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Modern Blast Furnace

Ironmaking Technology
Reinoud van Laar
Edo Engel
Steel Production
EAF Route Developments
Direct EAF Finishing
Pellet Plant Reduction Steel Plant Section
Plant

EAF accounts for 30% of steel


production

Increase of DRI contribution due to


scrap volatility

Increase of DRI plant capacity due


to technological advancements

DRI Technology transfer to BOF


Route using COG
BOF Route Developments
Increase of existing BOF Steel Plant Capacity due to Automatic
Steelmaking Technology and Caster Modernization
Higher Productivity of existing Blast Furnaces
Trend towards Larger new Blast Furnaces

Blast Furnace remains Competitive


to Direct Reduction and Alternative
Ironmaking due to limited Natural Gas
Resources and high Energy Efficiency
Raw Material Costs

Source: SteelConsult
Blast Furnace Ironmaking Challenges
Environmental Legislation
High Cost of Coke, Pellets and Sinter
Low Quality of Pellet and Sinter (Fines, Slag)

Environment

Raw Campaign
Materials Life
Gas Cleaning Technology

Remove Dust Particulates


Reduce Gas Temperatures
Recover Top Gas Energy
Gas Cleaning RS-Scrubber
Gas Cleaning Bag Filters
Gas Cleaning Electrostatic Precipitator
Operational Value Comparison

Dust Recycling Value and Storage Costs


Cooling Water, Nitrogen, Electricity Costs
TRT Electrical Production Value
Low Coke Rate: Replacement Ratio
Pulverized Coal Injection Constraints

Coal Combustion Coke Layers

Burden and Gas Distribution challenges


(Productivity of) Large Blast Furnaces
Pulverized Coal Injection and Oxygen Enrichment

PCI Oxygen
Top Gas Temperature
Flame Temperature
Gas Volume
Burden Resistance

PCI and Oxygen are Mutual Enablers


Pulverized Coal Injection Oxygen Enrichment
Increases Ore / Coke Ratio Improves Coal Combustion
Changes Gas Distribution: and Gasification
Heat Loss Increases Top Gas Calorific
Value
Productivity
Increases Productivity
Fuel Rate

Low quality Raw Materials challenges High Productivity


Oxygen enables to maintain Productivity
Tata Steel IJmuiden Pulverized Coal Injection
Tata Steel IJmuiden Productivity
Blast Furnace Design
Availability > 98%
Campaign Life > 20 Years

Bosh and Stack


Thermal Fatigue Cracking
Erosion by Coke

Bottom and Hearth


Erosion by Hot Metal
Modern Bosh and Stack Designs

Copper Stave Cooler Copper Plate Cooler


Technology Technology
Copper Stave Coolers

Erosion rate up to 10 mm / month and


catalyzed by high PCI and Productivity
Copper Plate Coolers

Erosion stabilization due to scab


anchoring and SiC
Bottom and Hearth: Science and Technology
Fluid Dynamics Models and Experiments
Thermo-Mechanical Models and Experiments
Shell Stress and Strain Measurements
Carbonaceous and Ceramics Refractory Research
Plant Monitoring and Post-Mortem Fact-finding

High PCI challenges campaign life of hearth due to reduction


of permeability and increased turbulence
Fluid Dynamics Modeling Experiments

Large hearth volume and sump depth reduce liquids


velocities;
Lower liquids velocities results in lower heat load;
Lower heat load results in lower lining temperatures;
Lower lining temperatures result in longer lifetime;
Thermo-Mechanical Models and Experiments

Ceramics Carbonaceous
Expansion Expansion
mm
re
f2

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125

4/
07 ju
:0 n
0
25
16 /ju
:0 n
0
25
10 / jun
:0
0
29
10 /ju
:0 n
0
30
/ju
20 n
:0
0
1-
ju
17 l
:0
0
2-
ju
17 l
:0
0
3-
ju
17 l
delta on tape at EL7191 mm
delta on tape at EL 8370 mm

:0
0
delta on tape by SG at EL 8100

4-
ju
17 l
:0
0
5-
ju
14 l
:0
0
6-
ju
02 l
:3
0
7-
ju
15 l
:0
0
PERIMETER INCREASING

7-
ju
02 l
:3
0
Shell Stress and Strain Measurements

8-
ju
15 l
:0
0
8-
ju
03 l
:0
0
Large Block and Stress Relaxation Effects

9-
ju
15 l
:0
0
9-
01 jul
:3
0
10
15 -ju
:0 l
0
10
06 - ju
:3 l
0
11
02 -ju
:3 l
0
12
15 - ju
:0 l
0
12
17 - jul
:0
0
13
-ju
l
Carbonaceous Refractory Research
Long Campaign Life

20 Years 25 Years
Conclusions
Blast Furnace Ironmaking Remains Competitive

Blast Furnace Challenges:


Environmental Legislation
Raw Materials

Modern Technology is required:


Efficient Gas Cleaning
Low Coke, High PCI and O2
Long Campaign Life
Modern Technology
Monthly Average Tata Steel IJmuiden BF6

Coke 260 kg / THM


Coal 240 kg / THM
Oxygen (Enrichment) 38% (17%)
Productivity 3.5 THM / m3WV / 24 hrs
(Running) Campaign Life 27 Years
Thank You For Your Attention