood leaks through
placenta and mixes with mothers blood.

First time this occurs mothers blood produces


antibodies against antigens.

Any repeated mixing of blood causes a reaction.

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Hemolytic Disease of Newborn
occurs when mother produces anti-Rh antibodies that
cross placenta and agglutination and hemolysis of fetal
erythrocytes occur

can be fatal to fetus

prevented if mother is treated with RhoGAM (Rho(D)


immune globulin) which contains antibodies against Rh
antigens

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Figure 11.13
Diagnostic Blood Tests
Blood type
determines the ABO and Rh blood groups of a blood sample

Crossmatch
donors blood cells are mixed with recipients serum and vice versa.
Considered safe for transfusion if no agglutination occur

Complete blood count


provides information such as RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit,
and WBC count

Hematocrit
% of total blood volume composed of RBC

Hemoglobin
determines amount of hemoglobin
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Red blood count
Male 4.6 to 6.2 million per uL of blood
Female 4.2 to 5.4 million per uL of blood

Erythrocytosis
overabundance of RBC

Hemoglobin Measurement
Male 14-18 grams per 100 mL of blood
Female 12-16 grams per 100 mL of blood

Anemia
reduced amount of RBC or reduced amount of hemoglobin in each
RBC.
Hematocrit Measurement

Male 40 to 52% of the total blood volume


Female 38-48% of the total blood volume
White blood cell count
total number of WBC
5,000-9,000 per uL of blood

White blood cell differential count


Determines the % of each 5 kinds of leukocytes
neutrophils: 60-70%
lymphocytes: 20-25%
monocytes: 3-8%
eosinophils: 2-4%
basophils: 0.5-1%

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White Blood Cell Disorders
Leukopenia
low WBC count
caused by radiation, chemotherapy drugs, tumors, and
viral infections

Leukocytosis
high WBC count
caused by infections and leukemia

Leukemia
cancer of the red marrow characterized by abnormal
production of one or more of the WBC types leading to
leukocytosis. 42
Clotting
Platelet count
250,000-400,000 per uL of blood

Thrombocytopenia
platelet count is greatly reduced resulting in chronic bleeding

Prothrombin time Measurement


time it takes for blood to begin clotting (9-12 sec.)
Addition of Thromboplastin start the clotting process
Blood Chemistry
composition of materials dissolved or suspended in
plasma (such as glucose, urea nitrogen, bilirubin,
and cholesterol)

can be used to assess the functioning and status of


the bodys systems.
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