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PRESENTATION TOPICS • Biological nitrogen fixation and bio-fertilizers. • Farm yard manure and other organic fertilizers. • Mycorrhizal associations and their significance. • Economic implications of nutrient management. • Importance of renewable waste and their recycling.
MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE.
• Mycorrhiza -introduction • Major benefits the seedlings derive from mycorrhizae • Environmental factors and management practices that affect mycorrhizal fungus populations and their subsequent development • Methods to foster mycorrhiza development in bareroot nurseries. • Methods for artificially inoculating seedlings with selected, highly beneficial mycorrhizal fungi.
MYCORRHIZA • Term mycorrhiza was coined by Frank • Mycorrhiza is a Greek word meaning ‘fungus-root’ • Mycorrhiza involves the intimate association of plant roots with specialised soil fungi. • Mutualistic symbioses • Considered as an extension root system • Fine network of fungus threads (hyphae) explores and extracts nutrients from a volume of soil far beyond the bounds of the roots' capabilities. .
providing simple sugars and possibly other compounds derived from host photosynthates .• Many of these nutrients are translocated through the hyphal network to the mycorrhizae. the host serves as primary energy source for the fungus. • In exchange. where they are released to the roots for host utilization. .
often forming a thick mantle around them. penetrating between the cortical cells to form an interconnecting network called the Hartig net. • A dense mold like fungal growth is visible in the soil when seedlings are lifted if ectomycorrhizae are abundant • Fungus enter the root.ECTOMYCORRHIZAE • The fungi colonize the surfaces of the short feeder roots. • It is within this extensive hypha-root cell contact zone that nutrient exchange occurs. . • Ectomycorrhizae can be seen with the unaided eye or a hand lens because many are white or brightly colored.
thereby increasing the root's absorptive surface. • Branching patterns of ectomycorrhizae are often host determined and are therefore characteristic of the hostseedling species.• The fungi produce plant hormones that stimulate root branching and elongation. .
ECTENDOMYCORRHIZAE • A subtype of ectomycorrhizae • Ectendomycorrhizae branch like ectomycorrhizae but lack root hairs • It forms Hartig net • The fungi also penetrate scattered cortical cells .
intracellular structures which partake in nutrient exchange. short-lived. • They form the characteristic vesicles and arbuscules for which the mycorrhiza is named. • Vesicles are storage organs containing carbohydrates and also serve as reproductive structures. .VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE • Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae cannot differentiate morphologically from nonmycorrhizal roots • Roots must be selectively stained to highlight the fungus within and then examined microscopically to determine its presence and structure. • Arbuscules are very finely branched.
• Instead. mostly soil-borne. • Unlike ectomycorrhizal fungi. • VA fungus spores cannot be dispersed for long distances by air movement • Spore dispersal is limited primarily to mechanical movement of soil.• The main portion of the VA fungus lies outside the root. • This has high relevance in the management of VAM fungi . VA fungi do not produce large mushroom-like reproductive structures. exploring the surrounding soil for nutrients and translocating them to the roots. globose spores. they produce large.
especially Phosphorus • They take up water and increase drought resistance of young seedlings • Some mycorrhizal fungi can also detoxify certain soil toxins • It enable seedlings to withstand high soil temperatures or extreme acidity • Some mycorrhizal fungi can protect roots against certain pathogens Eg: mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata. has been shown to protect feeder roots from Fusarium infection .BENEFITS OF MYCORRHIZAE • Enhanced uptake of nutrients.
resulting in serious financial and reforestation setbacks. • Such seedlings are stunted. chlorotic. • Nurseries developed away from native forests or on new ground with no history of ectomycorrhizal hosts can experience mycorrhiza deficiency.FACTORS INFLUENCING MYCORRHIZA • Mycorrhiza development in nurseries is affected by several biologic and environmental factors • Nurseries established in forest zones or surrounded by ectomycorrhizal hosts usually produce seedlings with abundant and diverse ectomycorrhizae. and severely nutrient deficient .
resulting in substantial growth loss the first growing season. such spores are returned to fumigated beds only movement of spore-containing soil by machines and on shoes. • Fumigation can cause a lengthy delay in mycorrhiza development.fumigation with methyl bromide/chloropicrin gases usually eliminates mycorrhizal fungus populations along with targeted pests.• Soil fumigation . • Soil fumigation is particularly devastating to VA mycorrhizal Fungi • Because VA fungus spores are not dispersed by air. once the population is eliminated. .
• Douglas-fir and true firs appear especially mycorrhiza dependent and show symptoms of mycorrhiza deficiency more quickly than pines.• Different tree species vary in susceptibility to mycorrhiza deficiency. .
Nursery soil system • Nursery soils that are good for tree seedling growth are also good for mycorrhiza development on those seedlings. • Good organic matter content. • Effects of fertilization on mycorrhiza formation. and adequate but not excessive nutrient levels are all associated with good mycorrhiza formation . good drainage.they become suppessed with addition of high concentrations of inorganic fertilizer . good tilth.
Selective biocides can be used instead of or in conjunction with soil fumigation. on the other hand. Herbicides do not generally appear to depress mycorrhiza formation and in some cases even seem to increase it. possibly by increasing exudation of sugars from roots Weed control Management thus seems compatible with mycorrhiza Insecticides and nematicides at field-application levels generally appear not to harm mycorrhizae or depress mycorrhiza formation. are inhibitory . Some fungicides.
recolonization of beds can be slow and the tree crop accordingly poor.• Crop rotation : Switching rotations from ectomycorrhizal to VA mycorrhizal trees can produce mycorrhiza deficiency because the fungi of the two mycorrhizal types are totally different. • Because spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi do not disperse by air. .
• These hyphae will regrow but at the cost of seedling-produced energy that would otherwise have been available to increase seedling size. but they cost seedling energy. and transporting seedlings should be performed with care to minimize damage to the fine-root system. and mowing are not known to inhibit mycorrhiza formation. • Mycorrhizae destroyed by rough handling. undercutting. storing. . • Practices such as wrenching break up much of the nutrient-absorbing network of fragile hyphae that grow from the mycorrhizae into surrounding soil. desiccation. packing. or heating will have to be replaced at the planting site at a cost of seedling energy and nutrients. • Procedures such as lifting. sorting.Seedling manipulations • Procedures such as wrenching.
1.MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATIONS IN BAREROOT NURSERIES • To eliminate potential or current mycorrhiza deficiencies or • To improve outplanting performance of seedlings. • Several procedures are available for introducing mycorrhizal fungi. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation 2. VAM Inoculation .
. 3. 2.ECTOMYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION Four primary sources of ectomycorrhizal inoculum are available 1. Use of nurse seedlings Spores and sporocarps Pure fungus cultures • Each has advantages and disadvantages • Nursery managers should carefully weigh each option before selecting which approach best suits their needs. 4. Soil inoculum.
Drawback • Collection and transportion the large quantities of soil needed for inoculation • Weed seeds.SOIL INOCULUM The most commonly used and the most reliable method of inoculation • Forest soil taken from beneath ectomycorrhizal hosts. • About 10% by volume of soil inoculum is incorporated into approximately the top 10 cm of nursery-bed soil before sowing or transplanting • Inoculation of new or fumigated beds by soil taken from established beds is also feasible. and potential pathogens maybe introduced along with the beneficial fungi . rhizomes.
"NURSE" SEEDLINGS • Planting mycorrhizal "nurse" seedlings from which the fungus can spread and colonize new seedlings • Chopped roots of ectomycorrhizal hosts into nursery beds can also provide a source of ectomycorrhizal fungus inoculum. Disadvantage • Mycorrhizal colonization may spread slowly and unevenly • The large "nurse" seedlings can interfere with cultural practices • The risk of introducing unwanted pests .
and truffles) of some ectomycorrhizal fungi provide an excellent source of natural inoculum. spraying.SPORES AND SPOROCARPS • Spores and chopped sporocarps (mushrooms. . coating seeds. puffballs. and applying in a hydromulch. • Large quantities of spores can be easily collected • Variety of application methods are available including dusting.
usually from a sporocarp or. occasionally. directly from its ectomycorrhiza .PURE FUNGUS CULTURES • Pure cultures of ectomycorrhizal fungi specially selected. beneficial • A pure culture of a specific fungus is first isolated.
• Effectiveness in forming mycorrhizae • Special ecological adaptations • Competitive ability • Host range • Improved seedling performance in plantations .Selection criteria • Good growth in culture: relatively fast-growing isolates are preferred.
• This presents a major obstacle to aseptic mass production of VA mycorrhizal fungi for large -scale nursery inoculations. 1.VAM INOCULATION • VA mycorrhizal fungi have not yet been isolated and grown in pure culture • They must be attached symbiotically to their hosts to grow and reproduce. Pot-cultured inoculum . Soil and root inoculum 2.
redwoods.SOIL AND ROOT INOCULUM • Incorporate soil (plus root fragments) taken from under VA mycorrhizal hosts. sweetgums. and several herbs and shrubs can form VA mycorrhizae with cedars.VAM associated with grasses. • Locating soil with VA mycorrhizal fungi is relatively easy. • VA mycorrhizal fungi show little or no host specificity . and maples. . Drawback • The risk of introduction of pests • Need to move large quantities of soil can be impractical. legumes.
mycelium. the fungus will established its hyphae-soil network and will produce more spores. . the soil containing spores.POT CULTURE INOCULUM • Refined techniques to multiply and introduce selected VAM fungi through pot culturing • • • • • • Soil-borne spores of VAM are collected Spores are then surface sterilized and mixed with sterilized soil A host plant is grown in this inoculated soil As host roots penetrate the inoculated substrate Spores germinate and colonize the roots to form mycorrhizae After about 4 to 6 months. and colonized root fragments can be used to inoculate nursery or field crops. • Once such pot cultures are established.
bands should be placed in an area of root proliferation. or mixtures and thus offer the greatest benefit to the targeted host species.Effective when inoculum quantities are limited . . usually about 5 to 15 cm from seedlings or seeds.Placing inoculum in layers or pads directly beneath seeds where developing roots will penetrate the inoculum is the most effective. • Inoculum can be banded or side dressed next to seeds or seedlings . • Inoculum can be applied with commercial tractor-drawn seeders or fertilizer banders • Seed has been pelleted with VA fungus inoculum .large amounts of inoculum are needed to obtain rapid root colonization. Application of VA inoculum • VA fungus inoculum can be broadcast into seedbeds .Pot culturing also affords the opportunity to select species. strains. • Layering of inoculum has been successful for peach and citrus .For best results.
FERTILIZATION IN FOREST NURSERY • Fertilization of nursery soils is necessary to replace lost nutrients • Fertilizers can be organic (such as compost or manure) or inorganic • The concentrations of nutrient elements in organic fertilizers are usually low • Inorganic fertilizers. contain high nutrient . concentrations.
can increase pore space and counteract the negative impacts of compaction. .and micro-nutrients. • OM have favorable influences on soil chemical and physical properties. • Incorporation of OM.ORGANIC FERTILISERS • Compared to agricultural crops. organic matter (OM) is depleted much more rapidly in forest seedling nurseries as the entire plant is removed at the end of the growing cycle. • Organic fertilizers act as a slow-release fertilizer • Provide plants with essential macro.
• This will optimise nutrient placement and minimise nutrient-loss beyond the root zone of establishing trees. .• Incorporation of slow release fertilisers into the nursery medium significantly improve the growth trees in the plantation.
Sesbanea aculeata.GREEN MANURE CROPS • Green manure crops are important in bare root nursery • Enrich organic matter content of soils. Indigifera tinctoria • Non legume – Cannabis sativa . • Legumes .supply both OM and fix N • Protect the soil from erosion • Green manure crop can be incorporated into the soil at optimum C:N ratio • Important green manure crop : Crotolaria juncea.
COMPOST • Compost produced from weed and coir pith used for root trainer seedling production. COMPOST PRODUCTION BY AEROBIC PROCESS USING WEED • • • • • Weeds are harvested during June .September Harvested weeds are chopped into 1-1.25m) height in shed with overhead protection from sun and rain .5cm pieces Keep it for 1 or two days to reduce MC Spray with water and mix thoroughly by turning over Chopped weeds are arranged into heaps of ( 2m width x 1.
5cm x2. (1kg Urea per Tone of fresh weed ) • Spray optimum quantity of water in each layer Comopst processing • Within 2 to 3 days temperature inside the heap will rise • When temperature exceed 60 0c the compost heap should be turned over (once in a day or two) • Sprinkle the water while turning • The number of turning required is 20 or more depending on plant sp used and season of composting • Curing for one month and air drying under shade for one day • Sieving (16 -25 mesh per 2.• Urea amendment is sprinkled uniformly in between 15cm thick layers of weed during initial heaping.5cm size ) • Store it in gunny bags .
• Enviornment friendly • Low cost • Non bulky .BIOFERTILISERS • Biofertilizers are fertilizers containing living microorganisms. which increase microbial activity in the soil. • Biofertilizers encompass the formulation of nitrogen fixing microorganisms. phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and cellulolytic microorganisms.
about 30 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) are generated in India . • Urban population increasing between 3 – 3.5% per annum • Per capita waste generation in India is 5 kg per day • Yearly increase in waste generation is around 5% annually • Each year. and changes in the pattern of civic life have resulted in the generation of enormous quantities of wastes in the urban and industrial areas of the country. industrialization.RENEWABLE WASTE AND THEIR RECYCLING • Rapid urbanization.
45% • These percentages vary from city to city depending on food habits .10% = 40% .CHARACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE • Compostable / Bio-degradable = 30% .55% matter (can be converted into manure) • Inert material ( go to landfill ) • Recyclable materials (Recycling) = 5% .
PRESENT STATUS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT • Storage of waste at source is lacking • Domestic waste thrown on streets • Construction debris left unattended • Bio-medical waste disposed in municipal waste stream • Industrial waste disposed of in open areas • Segregation of recyclable waste at source not done • Primary collection of generation waste not done at place of .
2004). .RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSAL • WASTE TO COMPOST (i) (ii) AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING VERMI-COMPOSTING • Seedling could not establish when fresh garbage is used • Favorable effect on germination and growth in Dalbergia latifolia when 4 weeks decomposed municipal waste is used as potting media (Sreelekha.
2004.M and Landis. MSc Thesis. Dr.References • Dureya. A.2004. Text book of silviculture. Forest Nursery Manual.T. Effect of municipal garbage on the growth and vigour of Rosewood(Dalbergia latifolia) seedling in nursery. 211. Junk Publishers. College of Forestry. . 82 -88 pp. Netherlands.P. L. 1984.223 pp. Kerala Agricultural university. • Dwivedi. • Sreelekha. Dehradun . W. International book distributors.T. P. D.
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