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LANDSCAPE AS

INFRASTRUCTURE
REVILAIZING THE MALIR RIVER KARACHI

MASTER THESIS
OMER YOUSUF
Contents
Thesis intent

Case studies

Karachi

Malir River

Proposal

Conclusions & Recommendations


THESIS INTENT
To explore the potential of landscape architecture in addressing
contemporary environmental and social issues.
Nisar Shaheed park in Karachi Wetland park in China

Exotic planting Indigenous planting


High maintenance Improving water quality
Low ecological value Productive Landscape
Low social impact High ecological impact
High social impact

From aesthetics of appearance to the aesthetics of performance


Landscape as Infrastructure.

Linking productive landscapes with urban infrastructure


to get benefits of natural processes in meeting
Social and environmental challenges
Landscape Infrastructure provide

PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE R E C R AT I O N

ECOLOGY
Social benefits:
Public recrational areas

Adding economic value to the site

Providing sources of income and food

Environmental benefits:
Clean air and water

Provide habitat protection and increase bio diversity

Storm water management


Landscape Infrastrucure elements and strategies...

Constructed wetlands Permeable pavement Eco tourism

Urabn forest Bioswales Detention / Retention ponds


CASE STUDIES
Yanweizhou Park, Jinhua City,China

Landscape architects: Turenscape

Water resilient terrain and plantings are designed to adapt to the monsoon floods.
This design is composed of: Meandering vegetated terraces, curvilinear paths, a serpentine bridge, circular bio-swales,
planting beds and curved benches.

Integrating minimal interventions to provide social and recreational opportunities.


Changing site character according to the seasons
Fresh Kills Park, Staten Island, USA
Landscape architects: James Corner / Field Operations

Fresh Kills landfill is one of the largest landfill complexes in the world, with 6 large landfills rising out of a former salt marsh.
The design of the 2,300-acre park applies restoration techniques to:
Improve the quality of soils and water, and to establish diverse native plant communities using low cost, agricultural-scale approaches.

Gradually regenerating a degraded site into ecologically performing recreational park.


Designing with processes instead of form
Wusong Riverfront, Kunshan City, China
Landscape architects: SWA GROUP

The main objective is to make visible the natural processes which are usually not there to be seen in traditional engineering solutions.
The water cleansing system will serve as a model for responsible development along the river, introducing constructed wetland technology to
the region in a built form.
This project displays the potentials for designed landscapes as complex systems capable of providing ecosystem services and enacting
change instead of just being a picturesque ornament.

Using natural processes for improving water quality and making it visible for the visitors and making it useable for recraetional
park.
KARACHI
Total area: 3,527 sq.km (1,362 sq mi)

Population: 20 Million (Worlds Seventh lagest city)

Population Density: 6,000/ sq. km (15,500/sq.mile)

Economy: Port city, generates 70% of the revenue

Climate: Arid Subtropical

Elevation: 8m

Average Temprature: 28 degrees celcius

Average Rainfall: 217mm (8in)


Threats and challenges faced by Karachi

Vanishing green urban spaces

Urban heat island effect

Poor stormwater management/sewage treatment system

Enivronmental degradation

Gentrification of public areas


Extreme heat wave 2015

About 2000 deaths in a week

Max temperature recorded 45C with 50-60% humidy.

Urban heat island effect one of the major causes!


Impact of urbanization on Karachis landuse
Just about 3 percent area of the city has been marked as green
space according to City District Government, Karachi
Unproductive Existing public spaces
Cosmetic greenery
Planting of exotic speices in urban areas
Requiring high maintenance, but low production
Unable to perform social interaction spaces

Flooded streets: Lack of pedestrian spaces Empty parks: lack of shade & indegenous planting
MALIR RIVER
Site pictures
Challenges for Malir River

Untreated waste dumped in to Agricultural activities contaminating the Deforestation of mangroves for fodder and
the river. Water. Fuel wood.

Damaging mangrove ecosystem And harming the natural riverbank


PROPOSAL
Master plan
Layering of the program
Site phasing plan
Ecological planting

Ground cover species such as


Paspalum grass:

Used in maidan and riverfront park


Resilient to local conditions
Irrigation with brackish water
Can grow on saline soils

Planting Indigenous trees such as Acacia esp.


To reduce mangroves deforestation as a replacement for fodder
and fuel wood.
Challenges in implementation

The most significant challenge to implement this proposal in Karachi is the lack of will and
interest in developing social green spaces.

The authorities are interested to build commercial or residential development through


which they can earn high profits.

Exotic species are considered instead of Indigenous species in designing of public parks
because of their ornamental values.
Conclusions &
Recommendations
Conclusions

Karachi doesnt need a wonder park like Disney Land

Simple interventions can bring big change!

Using available resources and opportunities to create big impact.

Transform a forgotten Riverfront into an ecologically functional,


productive and vibrant green corridor for Karachi.
Recommendations

Application of Green / Landscape infrastructure shall be explored on various scales.

The brackish water region can be further explored to for saline water farming.

The performance of constructed wetlands and bio swales treatment systems needs to be
monitored continuously.

Community participation is a very important aspect of this proposal.

Landscape architects should be a part of inter disciplinary teams for designing urban
areas.
References

Http://Www.Landezine.Com/Index.Php/2015/03/A-Resilient-Landscape-Yanweizhou-Park-In-Jinhua-City-By-Turenscape/
:Http://Www.Livingconceptslandscape.Com/Wp-Content/Uploads/2015/09/Img_6653-1024x683.Jpg
Http://Www.Stormwaterpartners.Com/Facilities/Images/Detentionpond1.Jpg
Https://62e528761d0685343e1cf3d1b99a743ffa4142d9d7f1978d9686.Ssl.Cf2.Rackcdn.Com/Files/117944/Wide_Article/Width1356x668/C454yhh9-1460097199.Jpg
Trends and Issues for Ecotourim & Sustainable Tourism
Http://Southwestboulder.Com/Wp-Content/Uploads/2015/01/Soil-Retention-Catalog.Pdf
Analysis And Planning Asla Planning Awards
Landuse Changes And Their Impacts On Natural Drainage System Of Malir River Basin, By Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi
Karachi Rains And The Drainage Channelsissues And Solutions
Karachi's Mangroves: The City's Superheroes Are Under Threat