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II CONSTANIZA, R.OI4ANIA

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q "ROJECT
"frwAfers - How they shayeftfre Turoye of tofay"

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2014 - 2017

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'This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This material reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible
for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.'
The Vikings came from three countries of Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway
an
Sweden' The name'Viking'comes from a language called'Old Norse'and mear
'a pirate raid'. People who went off raiding in Jnipi were said to be 'going
Viking,.
The Viking age in European history was about AD 7OO to 1100. During this period
any Vikings left Scandinavia and travelled to other countries, such as Britain and
reland. Some went to fight and steal treasure. others setiled in new lands as
armersrcraftsmenortraderS. _ -_ - iqhaL ^
-r-

The Vikings in Britain
Southern Britain (England) had been settled by the Anglo-Saxons. you can find out
more on our Anglo-Saxons site. In AD 787 three Viking long ship.s landed in
southern England. The Vikings fought the local people, then sailed away. This first
raid is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicte.It was the start of a fierce struggle
between English and Vikings, The English called the Vikin g invaders 'Danes' but
they came from Norway as well as Denmark,
Norwegian Vikings or'Norse' sailed to Scotland, where they made setlemenfs in
the north and on the Orkney and Shetland islands, Vikings also settled on the Isle

Why did Vikings attack monasteries?
In 793 Vikings attacked the Christian monastery at Lindisfarne in Northumbria.
They were pagans, not Christians like most people in Britain. A Viking robber did
not think twice about robbing a Christian church. Christian monasteries in Britain
were easy to attack, because the monks in the monasteries had no weapons.
Churches and monasteries kept valuable treasures, such as gold, jewels and books,

\-4'-r r**.)*-'- 5.r- d
Where did Vikings setile?
;?ffi"tiT:r":l]?:?:ils^nl,,famiries
farmland
to Britain I okins for tand to farm.
was scarce in tne vit<inss' own countiies:
;'i"';.jff"'ii;,.'i,,.' i,iilTr; fl"":t
yffliil|,j?1 #;,,;.":"j:i:Ti:^.:tl,
about AD eoo, Vikinss ll.
ul,,ur.n Ensrand For 500 years, rrom
ruled thl north or Scouarl,',i"'olr.l{ffit
and the Hebrides islands off the west ltflTil i'r",f
coast, In Irerand, vi[ing-; founded the
Dublin. city of
Viking areas in east and northern England became known
as the Danelaw.
yffli y?r.d, i,ito li.," Ens ish |a ns _ _
too. ror a::y^
about government lr.^"rpl, I

":j|,"*jj:
his sons, from 1016 to
short time Engrand;;;";;;il,i
IO42).

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-,-.or*rr#
How far did Vikings roam?
ocean to Iceland and Green
Norwegian Vikings sailed west across the Atlantic
and started a senft/e3llil,tl,
About AD 1000, Vikings sailed to North America and founded Normandv ('--"
ftT;.'fi?,1!ii6*. rjl.'rr.r'vir.ingr went to Fra.nce
urro saired sgutl .lgi:9 l^?1,n;,11,'.$rl:
"s*;;;J'vir<iiir
of the North-men,). Danish
Viriinsi roamed alons rivers into Russia' vikins
f.'"ffi;il:;"=s:i'.
traderscou|dbefoundasfareastasConstantinople(Turkey),wheretheymet
people from Africa, Arabia and Asia'
\
L ..rfff -'-r\*a' -r,-r.--.,Ar'^^-"f\'z'-
-.-..

A young Viking man might go off on a trading voyage, or b
I ome rich so he could buy a farm. Vikings met at markets, like the ,j
il by in Denmark and lorvik in England, They traded by exchanging f
-\ n for a pair of shoes, perhaps) but also used gold and silver coins. \
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Jobs such as collecting wood for the fire, weaving king bread took up
a lot of time. Vikings did not have much furniture - perhaps a wooden table an
benches for sitting on and sleeping on.
There were no bathrooms in Viking homes. Most people probably washed in a
wooden bucket, or at the nearest stream. Instead of toilets, people used cess-pi
- holes outside dug for toilet waste. The pit was usually screened by a fence. Slimy
muddy cess-pits have been found by archaeologists stgglVing the remains of the
ing town of Jorvik ern York).

- /'--\ -
Food and Drink
From bones, seeds and other food remains at Viking sites, we know they ate meat
from farm animals, and from wild animals that they hunted, and collected foods
such as berries and nuts. They cooked meat in a big stew-pot over the fire, or
roasted it on an iron spif. Fish and meat were smoked or dried to preserve it. Viking
bread was made from rye or barley flour. They used milk mostly to make cheese
and butter, then drank the buffermilk left over.
At a feasf, guests drank ale and mead (a strong drink made from honey). People
drank out of wooden cups or drinking horns (made from cow-horns). Feasts were
held to mark funerals and seasonal festivals, such as midwinter. Some feasts lasted
over a week!

Toys and Pastimes
Viking men enjoyed swimming, wrestling and horse racing. In winter, people
skated on frozen rivers, and used skis over the snow. A favourite board game
hnefatafl ('king's table'). Players moved pieces around a board, like in draughts o
chess. There were lots of versions of this game.
children's toys were home-made - wlristles made from leg bones of
for instance. Children had wooden dolls, played football, and sailed model boats
bones found at Viking sites might be toy 'hummers' - the bones were thread
a twisted cord which you pulled to make a humming noise.
-_ .--^- .- - _____--

Vikings enjoyed music' Thgse are panpipes
(biggest object), a bone whisile, the
lyre, and a tuning peg to tighten the bridge from a
strings of an instrument.
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What did the Vikings wear?
y;i:??::oJ:^.t.?.1"^s.slnrjtar to those of peopte in Enstand, Scouand and Wates
this time. Men wore tunics and trousers. womu;'
long apron' clothes were made from wool, tinen
*;;:'l;.d ;*"J::r: ;tlffi :l
and animal skins. Mosily people
ffi
dressed to keep warm!
^

*.-;dFt_ **m*r\er**"s*ir.c dt -,{*q\F#Fq-"*
en ano women a6,frfu--..-',*:i
ost Viking men were all-round handymen, but some had special skills. There wer
t-builders, for example and potters, leather-workers and smiths. Most Vikinql
en knew Jrnrrr
t funarer
to h=nAla
how |-n handle a boat. And
r lrarl Anl *^^+
most could
^^.,11 fight iGif LL^.,
G:^l^!
they L^l !^
had to, .^
to -.-^.^il
protec
the family or to support their chieftain.
\
omen baked bread. They did spinning andweaving to turn sheep wool into cloth. l
ey looked after the children, made the family's clothes and cooked the two meals.:'
day most families ate. On the farm, wo en milked the cows and made cheese. t\
I
..6f^ -,"*/ "'*r"".* d q**- r* i**rl

rildren evil spirits
vvvr e given little Thor's-hammer
bies were
qulgJ charms, to protect them from
- so Eric, son of Karl, l.ranrma
^C l/^-l became
nd sickness. A boy usually took his father's name too
or grandmother'
ric Karlsson. Girls often took the same name as their mother
parents at work, and learned
Viking children did not go to school. They helped their
stories and songt,
[iking history, religion and law from spoken 1"^t^fj"J-0.?*t;"1u
ilii;ilU*#;;;il. it;;s common ror a eirl's rather to choose her husband'
I
**j

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Vi king Houses
E Viking houses
viking houses were built of wood,
stone or blocks of turf- depending
on tocal
I
frXtT:1i:
rhe J:: T:::'*:^i:,Jl^'l-'i:!lipi'"*',n
wa,s were made of wat.e
sropins thatched or turr roors
;,:lr,'.;l""rl:J'l,?, {#fl"{"1:u.|TJl?lr;
.,,y,9y:.,
il-',filgffi'; ;. s ofte n o* oJ;;r;
F l,Jlffi 3 iri3' I Ii rll"-:$ : :i o ug o" r g,.o,-n

if
Most houses had just one room,
for. a family to share. Rich people,s
farmhouses
I;?:',.::H rn a vikins town,
:i:J:J:"m ;;,;;
i;Til'-::T?:::"^lt.:l{:';J'n,.oo', a kitchen, a bedroom and a
;;*;;!"."#,&:[.[?tii":"_%",?i:

/^-

f
z\€_-

Viking farms
Most people lived on farms. Farmers used iron tools, such as
sickles and hoes.
They grew oats, barley and wheat, and ground the giain to make flour, porridge
and ale. Vikings grew vegetables such rJonions, beJns and cabbages.

1
Tlreir farm
animals included pigs, sheep, goats, catile, geese and chickens.

fI
They
used manure from the animals to keep the soil fertile. In autumn, farmers
killed
some animals because there was not enough food to feed them all
through winter.

II Slaves
Not everyone was free to com.e
were slaves or 'thralls'' Slaves and go as he or she riked. some
did th; nur?"ri, dirtiest peopre

I,l
ioo, eeopte courd be born
:Ey:';:ffiJT,f.": ?,.::";-,roin",. uno iuinui *g, a sr_ave too, out the chird of a
IIIX; i'g r tra d e rs,o o, r]il,",,''" ; #i :t : fJ,T, J:::,5im: ru*:
if n:
r

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l-
l-: King Cnut
In Vi<,.g: -=s" < -: ^33:c be sir:^: ::';-:3-: 1:=t - s
l- 1l'fli'lq 7^- =-^ =-3: 3 ...e3< <inC. i'S ^--i ,.,=S
gave V'<'ng -a'c3-s g3 c:3 stcp t^e.- 3::3:<s, -- =:^=
-=: :^=='=
I- :-= ea-ly AD
_--=::, , EtnelfeO
s -:-:, ,.,=s :3 :3 Danegeld"

!: The Vikings tooK the gold, but still attacKec 3-,y",i'oi. SJ i- -302, E:nelred's soldiers
killed Viking famllies in tlte Danelavu.Tlis maCe KIng S,,.,eyn cf Denmark so angry
he invaded England, Ethelred had to run a!r'ay, In 1016 Sweyn's son Cnut became
L: king of England, Cnut (also known as Canute) was a Christian and a strong ruler.
For the next few years England was part of his Viking empire, along with Denmark

L: and Norwav,

l_
L:
Jorvik's last king
L- Throughout the Viking Age, there were many battles between the Vikings and the
English. In the 9th century, the English king Alfred the Great stopped the Vikings
taking over all of England. In the 1Oth century the English reconouered much of
L- the land held by Vikings. In 954, they drove out Eric Bloodaxe, the last Viking king
of Jorvik. After Eric was killed in battle, the Vikings in England agreed to be ruled
L' by England's king.

/- . -- -\--
L--' The Norman Conquest were
In 1066 England was conquered bY William, Duke of Normandy. The Normans all of
l_' the descendants of Vikings who had settled in France. They took over was the
This
England, including the Danelaw- In 1069 the Normans burned Jorvik'
end of the Viking Age in England.
L_- years' They
In Scotland, Viking earls went on ruling some islands for hundreds of 'lords of the
were driven from the mainland of Scotland by 1100, but remained
isles, (the western Isles) until the 1200s. The islands of orkney and
Shetland were
l,_ more Norwegian than scottish, They did not officially become
part of scotland until
1469.
[--

L-
l_'
L'
Not much is known about how the Vikings worshipped their old gods. It's though
they had 'magic trees' and perhaps wooden temples. Some Vikings may have killed
captiu"r as human sacrifices. These old pagan customs died out after Vikings
became Christians. people in Britain had been Christians long before Vikings settled
here in the 900s. Soon most Vikings too became Christians. Viking leaders founded
churches and put up painted stone crosses. However, some Vikings continued t
llow their old religion at the same time.

A dead Ptrl )\Jr I was
Oedu person v buried or cremated.(byrne-dlY:.l:"^T'l-x,,.i,r. with
*rirh treasure,
rreasure.
wer-e given ship-buriars,
take into the next worrd. some Viking chlefs
*"upon',andfavouritedogsandhorsesburiedwiththem.
Vikinssbelievedthatawarriorkilledinrattle*:ll^::"y:ii,3'l?"i.?reathallwhere
[::n;"H::":H;? ;, il; ; ; ;res. od n sent h is wa rro r- m a de n
i
s, i

tiOi.g through the skies to bri 'arriors to Valhalla'

Magic and monsters
stories.oii-r",'oJu peopre rli"llijld-s^1'1,,:j^*llol"jX",l;lf:?,$no?;;t'T:
Vikins j;:'ffi..ii;.'iL":
!#J;;b-goio"'sts rived in a skv worrd carred Assard'
:15*t
Li;kG Miogaro with Asgard was a rainbow bridge'
such as trolls, dragons, sea serpents, and
The Vikings told many tales of monsters,
the fierce worf Fenrir (which tn" Ioor trie!
to keep chained up). Odin rode a
had eight legs'
magical horse named Sieipnir, which
lt

-lforse
tutytfro
The Norse myths
When the Vikinqs came to Britain, they had their own pagan religion. They
worshipped many gods. The old stories they told about gods, giants and monsters
are known as /Vorse mvths.In one story, Thor, the god of thunder, tries to prove
his strength to the Giant King by attempting to lift a giant cat. But he could only
lift one of its paws!

NOrSe and goddesses
Sand
dS 9OOOeSSeS =--trFF
Odin was the ruler of the qods, and the god of magic, poetry and war' His wife was
the motherly Frigg, and their son was Balder, who was kind and gentle. Freyja was
goddess of iove-#O fertility, and wept golden tears when she was unhappy. She
trad a twin brother Freyr, and their sacred animal was the boar'
Red-headed Thor ruled the skies, storms and thunder. He had iron gloves, a magic
belt and a hammer. people loved Thor but did not trust Loki, the mischievous
itrickster god'. By a trick, Loki caused the death of Balder.
#r\+
* [3j*-
the fhr,ef 6*d snd fother of

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ftdd* N*qs T"lror.
tJ $IrDtErrNr Safd,er, hodsr- TTr, F,r,.cgi, Ull. He jnrdcll, Vidqn.
Vs$d snd $-{ernsd" Sdin's q,'*ives pd€re Fjorgyn,
Fri nnd Rrittd"

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rr
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il--- ffiffi'€t),ffi
Thwn nvss the 6wd Tttunder. F{is 'rnst$'mr s
cf
Fjangyn, Hs fqcd a belt ond * hammer t]nst Snvs
him specrcl ttrength,
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rr
ffuWIWffiil r+,.t
F L+ki kuss the Wd+zmrd *f Lies.

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L- ,*.! t af Fer . Hds fathwn tvs.s
W$WffiW d en ws$ yfi.

d r,qut Freyc ruas t$\e Ssddesg u,f ffi th"
[j I
s*" End

ll -
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[--
W;Wffiffi
Idun the Ssddess of Spa"ing nnd Y+rrth.
\${ss
S.hs wns the dcqhte*" uf s duuorf enlled lvsld,

L] ffir
n:,l $it s the 6*ddess th,ru? rnarried Thor.
I

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":^";:-.: *: i;:,,:,.,,r;i -: ."..--.,,ir,.,,-
.,., _",;,,..1.: :,.":i:,,,::r...-,.,,t.-."*.:,..j,"

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.i,','- _iLI _.:,r#: "i ^, ".. .r,, r a

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' lii'-.r t-l: " ::::i<,'..1'i,t' .,t.'.'\,";:'. I ii, iitj'; ,r.t ... i,.j.:r,.. ;i*t i*;,r.) l.,l r-. i "n1,

*ii"t""l,i-'.-"t'i.;s1;f .;i*'1 jr?)",],r1"li:: ,iL,...0
iji".-;'i,q'.,",""(.t. i: .,:,.ii* y.fy,..* ,,,"*,i, ,t,,n,j-', |;.,;".

"'-iri,*.; r, "'-ij',1i,! * i-,'*''.r_: ::.ii.; l':*r-i: ..-: 1j"..:,.fl,.ir{-..r4i:., r:,.rj,.,i if- "..1 ar..
T:. Tcf,.r,-,f the \ ikings gn,l their Ieg.irr

:-s,-- -hi,ug:-: ---^:::-e-.:-'. - 3e:eral rrtrrtis used,n Siencri Erg-:s:. i.-J.-t'. :-.J1 l-i -J.-'c'..;';,-gsr and
,;r,ir,;,;.i. t,,,,.'.ie the:r n'.t-rjer: meanin"s to the \-iking senlers:n Englanc.

Eramples rri Scandinar ian place names in England are also er ident. Thel can be easilr detected b.t"
sulthes. Grinrsbl and Thurnbr are both names of places in England that use the sutllx - b1. ri'hich
rras the Scandinarian n'ord fbr t'arm'or village.'This is also the case fbr Astonthorpe and
Scunthorpe *hich both use the Scandinavian uord ending of -thorpe (meaning ' village'). These
place names of Scandinavian origin are particularll common in the Danelaw region which King
Alfred allorved the Vikings to settle in (886).

Society

future.

g, Norse women during theViking Era did
ouseholds and farms while their
husbands
their husbands' which was a right not all
ries after the Viking Age ended'

was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding
s
distances than anyone before them' The
lls and rows of oars along the side-were faster'
le than other shiPs of the time'

rn tradition of s
We have the Vikings to thank for
ted across their
comes from the Old Norse "skio'
recreation and transportation pu
goddess Skaoi
depicted on skis or snowshoes'
the western world knows it today'
vikings are often given credit for inventing the comb as among the other grooming objects
Tweezers, razors and ear spoons (for scooping
out wax) are
turned up in excavations of Viking burial sites'
The Icelandic sagas, written by unknown authors in the l2th,l3th and 14th centuries, chronicle
life
in the Viking Ag-e around the year A.D. 1000, when the ancient Norsemen abandoned their pagan
scholars accepted the sagas, with their graphic
ordinary people, as fact. Today, most historians
source of information about the Vikings, laced
any case, we can thank the Vikings and their
exploits for providing fodder for one of the earliest forms of our favorite guilty pleasure: the
soap

opera.
Pri mary History
Worksheet: The Vikings Rune stones
The letters of the Viking alphabet are called runes. Runes were often
carved into stones as a memorial to a person or a special event.
Write a message on the rune below.

I*brr.jelgnl
B Y.I I VY * rfYFlKrH,hXN+k4
t

k r rFi ,:'l {'1 i."r f) a S t v 'f_

J

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ffi.J$-ffi LE I
#,mrt gmu tr rffi$$ q&E ald f*b5
=tr

f -F$
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il f,--$ k I4
Pd

ffi,.ry ;w"'@4,w ryryrc !ry4 dryr,ry ry

tu% :Wf k{{:F" tuF RS.
wr@ @rc ,MZ are, .d4EAe SlCtril ilw .ry WA,.8|W ,W
"@gtr

Fd}
waw ltt''Jffi.Wiffi1@
'Galffi'ffiMMj

+ +:ffi ;h$:{[-l*1 :

il' *] *l{-' E4 D

S:R n$*{.$"$::
il'tnu FFFE il- G *mr

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mI
Jel,l,ing

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Ans\ /crs
tjOfd - A narrow waterway where the sea flows inland between cliffs or mountains.

Saga - A long story in prose written down in medieval Scandinavia or lceland. Some related
myths and legends but many were histories and telling of important events of Viking set-
tlers, kings, explorers and poets.

Jelling - TYELL-ingl A location in Denmark, site of the famous Jelling Runestone.

H nefatafl-n poputar board game during the Viking Age similar to but early than chess.

LOnghOUSe - Old Norse houses that were long and rectangular which generally had at
least three rooms. One room to cook and weave, one room for dining/living and bedroom
and one room for storage or indoor craft work.

NOfdiC - Refers to the northwestern European countries of Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden,
Denmark) plus lceland and Finland.
fiord

longhouse
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Worksheet: The Vikings -A day in the life of a Viking
lmagine you are aViking living in the town of Jorvik. The circle
below represents a day. Fill in the circle with what you thinkwould
happen during a busy day in Viking times.

Some ideas:
Help prepare food
Watch trading father carving Midnight
Watch trading ships arrive
Listen to a saga

Sunset Midnight

Get up

lV{idday

Now compare this with a day in your life by writing down what you have
done today
The Vikings
(f\ Read the first paragraph about the Vihings and circle the places they uisited
){
i.( lt
on the map.

R\rD€K',1-K*V€L t E'Rs c,R ?RAV€ €K?L.aK€Ks?

,. i r:r1 i ---"- - l.i<
j..r; 1..w-,. a\
i1 ,'t
.Rr \ -'1
Iceland
r'""" Icel-and
rxu€:'
ffi

I' j

The Vikings sailed the seas, attacked towns favourite was Odin, the god of the deadl
and stole treasures all over Europe beh.veen the ln 866 the Vikings captured an Anglo-Saxon
years 800 and 1100. They started from town They called it Jorvik and it was the capital
Scandinavia and attacked many counhies in of the Viking kingdom for 200 years. They made
Europe Thev settled in Britain. Ireland and Jorvik rich and one of the most famous cities in
France. They also crossed the Atlantic Ocean and Britain. Some years ago,
arrived in lceland and Greenland. They archeologists discovered
discovered North America but they also travelled part of that Viking town
eastto Russia and south to Arabia. in York, the modern
They were good farmers and excellent city of Jorvik. They
shipbuilders. They used their ships for wars. They found many things
also used them to carry people and goods to new such as jewellery, coins
Iands. ln winter, when there was not much farm and clothes. lf you ever
work to do, they stayed at home and did other go to York and you want
interesting jobs. Men made swords to use them in to travel back in time
battles. The Vikings liked swords so much they and see how the Vikings
often decorated themselves wiih gold and gave lived, visit the Jorvik
them names. Women cooked food and made Vikinq Centre!
Adapted fron Wilson, D. M. (1987) The Vikings,
for them, their
clothes, shoes and jewellery Activiryu Book, British Museum Press
children and their husbands The Vikings Pictures front Maynard, C. (1996) Viking Times, Kingfisher
believed in many gods and goddesses. Their
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Answer the fotlor+ing questiorrs:

l) Who wos the Wizord of Lies?
Z) Who wss the doughter ef a durarf?

3) Who morried Thur?

4) Who were Odin s trriues?

5) Whot gc,ve Thar his specint,strengtfrrs?

6) Who rvos the Goddess of f Fre Undentsor,ld?

7) Narne f*ur of Odinis chiil'drenr
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8) Who nras the 6ad of Fertiflity?
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9) Wh+ wos firey's sister"l
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10) WnF tffns the €h'ief 6od?
Where did the Vikings come from?

,AIf,E. T THE F,

1- The \-ikings carne from three countries of Scandinavia: Denrnark. England and
Sg'eden.

2- The najne 'Viking' comes from a language called 'oid Norse' ald means a
pirate raid'

3- The Viking age in European history was about AD 700 to 1100'

4- Ther- \\-ere onll' savage warrlors'

5- The origin of the word Viking is "king"'

What did the Vikings look like?

Some Vikings might have been ......., and their helmets \\-ere piain with
no horns. Others were tall and ", with long red beards'
They wore rea[y ... crothes. It was pretty cold rnost of the time. The
\ romen wore long dresses and the men wore trousers and ' " " " They had
thick coats of u'ool or ...
Both men and women wore rings and Because thel- didn't use
....., they usualiy kept their clothes in place with
And

fur - Jierce-looking - buttons ' 7or^ *ll - betts'tunics - bracelets'brooches
DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING TOPICS:

Viking children

Agriculture

Viking houses
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LABEL THE ITEMS OF CLOTHING:

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l B

IUIATCH THE HEADS AND TAILS:

a) Viking families were...
b) They all helped ...
c) Some Vikings didn't have..'
d) They rented ...
.... a farm of their own.

... some land.
...farmers.

....very big and even friendlY.
... each other.