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REGENT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CRYSTAL LOCKED FM BUG


USING FREQUENCY DOUBLER APPROACH

PRESENTED BY

FUTA OSUMANU

THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF INFORMATICS AND


ENGINEERING, REGENT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT
FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING DEGREE IN
ELECTRONICS AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
(INSTRUMENTATION OPTION)

FUTA OSUMANU B.Eng (Hons) Regent Ghana


DECLARATION

This dissertation has been accepted in substance for any degree and is not being
concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree elsewhere.

The thesis is a result of my investigation, except where otherwise stated. All sources used
in the production of this thesis are acknowledged by appropriate citation and explicit
reference and are included in the bibliography that is appended.

I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of the study were supervised in
accordance with the guidelines and supervision laid down by Regent University College of
Science and Technology.


Student Signature Date
(Futa Osumanu)

Supervisors Declaration

This thesis is submitted for examination with my full knowledge and acceptance.


Supervisors Signature Date
(Emmanuel Affum Ampoma)

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ABSTRACT

Crystal lock FM transmitter is another way of keeping the frequency of a transmitter stable
to avoid interference and more so, loss of information due to frequency drifting between
the transmission and reception frequencies. This project focuses on designing a
microphone transmitting equipment operating in parallel chains to ensure frequency
stability by developing a simple and highly economical crystal oscillator that exhibits linear
tuning characteristics. The crystal is employed to operate at 49MHZ with the oscillator
components accurately selected so that the tuned circuit operates at 98MHZ.

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DEDICATION

I dedicate this project to my wife Hajarah Issaka and daughter, Zainab Futa for their
consistent support in many ways and the sacrifice they made during these years. This will
always be remembered and deeply appreciated.

Most of all, my biggest thanks goes to Almighty God for giving me the strength and
encouragement to complete this project.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMETNT

I will like to express my profound gratitude to all whose contribution has made this project
a success, especially to Mr. David Celestine of David Broadcast Engineering Limited and his
staff for their constant guidance, advice, encouragement and support in many ways in
completing the circuit.

I also appreciate the inspiration from all my lecturers, more especially, to my supervisor,
Emmanuel Affum Ampoma, for his meaningful suggestions and contribution towards this
project.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
DECLARATION ....................................................................................................... ii

ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. iii


DEDICATION .......................................................................................................... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................... vi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction . 1
1.1 Background . 1
1.1.1 Frequency Doubling . 1
1.1.2 The Crystal . 1
1.2 Problem Statement . 2
1.3 General Objective . 2
1.4 Specific Objective of the Study . 2
1.5 Scope of Study . 3
1.6 Significant of Study . 3
1.7 Organization of Study . 4
1.8 Limitations . 4

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW


2.0 Literature Review . 5
2.1 Introduction . 5

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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.0 Methodology . 10
3.1 Introduction . 10
3.2 The Hardware . 10
3.3 The Software . 15

CHAPTER FOUR SYSTEM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION


4.0 System Design, Development and implementation . 16
4.1 Component Selection and Measurement . 16
4.2 Block Diagram . 20
4.3 Audio Module . 21
4.3.1 Microphone . 22

4.4 BF199 - NPN Medium Frequency Transistor . 22


4.4.1 Features . 23
4.4.2 Application . 24

4.5 BC547- NPN General Purpose Transistor . 24


4.5.1 Features . 24
4.5.2 Application . 25

4.6 The Crystal . 25


4.7 The Modulator . 25
4.8 Frequency Doubler . 29

4.9 Circuit diagram Description & Operation .. 29


4.9.1 Construction . 21

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CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.0 Results and Discussion .. 32
5.1 Results .. 32
5.1.1 Test for frequency 4 KHz .. 32
5.1.2 Test for frequency 10 KHz ... 33

5.1.3 Test for 49 MHz 33


5.1.4 Test for Frequency Doubler 35
5.2 Selectivity 35
5.3 Discussion 36
5.4 Cost of Components and Labour 37

CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


6.0 Conclusion and Recommendation .. 39

6.1 Conclusion .. 39
6.2 Recommendation .. 39

REFERENCES
GLOSSARY
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
APPENDIX

APPENDIX A PCB Layout


APPENDIX B Circuit Layout
APPENDIX C MatLab Codes

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background

1.1.1 Frequency Doubling

Frequency doubling [1] is a method used to separate oscillator circuit from the
preceding stages. The aim is to eliminate RF energy from disturbing oscillator
stability and also reducing superior level thereby providing clean output radio
energy at the antenna end.

The doubling is achieved by multiplying the frequency of the oscillator [2] by two
(2). The resonant [3] after oscillator circuit is matched at 98MHz.The purpose is to
isolate the oscillator from the antenna due to antenna influences on the frequency.

However, this does not guarantee 100% stability, because there is problem with
frequency drifting within 4MHz across the centre-frequency. For example, if the
centre frequency is 98MHz; the drifting will occur between 98MHz-96MHz and
98MHz to 100MHz. The drifting is caused by temperature changes within oscillator
component and the entire circuit itself. Increase in temperature tunes the
frequency upwards and decrease in temperature tunes the frequency downwards.
But at room temperature the frequency remains constant at 98MHz.

1.1.2 The Crystal

The crystal[4] used is a 49MHz device while the components in the oscillator stage
have been chosen so that the tuned circuit is operating at 98MHz.The way a crystal
works is caused by its capacitance changing abruptly at the frequency marked on it.
The only problem with identifying the frequency of a crystal is that while some
crystals are marked with their third overtone value others are identified with their
fundamental frequency. For instance, crystals for Citizen Band (CB), remote control

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cars and walkie talkies are generally 3rd overtone crystals and have a fundamental
of about 9MHz while computer crystals are generally identified by their
fundamental frequency.

1.2 Problem Statement

In order to stabilize frequency, some engineers tend to rely on Phase Locked Loop
(PLL) ICs to accomplish their goal; however the PLL has several disadvantages such
as

The cost involved is so high that it makes telecommunication equipment very


expensive and difficult to construct.

With the PLL, the signal must go through the Prescaler, crystal,
Programmable ICs, Error Amplifier and loop Filter which makes the circuit
complex.

1.3 General Objective

Frequency modulation [5] (FM) is increasing in the country despite the problems
associated with its mode of operation. Generally, this project work is to make
frequency modulation operation smooth with minimum defects and also to lower
the cost involved in transmission, operation, and equipment.

1.4 Specific Objective of the Study

The specific objective of this project is to:


Produce a crystal locked transmitter using crystal and frequency doubling
procedure.

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Modulate audio frequency signal to a high level frequency by
superimposing low-level frequency (AF) to a high level frequency by
varying the frequency whilst the amplitude remains constant.
Ensure frequency stability by using crystal oscillator.
Reduce the cost involving Phase Locked Loop (PLL) ICs; which should have
been present in the circuit to ensure frequency stability.

1.5 Scope of Study

Before starting this project it should be noted that having a fair skill in assembly and
soldering is necessary. After all, this is one of the more complex designs and one
should start with something simple if he/she wants to get the maximum
understanding. However, time will not permit us to go through all these. Knowledge
in resistor and capacitor codes, and components position on PCB boards is also
important since working with high frequency projects such as FM to keep all the
components as close to the board as possible due to leads inductance. This might
change the characteristics of the circuit, consequently results in poor performance.
The characteristics of the circuit mainly comprise of Tank circuit and corresponding
impedance matching circuits.

1.6 Significance of the Project


To improve the existing knowledge about similar designs.
To acquire more knowledge in the field of
telecommunication/information technology.
To provide literature for other students, researchers and others
interested in the field of telecommunication.
To add up to existing knowledge in the field of communication.
To enhance our knowledge in frequency doubling procedures.

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To boost our understanding on the use of Crystal Oscillators.

1.7 Organisation of Study

This project is organised as follows: Chapter two focuses on the Literature review
with methodology captured in Chapter three. Chapter four also focuses on the
system design, development and implementation of the project work with Chapter
five concentrating on the results and discussions together with the cost analysis.
Chapter six concludes the research with conclusion and recommendation of the
entire project.

1.8 Limitations

Crystal lock [6] FM transmitter is another way of keeping the frequency of a


transmitter stable to avoid interference and lost of information due to frequency
drifting between the transmission and reception. Interference and frequency
drifting are major problems encountered by radio frequency (RF) engineers over the
past years. Due to these, engineers tend to rely on phase lock loop [7](PLL ICs) and
other complicated circuits to accomplish their goals. The cost involved is so high
that it makes Telecommunication equipment very expensive and difficult to
construct.

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CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Frequency Modulation (FM) is the method of varying a carrier wave's frequency


proportionally to the frequency of another signal. Extensive studies was done by
Kobayashi Kei et al when they researched on Analog frequency modulation detector
for dynamic force microscopy [8] and presented a new analog frequency
modulation (FM) detector (demodulator) for dynamic force microscopy (DFM). The
detector utilizes the FM detection method where the resonance frequency shift of
the force sensor is kept constant to regulate the distance between a tip and a
sample surface. The FM detector employs a phase-locked loop (PLL) circuit using a
voltage-controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) so that the thermal drift of the output
signal is negligibly reduced. Authors in [9] researched on Synchronously pumped
modelocked dye laser pumped by a frequencydoubled modelocked and
Qswitched diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser and developed a powerful and
efficient modelocked and Qswitched diode laser pumped Nd:YAG laser. Mode
locking has been accomplished using intracavity frequency modulation (FM) to
produce continuouswave modelocked pulses of 12 ps duration. Naicheng Shen
and the group [10] having done a comprehensive research on Frequency
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stabilization at I2 Doppler-broadened line center near 532 nm using Nd:YVO4
intracavity doubled lasers by employing an EOM crystal and FM spectroscopy
127
method, locked the laser frequency to Doppler broadened lines of I2 using
intracavity laser systems. The laser gain crystal is Nd:YVO 4, and the intracavity
frequency doubling crystal is a KTP plate. It is estimated that the frequency stability
of the stabilized laser is in the order of 10-9.

Reduction of FM Noise in Microwave Diode Oscillators by Cavity and Injection


Stabilization was also analyzed by Ashley et al in [11] and concluded that a cavity

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stabilized silicon avalanche diode oscillator used as a synchronizing signal to
injection phase lock a Gunn oscillator has the best combination of low FM and AM
noise. Still on noise the authors in [12] analyzed A Low-Noise Class-C Oscillator
Using a Directional Coupler by using an oscillator using a directional coupler is
proposed as a solution to the design of efficient low-noise high-power high-
frequency oscillators. FM noise measurements are presented for microwave sources
derived via varactor multipliers from several different transistor oscillators of this
type. Further, design introduced an isolated port which can be used to achieve
injection phase lock which is used to point out some of the interesting FM noise
properties of these oscillators, the knowledge of which is important in the design
and application of solid-state microwave sources. Finaly experimental results
indicated how a low-noise microwave source can be built using a low-frequency
crystal oscillator followed by a high-order varactor multiplier. Extensive work was
also done by Bossard and the group when the researched on a Solid-State, One-
Watt, Tunable Exciter for the 4.4 - 5.0 GC Communications Band [13] and describes
a number of new techniques leading to the development of a completely solid-state
source capable of delivering power in excess of 3 watts at a fixed frequency in
C band, or power in excess of 1 watt rapidly tunable within an 18% bandwidth
centered at 4.7 gc. With the system designed to carry multichannel FDM-FM, and is
locked to a crystal source with a stability of one part in 106. Spurious responses of
the exciter are, typically, 60 - 80 db below the output carrier frequency.

Laser frequency stabilization by means of optical self-heterodyne beat-frequency


control was also studied by Greiner et al and presented a new method for laser
frequency stabilization based on control of a fiber interferometer-derived
heterodyne beat signal that is proportional in specific limits to the laser frequency
derivative. The output of an external-cavity diode laser equipped with an intracavity
electro-optic crystal (EOC) is split and coupled into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer
with one short and one long (fiber delayed) arm. The passage of light through the

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short leg is acousto-optically frequency shifted by AOM relative to the initial laser
frequency (t). The difference in optical path length between the two arms creates a
time delay D between the two fields. Thus, the resulting heterodyne signal as
detected by the avalanche photodiode has a frequency h(t) given by h(t)=(t)-(t-
D)+ AOM. The output of the photodiode is subsequently coupled into a phase-
locked loop (PLL) operating as a FM demodulator. The PLL's output signal V(t) is
proportional to the difference quotient of the laser's frequency during the time
delay D. AC coupling blocks the constant term and subsequent integration
electronics yield a voltage that in specific limits is proportional to the overall laser
frequency excursion during the integration time. And concluded after appropriate
amplification that, the voltage applied to the EOC provides negative feedback to the
laser, stabilizing its frequency [14]. Phase modulation of a ring-laser gyro--Part II:
Experimental results by Wax and the group [15] presented for the multimode ring-
laser gyro with intracavity phase modulation indicated that by proper choice of
modulator frequency, the oppositely directed traveling waves (ODTW) exist as
either pulse trains or FM signals. And finally concluded that result is clearly useful
for rotation sensing where rotation sensitivity is noise limited and shows an
improvement of two orders of magnitude over the same system without
modulation. When lock in does occur, it is accompanied by a hysteresis effect that is
explained in terms of an optical damage effect in the KDP modulator crystal. The
results also indicated that in the FM region of operation, the beat frequency
between ODTW contains an offset that drifts with time and so this region of
operation is not as useful for rotation sensing as is the pulse-train region.

Authors in [16] researched on an FM-radio transmitter concept based on an all-


digital PLL when they presented a stereo FM-radio transmitter with Radio Data
System (RDS) support based on an all-digital PLL designed as a fully integrated
single-chip transmitter in a 90-nm CMOS technology to be compatible with digital
deep-submicrometer processes with target application of the proposed system as
cointegration with baseband processors and transmitters for mobile communication

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systems. Further, the proposed transmitter enables a mobile device to stream audio
data to a FM receiver which is popular and existing in most households worldwide.
RDS support allows sending additional information. And finally, concluded that the
presented transmitter works on a 1 V supply voltage and is aimed for using a 32.768
kHz reference crystal oscillator instead of the commonly used 26 MHz reference
oscillator while still providing wideband frequency modulation capability.

Mann also did extensive studies on Active Stabilization of Crystal Oscillator FM


Noise at UHF Using a Dielectric Resonator [17] and described a low-noise 600-MHz
crystal oscillator circuit that uses a dielectric oscillator as the dispersive element of a
discriminator in an active frequency stabilization loop which reduces the near-
carrier FM noise. The innovation in the circuit is an essentially noiseless active
carrier suppression loop, which allows maximum utilization of a low-noise RF
amplifier to reduce the discriminator threshold (Delta frms) to 2.5x10-5 Hz in a 1-Hz
bandwidth. The FM noise 1 kHz from the carrier was reduced by 44 dB to this
threshold, equivalent to a phase-noise spectral density of -152 dBc/Hz. Optical
frequency inter-modulation between two picoseconds laser pulses was studied in
[18] where Vampouille and the group presented a method which transfers a nearly
linear frequency modulation of bandwidth 3.5 THz (or 0.32 nm around 0.53 m) to a
frequency doubled single pulse of duration 30 ps emitted from a mode-locked laser.
The experimental setup includes one stage to shape the pulses by a passive spectral
filter, another to self-modulate their phase by non dispersive propagation through a
single-mode optical fiber, and a final stage to multiply the pulse complex amplitudes
in a harmonic-generating crystal. Finally, concluded that the proposed System is
able to modulate sub-nanosecond laser pulses according to a wide variety of laws of
temporal phase modulations.

Driscoll also analyzed Oscillator AM-to-FM noise conversion due to the dynamic
frequency-drive sensitivity of the crystal resonator [19]. The analysis made of the
potential effects of AM-to-FM noise conversion in quartz crystal oscillators as a
result of the dynamic frequency-drive sensitivity of the crystal resonator. The

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analysis also indicates that it is quite possible for the FM noise resulting from AM-
to-FM conversion in the crystal resonator to equal or exceed that due to the
conversion of oscillator open loop phase noise to closed loop frequency noise. This
is especially true in oscillators designed to exhibit low white phase noise (floor)
levels by operating the crystal resonator at relatively high drive level. In addition,
the analysis reveals that, for the same drive sensitivity, the relative degradation in
FM noise level due to this effect is more severe at lower relative oscillator operating
frequencies. Djen and Shah also analyzed Implementation of a 900 MHz transmitter
system using highly integrated ASIC [20], A highly integrated single-chip inphase and
quadrature (I/Q) modulator is implemented for low power mobile applications
(AMPS, ADC, GSM). A quadrature carrier is generated internally without having an
external phase shift network. Baseband signals can modulate these carriers directly
in the 900 MHz range. A variable gain amplifier with good linearity performance is
incorporated to meet tough digital cellular requirements for linear modulation.

It could be seen that crystal locked FM using frequency doubler approach, this
project seeks to designing microphone transmitting equipment operating in
parallel chains to ensure frequency stability by developing a simple and highly
economical crystal oscillator that exhibits linear tuning[21] characteristics . The
crystal is employed to operate at 49MHZ with the oscillator components accurately
selected so that the tuned circuit operates at 98MHZ.

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CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology

3.1 Introduction

The design procedures of this project were divided into two main sections, the
hardware and the software.

3.2 The Hardware

Testing of the components:-

Resistor

For example, a 10K resistor

Colours: 1st Brown

2nd Black

3rd Orange

4th Gold

Translating colour to codes, 1st =1

2nd =0

3rd = Multiplier = 3 = 103

4th = Tolerance = 5

= 10 K

Evaluating with the ohmmeter

Selected Ohmmeter range on the Multi-meter


Placed the meter probes at the two end wires of the resistor
Read the indicated value.

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Capacitors

Used RLC meter to measure the capacitance and compared the value to that
indicated on the capacitor.

RLC Meter type FLUKE PM6303A

Trimmer Capacitor

Selected capacitance on RLC meter


Held capacitor with meter probe
Varied capacitance from minimum value to maximum
Monitored meter readings and compared with manufacturers
data

Inductor

Used RLC meter to measure value of inductance

Selected Inductance on meter


Connected meter probes to the two end of Inductor
Read out indicated value and compared value with
manufacturers data
Varied Inductor and monitored reading on RLC meter and state.

Transistor

Type Identification: By Ohmmeter

Selected Ohmmeter range on Multi-meter


Attach meters common probe (-) to the base of transistor (see
illustration below)
Held meters other probe(+) to the emitter and observed meter
reading () = Infinity

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Changed positive probe to the collector and again observed
meter readings () = Infinity
Attached Instruments positive probe to the base
Held meters common probe (-) to the emitter and observed
meter reading () = 25
Changed common probe (-) to the collector and observed
meter readings () = 25


C C

B B

E E

Fig. 3.1 (a) Transistor Test Step One Fig.3.1 (b) Transistor Test Step two

Transistor Lead Identification

Selected ohms range on the multi-meter


Attached one meter probe to one of transistor lead.
Connected the other probe to the other lead alternatively while
observing the meter reading.
Maintained probe at the lead which produced a very low
resistance value and took the other probe to the other two lead
alternatively.

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Microphone

Dynamic Microphone:

Hooked the two leads of a milli-voltmeter to the microphone


terminals.
With variable intensity of audio signal applied to the
microphone, the milli-voltmeter reading was observed.

A.S v mV

Fig. 3.2 Test Setup for Microphone

Quartz Crystal Oscillator

Connected the microphone, Xtal and C.R.O. as shown.


Applied audio signal to microphone
Monitored signal trace on C.R.O.

MIC.
A.S C.R.O
Xtal

Fig. 3.3 Test Setup for Crystal Oscillator

PCB Preparation

Drilled 1mm diameter holes on copper clad board for


component mounting
Diluted 100gramms of etching powder into 0.5 litres of water at
50C
Mounted components on board

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Marked out components joining with etch resistance marker
pen.
Removed component from board
Place board in solution for 10 minutes.
Remove board from solution and cleaned out remaining
unwanted copper.

Assembling

All components were mounted at their positions and soldered


Heat sink was used on transistors during soldering to prevent
damaging due to heat.
Mounted Antenna on Mica box by an aluminum bracket
brackets fastened with 3mm x 4mm screws and nuts and
soldered to circuit with a 1.5mm2 flexible cable.
Microphone was soldered on circuit via a 1.5 mm2 and 10 cm
long flexible cable and brought out of enclosure and left
dangling for ease of positioning.
Two interlocking push button switched are mounted on
enclosure and joined to circuit via a 1.5 mm2 flexible cable.
Mica was cut into 20cmx14cmx10cm and held together by a
4mmx10cm screw and nut is the enclosure of the prototype.
Meanwhile, the prototype was first mounted on the
breadboard and tested.

Complete system Testing

The setup was powered by a 9v cell, and switched on.


Placed about 5meters away from a radio receiver.
A receiver was tuned to 98MHz.

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3.3 The Software

Multism and MATLAB will be use to simulate the entire design to conduct
performance analysis. Such as:

The performance of the Audio Amplifier at difference frequencies and it is


expected that as the frequency increases the gain of the amplifier increases
The performance of the Crystal Oscillator to produced the exact frequency
Selectivity of the design transmitter, this deals with the ability of the
transmitter to select 98MHz at zero decibels.

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 System Design, Development and Implementation

4.1 Component Selection and Measurement

Before starting this project, a lot of research was made based on the functioning of
the circuit with respect to selection of the components.

Fig. 4.1 Diagram showing some components

As we all know, radio frequency is based on imagination. There is no doubt that the
component used for resonant frequency is an imaginary element [22] known as j-
operators namely, XL and XC.

Impedance Z
X = XL - XC
Reactance

Resistance R (4.1)

Fig. 4.2 Impedance Triangle

Impedance,
2 2
Z= R + XL
(4.2)

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Inductive reactance, XL

XL = 2fL (4.3)

Where: XL is reactance in ohms ( ), f is frequency in hertz (Hz) and L is


inductance in henrys (H).

Capacitive reactance, Xc

Xc = 1 (4.4)
2 fC
Where: Xc is reactance in ohms ( ), f is frequency in hertz (Hz) and C is
capacitance in farads (F).

Components selection was also based on the Transition [23] frequency (Ft). The Ft
value determines maxi, frequency the gain of the transistor will be zero. And at this
point the transistor cannot generates any signal, rather begin to give up a lot of
heats.

The second step was to analyze the transistors HEF for each transistors using digital
multi-meter. The amount of current amplification is called the current gain,[24]
symbol hFE. The HEF connector is also used to determine the type of transistor (NPN
or PNP) in hand. Not all transistors have the same lead configuration. The figure
below shows different type of transistors with three (3) terminal leads but with
different connections.

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Fig. 4.3 Diagram showing different types of transistors

Fig. 4.4 Circuit symbol for BJT Transistors

The leads are labeled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E).These terms refer to the
internal operation of a transistor but they are not much help in understanding how
a transistor is used, so we just treat them as labeled. The leads [25] can be
identified by using analogue or digital multi-meter.

Basic analysis on Resistance depends on resistors in series or parallel as shown


below

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R = R1 + R2+ (Series) (4.5)

Fig. 4.5 Resistors in Series

R = R1 R2 / R1 + R2 (parallel) (4.6)

Fig. 4.6 Resistors in parallel

Resistance of a resistor is measured using Ohmmeter. Most ohmmeters are built in


Digital/ Analogue multi-meters. Secondly, resistance of a resistor can be
determined by using resistance color code [26].

Now, series resistance is used to divide the apply voltage as shown in the main
circuit diagram.

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Fig. 4.7 Voltage Divider Network

To calculate V0,

V0 = Vs R2 /R1 + R2 (4.7)

Where: Vo is Output Voltage and Vs is the Supply Voltage.

As you can see, the circuit made use of basic resistor theory to actually arrive to
practicable values.

4.2 Block Diagram

The FM transmitter system can be superficially broken down into component


illustrated in the figure 4.8 below.

ANTENNA

A.F FREQ. CRYSTAL FREQ. POWER


MICROPHONE AMPLIFIER MODULATOR OSCILLATOR MULTIPLIER AMPLIFIER

Fig. 4.8 Block Diagram of Crystal Locked Bug FM Transmitter

For design and subsequent analysis, it is more appropriate to consider the system
using the following models and sub-models.

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Audio Module
o Microphone
o Audio Signal Conditioning
Fm Transmitter
o FM Modulator
o RF Amplifier
o Antenna

The physical layout of this module is illustrated in Figure 4.9. The modules will be
broken down and subsequently discussed throughout this document.

Fig. 4.9 Complete Circuit Diagram of the FM Transmitter

4.3 Audio Module

The Audio Module in the first stage of the FM transmitter that converts a voice
audio signal to usable electrical signal. The Sub-modules are described in the
following section.

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V CC
9V

XSC1
R4
3k
Ext T rig

R1 R2 C2 _
+

7.5k A B

10k 1F
+ _ + _

U1

Q1
C1
B U ZZE R
V1 1F 4k H z
B C107B P
10mV rms
4k H z
R3
0 100

Fig. 4.10 Circuit Diagram for the Audio Amplifier

4.3.1 The Microphone

The microphone component of the system has one simple requirement quality. If
the microphone is low quality, the attenuation [27] and distortion may occur to a
degree such that the resulting signal may be unrecoverable or unusable even before
it undergoes any processing.

4.4 BF199 - NPN Medium Frequency Transistor

BF199 is a high frequency transistor covering a wide range of unity gain up to


400MHz and at 200MHz; it has a unique low noise figure (ie. 4.5dB at IC= 5mA). The
datasheet of BF199 has a complete electrical characteristic.

To which the designer/engineer has no choice than to use in design calculations.

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BF199 is intended for oscillators design and small signals amplifications. Internal
bonding, that is base spreading capacitance, output/diffusion capacitance is so small
that parasitic oscillations are minimal. The figure 4.11 below shows the pin
connection and symbol of the BF199 medium frequency transistor.

Fig 4.11 Pin Connection and Symbol of BF199 Transistor

BF199 is an RF transistor featured for small signal amplifiers. The unity gain of this
device is up to 400MHz. Making the device available for TV receivers design and IF
amplifiers design for community radios and SSB meters radios. The transition
frequency is determined by the unity gain bandwidth. The D.C. gain hfe of 220
enables the device to be used in class A, classB and class C amplifiers [28]. High
stability is guaranteed when used as buffer amplifiers in RF stage.

BF199 is good for oscillators design and small signal amplification. The required
scattering parameters enable the designer to design stable oscillator and amplifiers
by using smith chart. The use of this device as modulator is a suitable choice, since
the signal modulated will be purely (sinusoidal) electromagnetic waves.

4.4.1 Features

Low current (max. 25 mA)


Low voltage (max. 25 V).

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4.4.2 Applications

Output stage of a vision IF amplifier.

However its difficult to come by these components i.e. hardly to find in Africa.

4.5 BC547- NPN General Purpose Transistor

BC547 is a medium gain, general-purpose transistor purposely for signal generation,


audio amplifiers applications and low power consumptions.

Usually the frequency is about 250MHz and is of 330. BC547 is a small signal
general-purpose silicon transistor. D.C. gain and F of BC547 ensures wide usage.

The figure 4.12 below shows the pin connection and symbol of the BC547 NPN
General purpose Transistor.

Fig. 4.12 Pin Connection and Symbol of the BC547 NPN General Purpose Transistor

4.5.1 Features

Low current (max. 100mA)


Low voltage (max.65V).

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4.5.2 Applications

General purpose switching and amplification

4.6 The Crystal

The crystal used here is 49MHz device while the components in the oscillator stage
have been chosen so that the tuned circuit is operating at 98MHz.The way a crystal
works is caused by its capacitance changing abruptly at the frequency marked on it.

The only problem with identifying the frequency of a crystal is some crystals are
marked with their third overtone value while others are identified with their
fundamental frequency, For instance. 27MHz crystals for CB's, remote control cars
and walkie talkies are generally 3rd overtone crystals and have a fundamental of
about 9MHz while computer crystals are generally identified by their fundamental
frequency.

4.7 The Modulator

The figure 4.13 and 4.14 below shows the basic principle of operation of a
frequency modulator.

25
Fig. 4.13 Basic Frequency Modulator

V CC
9V

XSC1
XFC1
C3
R2 10p F L1 123 Ext T rig
+
10k 1mH _
A B
+ _ + _

C4

10F
Q1
C1

10F
V1 2N 2222A

10mV rms C2 R1
4k H z 10F 2.7k R3
0 1k

Fig. 4.14 Circuit Diagram for the Modulator

Before VHF sine wave radiates from an oscillatory circuit the entire reactance
network must be in AC network. The reactance inductor and capacitor (LC) is
connected such that it will course the transistor to switch ON and OFF in
microseconds (s). The time or period been controlled by LC time constant.

26
With these, the cycle is repeated over and over as long as the device is kept ON. The
relation below determines the time:

(4.8)

Where: T is Period measured in seconds, L is Inductance and C is Capacitance.

(4.9)

where: F is Resonant Frequency.

In the circuit L1 has 6 turns and has a diameter of 5.5mm and has a length of
4.5mm. Based on the formula for an air cored inductor:

or (4.10)

Where: L1 is inductance in H, r is radius of coil in inches, L is length of coil in


millimeters (mm) and n the number of turns on coil.

Fig. 4.15 AC Impedance Network

27
The above sketches can be explained in this way, Re, R1 and R2 in fig. 4.16 provides
D.C. bias characteristics by powering the transistor to operate. The resistors provide
currents and voltages necessary to turn ON the transistor. However, the actual D.C.
bias circuit is shown below:

Fig. 4.16 D.C Bias Circuit

Take Vbe to be 0.7v. From the base side of the transistor, R1 and R2 have a
potential divider arrangement.

So using

(4.11)

Base voltage, Vb can be calculated. Since the supply voltage Vcc is 9v then we can
conclude that Vb = 4.5v because R1=R2=27k.

Also using

(4.12)

Where IE =Ic, emitter resistor is calculated to be 680.

28
4.8 Frequency Doubler

V CC
5V

C3
XFC1
L1 XSC1
120p F 1mH 123
20%
Ke y =A Ext T rig
+

R3 _
B
10k +
A
_ + _
C2
Q2
C1
10F

10F
V1 B C337A P
R2
1 V rms 2.7k
49MH z R1
0 1k

Fig. 4.17 Frequency Doubler Circuit

4.9 Circuit Diagram Description & Operation

FM microphone bug is a miniature FM wireless microphone transmitter of type


narrow band frequency modulation wireless microphone (NBFMWMs). It is
designed to monitor secret conversation, detect lies and use as public address
cordless mic.

Since the development of telephone for the past years, many experiments have
been carried out to make communication simple and convenient. However the
discovery of radio waves accelerated the development of telecommunication
equipment. The theories were based on Prof. James Maxwells Equations. In this
case there is no need to wire the entire community, society or even the whole
country. Since this will involve a lot of money and telecom equipment /switches for
installation.

It is also true to say that the process involved is too tiresome and complicated.

29
Mounting poles and wiring from one place to another can also result in wrong
connections.

The only things left to discuss are the minor features like the 100n capacitors across
the power rails. These are designed to tighten up the rails so that each of the stages
works correctly without interfering with each other. This is especially important
with the output stage as the transistor is connected directly across the rails via a
very low resistance coil.

The coil is only few turns of wire around a slug and appears to be almost a short
circuit as far as the transistor is concerned. But at the frequency at which the circuit
is operating, the coil becomes an inductor in which a voltage is developed across the
turns. The characteristic of developing a voltage like this is one of the amazing
features of impedance and it is the generation of this voltage that prevents
excessive current flowing.

How this occurs is very complex and will be discussed in another article but basically
excessive current does not flow because it takes time for current to start to flow in
an inductor and the transistor is only turned on for a very short period of time (up
to the time when the maximum current just starts to flow).
The transistor then turns off and the current that was flowing in the coil has
produced magnetic flux. This magnetic flux now collapses and produces a voltage
across the turns of the coil. This voltage is of opposite sign to the supply voltage and
can be of much higher amplitude and since the transistor is turned off, the only path
for it; is to flow along the antenna lead.

I know you are going to say the antenna does not form a closed circuit but when we
are talking about high frequencies, energy is capable of flowing along a lead and in
doing so it produces radiation to the air, called electromagnetic radiation or radio
waves. This converts energy from the circuit into a radiated signal.
The 100k resistor on the base of the output transistor is designed to turn the

30
transistor ON a small amount (about half) so that the signal from the 10p capacitor
can modulate the transistor (turn it on and off).

At 98MHz, the antenna lead appears to the output stage as a low impedance load
and energy from the coil will readily flow into it and be converted to radiate signal
as mentioned above. This is how energy from the battery passes through the output
stage to the antenna.

4.9.1 Construction

Before starting this project one should have a fair degree of skill in assembly and
soldering. After all, this is one of our more complex designs and one should start
with something simple if you want to get the maximum understanding. However,
the time will not permit me to go through all these boring details of construction.
That knowing your resistor and capacitor codes, and components position on PCB
boards. It is so because when working with high frequency projects such as FM
transmitters, it is important to keep all the components as close to the board as
possible due to leads inductance. This might change the characteristics of the circuit
consequently results in poor performance.

The characteristics of the circuit mainly comprise of Tank circuit and corresponding
impedance matching circuits.
Component Layout
Component layout for the circuit can either be PCB etched or PCB breadboard or
Vero-board wiring.
For PCB etching, provide a clean output RF power with little or no interference. The
lead inductance is reduced.
For Vero-board, the wiring is done by soldering the leads of the component
together.

31
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Result and Discussion

5.1 Introduction

Performance analysis on audio signal at different frequencies i.e. at 4 KHz and 10


KHz.

5.1.1 Performance Analysis at 4 KHz

Fig. 5.1 Input and Output Frequency at 4 KHz

This is the graph showing the input and the output signals at 4 KHz. The blue color
shows the input signal while the red color shows the output signal. With the input
set at 13.841 mV, the output was 125.35 mV which shows the amplification of the
input signal.

32
5.1.2 Performance Analysis at 10 KHz

Fig. 5.2 Input and Output Frequency at 10 KHz

This is the graph showing the input and the output signals at 10 KHz. The blue color
shows the input signal while the red color shows the output signal. With the input
set at 12.393 mV, the output was 110.200 mV which shows the amplification of the
input signal.

Comparing the two graphs, it shows that the two signals were amplified as
expected. The frequency increases as the gain increase.

5.1.3 Performance Analysis of the 49 MHz Crystal Oscillator

At the output, we are measuring the frequency of the modulator and as well
monitoring the output wave form. The result are shown below

33
Fig. 5.3 Diagram Showing the Crystal Oscillator and Output Wave form

The crystal oscillator analysis using Multism in figure 5.3 above produced the exact
49 MHz frequency as required.

34
5.1.4 Performance of the Frequency Doubler

Fig. 5.4 Frequency Doubler Waveform

After tuning to second harmonics, the frequency from the Crystal oscillator was
doubled as shown in the graph above.

5.2 Selectivity

The ability of the transmitter to select exact frequency, if not it will cause inter-
channel cross talk in other networks.

35
Fig. 5.5 The Graph of Received Signal Against Frequency

After measuring the received signals at various levels, the received signal in decibel
(dB) was plotted against frequency. The more the distance between the transmitter
and the receiver, the signal level reduces. But when attenuation is zero, there is no
loss and the frequency will be exactly 98 MHz.

5.3 Discussion

The board used in the project is the PCB board. The active and passive are switching
device (transistor), inductors, capacitors and resistors.

Occasionally, scaling of iron bit occurs and therefore has to be cleaned with sand
paper and thinned. Obtaining the values of the inductors and setting values of the
trimming capacitors is difficult. Also, variation in transistor parameters due to
change in temperature stands as another difficulty.

36
5.4 Cost of Components and Labour

Table 5.1 Parts List

PART NUMBER QUANTITY DESCRIPTION COST (GH)


470 1 Watts Resistor 0.6

680 2 Watts Resistor 0.6


1k 1 Watts Resistor 0.6
10k 2 Watts Resistor 0.6
27k 4 Watts Resistor 0.6
47k 1 Watts Resistor 0.6
100k 1 Watts Resistor 0.6
1M 2 Watts Resistor 0.6
3-30pF 2 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
10pF 1 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
15pF 1 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
27pF 1 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
47pF 1 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
120pF 1 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
1nF 1 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
22nF 2 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
100nF 4 Ceramic Disc Capacitor 2.0
49MHz Crystal 1 Xtal (Crystal) 100.0
BC547 4 NPN General Purpose 3.0
Transistor
Bf199/2n5179 2 RF Transistor 3.0
Electret 1 Microphone 5.0
Microphone
9V DC Battery 1 5.0

37
Mini Slide 1 5.0
Switch
17cm Antenna 1 4.0
Wire
Enamelld 3.0
Copper Wire
Copper Clad 1 5.0
Board
Soldering Iron 1 4.0
Soldering Lead 6 yards 3.0
(60/40)
Enclosure/Case 1 20.0
Total 181.8

Cost of Labour = GH 100.0

Total Cost = GH 281.8

The construction of a transmitter using doublers approach reduces the number of


components and the cost of construction.

38
CHAPTER SIX

6.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

6.1 Conclusion

The performance analysis on the Audio Amplify shown in figure 5.1 and 5.2
respectively indicated that as the frequency increase the gain of the audio signal
also increased with the scale divisions. The crystal oscillator analysis using Multism
in figure 5.3 produced exact 49 MHz and the frequency doubler producing
approximate frequency of 98 MHz in figure 5.4. In other to prevent inter-channel
crosstalk of the Transmitter the selectivity analysis was done as shown in figure 5.5,
interestingly, the filter employed after the simulation at zero attenuation selected
the resting frequency of 98MHz frequency. This makes the design perfect as
selectivity is the ability of the transmitter to transmit on the exact resting
frequency. Finally, the analysis carried depicts the advantages of the Frequency
Doubler technology for FM Transmitters far outweighs that of the PLL technology
because inter-channel crosstalk is minimize as a result of perfect selectivity.

6.2 Recommendation

Communications Authorities do not tolerate interference in radio frequency


because of unwanted signals detected at the receiver end.

Interestingly, most cordless microphone employed by churches, musicians and


public address systems somehow interferes with one another. Some FM broadcast
transmitters do cause interference to each other though the frequency is locked
with PLL circuitry. This is caused by self-oscillation within the transmitter amplifiers
themselves and can be eliminated by adding bias circuit or grounding the power
supply lines. This project is to keep the frequency of a transmitter stable by using
crystal oscillator approach with minimal parts count. Self-oscillation is minimal due
to the frequency doubling approach. The success of this project will definitely

39
encourage many young engineers to develop more of half-duplex systems for
themselves as well as the nation.

40
REFERENCES

[1] Rowan Gilmore, Les Besser, Practical RF Circuits design for Modern wireless systems,
Pearson Education, Inc, New Jersey, vol. II, Nov. 2002.

[2] D.C. Green, Electronics IV Third Edition, Pearson Education, Inc, 1998.

[3] C. Arcado, Technical Standards and Operating Requirements for FM Broadcasting


Stations. Third Edition, Prentice Hall PTR, Philippines, 1991.

[4] Paul Tobin, Pspice for Analog Communication, First Edition, Artech House, Jan. 2009.

[5] Theodore Rapport, Wireless Communications Second Edition, Pearson Education, Inc,
New Jersey, 2002.

[6] Devendra K, Misra., Radio Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits Analysis
and Desig Second Edition, Wiley Interscience, pp. 7-10, 2004.

[7] E. Roland, Phased-locked loops Design, Simulation and Applications, Sixth Edition,
Irwin/Mc Graw Hill, Inc, New York, USA, 2007.

[8] Kobayashi Kei, Yamada Hirofum, Itoh Hiroshi, Horiuchi Toshihisa, Matsushige Keizumi,
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scientific instruments, IEEE, vol. 72, pp. 4383 4387, Japan, Dec., 2001.

[9] G.T. Maker, A.I.Ferguson, Synchronously pumped mod-locked dye laser pumped by a
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[10] Naicheng Shen., ErJun Zang, Jianping Cao chengyangli, Frequency Stabilization at 127I2
Doppler-broadened line Center near 532 nm using Nd: YVO4 Intra-cavity doubled lasers,
Quantum Dept., Nat. lust of Metrol, Beijing, pp. 465 466 Aug. 2002.

[11] J.R. Ashley, F.M. Palka, Reduction of FM Noise in Microwave Diode Oscillators by cavity
and injection stabilization, IEEE Microwave Symposion Digest, pp. 94 95, May 1971.

[12] H.J. Peppiatt, J.A. Hall, A.V. Mc Daniel, A low-Noise- C Oscillator using a Directional
Coupler Microwave Theory and Technique, IEEE, pp. 748 752, vol. 16, Sep. 1968.

i
[13] B. Bossard, S. J. Mehlman, and A. Newton, A Solid State, one-watt, Tunable Exciter for
the 4.4-5.0 GC Communications Band, IEEE RCA Surface communications systems
laboratories, pp. 3.3.1-1, Oct.,1963

[14] C. Greiner, B. Boggs, T. Wang, and T.W. Mossberg, Laser frequency Stabilization by
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[15] S. Wax, and M. Chodorow, Phase Modulation of a ring-laser gyropart II: Experimental
results, Quantum Electronics, IEEE, vol. 8. pp. 352 -361, Mar. 1972.

[16] S. Milki, T. Nyuji, S. Ninomiya, Thin Radio Receiver by using PLL Synthesizer Digital
tuning Techniques, Consumer Electronics, IEEE, vol. 4, pp. 597-605, Aug. 1979.

[17] M. Vanpouille, J. Marty, C. Freohly, Active Stabilization of Crystal Oscillator FM Noise at


UHF using a Di electric Resonation, Quantum Electronics, IEEE, vol.2. pp. 192-194, Jan
1986, USA.

[18] V. Thompson, Optical Frequency Inter-modulation between two pico-second laser


pulses, Photonic Society, IEEE, vol. 22.pp. 192-194, USA.

[19] M. Driscoll, Oscillator AM to FM Noise conversion due to the dynamic frequency


drive sensitive of the crystal resonator , Frequency Controlled Symposium, IEEE, pp. 672
676, United Kingdom.

[20] W.S. Djen, P.M. Shah, , Implementation of a 900 MHz Transmitter System using highly
integrated ASIC, Vehicular Technology conference, IEEE, vol.2, pp. 1341 1345, Jun.
1994, Canada.

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Butterworth Heinemann, Dec. 2004, United Kingdom

[23] K. Devendra, M. Misra, Radio Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits,


Analysis and Design, Second Edition, John Wiley Interscience, pp. 7-10, 2004, Carlifornia,
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ii
[24] M. David, H. Pozar, Microwave and RF wireless systems, Third Edition, John Wiley and
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[25] John G. Proakis, Masoud Salehi, Communication System Engineering Second Edition,
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[27] Stan Amos, Mike James, Principles of Transistor Circuits, Introduction to Design of
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iii
GLOSSARY

FM Frequency Modulation

MHz Mega Hertz

Hz Hertz

CB Citizen Band

TV Television

AF Audio Frequency

PLL Phase Lock Loop

PCB Printed Circuit Board

RF Radio Frequency

AM Amplitude Modulation

MIC Microphone

R Resistor

C Capacitor

L Inductor

ECM Electrets Condenser Microphone

JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor

ADC Analogue-to- Digital Converter

SPL Sound Pressure Levels

dB Decibel

SNR Signal to Noise Ratio


iv
AC Alternating Current

VHF Very High Frequency

Z Impedance

Vb Base Voltage

Ant. Antenna

X Reactance

C.R.O Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

v
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE TITLE PAGE

3.1 Transistor Test Step (a) and (b) 12

3.2 Test Setup for Microphone 13

3.3 Test Setup for Crystal Oscillator 13

4.1 Diagram showing some Components 15

4.2 Impedance Diagram 15

4.3 Diagram showing different type of transistor 16

4.4 Circuit symbol for BJT Transistor 16

4.5 Resistors in series 19

4.6 Resistors in parallel 19

4.7 Voltage Divider Network 20

4.8 Block Diagram of Crystal locked Bug FM transmitter 20

4.9 Complete Circuit Diagram of the FM Diagram 21

4.10 Circuit Diagram for the Audio Amplifier 22

4.11 Pin Connection and symbol of BF199 Transistor 23

4.12 Pin Connection and Symbol of the BC547 NPN General Purpose
Transistor 24

4.13 Basic Frequency Modulator 26

4.14 Circuit Diagram for the Modulator 26

4.15 Ac Impedance Network 27

vi
4.16 DC Bias Circuit 28

4.17 Frequency Doubler Circuit 29

5.1 Input and Output Frequency at 4 KHz 32

5.2 Input and Output Frequency at 10 KHz 33

5.3 Diagram showing Modulator Frequency and output waveform34

5.4 Frequency Doubler Waveform 35

5.5 The graph of received Signal against Frequency 36

vii
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE

5.1 Part List 38

viii
APPENDIX

APPENDIX A PCB LAYOUT

ix
APPENDIX B CIRCUIT LAYOUT

x
APPENDIX C MATLAB CODES

clc;
close all;
clear all;
t=88:1:96
d=-10:1:-2
plot(t,d)
d1=-2:0.0001:0
t1=96:0.0001:98
hold on
plot(t1,d1)
t2=98:0.0001:100
d2=0:-0.0001:-2
hold on
plot(t2,d2)
t3=100:1:108
d3=-2:-1:-10
hold on
plot(t3,d3)

xi