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ComFlor Design Help

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You are on page 1of 45

The program covers:

Standard ComFlor shallow and deep deck profiles.

Non-composite design of the profile at the construction stage and composite

design at the normal service stage.

Serviceability limit states of deflection and vibration.

Fire resistance design.

Design to either BS 5950 or Eurocodes.

Simple and semi-continuous construction for deep deck profiles.

Unequal double spans.

Only the resistance of the slab to out of plane loading is checked by the program.

Uniform Distributed loads

Line loads perpendicular to deck span.

Line loads parallel to deck span.

Point loads

The total self-weight of the slab is automatically calculated by the program from the

floor layout and support details.

The slab is assumed to span ONLY in the direction of span of the profiled steel sheets.

The slab may be propped or un-propped during construction and may also span over

one or more permanent supports.

For normal design, the slab is always assumed to be single spanning at the composite

stage regardless of the assumptions made at the construction stage. Any mesh

reinforcement provided is treated as anti-crack steel and checked for code compliance

dependent on the form of construction.

For assessing the bending resistance of the composite slab, the decking (in

combination with any bar reinforcement provided) is treated as tension reinforcement.

Interface bond between the steel profile and the concrete is developed through a

combination of friction and mechanical interlock. With fibre reinforcement (BS 5950

only), it is assumed that the frictional component is identical and the interlock

component is enhanced. The m and k values used with mesh reinforcement have,

therefore, been adopted with fibre reinforcement, i.e. it will be assumed that the shear

bond is not adversely affected by the use of fibre reinforcement. Thus, the use of fibre

reinforcement (as a replacement to steel mesh) will not affect the design of the slab in

normal service.

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1.2 Design assumptions

Design to British Standards or to Eurocodes is possible. Selection is made by clicking

on the relevant button on the toolbar.

1. BS 5950: Part 4: 1994

2. BS 5950: Part 6: 1995

3. BS 5950: Part 8: 1991

4. BS 8110: Part 1: 1997

Applicable codes for Eurocode designs are:

1. EN 1990

2. EN 1991-1-1

3. EN 1991-1-2

4. EN 1992-1-1

5. EN 1993-1-1

6. EN 1993-1-3

7. EN 1994-1-1

8. EN 1994-1-2

Users must ensure that their designs reflect future amendments in relevant standards

as this will reflect more fully, changes in construction practice, construction materials,

test data, etc.

At the composite stage, plastic design is used with the profile taken as steel

reinforcement. Capacities at the construction stage are derived from tests. Elastic

design is used at the serviceability limit state for deflection calculations.

Design for the fire limit state is based on temperature profiles at given fire resistance

periods and residual material strengths at these temperatures.

The graphical user interface (GUI), is illustrated by the screenshot in Figure 1.1 below:

2

Figure 1.1 Introductory GUI

File menu: This menu provides access to functions to create new jobs, open existing

jobs, save jobs, print reports and access the Job Properties form.

Analysis menu: This menu provides access to the Analysis button. The analysis button

processes the job definition data, displays the results in the Summary area and makes

the Results tab accessible.

Help menu: This menu provides access to guidance on the use of the software, access

to the SCI Steelbiz information site and contact information for the software.

Comprising:

Structures tab

Loading tab

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Design tab

Results tab (N.B. this tab is only accessible following an analysis of the current job

definition data).

This area is to the right of the design tabs area and provides graphical feedback, errors

and warning messages, and general information appropriate to the current tab and

input fields.

This area is below the design tabs area. Following an analysis this area is populated

with the maximum unity factors for construction stage, normal stage, fire limit state and

serviceability limit state checks in order to provide rapid feedback without the need to

change tabs.

This is a bar at the bottom of the window. It gives information where the current job is

saved, the current geographical location of the software being used and the design

code selected.

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2 INTERFACE

2.1 Structure Tab

2.1.1 Structure tab overview

The Structure tab provides the definition of the slab general arrangement and

materials. See Figure 1.2 below:

For further information about specific input fields, see the links below:

Deck profile types

Span

Span type

Propping

Slab depth

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Concrete definition

Deck data supplied with the program includes the following composite flooring systems:

ComFlor 210, ComFlor 80 and ComFlor 60.

ComFlor 210 is treated as deep deck profiles in Slimdek construction, whereas the

others are considered to be shallow profiles for analysis purposes. ComFlor 80 and 60

can be used with composite beams were shear connectors (studs) are assumed in use.

The availability of profiles, thicknesses and grades is dependent on the selected design

code and locale, as specified in Table 1.1 and Table 1.2 below:

Available Profile Available Profile Available Profile

Selected Locale

Types Grades Thickness

0.75

G550 0.9

ComFlor 60

1.0

New Zealand/ G500 1.2

Australia/ Pacific 0.75

Islands G550 0.9

ComFlor 80

1.0

G500 1.2

ComFlor 210 G500 1.25

Available Profile Available Profile Available Profile

Selected Locale

Types Grades Thickness

0.75

G550 0.9

ComFlor 60

1.0

New Zealand/ G500 1.2

Australia/ Pacific

Islands 0.75

G550 0.9

ComFlor 80

1.0

G500 1.2

2.1.3 Span

The span of the decking is specified in the Span input area.

This is the distance between the centres of permanent supports. Permanent supports

may be primary or secondary beams, internal or external walls, etc. A minimum bearing

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length of 50 mm is used in ComFlor 210. The effective span is therefore between the

flange tips plus the bearing length.

The effective length of the slab at the normal stage is based on this value. At the

construction stage, the effective length is based on this value for unpropped

construction and the distance between props for propped construction.

Span type information is specified on the Structures tab.

For shallow decking, the deck may be single span (SINGLE), double span (DOUBLE),

or span over 3 or more bays (MULTI-SPAN) at the construction stage. It should be

noted, however, that regardless of the number of spans, the shallow deck is always

assumed to be simply supported over one span at the normal design stage.

A distinction should also be made between the specification of the number of spans

and continuity at support positions for propped construction. A decking spanning over

one bay and provided with 2 props at one-third span positions, is continuous over

3 spans at the construction stage but SINGLE span for the normal stage.

Partial Continuity for deep decking: Tests have shown that the ComFlor 210 composite

slabs supported on a steel beam and provided with adequately detailed continuity

mesh reinforcement over the steel beam support exhibits a degree of continuity at the

support. The beneficial effect of partial continuity at the supports may be taken into

account by specifying CONTINUOUS in the Span Type field. When this option is

specified, the following assumptions are made by the program:

A 20% reduction in the deflections of the composite slab at the normal design

stage.

A 30% reduction in the deflections when assessing the natural frequency of the

slab. This is justified by the lower stress levels during vibration.

Stresses in the composite slab in fire conditions are derived from a model which

assumes full continuity at one end and a simple support at the other (i.e a

propped cantilever condition). In this case, the amount of mesh reinforcement

should be increased to a minimum of 0.4% of the cross-sectional area of the

concrete topping in order to develop sufficient continuity in the slab.

Note that in all cases, partial continuity is ignored in assessing the capacity of the

composite slab at the normal design stage.

2.1.5 Propping

Props are defined in the Span input area.

Props may be used at the construction stage to reduce the deflection of the profiled

steel sheeting or to prevent the bearing capacity of the sheeting from being exceeded

before the concrete gains sufficient strength (or both).

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The program allows the user to specify single props (at midspan) or double props (at

one third span) at the construction stage. It is assumed that the props provide a

continuous support and are capable of carrying all the forces imposed on them without

undue deflection.

The length of bearing at the supports of the slab is calculated from the Support Width

input by the user. This value is used for end supports only. For the props the user can

define the prop width. The program assumes a minimum bearing width of 100 mm.

The value of beam or wall width input by the user should be the mean value for both

supports.

The bearing length should be sufficient to satisfy the requirements for load carrying

capacity both in the non-composite and composite stages. This will vary dependent on

the bearing material. This requirement is NOT checked by the program.

to BS 5950: Part 4: 1994: Section 4.7

Slab depth is specified within the Concrete input area. The overall depth of the slab

(excluding any non-structural screeds) must be entered on the Slab Depth field.

The slab depth must meet the following requirements:

The slab must be of sufficient strength to develop the required resistance to the

applied forces at the composite stage.

It must have adequate stiffness to meet deflection requirements at the

composite stage.

It must also meet minimum slab thickness requirements for fire insulation

requirements.

The minimum thickness of structural concrete topping (above ribs) is 50 mm.

Please note also that the program will not process the data if the minimum slab

thickness requirements for fire are not met. It should also be noted that a minimum

cover of 15 mm is recommended to use with shear connectors, if provided.

2.1.8 Concrete

Concrete material information is specified within the Concrete input area.

Select Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Light Weight Concrete (LWC) from the Type

field of the Concrete Details frame.

The program does not cover LWC construction with a concrete dry density less than

1750 kg/m3. Information on the properties of LWC may be found in manufacturers

literature.

In the absence of more precise information, the following assumptions may be made:

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Table 1.3 Default Concrete properties

3

Density (kg/m )

Wet Dry Modular Ratio

BS 5950 LWC 1900 1800 15

NWC 2400 2350 10

Eurocodes LWC 2050 1950 15 *

NWC 2550 2450 10 *

The Wet density is used in the design of the profiled steel sheets and the dry density, in

the design of the composite slab.

The modular ratio defines the ratio of the elastic modulus of steel to concrete. Table 1.3

gives recommended values for the modular ratios.

* The Auto calculate modular ratio (n) option, which is applicable only in Eurocode

design, when selected determines a nominal modular ratio (n) assuming the simplified

approach as defined in EN 1994-1-1/5.4.2.2(11) (refer to the code for limitations on its

use):

n = 2Ep/Ecm for normal weight concrete

n = 2Ep/Elcm for light weight concrete

where:

Ep = 210 000 N/mm2

Ecm, Elcm depends on the grade of concrete and is defined in EN1992-1-1 Table 3.1 and

11.3.1 respectively.

The concrete grade defines the cylinder/cube strength. For BS design the cube

strength is used while for the Eurocode the cylinder one.

Normal Weight Light Weight

C20/25 C25/28

C25/30 C30/33

C30/37 C35/38

C35/45 C40/44

C40/50 C45/50

C45/55 C50/55

The cylinder/cube concrete design strengths used in the analysis are limited to the

values specified above.

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2.1.9 Bar and mesh reinforcement

The program allows both bar and mesh reinforcement to be specified. The design

strength is defined as 460 N/mm to BS 8110, or 500 N/mm to Eurocode 1994-1-1.

The cover to the mesh is defined as the depth from the top of the slab. The Axis

Distance defines the distance from the bottom of the ribs to the centre of the bar. The

minimum value is 25 mm, and the maximum value is the profile height. The program

defaults to the recommended Axis Distance.

The minimum amount of reinforcement over the intermediate supports is given by the

following limits:

To BS 5950:

In slabs subject to concentrated loads, 0.2% of the cross-sectional area of the

concrete topping,

In slabs without concentrated loads, 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area.

To Eurocodes:

In continuous span and unpropped construction 0.2% of the cross-sectional

area of the concrete topping.

In propped construction 0.4% of the cross-sectional area of the concrete

topping.

These limits ensure adequate crack control in visually exposed applications (0.5 mm

maximum crack width). The mesh reinforcement should be positioned at a maximum of

30 mm from the top surface, and should be continued to at least 25% of the adjacent

span. Elsewhere, 0.1% reinforcement may be used to distribute local loads on the slab

(or 0.2% to EC4).

For continuous construction in the deep deck option, the same minimum

reinforcement as for propped construction should be used.

Warnings as to the required minimum area of mesh reinforcement (mm/m) are output.

The concrete cover to the mesh reinforcement and the mesh type are checked to

ensure that they are compatible, as follows:

For a single layer of mesh, the total depth of the mesh is taken as 3 bar

diameters.

For double layers of mesh, the total depth of the mesh is taken as 5 bar

diameters.

The above limits assume nesting of mesh at laps.

When the specified cover is insufficient to allow these depths of mesh, as given above,

a warning is given that lacer bars must be provided.

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Depths of cover which provide for less than 2 bar diameter () of mesh for single layer

and 3 bar diameters for double layers are not acceptable (see Table 1.5 below). The

minimum cover is 15 mm and the maximum recommended is 50 mm.

Table 1.5 Limits for mesh depth of cover and respective warning messages

given

Limits for Mesh Depth Warning Message displayed in software

1 Layer of

2 Layers of Mesh

Mesh

Error: The specified cover cannot be achieved with the

2 3

mesh. Either reduce the cover, increase the slab thickness

(min 15mm) (min 15mm)

or try a shallower profile

3 5 Nesting of mesh and use of lacing bars at laps may be

(min 15mm) required for the construction of the slab

4 8 Nesting of mesh may be required for the construction of the

(max 50mm) slab

Note: These cover limits are provided for the design of the composite slabs and do not necessarily apply

for the design of the supporting composite beams, which should be considered separately.

2.2.1 Loading tab overview

Occupancy imposed loads, ceilings and services, finishes and partition loads are

specified on the Loading tab (see Figure 1.3 below).

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Figure 1.3 Loading Tab

The slab self-weight is automatically calculated by the program. These loads are

assumed to be uniformly distributed over the whole slab.

Additional Line loads and Additional distributed loads parallel to or perpendicular to the

deck span may also be specified at the normal design stage ONLY.

Imposed loads, ceilings and services, finishes and partition loads specified on the

Loading tab are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the whole slab as is the slab

self-weight, which is automatically calculated by the program.

Imposed and partition loads are variable actions where ceiling/service and finishes are

permanent actions.

Additional distributed loads and line loads may also arise from partitions, from

supported machinery or equipment, etc. and may be parallel to or perpendicular to the

deck span. They are input as kN/m length of the line load.

Additional loads not uniformly distributed over the whole area of the slab can be

defined using the PARALLEL, PERPENDICULAR or POINT Loading options. The

software allows to define a maximum of 5 cases for each type. Permanent and live

loads can be defined in kN/m for the parallel and perpendicular types and in kN for the

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point load. The width, length and location can be defined as well as the thickness of the

finishes.

Line loads PARALLEL to the deck span should not overlap, except as separate line

load (L) and superimposed dead load (S) components of the same load. In this case,

the loads should overlap exactly.

Line loads PERPENDICULAR to the deck span should not overlap with PARALLEL

loads. Checks on punching shear around these loads are made, based on:

The depth of concrete above the decking.

The reinforcement in the slab.

The shear perimeter assumes that perpendicular loads are infinitely long.

2.2.3 Screeds

Screed details (thickness and density) are specified on the Loading tab.

Screeds are assumed to be non-combustible and are used in checking the fire

thickness requirements. To specify combustible screeds, the weight must be calculated

and input as additional distributed loads, with the load type set as superimposed dead.

Load spread through screeds is included for bending moment calculations but ignored

for punching shear.

2.3.1 Design tab overview

The Design tab provides the definition of all parameters specific to the design code or

process (see Figure 1.4 below).

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Figure 1.4 Design tab

For guidance on the choice of parameters on this tab, reference should be made to the

code-specific detailed information within this help file.

2.4.1 Results tab overview

The Results tab provides comprehensive information regarding the outcome of the

ComFlor analysis.

The overall maximum unity factor is displayed, followed by detailed results of each

check criterion.

Graphs for normal stage bending, shear and (total) deflection are also provided.

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Figure 1.5 Results Tab

The Job Properties form is accessed via the File menu, or by clicking the 'information

symbol' toolbar button.

This form allows the selection of design standard. Note that both design standard and

locale can also be selected via a toolbar button.

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Figure 1.6 Job Properties window

2.6 Preferences

The preferences form, accessed via Options/Preferences, is used to select a new

default template or adjust the update check settings.

Any saved ComFlor file may be used as a default template. The default template

provides the data set on each start-up of ComFlor. The factory default template can be

restored at any time by selecting 'Use factory defaults'.

By default the software is set to check whether it is the current latest version each time

it is started. If it is not the latest version the user is redirected to a website to download

the latest version. It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that this setting is retained to

ensure the safety of design.

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Under rare circumstances, e.g. in the event of a temporary internet problem, it may be

desirable to switch the update check to 'Manual'. An update check will then only be

made if the 'Check now' button is clicked.

3 DESIGN TO BS 5950

3.1 Loading

Self-weight due to the in situ concrete, decking or screeds (if used) is automatically

calculated by the program from the specified floor arrangement and slab geometry

details.

In addition to the above, this program covers a wide range of load types. These are

discussed in this section under the following links:

Loads and Load Arrangement

Additional Loads

Partial Safety Factors

Factored loads are considered at the ultimate limit state. These are obtained by

multiplying the characteristic values of the applied loads by partial safety factors.

Partial load factors may be entered in the 'Partial load factors' input area.

The following partial safety factors are used by the program for design to BS 5950:

BS

Dead Loads 1.4

Imposed Loads 1.6

Construction loads 1.6

Superimposed dead loads 1.4

Fire occupancy loads 0.8 (Default)

For design to BS 5950 the fire partial safety factor is applied to the proportion of

occupancy imposed load considered as non-permanent in fire.

Loading information would normally be agreed with the clients. Reference should also

be made to BS 6399.

Factored loads are considered at the ultimate limit state and unfactored loads at the

serviceability limit state. Unfactored loads are also considered in fire conditions.

17

Loads considered at the construction stage consist of the slab self weight and the basic

construction load. The basic construction load is taken as 4.5/Lp or 1.5 kN/m2

(whichever is greater), where Lp is the span of the profiled steel sheets between

effective supports in metres. For multi-span construction, the basic construction load is

considered over one span only. On other spans, the construction load considered is

one third this value (i.e. 0.5 kN/m), or none, whichever is the more critical for positive

and negative moments in the sheeting (see Figure 1.7). Construction loads are

considered as imposed loads.

Note 1. The arrangements shown in this figure are for equal values of the effective span Lp. In all cases the

most critical arrangement of construction load should be used.

Note 2. For propped construction Lp is the prop spacing

deep decking, the construction load arrangement is shown in Figure 1.8 below).

The basic construction load of 1.5 kN/m is applied to the central 3 m of the span and

one-half of this is applied to the rest.

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Loads considered at the normal service stage consist of the slab self-weight,

superimposed dead loads and imposed loads.

If the deck is continuous over several spans at the construction stage, the loads are

arranged so as to cause the most critical effects on the components and on the

decking as a whole (see BS 5950: Part 4: Section 2.2.1 of 2.2.3.1).

Unpropped continuous multiple spans adopt the verifications and load cases for the

double span case, with the third span carrying decking self-weight only.

Propped spans

Propped spans use double/multi-span load cases as appropriate, with the effective

spans reduced to the spacing of the props.

3.2.1 For Construction stage

Leff,cons Effective span of profiled steel sheets, is the smaller of:

profiled sheets dp. L bsupp + hp

a) Distance between centres of permanent or temporary supports, L.

width (50mm). L bsupp + 50 mm

For deck profiles up to 100mm deep then:

Leff,norm, Effective span of composite slab, which is the smaller of:

a) Distance between centres of permanent supports, L

composite slab (hslab - yp), L bsupp + (hslab - yp)

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yp is the centroid of the deck from the bottom of the deck

width (50mm). L bsupp + 50 mm

The design checks carried out by the software are given in Table 1.7.

Construction Normal

Stage Stage

Flexural resistance - Sagging x x

- Hogging x~

Vertical shear resistance x x

Web crushing resistance x

Interaction of bending moment and shear x~

Interaction of bending moment and web crushing x

Shear Bond Resistance x

Punching shear x*

Deflection x x

Dynamic sensitivity x

Fire resistance x

The links below give further details of specific ultimate limit state checks:

Flexural resistance Shear Bond check

End Anchorage

Punching Shear

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Flexural resistance Shear Bond check

This is a check of shear bond resistance checked against the vertical applied shear.

The method followed here is follows BS 5950-4 Section 6.4.1 with appropriate

modification to include the effect of bars in troughs.

( ) ( 2)

= + +

1.25 1.25

with limit:

( )

= min 2 + ,

1.25

( ) ( 2)

+ +

1.25 1.25

where

Bs is the width of the composite slab (in mm); (default to 1000 mm)

Ap is the cross-sectional area of the profiled steel sheeting (in mm2)

ds is the effective depth of slab to the centroid of the profiled steel sheets(in mm);

ds = hslab yp

hslab is the depth of the total slab

yp is the centroid of the deck from bottom

fcu is the characteristic concrete cube strength (in N/mm2);

kr is an empirical parameter

mr is an empirical parameter

Lv = Leff/4 is the shear span of the composite slab (in mm).

Leff is the total effective length.

dr is the distance of the centroid of the bar from the top (hslab axis distance)

axis distance is the distance from the centre of the bar to the closest edge of the deck

(defined by user in the interface, (in mm))

xc = 0.2hslab (is the depth of concrete in compression at mid-span)

fybar = the yield strength of bar (for BS this is usually taken as 460 N/mm2)

Abar = (/2)2 area of bar in mm2

is the diameter of the bar

n is the number of bars per metre. n = 1000/st

st is the spacing between troughs for a particular deck

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End anchorage

End anchorage resistance is applied according to the method described in BS 5950-4

Section 6.4.3. This is calculated as an end anchorage resistance, Va.

Where end anchorage is used in conjunction with the shear bond between concrete

and the profiled sheets, the combined longitudinal shear resistance is limited as

follows:

Punching shear

Punching shear is checked according to BS 5950: Part 4.

For patch loads and line loads parallel to the span of the decking, the critical perimeter

is calculated. For continuous line loads transverse to the span of the decking, the

critical planes are assumed to be along two parallel lines, one on each side of the line

load. No spread through finishes is assumed, and only the depth of concrete above

the decking is taken as effective. Reinforcement crossing the shear planes can be

included, but the decking itself is neglected.

The concrete punching shear resistance is obtained from BS 8110: Part 1 and is given

by:

1 400 1

100 3 4

= 0.79

1.25

where:

A correction to Vc is made for the characteristic strength (other than fcu = 25 N/mm),

and for lightweight concrete.

The links below give further details of particular serviceability limit state checks:

Deflection

Ponding

Vibration

Deflection

The deflection of the decking (construction stage deflection) is based on unfactored

dead loads ONLY. Construction loads are not considered. Two values are calculated

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for the deflection of the slab (composite stage deflection): the deflection under imposed

loads and the total deflection.

The deflection under imposed loads is the deflection of the slab under imposed loads

ONLY. This value should be used in assessing the effect of the deflection of the slab

on finishes etc. The total deflection is the deflection of the slab under all applied loads -

dead, imposed and superimposed dead, less the construction stage deflection (see

above). This value takes into account the effect of creep of the concrete under dead

loads and any additional deflection due to prop removal.

For unpropped construction, the critical deflection is the surface of the slab, as the soffit

of the decking will deflect more in this condition. The additional weight of concrete is

included only when the deflection after construction exceeds span/180 or slab

depth/10.

For propped construction, the total deflection is the deflection of the slab on removal of

temporary props. In this case, all loads are applied to the composite section.

Ponding

The provisions for ponding in BS 5950: Part 4 take into account significant construction

stage deflections under the self-weight of the concrete slab. An iterative method is

used in the software to assess the deflection (and the additional dead load) due to

ponding. In the first pass analysis, the deflection is estimated using a concrete weight

derived from the undeflected deck profile. The concrete volume is then updated and a

revised deflection calculated. Two iterations have been found to be adequate. When

ponding is considered, BS 5950: Part 4 allows the deflection limit to be relaxed.

Vibration

The program will, in addition, check the dynamic sensitivity of the composite slab in

accordance with the SCI publication P354: Design guide on the vibration of floors. The

natural frequency is calculated using the self-weight of the slab, ceiling and services,

screed and 10% imposed loads, representing the permanent loads and the floor.

In the absence of more appropriate information, the natural frequency of the composite

slab should not be below 5 Hz for normal office, industrial or domestic usage. For

designs using CF210 decking, this limit may be reduced to 4 Hz if the design has been

carried out on the assumption of simple supports at the ends. Conversely, for dance

floor type applications or for floors supporting sensitive machinery, the limit may need

to be set higher or a more accurate assessment method used.

In the Slimdek system, consideration should be given to the system frequency of the

floor as a whole if the natural frequency of the slab and/or the supporting beam is less

than 5Hz.

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3.4 Unequal spans

The facility for unequal spans in this software is limited to unpropped double spans

only. It should also be noted that at the normal service stage, the slab is always treated

as simply supported between permanent supports.

This section describes the treatment of unequal spans in the software with respect to:

Loading configurations.

Analysis for bending moments and shear forces.

Deflection calculations.

Uplift forces which can occur under certain loading configurations for double

spans with moderate to high aspect ratios.

Considerations for fire design.

Pertinent load combinations are taken from BS 5950: Part 4.

All relevant loads are considered separately and in such realistic combinations as to

cause the most critical effects on the individual components and on the slab as a

whole.

The loading arrangement which produces the maximum hogging moment at the

internal support is shown in Figure 1.9. This arrangement also produces the maximum

shear and the maximum reaction at the internal support. It is used in checking the

resistance of the deck profile to shear and to web crushing. This loading arrangement

is also used in checking the hogging bending resistance at the internal support.

The loading arrangement which produces the maximum sagging moment in the span is

shown in Figure 1.10. This loading arrangement is used in checking the sagging

bending resistance of the deck profile.

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Figure 1.10 Loading arrangement for maximum sagging

Pattern loading is NOT considered for the calculation of deflections as it is not a design

requirement in the code. Similarly, pattern loading is not considered for the fire limit

state or under normal service conditions, i.e. composite slab checks.

Additional loads are not applicable at the construction stage and so do not directly

affect the treatment of unequal double spans. In the composite stage, the slab is

designed as simply supported. Only the critical span is analysed. For unequal double

spans under uniformly distributed loading, this is the longer span. Any additional line

loads defined will be assumed to be applied to the longer span. This is conservative if

the additional line loads are applied to the shorter span.

The slabs are considered as single spanning; in the direction of span of the profiled

steel sheets. To obtain the internal forces, the floor is modelled as 1-metre wide beam

strips. Continuity is only assumed during construction; the equations below relate to the

construction stage only.

Analysis is carried out using Castiglianos energy theorem of complimentary strain

energy. The formulae are expressed for the general geometric and loading

configuration shown below. For a full derivation of all the equations, reference should

be made to the full technical specification document for the software.

25

The maximum hogging moment is given by:

[w 1L31 + w 2 L32 ]

8 (L1 + L2 )

MB =- (1)

[w 1 ]

L21 (L1 + 4 L2 ) + w 2 L22 (L2 + 4L1 )

8 (L1L2 )

RB =- (2)

+

w 1 x m2

M max = R A xm (3)

2

In equation (3), xm is the position of zero shear in span AB and is given by:

8w 1 L1 (L1 + L2 )

xm = (4)

and RA is the reaction at the end support of the longer span and is given by:

8 L1 (L1 + L2 )

RA = (5)

Equations (1) to (5), but in particular (3) to (5), are valid for the following conditions

only:

L1 L2

w1 = 0

w1 w2

Pattern loading is NOT considered for the calculation of deflections as it is not a

design requirement in the code. Furthermore, construction loads are not considered for

this serviceability limit state. The dead load due to decking and the dead load due to

the wet concrete are assumed to be uniformly distributed over both spans.

The maximum deflection occurs in the longer span. The deflection profile for the longer

span is given by:

26

R x 3 w x 4 R L2 w L3

y = 1 A 1 + 1 1 + A 1 + 1 1 x 1 (6)

EI 6 24 6 24

3.4.5 Uplift

Uplift can occur with quite moderate aspect ratios. Further, analysis shows that the

loading configurations with the potential to produce uplift are also not unusual. Thus

uplift must be taken into account in the detailing of the fasteners especially for the

shorter span.

8 L2 (L1 + L2 )

RB =

for no uplift:

RB 0

w2 L31

=

w 1 L22 (3 L2 + 4 L1 )

i.e.

w2 w 1

7

For the unequal span case, the magnitude of uplift is dependant on the ratio w2/w1. For

w2 = w1, analysis shows that for no uplift, the ratio of the adjacent spans should satisfy

the following:

i.e. uplift will occur when the aspect ratio of the spans exceeds 1:0.85 approximately.

The design of the fasteners for uplift is not currently covered by the software.

There are two requirements for fire design:

Bending resistance in fire conditions.

Minimum slab depth for insulation purposes.

For mesh reinforced slabs ComFlor will calculate the capacity of the composite slab in

fire using either the Simple Method or the Fire Engineering Method (see below). It

should be noted, however, that the Simple Method cannot be used for the CF210 deep

decking.

27

The slab depth defaults to the minimum depth of concrete over the deck profile for

insulation purposes, for 60 minutes fire resistance.

Slabs meeting the minimum concrete depth requirements are assumed to have

30 minutes fire resistance. No further checks are carried out by the program.

The capacity assessment of a slab in fire is based on a single layer of standard mesh.

Any bar reinforcement is ignored. Both the mesh type and the yield strength of the

mesh must be specified by the user on the Structure tab. Before specifying a mesh

yield strength other than 460 N/mm (program default), the user must check availability

with suppliers. For simple design, the slab is considered to be continuous over as

least one internal support. In this condition uplift at an external support can occur

Due to non-availability of test data, the deck yield strength assumed in fire assessment

using the Simple Method is limited to 350 N/mm at room temperature.

This software assumes that uplift is always resisted. Physical uplift in fire cannot

normally be tolerated as it is likely to cause loss of compartmentation or reduction in

fire resistance of the supporting structure.

In simple design, plastic analysis is used. The longer span is checked assuming a

positive moment equal to the plastic bending resistance of the slab in sagging and a

negative moment at the internal support equal to the plastic bending resistance of the

slab in hogging.

In addition, the uplift force at the outside support of the shorter span is computed. If

this force is greater than the static reaction then the net uplift force is output. A warning

that uplift has occurred is also output.

The Fire Engineering Method is of general application. The capacity assessment in fire

is based on a single layer of standard mesh at the top and ONE bar in each concrete

rib. For the shallow decks, the program assumes the bar is positioned just below the

top of the steel deck. For a deck with a raised dovetail in the crest, the bar will be

placed below the dovetail. For CF210 decking, the bar is placed at an axis distance,

dependent on the fire resistance period. This is assumed to be 70, 90 and 120 mm

(from the soffit of the deck) for 60, 90 and 120 minutes fire resistance respectively. For

fire engineering design, the slab is considered to be simply supported. In this

condition, uplift cannot occur. The fire engineering design option is therefore

unchanged for unequal spans.

The fire engineering method ignores the effect of continuity at the supports.

The slab weight and maximum depth for the calculation of sagging resistance is based

on the construction stage deflection and will include the effect of ponding.

28

The values used in the fire condition are taken from the construction stage calculations.

To satisfy the insulation requirements, the increase in surface temperature of the slab

must not exceed an average value of 140C or a maximum value of 180C.

Based on given test evidence, the minimum slab depths appropriate to various fire

ratings are the equivalent insulation depths given in Table 1.8. Insulation depths are

given for normal weight concrete and light weight concrete in brackets.

Deep deck

Fire Resistance Re-Entrant Trapezoidal Trapezoidal

Trapezoidal CF210

(min) (mm) CF60 (mm) CF80 (mm)

(mm)

R30 100 (100) 60 (50) 60 (50) 60 (50)

R60 100 (100) 70 (60) 60 (60) 70 (60)

R90 110 (105) 80 (70) 70 (70) 80 (70)

R120 125 (115) 90 (80) 80 (80) 90 (80)

R240 170 (150) 130 (115) 130 (115) -

29

4 DESIGN TO EUROCODES

Note: Design items are only reported in detail below where they differ from BS5950.

Nationally determined parameters are set as follows:

G 1.35

Q 1.5

Xi 0.925

Eta 1.0

0 1 c s Vs

1.0 1.0 1.5 1.15 1.25

1 2

Residential (A) 0.7 0.5 0.3

Office (B) 0.7 0.5 0.3

Congregation (C) 0.7 0.7 0.6

Shopping (D) 0.7 0.7 0.6

Storage (E) 1.0 0.9 0.8

4.2.1 Structural Steel

The steel properties are defined by EN 1993-1-1:

30

4.2.2 Concrete

The concrete properties are defined by EN 1992-1-1. They are derived from the

concrete class.

EN 1992-1-1. Its value is denoted by the first figure in the concrete class name,

i.e. for C25/30 fck = 25 N/mm2.

fcd = fck / c

For lightweight concrete the elastic modulus is defined as follows, in accordance with

EN 1992-1-1 Table 11.3.1:

4.3.1 Eurocode construction stage loading

ULS verifications have to be carried out. The following loads are considered at this

stage:

Qk,1a Variable load for personnel and heaping of concrete in the working area

= 0.75 kN/m2

Qk,1b Variable load for personnel etc. over the full area = 0.75 kN/m2

Qk,1c Variable load for the weight of the wet concrete, applied over the full

area, including additional concrete from ponding where applicable .

The load combination for the ULS verification is as defined in EN 1990 6.4.3.2 (6.10)

GG + QQ (6.10)

Q = live load (wet concrete + construction load

31

Serviceability Limit States (SLS)

The load combination for the SLS verifications is the characteristic load combination as

defined in EN 1990 6.5.3:

Characteristic combination:

G+Q

Ponding

According to EN 1994-1-1 9.3.2, ponding should be checked under loads comprising

the self-weight of the decking plus that of the wet concrete, at the serviceability limit

state, i.e:

Gk1a,sup + Qk,1c

if is 10% of h then ponding should be included in the calculation of the self-weight

of the slab, Qk,1c.

Where:

is the central deflection under the above loading, with nominal slab thickness

h is the overall depth of the composite slab

The ultimate limit state resistances for unpropped simply supported spans that have to

be verified are:

Sagging bending (Figure 1.13)

End crushing (Figure 1.14)

Vertical Shear (Figure 1.14)

The load cases used to verify the sagging bending and end crushing resistances are

shown in Figure 1.13 and Figure 1.14 below.

Figure 1.13 Load case to verify sagging bending resistance during concreting for

simply supported spans

32

Figure 1.14 Load case to verify shear and end crushing resistance during concreting

for simply supported spans

Calculations for the maximum deflection are also necessary to establish ponding levels

and are based on loads solely from the decking and wet concrete, i.e., Qk,1c + Gk1a,sup.

The partial factors for this are for the serviceability limit state, i.e., 1.0

The ultimate limit state resistances for unpropped continuous double spans that have

to be verified are:

Sagging bending (Figure 1.15)

End crushing (Figure 1.16)

Vertical Shear (Figure 1.16)

Hogging bending and crushing over an internal support (Figure 1.17)

Hogging bending and shear over an internal support (Figure 1.17)

33

Figure 1.15 Load case to verify sagging bending resistance during concreting for

continuous double spans

Figure 1.16 Load case to verify end crushing and shear resistance during concreting

for continuous double spans

Figure 1.17 Load case to verify combined hogging bending and crushing resistance

over the internal support during concreting for continuous double spans

Moment resistance is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.4.1.

Vertical shear resistance is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.5.

resistance

Crushing, crippling and buckling resistance may be calculated according to EN 1993-1-

3 6.1.7.3.

Alternatively, resistances may be based on test data.

( )

Rw, Rd = k coeff 0.5 + 0.02l a / t / M 1

Where:

coeff is a web crushing coefficient supplied by testing

34

k = 1.0

la = 10 mm

To be confirmed (not yet implemented as an option in the software, June 2014)

moment

If the unity factor for the vertical shear resistance check is less than 50% a combination

check is not required. Otherwise the criterion for the combined shear force and bending

moment is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.10.

moment

The criterion for cross-sections subject to the combined action of a bending moment

Med and a support reaction Fed is according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.11 as follows:

M Ed F Ed

+ 1.25

M

c , Rd R w , Rd

where:

Mc,Rd is the moment resistance of the cross section

Rw,Rd is the appropriate value of the local transverse resistance of the web

Deflection

The deflection of the sheeting s should not exceed s,max calculated as follows

When ponding is neglected:

Otherwise:

Where Le is the effective span of the sheeting = Leff,cons.

The criterion for the interaction of support moment and support reaction at the

serviceability limit state is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 7.2(1) from:

35

M Ed ,SLS F Ed ,SLS

+ 1.125

M R w , Rd

c , Rd

4.4.1 Eurocode normal stage loading

The following loads are considered at this stage:

Gk,1b Dry concrete self weight

Gk,1c Superimposed dead loads

Qk Imposed loads (including partitions)

The load combination for the ULS verification is the least favourable of the following, as

defined in EN 1990 6.4.3.2 (6.10a) and (6.10b)

GG + Q 0Q (6.10a)

GG + QQ (6.10b)

The load combinations for the SLS verifications are the characteristic load

combinations as defined in EN 1990 6.5.3:

Characteristic combination:

G+Q

Where concentrated point or line loads are supported by the slab, the design actions in

the ULS check are based on an equivalent load intensity at the cross-section where the

load is assumed to act.

weqb = W / bem

weqv = W / bev

Where:

36

bem, bev are the effective widths at the cross-section where the load is assumed to act

4.4.3 Effective width for concentrated point loads and line loads parallel

to the span

Where concentrated point or line loads are supported by the slab they should be

considered as distributed over an effective width, as defined in EN 1994-1-1 9.4.3.

The effective width for bending and longitudinal shear is given by:

Lp

bem = bm + 2 Lp 1 slab width

L

Vertical shear

The effective width for vertical shear, bev, is given by:

Lp

bev = bm + Lp 1 slab width

L

Where :

Lp is the distance from the centre of the load to the nearest support

bm = bp + 2 (hc + hf)

37

Figure 1.18 Effective width for line loads perpendicular to the span

The effective width should be taken as:

bem = bev = 1 m

(N.B. this is because line loads perpendicular to the span are assumed to be of infinite

length).

Where a concentrated load exceeds a total intensity of 7.5 kN or a distributed intensity

of 5.0 kN/m then adequate transverse reinforcement shall be provided in accordance

with EN 1994-1-1 9.4.3. In accordance with EN 1992-1-1 9.3.1.1 this shall comprise

a minimum of 20% of the area of the principal reinforcement, i.e. the deck profile

effective cross-section.

Method)

The criteria for bending resistance at a general cross section should be calculated in

accordance with EN 1994-1-1 9.7.2.

MEd/Mpl,Rd 1

Where:

MEd is the applied bending moment at the cross section under consideration

Mpl,Rd is the bending resistance of the cross section calculated following steps 1 to 7

below.

38

Step 1: Calculate Ncf

N cf = A pe f yp ,d

Where:

Ape is the effective cross-section area of the profile

fyp,d is the yield strength of the profile

Step 2: Calculate Nc

N c = u ,Rd b Lx + nk d dot f yp ,d

u,Rd is the design shear strength from slab tests (=u,Rk / Vs)

b is the breadth of the slab (=1 m)

Lx is the distance from the cross section being considered to the nearest support

n is the number of headed shear studs in width b

k = 1 + a / d do 6.0

ddo is 1.1 times the diameter of the shank of the stud (assuming end anchorage is

present)

a is the distance from the centre of the stud to the end of the sheeting, to be not

less than 1.5ddo.

t is the thickness of the sheeting

If Nc <Ncf then there is partial interaction, use Step 7 otherwise Step 4.

x pl = N cf / (0.85 f cd b )

If x pl hc then Go to step 6

M pl ,Rd = N cf z + M pr

Where:

39

N cf

z = h 0.5hc e p + (e p e)

Ape f yp ,d

ep is the distance from the bottom of the section to the plastic neutral axis of the

sheeting

e is the distance from the bottom of the section to the centroidal axis of the

sheeting

Ape is the effective area of steel sheeting

N cf

M pr = 1.25M pa 1

A f

pe yp ,d

Where:

Mpa is the design plastic resistance moment of the effective cross-section of the

sheeting

M pl ,Rd = N cf z

Where:

x pl

z =h e

2

Step 7: Calculate Mpl,Rd, partial interaction

M pl ,Rd = N c z + M pr

Where:

z = h 0.5 x pl e p + (e p e )

Nc

Ape f yp ,d

Xpl is defined above, with Ncf replaced by Nc

Bending resistance is calculated as noted in Section 4.4.6 (for partial interaction)

excluding steps 2 and 3.

40

Eurocode normal stage longitudinal shear resistance (m&k method only)

This check is only carried out if the moment resistance is calculated using the 'm&k'

method.

VEd / Vb,Rd 1

Where:

bdp mAp

Vb,Rd = + k

VS bLs

dp is the distance between the centroid axis of the profiled steel sheeting and the

extreme fibre of the composite slab in compression.

m,k are design values for the empirical factors in N/mm2 obtained from slab tests.

The shear resistance of the composite cross-section is verified according to

EN 1992-1-1 6.2.2.

VEd / VRd,c 1

Where:

1

VRd,c

Where:

fck is in N/mm2

200

k =1+ 2.0 with dp in mm

dp

41

Asl

l = 0.02

bwd p

Asl is the area of the tensile reinforcement (taken as the effective area of deck

profile, Ape), which extends (dp + standard anchorage length) beyond the

section considered

bw = 10000 wtr/st

dp is the distance between the centroid axis of the profiled steel sheeting and the

extreme fibre of the composite slab in compression

C Rd ,c = 0.18 / c

Punching shear is checked at each concentrated load. The punching shear resistance

of the composite cross-section is verified according to EN 1994-1-1 9.7.6 from:

VEd/VRd 1

Where:

With reference to Figure 1.19 below, the following checks are made:

V Rd = v Rd ,max l p d

Where:

fck

v = 0.6 1

250

42

Figure 1.19 Critical control perimeters for punching shear

V Rd = v Rd ,c l p d

Where:

1/ 3

Where:

fck is in N/mm2

200

k =1+ 2.0 with d in mm

d

l = ly lz 0.02

Asly

ly =

1000 d

Aslz

ly =

1000d

43

Asly, Aslz is the area of the punching shear reinforcement (placed in the tensile

zone, i.e. directly on the top of the deck), per m width, which extends

(d + standard anchorage length) beyond the section considered

C Rd ,c = 0.18 / c

v min = 0.035 k 3 / 2 f ck 1 / 2

In accordance with EN 1994-1-1 9.8.1 (2):

For unpropped construction:

0.2

Asl 1000hc

100

For propped construction:

0.4

Asl 1000hc

100

Where:

Asl is the cross-sectional area of anti-crack reinforcement above the rib of the

sheeting (mm2/m)

hc depth of concrete above deck in mm

Deflections

Loads for deflection calculations should use the Characteristic combination

In accordance with EN 1992-1-1 7.4.1 the total deflection should not exceed L/250.

In accordance with EN 1994-1-1 9.8.2 no account need be taken of end slip if the

initial slip load in tests (defined as the load causing an end slip of 0.5 mm) exceeds 1.2

times the design service load. Otherwise either end anchors should be provided or the

deflection should be calculated including the effect of end slip.

Load combinations

The load combination for the fire limit state verification is as defined in EN 1990

6.4.3.3(6.11b), supplemented by UK NA BS EN 1991-1-2:

G + 1Q (6.11b)

44

Partial factors on resistance

The partial factors on resistance for the fire limit state, as defined in EN 1994-1-2 2.3:

Table 1.12 Partial factors on resistance fire limit state

Partial factor M0 M1 c s Vs

Value 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Design

Slabs with additional bars in troughs may be designed using the Bar Method which

conceptually corresponds to the Fire Engineering option for BS5950.

Slabs with no additional bars should be designed using the Mesh and Deck method

which conceptually corresponds to the Simple Method option in BS5950 design.

the NCCI 005c document.

For design to Eurocodes the fire load combination includes all loads (subject to

appropriate partial safety factors and combination factors).

45

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