SPACE POWER SYSTEMS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Vincent L. Teofilo, Ph.D.

vince.teofilo@lmco.com
(408) 743-2275

Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company

Slide 1

Outline
Satellite Power Systems Solar Array-Battery Power Radioisotope Power Space Nuclear Reactors Advanced Concepts
Fusion Matter-Anti-Matter Vacuum Energy

• Warp-Drive • Worm Holes

Corona [1959-70]
10,000 kg of AgO/Zn batteries

TELEVISION INFRARED OBSERVATION SATELLITE

IMU IMP

AVHRR THERMAL CONTROL PINWHEEL LOUVERS SAR ANTENNAS SOA TED

1100 W SOLAR ARRAY

40 Ah BATTERY MODULES
SAD ESA HIRS

SBA AMSU A1 AMSU-A2 UDA AMSU-B SBUV VRA REA

Hubble Space Telescope

GaAs/Ge

90 Ah NiH2

Mars Global Surveyor .

000 DOD Cycles (60% Max DOD @ AB EndGame) 22 – 36Vdc @ User Load I/F No Mission Critical Single Point Failures (MCSPF) Capability 7 Years + 350 W (1600W @ 1AM0 Beginning of Life) (1) 16 A-Hr NiH2 Battery (70% Max DOD Capability) 24 – 36 Vdc @ User Load I/F Single NiH2 Battery has Credible but Low-Risk MCSPF .Mars Climate Orbiter Characteristic Mission Life Orbital Ave Pwr Energy Storage Bus Voltage Range Redundancy Requirement 5 Years 1 Yr Cruise+AB 2 Years Mapping 2 Years Relay 300 W @ Mars Perihelion ~ 10.

Iridium Satellite Bus Section 60 Ah NiH2 SPV Battery Communications Section Cross Link Antenna 1 kW e Solar Array Main Mission Antenna Panel Gateway Antenna .

IKONOS Satellite .

Solar Power System Solar Array Drive Assemblies Solar Array (North & South) Power Regulation Unit Fuse Box Assembly Power to Payload & IN-T3055 HK Loads IN-T3049 IN-T3052 Power to Arcjets Power to Pyros & Earth & Sun Sensor Assemblies Battery (North) Battery (South) Series Regulator Series Regulator Charge Regulator Discharge Regulator or Diode Load Load Solar Array Shunt (Full or Partial) Solar Array Battery Load = Energy Source/Storage Elements = Optional EPS Elements .

IECEC. Salim. 2000 .A2100 EPS Component Accommodation DUAL Ku-band GIMBALLED (50” diameter) ANTENNA TRANSPONDER SUPORT STRUTS ACCESS PANELS SOLAR ARRAY PANELS (SOUTH) TRANSPONDER PANEL (NORTH) includes PRU & FBA SOLAR ARRAY SHEAR-TIE STRUTS SOUTH BATTERY MODULES SOLAR ARRAY PANELS (NORTH) BASE PANELS TRANSITION STRUCTURE NORTH BATTERY MODULES Ref: A.

Space Solar Cell Development Projections 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 1971 1975 1980 1985 Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 40-45% in 10-15 years 3rd Generation 2nd Generation Silicon GaAs Multi-Junction 1st Generation •3rd generation of Lattice matched multi-junction solar cells will reach practical limit of 40-45%. IMM cells on kapton are being developed at 50-100 um thickness •Thin film nano-crystaline cells will be introduced for cost and mass –efficiency intitiallly at 13% efficiency with potential for achieving 20% in 5-10 years using MJ thin film techniques .

5 13 17.Solar Panel Characteristics BOL Efficiency / 7.5 28 34 2 PV Cell Technology Thin Film [Triple-Junction (TJ) amorphous Si on 1 mm Poly] Thin Film [CIGS on 1.5 mm Al] High Efficiency Si GaAs Triple Junction GaAs XJ (projected~2009) W/m 93 169 128 245 298 / Cell W/kg 440 627 182 291 353 Panel W/kg1 352 502 60 88 Boeing 100 kW Array (SPW-2006) 107 174 GaAs TJ on Kapton Substrate 28 245 353 1 .Panel with interconnects and substrate or support framing LM A2100 Solar Array Wing Assembly ATK 10 kW Array (SPW-2006) .

Reactive sputtering of metals with Se vapor. Printing of metals from ink precursors followed by selenization [requires no vacuum] .Thin Film Solar PV Evaporation of elements simultaneously or in a prescribed sequence. Sputtering of metals followed by selenization with H2Se.

Flexible. WCPEC 2006 . Law et al. “Lightweight.. Ref: D. High-efficiency Iii-v Multijunction Cells”.HIGH-EFFICIENCY III-V Thin MJ CELLS (SpectroLab) Triple-junction structures were deposited by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in 4” wafer thin-cell coupon on a 95-mm radius cylinder.

STAIF 2006] THERMIONIC CONVERTER THERMAL STORAGE PRIMARY REFLECTOR PCM •Able to Operate in Van Allen Belts •Volume ~1/2 of SA/Batt Power •Mass ~1/3 of SA/ Batt Power at 75 W/m2 MSFC Ground Test .4 m Satellite applications at > 30 kWe THERMIONIC CONVERTER NASA MSFC Ground Demo [Clark.Solar Thermal Thermionic Power System THERMAL RECEIVER SECONDARY CONCENTRATOR Using a new diffracting concentrator lens which weighs 0.5 kg/m2 BeO Phase Change Material used to heat TI elements to provide power during Eclipse Ø32.

Space Battery Cell Comparisons Li(CF) 500 LiSOCl x 2 400 ENERGY DENSITY (Wh/l) LiMnO 2 LiSO 2 Advanced Li Polymer 300 Li-SPE Ni/MH 200 Ni/Cd Ni/H 2 Li-Ion AgO/Zn Primary 100 AgO/Zn Secondary Pb/PbO 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 SPECIFIC ENERGY (Wh/kg) Current Li Ion batteries using liquid electrolytes provide 100-125.W/kg Future Li Ion batttery cells with solid electrolytes and nano-structured electrodes will provide > 200 Wh/kg batteries in 10 years .

Potential Spacecraft Energy Sources 2.4 x 10108cal/s-cc ZPF .

Range of Energy Source Applications .

IECEC 2006] Fuel Cells are not competitive with eletrochemical energy storage due to lower charge-discharge efficiency .1 month Batteries .1 day Batteries . Solar Array Fuel Cell Hybrid System 50 45 40 Mass (kg) Fuel Cell Hybrid 35 30 25 20 15 200 Batteries .1 week Batteries .6 months Batteries .1 year 400 600 Peak Power (W) 800 1000 [Teofilo.Solar Array-Battery Systems vs.

Radioisotope Power GPHS RTG 56 kg 20 GPHS >40 RTGs flown for space science missions from 3 W to 300 W Design for Launch Safety against Pu238 release is major cost driver Uses 20 General Purpose Heat Source Assemblies To generate 290 W Currently using of Russian Pu238 but in future INL to produce Pu238 .

Planetary Science Mission S/C EPS .

NASA Missions That Have Used RTGs Missions NIMBUS B-1 III APOLLO 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 PIONEER 10 11 VIKING 1 2 VOYAGER 1 2 GALILEO ULYSSES PATHFINDER CASSINI Launch Year 1968 (Aborted) 1969 1969 1969 1970 (Aborted) 1971 1971 1972 1972 1972 1973 1975 1975 1977 1977 1989 1990 1996 1997 Type of RTG -SNAP 19 (1) Heater Units SNAP 27 (1) -SNAP 27 (1) Power Level Thermoelectrics Per Unit (We) Used -~28 -~73 -~73 -PbTe -PbTe -PbTe SNAP 19 (4) SNAP 19 (2) MHW (3) GPHS-RTG (2) GPHS-RTG (2) Heater Units GPHS-RTG (3) ~40 ~35 ~150 ~285 ~285 -~285 PbTe/TAGS PbTe/TAGS SiGe SiGe SiGe -SiGe .

Nimbus. LES) • 7 RTG planetary missions (Pioneer. Cassini) • 5 RTG moon missions (Apollo ALSEP) • 2 RTG Mars missions (Viking 1&2) • RHUs used on Apollo 11.Radioisotope Missions Used safely on 24 missions since 1961 • 8 RTG Earth Orbit missions (Transit. Mars Pathfinder & MERs among others MER (2003) . Ulysses. Galileo. Voyager.

Voyager Spacecraft .

Galileo Spacecraft .

9cm (length 26.Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator DESIGN FEATURES Power: 112 We (BOM) 94 We (14 yrs) 20 kg Mass: System Efficiency: 30% Dimensions: 88.7 (tip-tip) Voltage: Fuel: Re-Programed: 28 + 0.2 Vdc 2 GPHS modules April 2006 to utilize Advanced Stirling .

0 kg with Radiators for specific energy of 14 W/kg .Radioisotope Thermophotvoltaic NASA Funded Development Creare Tested 100 We Engineering Test unit Uses two GPHS modules producing 500Wt Demonstrated Integrated System Efficiency 17% Design Mass of 7.

Space Nuclear Reactors Coolant Out Shield Fast Spectrum Reactors (>500keV) With high power density for compactness External reflectors for mechanical simplicity LiH Shield for low mass Fuel and Moderator Reflector Coolant In .

5 to 5 kWe .Space Nuclear Reactor History 1st Space Nuclear Initiative1950-74 500 We SNAP-10A 1965 5 kWe TOPAZ SOVIET SPACE Nuclear Initiative >30 reactors flown using TE and TI(2) SP-100 Technolgy developed in 2nd Space Nuclear Initiative 1983-95 1969-89 1.

000 to 75.000 lb thrust in burns up to an hour Can be configured to also provide steady state electrical power of 50-100kWe – Bimodal or Trimodal designs 20 Reactor/Rockets designed.4B before termination in 1974 to fund Space Shuttle development . built and tested 1959-72 in Rover/Nerva Program for ~$1.Nuclear Thermal Propulsion 1 GWt nuclear reactor heats hydrogen to 2200-3000K Generates 15.

STAR-C Thermionic Reactor STAR WARS STIMULATED SMALL REACTOR CONCEPTS Solid Graphite Core with Thermionic elements Heated to 1800 K and rejecting heat to heat pipe radiator at 1000K 9000-1000 K 40 kWe unit ~1100 kg with PC and Radiator Conversion Efficiency of 16% with TH = 1800K and TC= 1000 K Develop High Efficiency Nano Technogy TI Convertors with Lower TH and TC .

Gas Cooled Reactor Development Issue: He-Xe gas coolant replenishment over life .

Heat Pipe Reactor Fission power is generated in uranium fuel-pins. simple. HX can interface with any conversion system or heat pipes can go directly to thermo-electric or thermophotvoltaic power conversion system. well-characterized volume. 100 kWe Reactor/Shield Mass ~ 1000 kg Combined with Stirling engine yields specific power of 50 W/kg . Heatpipes provide the efficiency of 2-phase liquid-metal heat transfer in a passive. The power is conducted to heatpipes which transfer the power to an ex-core power conversion system (orintermediate HX).

Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Space Craft 2003 Notional Concept (JPL) 2001 A Space Odyssey (Universal Studios) .

00 METER NEXT THRUSTER 36 PLCS (18/SIDE) STOWED RADIATOR 2 PLCS MISSION/ AVIONICS MODULE DEPLOYING BOOM .Proposed JIMO Configuration ATLAS HLV 5 M FAIRING SP100 STYLE 130KWe REACTOR XENON TANK DEPLOYABLE FLAT RADIATOR 90 M2 11314 Kg TE CONV 12 PLCS PMAD 4 BOXES HIGH GAIN ANTENNA 3.

Li SPE [2020] Specific Power [W/kg] 80 TI Solar Thermal 60 [2015] 40 TJ aSi SA/Li Ion Polymer SA/Li Ion Batt [2008 ] [2012] HPR/Stirling 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 Spacecraft Bus Power. kWe 60 80 100 Current and future Advanced Solar Power Systems are more mass efficient then nuclear reactor power systems .Projected Power Source Comparisons 100 aCIGS SA/Adv.

and growing world-wide energy demand Attractive option within future energy portfolio Very few clean.Space-based Solar Power (SBSP) Renewed interest in an old idea given today’s perspectives Peak oil. reliable. and affordable alternatives Significant changes in recent years enabling improved SBSP economics Technology advancements. inexhaustible. safe. emerging applications. global environmental concerns. and market pricing realities CPV selected for high efficiency (>40%) But impact of radiator for cooling cells provides net W/kg << planar with IMM cells .

B11) would eliminate Such requirements but require much higher confinement conditions obtainable by magnetic fields > 30 Tesla. Advanced fuels (d. .Progress in Magnetic Confinement Fusion DT Terrestrial Controlled Fusion requires (1) periodic vacuum confinement and thermal blanket structural Material replacement and (2) breeding sufficient tritium to replace that consumed. This makes it uneconomical for commercial power generation.α3) and (p.

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement IEC Fusion Reactions vs Grid Bias Magnetically Channeled Spherical IEC propulsion Experiment University Of Wisconsin IEC Experimental Facility See: http://fti.wisc.neep.edu/publist?which=fdm50 .

Isp >104s . V = 150kV . ηt ~ 62-68% . 2008 . Isp = 3000 s. ηt > 1 N Miley et al. Technolgy of Fusion Energy. Accelerating = 500 W. Voltage = 600V p-B11 Propellant Estimated Performance Thrust= > 1 N .Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Space Thruster Plasma Jet Grid Xe Propellant Estimated Performance Thrust = 34 mN.

m-3 Magnetic field used to insulate the target plasma from the liner .Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) plasma density intermediate between conventional MFE and ICF Avoid huge. steady-state magnets of conventional MFE. n τ > 1014 s. Avoid the problem of extremely high pulsed power (1000’s TW) Compact reactor Offers potentially a low-cost R&D path Material Liner • Solid • Liquid • Gaseous Target Plasma Lawson’s criteria excess energy.

Magneto-Kinetic Compression MIF Magnetic Expansion Chamber BURN CHAMBER Flowing Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger/ Breeder (Dch ~ 5 cm) Accelerator Source 1m 10-30 m ~ 20 m Advantages over ITER tokamak Minimum B field at highest plasma pressure (β~1) Simple linear system – reactor wall is a steel pipe Variable output power ~ 10-100 MW not multi-GW Burn chamber well separated from plasmoid formation/heating. • Direct electric power conversion with expansion of fusion heated plasmoid (Brayton cycle .η > 90%) • Low mass system directly applicable to space propulsion • Key physics and scaling have been demonstrated • Developmental cost orders of magnitude less • • • • Energy required to achieve fusion conditions is transferred to FRC plasmoid from array of axially sequenced coils. Proof-of-Principle experiment ~ 3 M$ / year Current experiment to create initial FRC plasmoid for fusion breakeven experiment .

52 Mev) + n (14 MeV) d + He3 = He4 + p [ 18.0 Tech Development Ground DEMO FLIGHT DEMO 10 2 10.0 Fusion 10 3 10 1 100. Ve (m/s) 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 Reactions: d + t = He(3.Interplanetary Fusion Propulsion 10 3 Chem Fission 0.3 MeV] Lawson Criteria: n τ > 1014 sec exceeded through steady state and pulsed magnetic confinement .1 (kW/kg) PHYSICS DEMO 1.0 MANNED MISSION 10 4 10 5 10 6 Effective Exhaust Velocity.

Interstellar Anti-matter Propulsion Fuel Mass for round-trip to Alpha Centauri at 0.1 c: 0.01 Msc / 0.1 Msc For 100 ton Space Ship 10 tons of anti-protons cost $1021 ~ 3 ng of p.) = 0.produced /yr in 2002 .1 (conversion eff.

Dark Energy and Matter General Relativity Equation: ¨r/r = 4πG ( ρ + 3p) /3 Normal matter creates gravitational attraction and slows down cosmological expansion. i. creates gravitational repulsion and its density is constant. . For vacuum the situation is opposite: positive vacuum energy anti-gravitates.e. Dark matter also causes attraction.

2005) Casimir Force . Casimir Force definitively measured by Lamoreaux (1997) and to 1% by Mohideen (2003) Newton’s Laws derived from Maxwell’s Equations by Haisch. Nernst study zero-point energy (1913-16) Casimir identifies Quantum Zero point Field (ZPF) as source of force between parallel plates (1948) Thought experiment by Forward shows principle of tapping zero-point energy (1984). Τ) = 8πν2 [hν/(ε hν/κΤ − 1) c3 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: + hν/2 ] ΔxΔv < h Min Energy at T = 0 : hν/2 for each EM harmonic mode up to Planck Frequency νp = 1. USAF Study identified ZPF experiments for further study (1996). Rueda and Puthoff (Phys.9 x 1043 Hz ρ p = 2π2c /G2h = 10109 J/cc Einstein. Rev 1994) and (Anal.QUANTUM VACUUM ENERGY FIELD Spectral Energy Density Planck ( 1911) ρ (ν.Physik.

Shawyer EM Drive for Chinese QVPT . can be likened to a conventional plasma thruster that uses crossed E and B fields to induce a plasma drift in the propellant which for the vacuum field are p+-p.pairs. The difference arises in the fact that a QVPT uses quantum vacuum fluctuations as the fuel source mitigating the need to carry propellant. This suggests much higher ISP is available for QVPT systems limited only by supply power storage densities.Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT)? The local quantum vacuum density is related to local matter density? - ρ vac _ local = ρ vac ρ m _ local = ρ m _ local ρ vac ρ vac [ H.and e+-e. White STAIF 2007] A QVPT. in principle.

Let. Alcubierre Warp Bubble . However. Let.Energy for Warp Drive By creating the energy equivalent of negative mass the space in front of a space ship can be contracted and that behind expanded with energy: E = -3. 2003].15 x 1042 Joules for each factor of the speed of light Vacuum energy of ρp = 10109 J/cc may be more then enough to provide the mass equivalence energy to Warp Space. Rev. 1988]. Rev. current vacuum energy extraction concepts may be limited to < 106J/cc and Cosmological expansion dark energy pressure attributed to vacuum energy is limited to: ~ 10-10 J/cc Kip Thorne et al. proposed “transferable worm holes” in hyper space can be created with Negative or vacuum energy [Phys.5 x 1030 kg x vs/c or x c2 = ( 3 x 106m/s)2 E = -3. Visser et al. proved conditions require little negative energy [Phys.

Ries Phys. (2003 ) .Optically Squeezed Laser Light Produces Worm Hole in Hyper Space + + + + + + + Rotating / Redirector + Mirror System + .+ Standing Wave in Sodium Chamber causes rapid variations in optical properties of wave and Positive Energy optical properties of the sodium induces rapid reflections of pulses Pulses + Laser & LiNbO3 Resonator + - + - - - - - - Negative Energy Pulses - - - - Reference: Davis STAIF (2006).Rev Let.

Conclusions Solar Power Systems will be utilized for spacecraft power well into the 21st century with advances to > 50 W/kg Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems will be needed for Lunar exploration using Stirling or TPV energy conversion Nuclear reactors may be need for manned Lunar or Mars bases after ~ 2020 Nuclear Thermal Propulsion development interrupted in 1974 may be continued for more efficient manned space transportation Fusion power/propulsion may supplant nuclear fission due to greater safety and implemeted early for replacing HCTs Worm holes may be the only possible method to explore the universe .

cfm?pageid=360&id=1743 ] .2???] See: AIAA Frontiers in Propulsion Science [http://www.Future R&D in Advanced Space Power Sources Development of advanced thin film PV and Li Ion batteries Development of Solar Thermal Thermionic Power system for high power applications Development of nuclear reactors and for Lunar Bases and Space Craft power/propulsion [2006-2030] Research and Develop Space Fusion Power/Propulsion Technology [2006-2040] Research Physics and Technology for Interstellar Space Travel [2006.org/content.aiaa.