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1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Scope of program


The program covers:
Standard ComFlor shallow and deep deck profiles.
Non-composite design of the profile at the construction stage and composite
design at the normal service stage.
Serviceability limit states of deflection and vibration.
Fire resistance design.
Design to either BS 5950 or Eurocodes.
Simple and semi-continuous construction for deep deck profiles.
Unequal double spans.
Only the resistance of the slab to out of plane loading is checked by the program.

The following load types are supported:


Uniform Distributed loads
Line loads perpendicular to deck span.
Line loads parallel to deck span.
Point loads

The total self-weight of the slab is automatically calculated by the program from the
floor layout and support details.

The slab is assumed to span ONLY in the direction of span of the profiled steel sheets.
The slab may be propped or un-propped during construction and may also span over
one or more permanent supports.

For normal design, the slab is always assumed to be single spanning at the composite
stage regardless of the assumptions made at the construction stage. Any mesh
reinforcement provided is treated as anti-crack steel and checked for code compliance
dependent on the form of construction.

For assessing the bending resistance of the composite slab, the decking (in
combination with any bar reinforcement provided) is treated as tension reinforcement.

Interface bond between the steel profile and the concrete is developed through a
combination of friction and mechanical interlock. With fibre reinforcement (BS 5950
only), it is assumed that the frictional component is identical and the interlock
component is enhanced. The m and k values used with mesh reinforcement have,
therefore, been adopted with fibre reinforcement, i.e. it will be assumed that the shear
bond is not adversely affected by the use of fibre reinforcement. Thus, the use of fibre
reinforcement (as a replacement to steel mesh) will not affect the design of the slab in
normal service.

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1.2 Design assumptions
Design to British Standards or to Eurocodes is possible. Selection is made by clicking
on the relevant button on the toolbar.

Applicable codes for design to British Standards are:


1. BS 5950: Part 4: 1994
2. BS 5950: Part 6: 1995
3. BS 5950: Part 8: 1991
4. BS 8110: Part 1: 1997
Applicable codes for Eurocode designs are:
1. EN 1990
2. EN 1991-1-1
3. EN 1991-1-2
4. EN 1992-1-1
5. EN 1993-1-1
6. EN 1993-1-3
7. EN 1994-1-1
8. EN 1994-1-2
Users must ensure that their designs reflect future amendments in relevant standards
as this will reflect more fully, changes in construction practice, construction materials,
test data, etc.

At the composite stage, plastic design is used with the profile taken as steel
reinforcement. Capacities at the construction stage are derived from tests. Elastic
design is used at the serviceability limit state for deflection calculations.

Design for the fire limit state is based on temperature profiles at given fire resistance
periods and residual material strengths at these temperatures.

1.3 Overview of the graphical user interface


The graphical user interface (GUI), is illustrated by the screenshot in Figure 1.1 below:

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Figure 1.1 Introductory GUI

The GUI can be sub-divided into four functional areas:

1.3.1 Menus and Toolbars


File menu: This menu provides access to functions to create new jobs, open existing
jobs, save jobs, print reports and access the Job Properties form.

Options menu: This menu provides access to the Preferences form.

Analysis menu: This menu provides access to the Analysis button. The analysis button
processes the job definition data, displays the results in the Summary area and makes
the Results tab accessible.

Help menu: This menu provides access to guidance on the use of the software, access
to the SCI Steelbiz information site and contact information for the software.

The toolbar buttons provide quick access to most menu functions.

1.3.2 Design Tabs Area


Comprising:
Structures tab

Loading tab
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Design tab

Results tab (N.B. this tab is only accessible following an analysis of the current job
definition data).

1.3.3 Feedback Area


This area is to the right of the design tabs area and provides graphical feedback, errors
and warning messages, and general information appropriate to the current tab and
input fields.

1.3.4 Summary Area


This area is below the design tabs area. Following an analysis this area is populated
with the maximum unity factors for construction stage, normal stage, fire limit state and
serviceability limit state checks in order to provide rapid feedback without the need to
change tabs.

1.3.5 Information Bar


This is a bar at the bottom of the window. It gives information where the current job is
saved, the current geographical location of the software being used and the design
code selected.

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2 INTERFACE
2.1 Structure Tab
2.1.1 Structure tab overview
The Structure tab provides the definition of the slab general arrangement and
materials. See Figure 1.2 below:

Figure 1.2 Structure Design Tab

For further information about specific input fields, see the links below:
Deck profile types

Span

Span type

Propping

Beam or wall width

Slab depth

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Concrete definition

Bar and mesh reinforcement

2.1.2 Deck profile types


Deck data supplied with the program includes the following composite flooring systems:
ComFlor 210, ComFlor 80 and ComFlor 60.

ComFlor 210 is treated as deep deck profiles in Slimdek construction, whereas the
others are considered to be shallow profiles for analysis purposes. ComFlor 80 and 60
can be used with composite beams were shear connectors (studs) are assumed in use.

The availability of profiles, thicknesses and grades is dependent on the selected design
code and locale, as specified in Table 1.1 and Table 1.2 below:

Table 1.1 BS 5950 profiles


Available Profile Available Profile Available Profile
Selected Locale
Types Grades Thickness
0.75
G550 0.9
ComFlor 60
1.0
New Zealand/ G500 1.2
Australia/ Pacific 0.75
Islands G550 0.9
ComFlor 80
1.0
G500 1.2
ComFlor 210 G500 1.25

Table 1.2 Eurocode profiles


Available Profile Available Profile Available Profile
Selected Locale
Types Grades Thickness
0.75
G550 0.9
ComFlor 60
1.0
New Zealand/ G500 1.2
Australia/ Pacific
Islands 0.75
G550 0.9
ComFlor 80
1.0
G500 1.2

2.1.3 Span
The span of the decking is specified in the Span input area.

This is the distance between the centres of permanent supports. Permanent supports
may be primary or secondary beams, internal or external walls, etc. A minimum bearing
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length of 50 mm is used in ComFlor 210. The effective span is therefore between the
flange tips plus the bearing length.

The effective length of the slab at the normal stage is based on this value. At the
construction stage, the effective length is based on this value for unpropped
construction and the distance between props for propped construction.

2.1.4 Span type


Span type information is specified on the Structures tab.

For shallow decking, the deck may be single span (SINGLE), double span (DOUBLE),
or span over 3 or more bays (MULTI-SPAN) at the construction stage. It should be
noted, however, that regardless of the number of spans, the shallow deck is always
assumed to be simply supported over one span at the normal design stage.

This software also permits unequal double spans.

A distinction should also be made between the specification of the number of spans
and continuity at support positions for propped construction. A decking spanning over
one bay and provided with 2 props at one-third span positions, is continuous over
3 spans at the construction stage but SINGLE span for the normal stage.

Partial Continuity for deep decking: Tests have shown that the ComFlor 210 composite
slabs supported on a steel beam and provided with adequately detailed continuity
mesh reinforcement over the steel beam support exhibits a degree of continuity at the
support. The beneficial effect of partial continuity at the supports may be taken into
account by specifying CONTINUOUS in the Span Type field. When this option is
specified, the following assumptions are made by the program:
A 20% reduction in the deflections of the composite slab at the normal design
stage.
A 30% reduction in the deflections when assessing the natural frequency of the
slab. This is justified by the lower stress levels during vibration.
Stresses in the composite slab in fire conditions are derived from a model which
assumes full continuity at one end and a simple support at the other (i.e a
propped cantilever condition). In this case, the amount of mesh reinforcement
should be increased to a minimum of 0.4% of the cross-sectional area of the
concrete topping in order to develop sufficient continuity in the slab.
Note that in all cases, partial continuity is ignored in assessing the capacity of the
composite slab at the normal design stage.

2.1.5 Propping
Props are defined in the Span input area.

Props may be used at the construction stage to reduce the deflection of the profiled
steel sheeting or to prevent the bearing capacity of the sheeting from being exceeded
before the concrete gains sufficient strength (or both).

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The program allows the user to specify single props (at midspan) or double props (at
one third span) at the construction stage. It is assumed that the props provide a
continuous support and are capable of carrying all the forces imposed on them without
undue deflection.

2.1.6 Beam or wall width


The length of bearing at the supports of the slab is calculated from the Support Width
input by the user. This value is used for end supports only. For the props the user can
define the prop width. The program assumes a minimum bearing width of 100 mm.

The value of beam or wall width input by the user should be the mean value for both
supports.

The bearing length should be sufficient to satisfy the requirements for load carrying
capacity both in the non-composite and composite stages. This will vary dependent on
the bearing material. This requirement is NOT checked by the program.

For minimum recommended values of bearing to BS 5950, reference should be made


to BS 5950: Part 4: 1994: Section 4.7

2.1.7 Slab depth


Slab depth is specified within the Concrete input area. The overall depth of the slab
(excluding any non-structural screeds) must be entered on the Slab Depth field.
The slab depth must meet the following requirements:
The slab must be of sufficient strength to develop the required resistance to the
applied forces at the composite stage.
It must have adequate stiffness to meet deflection requirements at the
composite stage.
It must also meet minimum slab thickness requirements for fire insulation
requirements.
The minimum thickness of structural concrete topping (above ribs) is 50 mm.
Please note also that the program will not process the data if the minimum slab
thickness requirements for fire are not met. It should also be noted that a minimum
cover of 15 mm is recommended to use with shear connectors, if provided.

2.1.8 Concrete
Concrete material information is specified within the Concrete input area.

Select Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Light Weight Concrete (LWC) from the Type
field of the Concrete Details frame.

The program does not cover LWC construction with a concrete dry density less than
1750 kg/m3. Information on the properties of LWC may be found in manufacturers
literature.
In the absence of more precise information, the following assumptions may be made:

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Table 1.3 Default Concrete properties
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Density (kg/m )
Wet Dry Modular Ratio
BS 5950 LWC 1900 1800 15
NWC 2400 2350 10
Eurocodes LWC 2050 1950 15 *
NWC 2550 2450 10 *
The Wet density is used in the design of the profiled steel sheets and the dry density, in
the design of the composite slab.

The modular ratio defines the ratio of the elastic modulus of steel to concrete. Table 1.3
gives recommended values for the modular ratios.

* The Auto calculate modular ratio (n) option, which is applicable only in Eurocode
design, when selected determines a nominal modular ratio (n) assuming the simplified
approach as defined in EN 1994-1-1/5.4.2.2(11) (refer to the code for limitations on its
use):
n = 2Ep/Ecm for normal weight concrete
n = 2Ep/Elcm for light weight concrete
where:
Ep = 210 000 N/mm2
Ecm, Elcm depends on the grade of concrete and is defined in EN1992-1-1 Table 3.1 and
11.3.1 respectively.

The concrete grade defines the cylinder/cube strength. For BS design the cube
strength is used while for the Eurocode the cylinder one.

Table 1.4 Concrete Grades used


Normal Weight Light Weight
C20/25 C25/28
C25/30 C30/33
C30/37 C35/38
C35/45 C40/44
C40/50 C45/50
C45/55 C50/55

The cylinder/cube concrete design strengths used in the analysis are limited to the
values specified above.

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2.1.9 Bar and mesh reinforcement
The program allows both bar and mesh reinforcement to be specified. The design
strength is defined as 460 N/mm to BS 8110, or 500 N/mm to Eurocode 1994-1-1.

The cover to the mesh is defined as the depth from the top of the slab. The Axis
Distance defines the distance from the bottom of the ribs to the centre of the bar. The
minimum value is 25 mm, and the maximum value is the profile height. The program
defaults to the recommended Axis Distance.

The minimum amount of reinforcement over the intermediate supports is given by the
following limits:

To BS 5950:
In slabs subject to concentrated loads, 0.2% of the cross-sectional area of the
concrete topping,
In slabs without concentrated loads, 0.1% of the gross cross-sectional area.
To Eurocodes:
In continuous span and unpropped construction 0.2% of the cross-sectional
area of the concrete topping.
In propped construction 0.4% of the cross-sectional area of the concrete
topping.
These limits ensure adequate crack control in visually exposed applications (0.5 mm
maximum crack width). The mesh reinforcement should be positioned at a maximum of
30 mm from the top surface, and should be continued to at least 25% of the adjacent
span. Elsewhere, 0.1% reinforcement may be used to distribute local loads on the slab
(or 0.2% to EC4).

For continuous construction in the deep deck option, the same minimum
reinforcement as for propped construction should be used.

Warnings as to the required minimum area of mesh reinforcement (mm/m) are output.

Two layers of mesh may be used at the supports.

The concrete cover to the mesh reinforcement and the mesh type are checked to
ensure that they are compatible, as follows:
For a single layer of mesh, the total depth of the mesh is taken as 3 bar
diameters.
For double layers of mesh, the total depth of the mesh is taken as 5 bar
diameters.
The above limits assume nesting of mesh at laps.

When the specified cover is insufficient to allow these depths of mesh, as given above,
a warning is given that lacer bars must be provided.

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Depths of cover which provide for less than 2 bar diameter () of mesh for single layer
and 3 bar diameters for double layers are not acceptable (see Table 1.5 below). The
minimum cover is 15 mm and the maximum recommended is 50 mm.

Table 1.5 Limits for mesh depth of cover and respective warning messages
given
Limits for Mesh Depth Warning Message displayed in software
1 Layer of
2 Layers of Mesh
Mesh
Error: The specified cover cannot be achieved with the
2 3
mesh. Either reduce the cover, increase the slab thickness
(min 15mm) (min 15mm)
or try a shallower profile
3 5 Nesting of mesh and use of lacing bars at laps may be
(min 15mm) required for the construction of the slab
4 8 Nesting of mesh may be required for the construction of the
(max 50mm) slab

Note: These cover limits are provided for the design of the composite slabs and do not necessarily apply
for the design of the supporting composite beams, which should be considered separately.

2.2 Loading Tab


2.2.1 Loading tab overview
Occupancy imposed loads, ceilings and services, finishes and partition loads are
specified on the Loading tab (see Figure 1.3 below).

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Figure 1.3 Loading Tab

The slab self-weight is automatically calculated by the program. These loads are
assumed to be uniformly distributed over the whole slab.

Additional Line loads and Additional distributed loads parallel to or perpendicular to the
deck span may also be specified at the normal design stage ONLY.

2.2.2 Additional loads


Imposed loads, ceilings and services, finishes and partition loads specified on the
Loading tab are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the whole slab as is the slab
self-weight, which is automatically calculated by the program.

Imposed and partition loads are variable actions where ceiling/service and finishes are
permanent actions.

Additional distributed loads and line loads may also arise from partitions, from
supported machinery or equipment, etc. and may be parallel to or perpendicular to the
deck span. They are input as kN/m length of the line load.

Additional loads not uniformly distributed over the whole area of the slab can be
defined using the PARALLEL, PERPENDICULAR or POINT Loading options. The
software allows to define a maximum of 5 cases for each type. Permanent and live
loads can be defined in kN/m for the parallel and perpendicular types and in kN for the
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point load. The width, length and location can be defined as well as the thickness of the
finishes.

Line loads PARALLEL to the deck span should not overlap, except as separate line
load (L) and superimposed dead load (S) components of the same load. In this case,
the loads should overlap exactly.

Line loads PERPENDICULAR to the deck span should not overlap with PARALLEL
loads. Checks on punching shear around these loads are made, based on:
The depth of concrete above the decking.
The reinforcement in the slab.
The shear perimeter assumes that perpendicular loads are infinitely long.

2.2.3 Screeds
Screed details (thickness and density) are specified on the Loading tab.

Screeds are assumed to be non-combustible and are used in checking the fire
thickness requirements. To specify combustible screeds, the weight must be calculated
and input as additional distributed loads, with the load type set as superimposed dead.

Load spread through screeds is included for bending moment calculations but ignored
for punching shear.

2.3 Design Tab


2.3.1 Design tab overview
The Design tab provides the definition of all parameters specific to the design code or
process (see Figure 1.4 below).

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Figure 1.4 Design tab

For guidance on the choice of parameters on this tab, reference should be made to the
code-specific detailed information within this help file.

2.4 Results Tab


2.4.1 Results tab overview
The Results tab provides comprehensive information regarding the outcome of the
ComFlor analysis.

The overall maximum unity factor is displayed, followed by detailed results of each
check criterion.

Graphs for normal stage bending, shear and (total) deflection are also provided.

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Figure 1.5 Results Tab

2.5 Job Properties


The Job Properties form is accessed via the File menu, or by clicking the 'information
symbol' toolbar button.

This form allows the selection of design standard. Note that both design standard and
locale can also be selected via a toolbar button.

Job definition information can also be entered on this form.

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Figure 1.6 Job Properties window

2.6 Preferences
The preferences form, accessed via Options/Preferences, is used to select a new
default template or adjust the update check settings.

2.6.1 Default template


Any saved ComFlor file may be used as a default template. The default template
provides the data set on each start-up of ComFlor. The factory default template can be
restored at any time by selecting 'Use factory defaults'.

2.6.2 Update check


By default the software is set to check whether it is the current latest version each time
it is started. If it is not the latest version the user is redirected to a website to download
the latest version. It is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED that this setting is retained to
ensure the safety of design.

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Under rare circumstances, e.g. in the event of a temporary internet problem, it may be
desirable to switch the update check to 'Manual'. An update check will then only be
made if the 'Check now' button is clicked.

3 DESIGN TO BS 5950
3.1 Loading
Self-weight due to the in situ concrete, decking or screeds (if used) is automatically
calculated by the program from the specified floor arrangement and slab geometry
details.

In addition to the above, this program covers a wide range of load types. These are
discussed in this section under the following links:
Loads and Load Arrangement
Additional Loads
Partial Safety Factors

3.1.1 Partial safety factors


Factored loads are considered at the ultimate limit state. These are obtained by
multiplying the characteristic values of the applied loads by partial safety factors.

Partial load factors may be entered in the 'Partial load factors' input area.

The following partial safety factors are used by the program for design to BS 5950:

Table 1.6 Partial load factors for BS 5950


BS
Dead Loads 1.4
Imposed Loads 1.6
Construction loads 1.6
Superimposed dead loads 1.4
Fire occupancy loads 0.8 (Default)

For design to BS 5950 the fire partial safety factor is applied to the proportion of
occupancy imposed load considered as non-permanent in fire.

3.1.2 Loads and load arrangement


Loading information would normally be agreed with the clients. Reference should also
be made to BS 6399.

Factored loads are considered at the ultimate limit state and unfactored loads at the
serviceability limit state. Unfactored loads are also considered in fire conditions.

Partial factors are taken from BS 5950.

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Loads considered at the construction stage consist of the slab self weight and the basic
construction load. The basic construction load is taken as 4.5/Lp or 1.5 kN/m2
(whichever is greater), where Lp is the span of the profiled steel sheets between
effective supports in metres. For multi-span construction, the basic construction load is
considered over one span only. On other spans, the construction load considered is
one third this value (i.e. 0.5 kN/m), or none, whichever is the more critical for positive
and negative moments in the sheeting (see Figure 1.7). Construction loads are
considered as imposed loads.

Note 1. The arrangements shown in this figure are for equal values of the effective span Lp. In all cases the
most critical arrangement of construction load should be used.
Note 2. For propped construction Lp is the prop spacing

Figure 1.7 Critical Load cases for double, multi-spans

For unpropped single-span construction in excess of 3 m span (as is common with


deep decking, the construction load arrangement is shown in Figure 1.8 below).

Figure 1.8 Critical load case for single span

The basic construction load of 1.5 kN/m is applied to the central 3 m of the span and
one-half of this is applied to the rest.
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Loads considered at the normal service stage consist of the slab self-weight,
superimposed dead loads and imposed loads.

If the deck is continuous over several spans at the construction stage, the loads are
arranged so as to cause the most critical effects on the components and on the
decking as a whole (see BS 5950: Part 4: Section 2.2.1 of 2.2.3.1).

Unpropped continuous multiple spans


Unpropped continuous multiple spans adopt the verifications and load cases for the
double span case, with the third span carrying decking self-weight only.

Propped spans
Propped spans use double/multi-span load cases as appropriate, with the effective
spans reduced to the spacing of the props.

3.2 Effective Span from BS5950-4


3.2.1 For Construction stage
Leff,cons Effective span of profiled steel sheets, is the smaller of:

a) Distance between centres of permanent or temporary supports, L.

b) Clear span between permanent or temporary supports plus overall depth of


profiled sheets dp. L bsupp + hp

Leff,cons = min(L, L bsupp + hp)

For deep decks (CF210) then:

Leff,cons, Effective span of profiled steel sheets, is the smaller of:


a) Distance between centres of permanent or temporary supports, L.

b) Clear span between permanent or temporary supports plus minimum bearing


width (50mm). L bsupp + 50 mm

Leff,cons = min(L, L bsupp + 50)

3.2.2 For Normal Stage


For deck profiles up to 100mm deep then:
Leff,norm, Effective span of composite slab, which is the smaller of:
a) Distance between centres of permanent supports, L

b) Clear span between permanent supports (bsupp) plus effective depth of


composite slab (hslab - yp), L bsupp + (hslab - yp)

Leff,norm= min(L, L bsupp + (hslab - yp))

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yp is the centroid of the deck from the bottom of the deck

For deep decks (CF210) then:

Leff,norm Effective span of profiled steel sheets, is the smaller of:

a) Distance between centres of permanent or temporary supports, L.

b) Clear span between permanent or temporary supports plus minimum bearing


width (50mm). L bsupp + 50 mm

Leff,cons = min(L, L bsupp + 50)

3.3 Design checks


The design checks carried out by the software are given in Table 1.7.

Table 1.7 Design checks


Construction Normal
Stage Stage
Flexural resistance - Sagging x x
- Hogging x~
Vertical shear resistance x x
Web crushing resistance x
Interaction of bending moment and shear x~
Interaction of bending moment and web crushing x
Shear Bond Resistance x
Punching shear x*
Deflection x x
Dynamic sensitivity x
Fire resistance x

~ double and multiple spans only

Deflections under imposed loads and total deflection

* with line loads only

3.3.1 Ultimate limit state checks


The links below give further details of specific ultimate limit state checks:
Flexural resistance Shear Bond check

End Anchorage

Punching Shear

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Flexural resistance Shear Bond check
This is a check of shear bond resistance checked against the vertical applied shear.
The method followed here is follows BS 5950-4 Section 6.4.1 with appropriate
modification to include the effect of bars in troughs.

( ) ( 2)
= + +
1.25 1.25
with limit:
( )
= min 2 + ,
1.25
( ) ( 2)
+ +
1.25 1.25
where
Bs is the width of the composite slab (in mm); (default to 1000 mm)
Ap is the cross-sectional area of the profiled steel sheeting (in mm2)
ds is the effective depth of slab to the centroid of the profiled steel sheets(in mm);
ds = hslab yp
hslab is the depth of the total slab
yp is the centroid of the deck from bottom
fcu is the characteristic concrete cube strength (in N/mm2);
kr is an empirical parameter
mr is an empirical parameter
Lv = Leff/4 is the shear span of the composite slab (in mm).
Leff is the total effective length.
dr is the distance of the centroid of the bar from the top (hslab axis distance)
axis distance is the distance from the centre of the bar to the closest edge of the deck
(defined by user in the interface, (in mm))
xc = 0.2hslab (is the depth of concrete in compression at mid-span)
fybar = the yield strength of bar (for BS this is usually taken as 460 N/mm2)
Abar = (/2)2 area of bar in mm2
is the diameter of the bar
n is the number of bars per metre. n = 1000/st
st is the spacing between troughs for a particular deck

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End anchorage
End anchorage resistance is applied according to the method described in BS 5950-4
Section 6.4.3. This is calculated as an end anchorage resistance, Va.

Where end anchorage is used in conjunction with the shear bond between concrete
and the profiled sheets, the combined longitudinal shear resistance is limited as
follows:

= + 0.5 but 1.5

Punching shear
Punching shear is checked according to BS 5950: Part 4.

For patch loads and line loads parallel to the span of the decking, the critical perimeter
is calculated. For continuous line loads transverse to the span of the decking, the
critical planes are assumed to be along two parallel lines, one on each side of the line
load. No spread through finishes is assumed, and only the depth of concrete above
the decking is taken as effective. Reinforcement crossing the shear planes can be
included, but the decking itself is neglected.

The concrete punching shear resistance is obtained from BS 8110: Part 1 and is given
by:

1 400 1
100 3 4

= 0.79
1.25
where:

As = area of reinforcement crossing the shear plane per unit width

bv, which is taken as 1 m

d = depth of concrete above the decking (for punching shear)

A correction to Vc is made for the characteristic strength (other than fcu = 25 N/mm),
and for lightweight concrete.

3.3.2 Serviceability limit state checks


The links below give further details of particular serviceability limit state checks:
Deflection
Ponding
Vibration

Deflection
The deflection of the decking (construction stage deflection) is based on unfactored
dead loads ONLY. Construction loads are not considered. Two values are calculated
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for the deflection of the slab (composite stage deflection): the deflection under imposed
loads and the total deflection.

The deflection under imposed loads is the deflection of the slab under imposed loads
ONLY. This value should be used in assessing the effect of the deflection of the slab
on finishes etc. The total deflection is the deflection of the slab under all applied loads -
dead, imposed and superimposed dead, less the construction stage deflection (see
above). This value takes into account the effect of creep of the concrete under dead
loads and any additional deflection due to prop removal.

For unpropped construction, the critical deflection is the surface of the slab, as the soffit
of the decking will deflect more in this condition. The additional weight of concrete is
included only when the deflection after construction exceeds span/180 or slab
depth/10.

For propped construction, the total deflection is the deflection of the slab on removal of
temporary props. In this case, all loads are applied to the composite section.

Ponding
The provisions for ponding in BS 5950: Part 4 take into account significant construction
stage deflections under the self-weight of the concrete slab. An iterative method is
used in the software to assess the deflection (and the additional dead load) due to
ponding. In the first pass analysis, the deflection is estimated using a concrete weight
derived from the undeflected deck profile. The concrete volume is then updated and a
revised deflection calculated. Two iterations have been found to be adequate. When
ponding is considered, BS 5950: Part 4 allows the deflection limit to be relaxed.

Vibration
The program will, in addition, check the dynamic sensitivity of the composite slab in
accordance with the SCI publication P354: Design guide on the vibration of floors. The
natural frequency is calculated using the self-weight of the slab, ceiling and services,
screed and 10% imposed loads, representing the permanent loads and the floor.

In the absence of more appropriate information, the natural frequency of the composite
slab should not be below 5 Hz for normal office, industrial or domestic usage. For
designs using CF210 decking, this limit may be reduced to 4 Hz if the design has been
carried out on the assumption of simple supports at the ends. Conversely, for dance
floor type applications or for floors supporting sensitive machinery, the limit may need
to be set higher or a more accurate assessment method used.

In the Slimdek system, consideration should be given to the system frequency of the
floor as a whole if the natural frequency of the slab and/or the supporting beam is less
than 5Hz.

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3.4 Unequal spans
The facility for unequal spans in this software is limited to unpropped double spans
only. It should also be noted that at the normal service stage, the slab is always treated
as simply supported between permanent supports.

This section describes the treatment of unequal spans in the software with respect to:
Loading configurations.
Analysis for bending moments and shear forces.
Deflection calculations.
Uplift forces which can occur under certain loading configurations for double
spans with moderate to high aspect ratios.
Considerations for fire design.

3.4.1 Loading arrangements


Pertinent load combinations are taken from BS 5950: Part 4.

All relevant loads are considered separately and in such realistic combinations as to
cause the most critical effects on the individual components and on the slab as a
whole.

The loading arrangement which produces the maximum hogging moment at the
internal support is shown in Figure 1.9. This arrangement also produces the maximum
shear and the maximum reaction at the internal support. It is used in checking the
resistance of the deck profile to shear and to web crushing. This loading arrangement
is also used in checking the hogging bending resistance at the internal support.

Figure 1.9 Loading arrangement for maximum hogging

The loading arrangement which produces the maximum sagging moment in the span is
shown in Figure 1.10. This loading arrangement is used in checking the sagging
bending resistance of the deck profile.

24
Figure 1.10 Loading arrangement for maximum sagging

Pattern loading is NOT considered for the calculation of deflections as it is not a design
requirement in the code. Similarly, pattern loading is not considered for the fire limit
state or under normal service conditions, i.e. composite slab checks.

Additional loads are not applicable at the construction stage and so do not directly
affect the treatment of unequal double spans. In the composite stage, the slab is
designed as simply supported. Only the critical span is analysed. For unequal double
spans under uniformly distributed loading, this is the longer span. Any additional line
loads defined will be assumed to be applied to the longer span. This is conservative if
the additional line loads are applied to the shorter span.

3.4.2 Analysis of two unequal spans


The slabs are considered as single spanning; in the direction of span of the profiled
steel sheets. To obtain the internal forces, the floor is modelled as 1-metre wide beam
strips. Continuity is only assumed during construction; the equations below relate to the
construction stage only.

3.4.3 Bending moments and shear forces


Analysis is carried out using Castiglianos energy theorem of complimentary strain
energy. The formulae are expressed for the general geometric and loading
configuration shown below. For a full derivation of all the equations, reference should
be made to the full technical specification document for the software.

Figure 1.11 Loading arrangement for maximum sagging

25
The maximum hogging moment is given by:

[w 1L31 + w 2 L32 ]
8 (L1 + L2 )
MB =- (1)

and the maximum reaction by:

[w 1 ]
L21 (L1 + 4 L2 ) + w 2 L22 (L2 + 4L1 )
8 (L1L2 )
RB =- (2)

Similarly, the maximum sagging moment in span AB is given by:


+
w 1 x m2
M max = R A xm (3)
2

In equation (3), xm is the position of zero shear in span AB and is given by:

[w 1 L21 (3L1 + 4 L2 ) w 2 L32 ]


8w 1 L1 (L1 + L2 )
xm = (4)

and RA is the reaction at the end support of the longer span and is given by:

[w 1 L21 (3L1 + 4 L2 ) w 2 L32 ]


8 L1 (L1 + L2 )
RA = (5)

Equations (1) to (5), but in particular (3) to (5), are valid for the following conditions
only:

L1 L2

w1 = 0

w1 w2

These conditions are imposed on the above equations in the software.

3.4.4 Deflections in two unequal spans


Pattern loading is NOT considered for the calculation of deflections as it is not a
design requirement in the code. Furthermore, construction loads are not considered for
this serviceability limit state. The dead load due to decking and the dead load due to
the wet concrete are assumed to be uniformly distributed over both spans.

The maximum deflection occurs in the longer span. The deflection profile for the longer
span is given by:

26
R x 3 w x 4 R L2 w L3
y = 1 A 1 + 1 1 + A 1 + 1 1 x 1 (6)
EI 6 24 6 24

Equation (6) is solved numerically in the range 0 x1 L1 for ymax

3.4.5 Uplift
Uplift can occur with quite moderate aspect ratios. Further, analysis shows that the
loading configurations with the potential to produce uplift are also not unusual. Thus
uplift must be taken into account in the detailing of the fasteners especially for the
shorter span.

The end reaction in the shorter span is given by:

w 2 L22 (3L2 + 4 L1 ) w 1 L31


8 L2 (L1 + L2 )
RB =

for no uplift:

RB 0

w2 L31
=
w 1 L22 (3 L2 + 4 L1 )
i.e.

Thus, for no uplift in the equal span case:

w2 w 1
7

For the unequal span case, the magnitude of uplift is dependant on the ratio w2/w1. For
w2 = w1, analysis shows that for no uplift, the ratio of the adjacent spans should satisfy
the following:

i.e. uplift will occur when the aspect ratio of the spans exceeds 1:0.85 approximately.

The design of the fasteners for uplift is not currently covered by the software.

3.5 Fire Design


There are two requirements for fire design:
Bending resistance in fire conditions.
Minimum slab depth for insulation purposes.
For mesh reinforced slabs ComFlor will calculate the capacity of the composite slab in
fire using either the Simple Method or the Fire Engineering Method (see below). It
should be noted, however, that the Simple Method cannot be used for the CF210 deep
decking.

In general the simple method will be the most economic.

27
The slab depth defaults to the minimum depth of concrete over the deck profile for
insulation purposes, for 60 minutes fire resistance.

Slabs meeting the minimum concrete depth requirements are assumed to have
30 minutes fire resistance. No further checks are carried out by the program.

3.5.1 The Simple Method:


The capacity assessment of a slab in fire is based on a single layer of standard mesh.
Any bar reinforcement is ignored. Both the mesh type and the yield strength of the
mesh must be specified by the user on the Structure tab. Before specifying a mesh
yield strength other than 460 N/mm (program default), the user must check availability
with suppliers. For simple design, the slab is considered to be continuous over as
least one internal support. In this condition uplift at an external support can occur

Due to non-availability of test data, the deck yield strength assumed in fire assessment
using the Simple Method is limited to 350 N/mm at room temperature.

This software assumes that uplift is always resisted. Physical uplift in fire cannot
normally be tolerated as it is likely to cause loss of compartmentation or reduction in
fire resistance of the supporting structure.

In simple design, plastic analysis is used. The longer span is checked assuming a
positive moment equal to the plastic bending resistance of the slab in sagging and a
negative moment at the internal support equal to the plastic bending resistance of the
slab in hogging.

In addition, the uplift force at the outside support of the shorter span is computed. If
this force is greater than the static reaction then the net uplift force is output. A warning
that uplift has occurred is also output.

3.5.2 The Fire Engineering Method:


The Fire Engineering Method is of general application. The capacity assessment in fire
is based on a single layer of standard mesh at the top and ONE bar in each concrete
rib. For the shallow decks, the program assumes the bar is positioned just below the
top of the steel deck. For a deck with a raised dovetail in the crest, the bar will be
placed below the dovetail. For CF210 decking, the bar is placed at an axis distance,
dependent on the fire resistance period. This is assumed to be 70, 90 and 120 mm
(from the soffit of the deck) for 60, 90 and 120 minutes fire resistance respectively. For
fire engineering design, the slab is considered to be simply supported. In this
condition, uplift cannot occur. The fire engineering design option is therefore
unchanged for unequal spans.

The fire engineering method ignores the effect of continuity at the supports.

3.5.3 Slab weight


The slab weight and maximum depth for the calculation of sagging resistance is based
on the construction stage deflection and will include the effect of ponding.
28
The values used in the fire condition are taken from the construction stage calculations.

3.5.4 Minimum slab depths


To satisfy the insulation requirements, the increase in surface temperature of the slab
must not exceed an average value of 140C or a maximum value of 180C.

Based on given test evidence, the minimum slab depths appropriate to various fire
ratings are the equivalent insulation depths given in Table 1.8. Insulation depths are
given for normal weight concrete and light weight concrete in brackets.

Figure 1.12 Insulation depth sizing

Table 1.8 Minimum insulation depths, NWC (LWC)


Deep deck
Fire Resistance Re-Entrant Trapezoidal Trapezoidal
Trapezoidal CF210
(min) (mm) CF60 (mm) CF80 (mm)
(mm)
R30 100 (100) 60 (50) 60 (50) 60 (50)
R60 100 (100) 70 (60) 60 (60) 70 (60)
R90 110 (105) 80 (70) 70 (70) 80 (70)
R120 125 (115) 90 (80) 80 (80) 90 (80)

R180 150 (135) 115 (100) 115 (100) -


R240 170 (150) 130 (115) 130 (115) -

29
4 DESIGN TO EUROCODES
Note: Design items are only reported in detail below where they differ from BS5950.

4.1 Nationally determined parameters


Nationally determined parameters are set as follows:

Table 1.9 Partial Load Factors

New Zealand/ Australia/ Pacific Islands

G 1.35
Q 1.5
Xi 0.925
Eta 1.0

Table 1.10 Partial Resistance Factors


0 1 c s Vs
1.0 1.0 1.5 1.15 1.25

Table 1.11 Psi () Factors (EN 1990 Table A1.1)


1 2
Residential (A) 0.7 0.5 0.3
Office (B) 0.7 0.5 0.3
Congregation (C) 0.7 0.7 0.6
Shopping (D) 0.7 0.7 0.6
Storage (E) 1.0 0.9 0.8

4.2 Material properties


4.2.1 Structural Steel
The steel properties are defined by EN 1993-1-1:

Ep is the Young modulus (E = 210000 N/mm2)

Gp is the shear modulus (G = 80770 N/mm2)

fy is the characteristic yield strength of the sheet

30
4.2.2 Concrete
The concrete properties are defined by EN 1992-1-1. They are derived from the
concrete class.

fck is the characteristic compressive strength at 28 days, as given in Table 3.1 of


EN 1992-1-1. Its value is denoted by the first figure in the concrete class name,
i.e. for C25/30 fck = 25 N/mm2.

fcd is the design compressive strength (EN 1994-1-1 2.4.1.2(2)):

fcd = fck / c

Ecm is the secant modulus of elasticity

For lightweight concrete the elastic modulus is defined as follows, in accordance with
EN 1992-1-1 Table 11.3.1:

Ekm = Ecm ( / 2200)2

Where is the dry density of the lightweight concrete.

4.3 Construction Stage


4.3.1 Eurocode construction stage loading
ULS verifications have to be carried out. The following loads are considered at this
stage:

Gk1a,sup Self-weight of the deck profile + reinforcement

Qk,1a Variable load for personnel and heaping of concrete in the working area

= 0.75 kN/m2

Qk,1b Variable load for personnel etc. over the full area = 0.75 kN/m2

Qk,1c Variable load for the weight of the wet concrete, applied over the full
area, including additional concrete from ponding where applicable .

Ultimate Limit States (ULS)


The load combination for the ULS verification is as defined in EN 1990 6.4.3.2 (6.10)

GG + QQ (6.10)

G = dead load (deck+ reinforcement bar + mesh)


Q = live load (wet concrete + construction load

31
Serviceability Limit States (SLS)
The load combination for the SLS verifications is the characteristic load combination as
defined in EN 1990 6.5.3:

Characteristic combination:

G+Q

Ponding
According to EN 1994-1-1 9.3.2, ponding should be checked under loads comprising
the self-weight of the decking plus that of the wet concrete, at the serviceability limit
state, i.e:

Gk1a,sup + Qk,1c
if is 10% of h then ponding should be included in the calculation of the self-weight
of the slab, Qk,1c.
Where:
is the central deflection under the above loading, with nominal slab thickness
h is the overall depth of the composite slab

4.3.2 Eurocode construction stage load arrangements

Unpropped simply supported spans


The ultimate limit state resistances for unpropped simply supported spans that have to
be verified are:
Sagging bending (Figure 1.13)
End crushing (Figure 1.14)
Vertical Shear (Figure 1.14)
The load cases used to verify the sagging bending and end crushing resistances are
shown in Figure 1.13 and Figure 1.14 below.

Figure 1.13 Load case to verify sagging bending resistance during concreting for
simply supported spans

32
Figure 1.14 Load case to verify shear and end crushing resistance during concreting
for simply supported spans

For ULS checks the following load combination is used:

Ed = 1.35 Gk1a,sup + 1.5 Qk,1a + 1.5 Qk,1b + 1.5 Qk,1c

Calculations for the maximum deflection are also necessary to establish ponding levels
and are based on loads solely from the decking and wet concrete, i.e., Qk,1c + Gk1a,sup.
The partial factors for this are for the serviceability limit state, i.e., 1.0

Unpropped continuous double spans


The ultimate limit state resistances for unpropped continuous double spans that have
to be verified are:
Sagging bending (Figure 1.15)
End crushing (Figure 1.16)
Vertical Shear (Figure 1.16)
Hogging bending and crushing over an internal support (Figure 1.17)
Hogging bending and shear over an internal support (Figure 1.17)

33
Figure 1.15 Load case to verify sagging bending resistance during concreting for
continuous double spans

Figure 1.16 Load case to verify end crushing and shear resistance during concreting
for continuous double spans

Figure 1.17 Load case to verify combined hogging bending and crushing resistance
over the internal support during concreting for continuous double spans

For ULS checks the following load combination is used:

Ed = 1.35 Gk1a,sup + 1.5 Qk,1a + 1.5 Qk,1b + 1.5 Qk,1c

4.3.3 Eurocode construction stage moment resistance


Moment resistance is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.4.1.

4.3.4 Eurocode construction stage shear resistance


Vertical shear resistance is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.5.

4.3.5 Eurocode construction stage crushing, crippling and buckling


resistance
Crushing, crippling and buckling resistance may be calculated according to EN 1993-1-
3 6.1.7.3.
Alternatively, resistances may be based on test data.

Rw,Ed from testing at end supports


( )
Rw, Rd = k coeff 0.5 + 0.02l a / t / M 1

Where:
coeff is a web crushing coefficient supplied by testing

34
k = 1.0
la = 10 mm

Rw,Rd from testing at internal supports


To be confirmed (not yet implemented as an option in the software, June 2014)

4.3.6 Eurocode construction stage combined shear force and bending


moment
If the unity factor for the vertical shear resistance check is less than 50% a combination
check is not required. Otherwise the criterion for the combined shear force and bending
moment is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.10.

4.3.7 Eurocode construction stage combined web crushing and bending


moment
The criterion for cross-sections subject to the combined action of a bending moment
Med and a support reaction Fed is according to EN 1993-1-3 6.1.11 as follows:

M Ed F Ed
+ 1.25
M
c , Rd R w , Rd
where:
Mc,Rd is the moment resistance of the cross section
Rw,Rd is the appropriate value of the local transverse resistance of the web

4.3.8 Eurocode construction stage SLS verifications

Deflection
The deflection of the sheeting s should not exceed s,max calculated as follows
When ponding is neglected:

s,max is the lesser of Le/180 and 20mm


Otherwise:

s,max is the lesser of Le/130 and 30mm


Where Le is the effective span of the sheeting = Leff,cons.

4.3.9 Interaction at internal support


The criterion for the interaction of support moment and support reaction at the
serviceability limit state is calculated according to EN 1993-1-3 7.2(1) from:

35
M Ed ,SLS F Ed ,SLS
+ 1.125
M R w , Rd
c , Rd

4.4 Normal stage


4.4.1 Eurocode normal stage loading
The following loads are considered at this stage:

Gk1a Self-weight of the deck profile + reinforcement


Gk,1b Dry concrete self weight
Gk,1c Superimposed dead loads
Qk Imposed loads (including partitions)

Ultimate limit states (ULS)


The load combination for the ULS verification is the least favourable of the following, as
defined in EN 1990 6.4.3.2 (6.10a) and (6.10b)

GG + Q 0Q (6.10a)

GG + QQ (6.10b)

Serviceability limit states (SLS)


The load combinations for the SLS verifications are the characteristic load
combinations as defined in EN 1990 6.5.3:

Characteristic combination:

G+Q

4.4.2 Equivalent load intensity for point and line loads


Where concentrated point or line loads are supported by the slab, the design actions in
the ULS check are based on an equivalent load intensity at the cross-section where the
load is assumed to act.

For bending and longitudinal shear:

weqb = W / bem

For vertical shear:

weqv = W / bev

Where:

W is the total load acting at the cross-section


36
bem, bev are the effective widths at the cross-section where the load is assumed to act

4.4.3 Effective width for concentrated point loads and line loads parallel
to the span
Where concentrated point or line loads are supported by the slab they should be
considered as distributed over an effective width, as defined in EN 1994-1-1 9.4.3.

Bending and longitudinal shear


The effective width for bending and longitudinal shear is given by:

Lp
bem = bm + 2 Lp 1 slab width
L

Vertical shear
The effective width for vertical shear, bev, is given by:

Lp
bev = bm + Lp 1 slab width
L

Where :

Lp is the distance from the centre of the load to the nearest support

L is the span length

For point or line loads parallel to the span:

bm = bp + 2 (hc + hf)

(see Figure 1.18 below)

37
Figure 1.18 Effective width for line loads perpendicular to the span

4.4.4 Line loads perpendicular to the span


The effective width should be taken as:

bem = bev = 1 m

(N.B. this is because line loads perpendicular to the span are assumed to be of infinite
length).

4.4.5 High concentrated loads


Where a concentrated load exceeds a total intensity of 7.5 kN or a distributed intensity
of 5.0 kN/m then adequate transverse reinforcement shall be provided in accordance
with EN 1994-1-1 9.4.3. In accordance with EN 1992-1-1 9.3.1.1 this shall comprise
a minimum of 20% of the area of the principal reinforcement, i.e. the deck profile
effective cross-section.

4.4.6 Eurocode normal stage bending resistance (Partial Interaction


Method)
The criteria for bending resistance at a general cross section should be calculated in
accordance with EN 1994-1-1 9.7.2.
MEd/Mpl,Rd 1
Where:
MEd is the applied bending moment at the cross section under consideration
Mpl,Rd is the bending resistance of the cross section calculated following steps 1 to 7
below.

38
Step 1: Calculate Ncf

N cf = A pe f yp ,d

Where:
Ape is the effective cross-section area of the profile
fyp,d is the yield strength of the profile

Step 2: Calculate Nc

N c = u ,Rd b Lx + nk d dot f yp ,d

u,Rd is the design shear strength from slab tests (=u,Rk / Vs)
b is the breadth of the slab (=1 m)
Lx is the distance from the cross section being considered to the nearest support
n is the number of headed shear studs in width b

k = 1 + a / d do 6.0
ddo is 1.1 times the diameter of the shank of the stud (assuming end anchorage is
present)
a is the distance from the centre of the stud to the end of the sheeting, to be not
less than 1.5ddo.
t is the thickness of the sheeting

Step 3: Compare Nc and Ncf


If Nc <Ncf then there is partial interaction, use Step 7 otherwise Step 4.

Step 4: Calculate xpl

x pl = N cf / (0.85 f cd b )

If x pl > hc then N cf = 0.85 f cd hcb : Goto step 5

If x pl hc then Go to step 6

hc is the depth of the concrete above the profile

Step 5: Calculate Mpl,Rd, full interaction, N.A. in sheet

M pl ,Rd = N cf z + M pr

Where:

39
N cf
z = h 0.5hc e p + (e p e)
Ape f yp ,d

h is the overall depth of the slab


ep is the distance from the bottom of the section to the plastic neutral axis of the
sheeting
e is the distance from the bottom of the section to the centroidal axis of the
sheeting
Ape is the effective area of steel sheeting

N cf
M pr = 1.25M pa 1
A f
pe yp ,d

If Mpr > Mpa then Mpr = Mpa


Where:
Mpa is the design plastic resistance moment of the effective cross-section of the
sheeting

Step 6: Calculate Mpl,Rd, full interaction, N.A. above sheet

M pl ,Rd = N cf z

Where:

x pl
z =h e
2
Step 7: Calculate Mpl,Rd, partial interaction

M pl ,Rd = N c z + M pr
Where:

z = h 0.5 x pl e p + (e p e )
Nc
Ape f yp ,d

Mpr is defined above, with Ncf replaced by Nc.


Xpl is defined above, with Ncf replaced by Nc

4.4.7 Eurocode normal stage Bending resistance (m&k method)


Bending resistance is calculated as noted in Section 4.4.6 (for partial interaction)
excluding steps 2 and 3.

40
Eurocode normal stage longitudinal shear resistance (m&k method only)
This check is only carried out if the moment resistance is calculated using the 'm&k'
method.

The longitudinal shear resistance is verified according to EN 1994-1-1 9.7.3(4).

VEd / Vb,Rd 1

Where:

VEd is the applied shear force at the cross-section under consideration

bdp mAp
Vb,Rd = + k
VS bLs

b is the width of the slab at the cross-section under consideration (=1 m)

dp is the distance between the centroid axis of the profiled steel sheeting and the
extreme fibre of the composite slab in compression.

Ap is the nominal cross section of the sheeting in mm2

Ls is the shear span in mm, (=L/4 for UDL only).

m,k are design values for the empirical factors in N/mm2 obtained from slab tests.

4.4.8 Eurocode normal stage vertical shear resistance


The shear resistance of the composite cross-section is verified according to
EN 1992-1-1 6.2.2.

VEd / VRd,c 1

Where:

VEd is the applied shear force at the cross-section under consideration

= CRd,c k (100 l fck )3 bwdp


1
VRd,c

With a minimum of:

VRd,c = min bwdp

Where:

fck is in N/mm2

200
k =1+ 2.0 with dp in mm
dp

41
Asl
l = 0.02
bwd p

Asl is the area of the tensile reinforcement (taken as the effective area of deck
profile, Ape), which extends (dp + standard anchorage length) beyond the
section considered

bw = 10000 wtr/st

dp is the distance between the centroid axis of the profiled steel sheeting and the
extreme fibre of the composite slab in compression

C Rd ,c = 0.18 / c

vmin = 0.035 k3/2 fck1/2

4.4.9 Eurocode normal stage punching shear resistance


Punching shear is checked at each concentrated load. The punching shear resistance
of the composite cross-section is verified according to EN 1994-1-1 9.7.6 from:

VEd/VRd 1

Where:

VEd is the design value of the concentrated load

VRd is the design punching shear resistance at the section in question

With reference to Figure 1.19 below, the following checks are made:

At the perimeter of the concentrated load (2):


V Rd = v Rd ,max l p d

lp is the length of the perimeter (2)

d is the depth of the slab above the profile (= h - hp)

In accordance with EN 1992-1-1 6.2.2(6)

vRd ,max = 0.5 v f cd

Where:

fck
v = 0.6 1
250

42
Figure 1.19 Critical control perimeters for punching shear

At the perimeter of the supporting area (1)


V Rd = v Rd ,c l p d
Where:

vRd ,c = C Rd ,c k (100 l f ck ) vmin


1/ 3

Where:
fck is in N/mm2

200
k =1+ 2.0 with d in mm
d

l = ly lz 0.02

Asly
ly =
1000 d

Aslz
ly =
1000d

43
Asly, Aslz is the area of the punching shear reinforcement (placed in the tensile
zone, i.e. directly on the top of the deck), per m width, which extends
(d + standard anchorage length) beyond the section considered

C Rd ,c = 0.18 / c

v min = 0.035 k 3 / 2 f ck 1 / 2

4.4.10 Normal stage serviceability limits state (SLS) checks

Minimum reinforcement over supports


In accordance with EN 1994-1-1 9.8.1 (2):
For unpropped construction:

0.2
Asl 1000hc
100
For propped construction:

0.4
Asl 1000hc
100
Where:
Asl is the cross-sectional area of anti-crack reinforcement above the rib of the
sheeting (mm2/m)
hc depth of concrete above deck in mm

Deflections
Loads for deflection calculations should use the Characteristic combination
In accordance with EN 1992-1-1 7.4.1 the total deflection should not exceed L/250.
In accordance with EN 1994-1-1 9.8.2 no account need be taken of end slip if the
initial slip load in tests (defined as the load causing an end slip of 0.5 mm) exceeds 1.2
times the design service load. Otherwise either end anchors should be provided or the
deflection should be calculated including the effect of end slip.

4.4.11 Eurocode Fire limit state

Load combinations
The load combination for the fire limit state verification is as defined in EN 1990
6.4.3.3(6.11b), supplemented by UK NA BS EN 1991-1-2:

G + 1Q (6.11b)

The value for 1 is based on the category of the imposed load.

44
Partial factors on resistance
The partial factors on resistance for the fire limit state, as defined in EN 1994-1-2 2.3:
Table 1.12 Partial factors on resistance fire limit state
Partial factor M0 M1 c s Vs
Value 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Design
Slabs with additional bars in troughs may be designed using the Bar Method which
conceptually corresponds to the Fire Engineering option for BS5950.

Slabs with no additional bars should be designed using the Mesh and Deck method
which conceptually corresponds to the Simple Method option in BS5950 design.

Temperature variation calculations in the slab is based on the procedure described in


the NCCI 005c document.

For design to Eurocodes the fire load combination includes all loads (subject to
appropriate partial safety factors and combination factors).

Fibre-only reinforced slabs are not currently permissible to the Eurocodes.

45