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Introduction to

Adwaita Vedanta
in Telugu
By Swamy Paramarthananda
Translated by Smt.Madduri Rajya Sri

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
d<e des+u+
X+s#s eT<e+
nd<#s |s++
e+< >TsT |s+|syT
01. |sTcseTT\T
u< y<+ #+<TT+~. n~ d+d + X+s#s# *+#&q
eTTKyTq, b<$T e#q e+. +<T k<sD+> eTq Xk y& eTTKyTq
|<\ eksTT. eTq Xk\ ` n~ u>eBZ , |wT\T , |sD\T
, sejTD+ ` #<y\+f |<\ ns+ \TdTy*q neds+ m+H
+~. @ XkH H eTq+ d]>Z ns+ #dTy\+f eTq+ |<\ D+> ns+
#dT y*.
u< q n+X\+{ >T]+ = |d+ >\ |s+|s #<+. +<T
n+X\+{ $e]+#yT , = = n+X\qT L& #<+. MT
n< y<++ u> nseTe{. eTT+<T> |sTcs\+f @$T{ #<+.
eTqTw \\T :
|sTcs\q |< eTq+ eTq Xk s#T #k+. n+<T < d]>Z
ns+ #dT y*. |sTcs\+f eTqTw \\T. |sTw: n+f eTqTw&T ` d >,
|sTw&T >. n+<T B eTqTcs\T> nqTe~+#e#T. ns: n+f d+d+
nH ns\THsTT. ns: ns+, nsyT , ns: n+f Xs+ L&.
d+<s + ns: n+f \+, >eT+.
nsjT dsV eTqTw V bs ns:
<H | eqe&T sT& n~ ns: | eTqTw& < sT&T? s
s\ \\T+{sTT =]. { @ eqe \HH ns: n+{sT. s+&T
|<\ *| eqe \\T n ns+.

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Xd+ |sTcs+ + ns+ L& +~. d+<s + |sTcs+ n+f
#. + d+<s + |sTcs+ n+f mqTe+. + d+<s+ |jT +
n L& edT+~. n+f #, mqTe+, |jT + ` |sTcs+ ~rjT ns+.
b<$T ns+ ` eqe \+ < eqe >eT+. \\T eTqTw\T>
k~+#*qy. +Te\, e\ ~ k<+ <T. |sTcs\T n+<TuT
+&+ e\ eTqTw&T +Te\T < # qT+ $_q+> H&T. M{e q
n JesdT\ H q+> H&T.
eTqTw\ | `
eTqTw\ eyT m+<T HsTT |sTcs\T? eTw @ X
| neX sTT+~, |sTcs\T sTe{? eTqTw\T mH n+X\
+Te\, # b* Hs Xk\T |\TTHsTT. q JesX\ eTqTw
\ eT< k<s+ +~. eTw eyT y&>\ | \D+ +~.
|sTcs\T. $wjT + n+<yTq X+ #|&+~.
Vs < ujT yT<Tq+#
keqyT Y |X_sqY sDyT
T~: wyT n~ $Xw:
T< $Vq: |X_sY deq:
eTqTw\L, q JesX\L = n+X\ b*\THsTT. n+<s V
s+ ssT.|{q|{qT+ Vs+ d+ yT +T+~. n> <, ujT +,
e+X_e~ L& n+<] +T+~. #H X, $#DX, ns+ #dT H
X, u$wTqT }V+# X, eTT+<T#| +{$ +&+ e\ eTw q Jes
X\H qT&j&T. u$wT d+ |D[\T yjT +, u$wT u>T+&\
w| &+ n+ $#DX +< edT+~. <H eTq+ T~ n+{+. T~sYw +
n~ $Xw: B eTqq n~ X. e\+ T~ e eTw q y{H qT
&j &T. T< $Vq ` T~ b < < y&b, |Xe deq+.n+<T
e\ $#DX eTqTw\ $Xw+> +~. | yT q X e eTq+ djT+
|u, djT+ sjT + #dT >\T>TTH+.q y] eTq b\T>\T>TTH+.
$ |X|<T\T #jT e.

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&>c @ u> <T#s |]o*ksT. \ # nH >s&
\T #sTT+ y{ +>sT, y+&, s |*ksT . *+|> y |
kq+, | yTMT< \ue#T L&. \ uy +{sTT? y{
+>sT | + eH n$ b+be. sbsTTH +be. n$ H\T jT
#, nue+> sTT, n #ksTT n+. C @+ sT>TT+< y{+ ns+
e. , \ jTe e+ +| +T+~. n+<Te\ H T~
$Xw \DyTq +|qT |+ djT+ sjT +, {y] b\Te+ \T>
#dT +~.
u$wY d+ |D[ yjT+ ~ T~ X jTT + dV \D+.djT+ |u
qT+ u$wY + yTsT>Z +&\ sT+{qT. u$wT yTsT>Z +&+
d+,eTq+ |D[\T yjT + yTT<{+. |D[\qT nH s\T> $u+#
e#T. Bs* |D[\T, |dT |D[\T, b<$T |D[\T, ~rjT |D[
\T. e\+ eTqTw $X+ d+ |D[\T yjT>\sT. q JesX\ J$+
n+sT ~ <s q&TdT+~. eTqTw\ L& n+sT ~ +T+~ >, <H
me> y mqTH X +T+~. n+<Te\, eTqTw\T nH \\qT mqT
+{sT. \\+{ |sTcs\+{sT.
#T]< |sTcs\T:
n+{ \\T m k<+ nq |X <sTTdT+~ y+H. y{ #|
b, nq++> kbT+~ |{. eTq+ y{q+{ H\T>T \\T> &]
keTT. y{ eTq+ #T ]< |sTcs\+{+. @ \+ rdTH H\T+{
< edT+~.
@$T{ H\T>T \\T?
ns: yTT<{ \+ ns: n~ J$+ # s> yTT<\eT+~. ns: n+f
u< ue+. MT u< d+ MTsT d]+#<+ u< +< edT+~. n+f H
<X+, e\+ uyT q d+ |{q|{ qT+N, | Jes, eTqTw\
dV , @<$<+> Jeq+ =qk+#\q ] +T+~. MT uyT q d+
#d<yT H ns: +< edT+~. ~ eTq nu< uy =\dT+~. @$T$?

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Vs+, , >&T, s>+. |{q|{ qT+N Vs+ d+ ned yTT<\e
T+~. s |]ds\ qT+ Xs d+s+#Ty* +T+~. eTq Xs
b&Te{ nH s\ <TdT\T HsTT. ss \ <TdT\ n_e]+#{
nH |yTq |\THsTT.
eTq+ <]+# V{ L& u< dyT . sT +& dTu u< dyT .
~# yVq+ q&||&T eTT |TH =&T>T MT u< dyT . jT{
\Tw+ MT #s L&<H sT msTTsY +&wq sY |T+{sT. nH s\ s>\
u]q |&+& C> |&sT. eTT+<T> D u< d+ bT|&, s u$w
Y u< d+ bT|&sT. n+f e<|+ d+ C>| &sT. |Ps\+ e<
|+ n+& |\\T. q ejTdT +&, , eTTKyTq$. s >&T, s>+
eTTKeTesTT. < >ZT> eTqeTT y{ @ss#T+{eTT. nqT+& ]>
|e<\ >T]+ ujT|&eTT. n+<T nH J$ ;e\T rdT+{eTT.
d+b~+q edTe\ u<|s# Ty*, MT \qT C>> +#Te+ d+,
eTq+ yw+> $TwH =qTy*.eT yw+> $TwH $<T# ds| s V#T>TZ\
b&e+& +&+ d+, d_sY =qTy*. n+f eTq \T +
n+f y{ u<d+ yw+> $TwH =HsT.< s yw+> $TwH u< d+
d_ sY =HsT. n+f u<, u< d+ u<, u< d+ u< d+ u<.
eTq sTT\T u< dT+~. sTT+{ u< >T]+q ujT + =B eTq+ u<
d+~ |T+{eTT. < sTT nq++> kbT+~. < J$+ n+f,
B eTq+ @e+ #q +& >&|dTH+.
eTq J$+ eTTb e+T u< #Ls+ >& |dTHeTT. <+
1.1 ns|sTcs: nujT b|s+ n+f ujT+ qT+ $eTT d+.+Te\ u<
y*. y{ n+sT ~ #|+~ C>. <e&T y{ | <s#&T. n$
&CqsY <TdT\T <]+#qKs <T.
1.2 eT: ` s \+, eT |sTcs: k] u< @ss#TH, eTq+
eT |sTcs+ >T]+ k+. eT: n+f n s\ kU\T. ~ u< <T,
ds< #+~q~. kU\T +f J$+ n<T<+> +T+~. H eTqT>& kU

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\T , ds< \T neds+ <T. n+<T n$ ns |sTcs\T e, eT |sT
cs\esTT. H VsTT>, q+<+> +&\ +T+~. b\T, {M s
e\T, H\T, de\ +{$ e #+~q$. k] H #TT|\e
q+~+#k, H $dT>T|{, |s< X\ y\qT+{qT. |sTcs n+
b+ +&<T.
|Xe\ L& kK+ y* kK+ n+sT ~ eTT&|&+~. m+&>
+f, +Te\T dV+>, n+sT~ |s|D & ysTT. eTw q
q+< q T~ |D[ #dT +{&T. n+f @+ #d q+<+ \T>TT+<
n~ #k&T. eq $T+f, #eT+~ <H>eTq w n+T+& +&
+ y q deTjTeT+ <q+ y+ |]>&yT d]bT+~. n+f ns |sT
cs+H d]bT+~,eT |sTcs+ >T]+ +# r] +&<T.
1.3 <s: ` B q& Xs+> e]+#e#T. BH n<w+ n L& n+{sT.
~ +{ q&+& eTq J$ s dT+~. n<c eTq+ dHsZ+ q&
e+ <s b+<e#T. BH |D+ n+{sT.
eTq+ |Psq q&q <s esZ nqTd]+# q @s&TT+~. n+f
eTq |T, eTq *<+&T\T, eTq+ |]>#T yM eTq # e.eTq |Psq
n<c { eTq+ Xs+ eTT \T+, < ;<]+ c\T |&+.
eTq u$wT eTq #T +~. eTq+ u\+ q&q rsT, n+f eTq+
<sesZ+ nse\qT b+<{ |jTd, eTq u$wT +> +T+~.
n+<T <s L& |sTcs+> ssTT+#sT.
n+<T nseT <s\, <sse\+{sT. n+f eT&+{ <s +
dyTqB,# Xe+yT qB L&. eT&T |sTcs\ *| |jTdt n+{sT.
u>: n L& n+{sT. y\, |jT+ #d, |D[\T yd k~+# |sTcs\
|jTdt n, esZ |j esZeT n+{sT.
1.4 y: ` ~ H\T> |sTcs+. B eTT n XjT : n L& n+{sT.
eTT nH~ n+sZ d#. +<+ qT+ $eTT. |jTdT < <sse\
qT+ eTT.
eTw |jTdT , <H > m +B ne&T? edTe >,
e > eTq s+&T s\T> +B #jT e#T.

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eTq+ n$T+> s edTe >, n$T+> |$T+# e > <syT,
m&uT T u<|&eTT. $<yTq XSque+ \T>TT+~. +{]
q+ eTT|]>=+T+~.
n n, +f |> +{e? nB <T. ]q e <>Zs H L&
nu<ue+. b>=T+{yTyqq +, #|qT #jT b ~>T\T.
H bsTTH u~+#~ @$T{? | eT&T |sTcs\. &T b d+
b~+#\q |q, +f nu< ueq. M{ sD >T]+ |H eTq M{ u
d #dT+~.
y |sTcs+ eTq ud qT+ k$T #dT +~. n+f deT ueq \T>
#dT +~. deT+ n+f edTe\T bsTTH +bjT<T, H ujT |&jT<T.
<sse\T H f, bsTTH f. ~ n+sZ+ > X, |]|
dT+~.
yTT<{ eT&T |sTcs\ <s`ns`e\T |jTdt eksTT.n$ eTw
d+ks+ +~ksTT. y |sTcs+ XjTdt edT+~. n~ d+ks+<+ qT+
$eTTdT+~.
H\T+{ *| #T ]< |sTcs\T n+{sT.
|PseT<: |Ps$T<+
|Ps |PseTT<#
|Psd |Pse<jT
|PsyTy ew.
z+ X+ X+ X+:
****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
2 Xd+:
d+d + eTq q >+<\ $es\ $V+> MD+ #<eTT. yTT+
>+<\+{ *| Xd+ n+{sT. Xd+ |<+ Xdt nq <Te qT+ e+~.
< s+&T ns\T HsTT. Xd+#+, u~+#+. n+<Te\ Xd+ n+f yTT<{
eqeC Xd+, s u~dT+~ n ns+. Xd+, u~+#+ e\
eqy[ nH deTd\ qT+ b&TT+~. n+f b&TT+~. XdHY
jT Xd+ eqy[ deTd\ qT+ yTT< Xdq+ <s, s u<q
<s b&~ Xd+.
X+s#sT\ ysT Xk * b\TksT. |\y& $wjT + ns+ #dTH |]|
d n XddT +~ *. nedsyT u~]dT+~ L&. \yT | u<q
#jT +, q##|+, CH<<jT + \>CjT +, qksTT rdT+ #dT +~.
e eTq Xd+ #dT +~. Xk sTksTT\T> $u+#e#T.
2.1 y<\T ` <w:
yTTyT T<{ Xk y<\T n+{sT. y< # |< >+<\T. sesTT y\
|\T eT+\THsTT n+<T. eTq H\T>T y<\THsTT.
1. TT><+ 2. jTEs<+ 3. keTy<+ 4. n<s Dy<+
TT><+ TT>eT+\THsTT. n$ |<s|+ HsTT. jTEs<+
jTEsYeT+\T ><s|+ HsTT.keTy<+ keT eT+\T ^s|+
HsTT. usrjT d+^+ keTy<+ qT+ |{+~. keTy< |sH keT>q+
n+{sT. n<s D y< n<s TTw, n+^sd TTw sTT#sT. n+<T B n<s
y<+ n L& n+{sT.
y<\ eyT eT++ nq |<+ b&eTT. eTqHY jT eT+:.
eTqq+n+f $XwD . jT n+f $Xw d n~ sdT+~. eTq d+|<jT+ e\+
eT+\ |]+H L& n~ eTq sdT +~. y<\+f CH eT\+. $< nH
<e qT+ e+~ y<+. y<+ n+f $Cq K.

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y<q k<qY y<:
|eDY y<:
y<\ s#sTT mesT? y<\T nbsTwjT+. n+f |sTw&T (eTw) mes
sjT<T. n$ <e& sTT#&T. n+f eTq+ s#sTT e{&\+f <e& e{
&*. <e&T eTw | +> e<T. e<eT+ <s sTT#&T.n~ TTwjT :
(TTw\T) <e& ys|ks+<+> rdT+f TTw\T n+<TH <s<s H> rdT
e#T. TTw |<+ TTwt ` \TdTe+ qT+ e+~. TTw CH TTw',
eTq eTqdT\T n+<Te s+>\. <s<s H @ #H H #d #H
edT+ ~. n> <e&T y<u< dwbT sTT#&T. TTw\T eyT n~
n+<TH | ksTT HsT.yq d >TD+, $Xw b<T < sD+.
n m+<s TTw\T eT+\ n+<THsT. eTq+ y<eT+ |]+#
|&T, TTw |Ps+> \TkeTT. sp #d d+<e+<q+ L&
eT&T \TkeTT.
d$jT TTw: $X$T: (T\d |T+{+ TTw \T#T+)
#TY >jTr #+<: (H{ eTTT+{+ #+<dT \T#T+)
d$ <e: (eT++ eq <$ \T#T+)
n+f TTw ` #+<: <e dsD+ ` eT&T |d]> #j*.
@<H y<eT++ |]+#eTT+<T TTw eT+ n+<TH& ns+. n+<T
TTw\ eT+ <w: n+{sT. eT+ n+<Tqy, y s+#<T. <
dw+#<T. y{ dw++~ dws |se .
j VD+ $<< |Ps+
j y y<+X |VD d
y<\T Xs |+H n+<T&sTT. n$ *|Ps+> e. n+<T w\T
$ HsT y |, sd~ <T. n$ s| s+ |s> e#sTT { y{ X n
L& n+{sT.
>TsTkY XSjT X'
>TsT |<Xq XSjT X'

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$q+ <s n+<Tq~. B y<+ n, eT++ n, X n n+{sT. nbsT
wjT |eD+ n L& n+{sT. nbsTwjT n+f eTw s+# |eD+ n+f
Cq+ b+< esZ+. eTq q >+<\ y<|eD+ MT< <s|& HsTT {
eTq k+|<j y~ k+|<jT+ n, eTq y~\ n+{sT. V+<Te\+
nq e s|& e+~.
2.1.1 y<+ u>\T
y< |Psu>+: yTT<{ eT&T |sTcs\T b+<{ &&TT+~. eTq
<s|& J$+ MT< yCe. eTq+ eTqTw\T, edTe\T, &T n m{MT<
<s|&+, eTq u< d+, eTq q+<+ d+. y< |Psu>+ &T d+b~+
# esZ\T, T+ Jeq+, b|+ $<, nH $wj \T u~dT +~.
eTT #b\+f ~ |jTdt >T]+ #|+~. ~ s |<q+>, bdq |<
q+> +T+~.
y< n+ u>+ :
eTw <s|&+ eHd, d# ], y< n+u>+ < esZ+ #|
T+~. ~ XjT dt >T]+ #|+~. y<+ < b{+#eT #|<T. eTqH @ esZ+
y mqTeT+T+~. H\T> |sTcsyT q y+ b+<{ ~ &&TT+~.
~ Cq |<q+> +T+~. H\T>T y<\ n++ +{sTT { y<++
n+{sT. |wT \ L& n+{sT. $ # HsTT. n+<T |<q+> |~
|wT \ X+s#s uw+ sksT.
2.2. ~rjT >+<\T
b<$T >+<\T H\T>T y<\T. n$ nbsTwjT+. H\T>T y<\ $e
]+, $&eT] #|{, eTq mH ~rjT >+<\THsTT. y{ >=| #sT\T
s+#sT. n+<T y{ bsTwjT Xd+ n+{sT.
~rjT >+<\T m+<T? y<+ #\<? y< uy\T dw+> +&e.
y{ dw+> #|{ ys >+<\T y*. |\y& { #| *jT<T.
ns{| +&, e$T&|+& #|+#*. n> y<+ #|q $wj\ <\
s|+ u~+#*. + sD+ ` y< u~+q$ eT|< e. n~
n&$+{~.n+<T Ls\T, |P\T, |+&T+{$ HsTT. # e.

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H\T>T Xe eTw #]+#*q <s\T HsTT. # |<>
e. ~rjT >+<\T | #ksTT.
2.2. d\T
d\T n+f q |<y , yy +T+~.
ns+ nd+~>+ kseY $XeTTK+.
d y< u< +T+~ > +T+~. y< ##<TsT> q
nH d\. ~ nH n+X\ +< @], # LsTT+~.
<sd ` e b{+#*q $\Te\T, <s\T, u<\T
>Vd` e qT+ T+ ksTT $\Te\T, <s\T, u<\T
X d` T++ qT+ de ksTT $\Te\T, <s\T, u<\T
de XjT dT d+ #d keTV |P\T, T e\T, <s\T. eTw
M{ <qT+ $&b&T.nqT e, T+ duT&T, d+|TJ$ L&.
eTq mH d\T HsTT. m+<s TTw\T M{ sTT#sT. <VsD..
>eT d, |d+u d. |sXs d e>s. y<\ <e& d, d
\ TTw\T &]+#sT. n+f |<\T s#sTT\$, |<s+ y<+$.
d+ #d sTT+| dw #Ls+. y< @yH dw+> bsTTH,
|sd s $sT<+> |+H, y{ dw #LsTdT+~. d+ n+f <s+ n
ns+ +~. Xd+ y< q nH n+X\ = <s+ >T#TT+~.
y< y dTeT ><HsY dHyT. dTe\ @] (&]+)
<+&> >T#TT+~.
2.3 d
~ k<sD+> |<s|+ +T+~. d n+f >TsT+#Tq Cq+. n+
f TTw\T y<q, dq HsT q CH eT $es+> sksT . d
\+f # q y\T. d =+#+ $es+> +T+~. d L& &
]+#+, dw #Ls+ #dT +~. <:eTqTd , |sXsd , je\ d
e>s.n+<T L& nH n+X\T n+<+> $e]ksT . dw, $<], >VdT, d+|T
J$, d, |sTw&T. n{ >T]+N +T+~. d L& e +{sTT.

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n$ > +&+ e\ k] ns+ dw+> *jTbe#T. n& ns+
$ d u> $&eT] #|+~. >&s y* rdT+~.
k<sD+> eTq Xk\T eT&T s\T> +{sTT:
` ><+ ` e#q s|+ +T+~. B ds+ +T+~ |]+#{ M\T>.
` d ` q y\T> +T+~ +sbs+ #jT & M\T>.
` |<+ ` |<s|+ +T+~. >+ q d<+q+ |<s|+ |]+
#e#T.
2.4 |sD\T
H\T> ksTT |sD\T. n$ d H eT]+ $es+> +{sTT. |sD+
n+f n~ bNq >+<+ nsTTH, |{ e]dT +~. |s n| qe: bNqyT
<T+ L& C> +T+~. $ L& |<s|+ +{sTT. $ L&
y< n+X\ &]+, dw #L], q+> #|ksTT.
+ | ` n+ eTT+<T >+< #|q <s\ <\T +{sTT. <s
\ b{+#+ m+ wy #|d , nsTTH M{ T& qy <\T $e]
ksTT. d = y\ |<\T+f, = |sD+ 15000 qT+ 80,000 |<
\T+{sTT. e\+ y<eT++ d+ e< (dyT |\T) |sD+ yTT+
V]X+<T < +~.n> |<yue seTT&T < XeDesT <\THsTT.
eT, <, nV+s+ +{ uy\ s|#sTT sdT \ s|+.
eTq 18 |sD\T, 18 ||sD\ HsTT.yk#sT&T s+qy n$.
n{ |eTTKyTq~ u>e |sD+ < u>e+. sE L&. |sD\T
u\>b\ ]ksTT. |\\ e*q ejT\T +{sTT, eTw ssTT> <
+Te> es+ e>s. |<\ e*q d<++ uT H $\Te\T, k+|T
jTe\T, eqd $XwD +{yH +{sTT.
2.5 Vk\T
$ #] <s+> #dT s+|&q >+<\T. +> ]q $wjT +
+T+~. n+f , $<+>, V ` K+>, d ` ~ ]+~, n+f
$<+>, K+> ~ ]+~. |sD L& +> ]q n+X\T+{sTT.

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s +&T eTTKyTq Vk\T ` sejTD+ (24000 |<\T) eTVus+ (\ |<
\T), M{ y, yk#sT&T s+#sT.
sejTD+ seTT Jeq $<H e]dT +~. seTd jTq+ ` esZ: Jeq
:eTVus+ us e+X sE\ #]. eTV n+f |<. ~ # |<~. <s
bjTT\ nqTd]+#\ #ksT |\T. n+<T y <\T.
#] >T]+ #|+~ , #] $Xc\ |<| yjT <T. & #]
<s+> rdT, y<+ q CH u~ksTT. n+<T M{ =+ +, =+
\H +{sTT. <VsD seDT +> |~ \\T Hj? n$ eTw
+& sd >TD\ |r\T. n+<Te\ =+ nu \q +T+~. = \D
\ s|+ sTTe+ sT>TT+~.
2.6 uw+
|q <V ]+q n >+<\ q yUH\ uw+ n+{sT. y<\T,
d\T,Vk\ q yUH\ uc\T, uc\ uc\T L& HsTT.
eTq Xd+ |< HsTy*. Xd+ u~++~ d]>Z ns+ b,
Xd+ MT< |L\ ueq |+#Tey, < <w+#y #d |e<+ +~.
n+<T Xk HsT e{ + #$ +~. < k+|<jT: n+{sT.
n+<T k<sD+> nqTy<\ C* be<+{sT. |< s+&T, eT&T ns
\T+{sTT. d+<s { n~ esTT+~. n+<T >TsTeTTK: HsTy*. n+f
k+|<jT+ b{+#*. k+|<j b{d, eTq #sT\T uw >+<\T,
yKq >+<\T s+#sT. $ |<s|+>, ><s|+ > +{sTT.
e *| Xd+ n+{eTT. Xd+ <X+ eTq+ |sTcs\ k~+#{
&&+.
****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
3. esXeT eed
eTwq \\ |jTdt>, XjT dt> y<+ $u++~. \\ k~+#
{, y<\T esXeT eed d+#sTT. n+f es eed, XeT eed.
es eed k+|T eed ddT+~. eTw d+|TJ$, d+|T+ eTq J$
|u$+ #dT +~. n+<T eTq= eed +&*, J$+ |X++> k>{.
n> eTq+ e> eTqq ds<\ |]s+#Ty*. eTq+ |P]> d+|
n+e Te<T. eTq+ e> m<>*. B XeT eed n+{sT. s+&+{
eTq+ deTT\+ #jT >*H eTq J$+ k|> k>TT+~. y<\T s+&+{
#> b{+#>*> +<T nqTe> esXeT eed @ss+~.
3.1 eseed
es+ n+f d+|T+ | deTT<jT+ < >. eTq H\T>T es\T
HsTT. uVD, jT, yX, XS<. $uq eT&T D\ qT+ #jT &+~.
C, >TD+, s.
3.1.1 C eed
@ \+ |& #+<{ C eed n+{sT. C n+f q.
B { C ` uVDT&T, C ` jTT&T, C ` yX&T, C` XS<T&T
HsT.
3.1.2 >TD eed
due+ < >TD {, $uq\T #jT e#T. B >TD eed n+{sT.
+<T L& H\T>T >TD\ |s=qe#T. < +q +f, y C
uVDT\T bsTTH, y >TD uVD nqe#T. y<+ |]uw y
d >TD+ me>, sC >TD+ =+#+ e> , y>TD+ sTT+ e>
+T+~.(ds)
=+eT+~ |P\T, |qks\T #jT be#T ks+> d+|Tde
#ksT . T+u |{+#Te{ D+ r]q+ V&$&> +{sT. B

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jT >TD+ n+{sT. >TD+ qy >TD jTT\+{sT. |T @<H M
sC>TD+ me>q, d >TD+, y>TD+ e>q +{sTT. (sd)
M L& T+u |{+#TH r] q+ V&$&>H +{sT ,
M |qT\ ks|P]+> +{sTT.|sT,|w\ d+ bT|&, eTTK+> eT,
eT T+u &T d+b~+#TeyT <jT+> +{sT. >TD yX>TD+
n sTT~ qy >TDyX\ n+{sT. |T @<H. M sC>TD+ me
>q, y>TD+, d>TD+ e>q +{sTT. (sd )
H\T>s+ y eT+<=&> +{sT. q+,|&Te+ | @MT #jTsT.
y nqTu$+#{ d +&e#T. n+<T L& y |q +&<T. @<
j++> #dT bjT |qT\T #jT >\sT. n+. n+{ >TD XS<>TDeT,
n+{ e\ >TDXS<T\ n+{sT |T @<H. M y>TD+ me>q,
sC>TD+, d >TD+ e>q +{sTT. (sd)
3.1.3 seed
eTq es$u<\T s { L& +{sTT. & e |T >,
n >TD+ eTq d++<+ <T. nqT #d s { deC H\T>T
>\T> $u+#sT. yTT<{ s+ s eT: d++<yT q s. n+f Xd|sq+,
Xdu<. deC eT:|s+> q&|+#+. ~ |sV e nqe#T. e
uVD s n, e b{+#y s uVDT&T n n+{sT.
s+& e sjT+. e d+|Tde < <Xde n+e TesT.
de sjT +H, |uT+H, jT++>+H, d<+H +{sT.
<Xs D d++~+q @ eqH rdTe#T C. e jT s n,
n~ #d e s jTT&T n n+{sT.
eT& e ybs+. +<T eekjT+, , nH edTe\ |+|D
L& edT+~. e yXs n n~ #d e s yX&T n n+{sT.
H\T> e de #jT +. @< | e n+ +&<T. nqT
s uVD, sjT, syX\ de #k&T. qT HjT&T <T. q
eTT>TZsT HjT\ <. de #k&T. e XS<s n, n~ #d e
s XS<T&T n n+{sT.

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|&T e C, >TD, s \ rdT+f eT& f +&\ <T.
f e, eT&T D, eT&T $_q >\ #+~qy& +&e#T. C uV
DT&T nsTTq e >TD uVDT&T < s uVDT&T nsTT +&\q jTeT+
<T. nqT uVD |T |& C uVDT&T ne&T. @ eT+ |<y #&
s jTT&e&T. ks|sT & >TDyX&e&T. n ss \T> #&e#T.
CuVDT&T, >TDuVDT&T, s uVDT&T ` eT&T *dq y&T # nsT
<T> +{&T. eT& $&> +&\q jTeT+ <T n $&> +{sTT.
3.2 es V#T>T Z\T
es V#T>TZ\THj? sT me, sT e nq>\e? C|
s+> @s&q es V#T>TZ\T e. |Te\ eTq >=|<q+ s<T. n+<Te\
CuVDT&T, CjTT&T, CyX&T, CXS<T&T n+<s f.
>TD+ <s+> @s&q es V#T>TZ\THsTT. q >TD+ q e
K+> >s$dT+~ de+. uVD >TD+ n{H eTyTq~. n+<T
>TDuVDT sH*dT+~. @ d+|TeTH, >+BJ <XeT+ >s$++<+f
n uVD >TDyT sD+. n ksde, n nV+k + n+<T <V
sD\T. eTq 63 HjTHsT HsT. n+<T #eT+~ C uVDT\T <T.
sE L& uVDT\ dV y] ]ksT . < sD+ y >TDuV
DT\T neyT.
s <s+> @s&q es L& V#T>TZ\T e. n eT\ deq+
> nedsyT . sjT +> <Ts_bjT+ @s&+~ y] dede L& uV
DT&T #d de deq+. =+eT+~ <X de#d, =+<sT Xk<jTq+ #sTT
ksT .
$_q eT\ Xs+ $_q u>\T #d $_q |qT\ b\e#T. Xs+
@| eTTK+ n+f @+ #|>\+? eT\eT $dsq | e< n #|>\e?
b n~ ndV + nq>\e? eT|+&\T |#jT+ b \TdT+~ y{
beTTK @$T{. n> n s\ eTTKyT. n+<Te\ C|s+>, s|s+ >
u<\T e >, >TD|s+ > HsTT.

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3.3 es m+|
eTq es eTq+ mqTH n~s+ +<? < yT eTT+<T @ es+
n |X.
3.3.1 Ces+
C|s+ > #d eTq |T $wjT + eTq |yT jT+ <T. *<+&T\qT
esTeTT. < >T]+ u+>|&+ L& nqeds+. m+<T+f C|s+ >
n+<s deqyT.
3.3.2 >TD es+
>TD+ |s+> #d eTq n<eT ksTT qT+ eT ksTT m~> neX
eTT+< #|+~ Xd+. e >TDXS<T> H&qT+<+. n+f |TH
<+>, j+ Jeq+ >&T|TH&qT+<+. Xd+ nTe+{ e ks|s
yTq s\T #j\ ddT+~. ksTT ksde >T]+ +#qKs <T.
nqT &T, |sT, T++d+ |#k&T. #eT+~ >T& y~ ks+
qH < q u+ |~X+ <e sTTkeT L& n+{sT. =+eT+~ n
>TDXS<T&T ksTT qT+ >TDyX&T ne&T. Xd+ sTT+=+#+ |#sTT, k
s+> #sTT n+T+~. n #d nqT >TD jTT&e&T. es> nqT >TD
uVDT&e&T. C y<+ u~+# k<q \+ >TDXS<T ksTT qT+
>TDuVDT ksTT m<>{. >TDuVDT&T y d+d<T&e&T. n+
<T ksTT m~> $wjT+ eTq |yTjT+ +~.
3.3.3 s es+
s |s+> #d eTq mqTH neX+ +~. eTq+ C|s+> q e
=qk>e#T < eTq n_sT |{ mqTe#T.C|s+ > nsTT =+ u+
+~. qejTdTqT+# e #|e#T. < d++~+q ne>Vqu> +
T+~. |<y s+s &T +T+~ >TsT\yd+ >. n> =qk+~
# \+ esL.
s+& |<, eTq sTTc { mqTe&+. n $X$TT&T uVDT&T
nj&T. eTq sTTw+ @< \TdTe+ m?y uVD >TD+ +&e#T.
s| yX>TD+ +&e#T. ~ \Tb e+Xbs+|s+> edTq~ +H

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+~. n sjT HjT\ |\\T sj , ybsy \ |\\T ybs
e#sT.
@<H e mqTH|&T eTq+ eTq +#|s# Tqs < T. m+<T+f n
eT+y. , Xd+ f #|+~. @ e mqTH < &T|s+> mqTe
<.&T|s+> mqT+f b{ + |sT>TT+~.= eT\ C* mes bsT.
|&T, <T jTT>+ Xd n<jTq+ #d, < q\T>T] #{ #b\H yT
n+]+b+~. Xk\T e\+ >+<\j\ |]$TyT bTHsTT. K] |s
VT&T L& q =&T y<bsX\ |+|{ w|&+ <T. eTT+<T eTT+<T
y<<jTq+ #dq e <=s+ <TsueTeT+<y.
B+{ sD+ e &u |<q+> #d mqTeyT. n+<T n
+& @ e, mqTH, eTq \+, eTq >TD+ esT+ e, >TDXS<T
ksTT qT+ >TDuVDT ksTT m<>*. B es eed n+{sT.
uVDT\T jTT\T yX\T XS<T\T
q e\ uVDT\ |{qysT jTT\ |{q yX\ |{qysT XS<T\
ysT |{qysT

>TD+ e\ d>TD|<qT\T sd>TD |<qT\T sd G eTd >TD eTd >TD


|<qT\T |<qT\T
s e\ < +q *, |]b\q, |CsD, ybseTT, eekjTeTT eTT+<T eT&T
n<|q+ eT]jTT |PC d+|Tdee+{ s eT]jTT >d+sD esZ\ de\T
~ seTT\T #jTTysT eTT\T #jTTysT eT]jTT >bwD n+~#TysT
#jTTysT

****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
4. XeT eed
eqe \q |sTcs\ k~+#{ Xd+ esXeT <s\ jT
$T++~. esXeT <s\+f es eed, XeT eed. H\T>T es\ >T]+
n+ eTT+<T $es+> #keTT. |&T < k<&T b{+#*q
H\T>T XeT <s\ >T]+ #<eTT.
XeT nq |< k<sD+> J$+ <X +< #bsT . y~
J$+ H\T>T <X\T +{sTT. y{ #s: XeT: n+{sT. n$ `
1, V#] XeT 2, >VdT XeT 3, yq|d XeT 4, dHd XeT
XeT n+f @$T{? XeT: n+f y\, eTqd]>, ]w ~X y|
|f XeT. & XeT < k<q. n+<Te\ XeT: n+f < k<q <
k<q nqTcq+. XeT: n+f e < k<q\ d+ X$T+# <X.
J$+ yTT+ H\T>T Xe\T> $u+#&+B n+f, Xd+ |s+
J$+ yTT+ < k<H. XeT n+f m|& J$ #se ++, <> $s
eTD #k #d~ <T. J$eT+f k>TH +T+~. b, <X k<q
~X esT +T+~. n+<Te Xd+ |s+ eTq b<$T \+, n+eT \+
s+& f. n~ < k<q.
<ss e\qT eqe \\T> bs+u+ n+^]+H, Xd+ y{
n+eT \\T> n+^]+#<T. Xd+ y{ >T]+ e{&TT+~ , n~ |]|
y eyT . k<q n+eT \+ y+. n |]| e#<,
Xd+ sTT~ < k<q nq $wjT + jT\T #jT +&H, |jT + #sTT
dT+~. q |\\T eT+<T ydT e{ y |+#<s |P |Pdq eT+<T sTTq
T>, Xd+ L& | <s `ns`eT |sTcs\ X$T+#T #dH, sV d+>
eTq y+ d+ bT|&TT+~. < \ H\T>T <Xq < k<
q #=|++~. < k<q n+f n+sZ d# d+ bT|&+. BH y+
d+ k<q n+{sT.

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d \T H\T>T <X\ b* +T+~ eTq J$+ <X\T L&.
>T&T, >=+>[|sT>T, |Pb <X\ qT+ d \T e] jT edT+~.
# n+<+>, s DjT +>.
4.1 V#] XeT
yTT<{< X V#] <X.+<T $< HsT+{&T.$< @$T{? m+<T?
|{ s#q+ e]bsTT+~. d+b<q d+. ns, e\ dyT $< nsTTb
sTT+~. Xd+ L& $< HsTeTH #|+~. eTq+ suVD, sjT,s
yX, sXS<T\ < $\TeH, <qT>TDyTq $< HsT y*. ~
Xd+ |s+ s+& <X+. <Ts<weX n< b<$T neds+ nsTT
LsT+~.
Xd+ |s+ $< n+f e r]~<~,eT+ q&e& |+b+~+#~,
qT HsT q q, d+| <]+#T #d~. \+#>=+&, yd>&T
d+|T+ n&T>T|& de+ uw|&TT+~. k$T qjq+< n+<+> s
#H sTT#sT. |X|e q eTw, d+ks+ <s eTw |e |+b+~+
#Ty*. n|&T eTw|e qT+ <e|e |+b+~+#T>\T>T&T.
>qT\ <=] V\T $\Tyqy y{ jT<<+> y&eTT. y{
kq|{, |e# V+> jsT#j *. n> eTq+ L& * >s+ qT+
|>H kq,|yT q X q yeTqe. eTq >TsT\ yd+ |+|
kq{*. n+<T d+d + q: n+f nH>] d qT+ H>] ksTT
m<>+. | $< #dT +~.
eTsY n> n~ qq+ ~rjT+ eT+ +<HY,
d e >jT | T #s #
yTT<{ *< +&T\T qqysT. >jTr eT+|+ u~k&T >TsTe.
>jTr eT++ $< beD+. n+<Te\ >TsTe +&, $< *. s+&
*< +&T\T eTq d+d]ksT .
$<] <X V#] XeT n+{sT. & V n+f Xd+ <
y<\T. #] n+f < >T]+ +#y&T. VD y< #s. #s n+f

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q&#y&T. y<Xd+ eqd+> |jT+# y&T. <X V#] XeT
n+{sT.
d+d]+#&{ nedsyT q $< @~? Xd+ @+ #|T+~? Xd+
eT&T $wj\T #|T+~.
4.1.1 \ sX+
eTq n+eT \+ @$T{ eTq u> *j*.J$+ |{u +{~.
+ m<T{ {yT n+<+& eTq+ |T LsT+f #\<T. < >#j *.
b eTq <>Zs + >+d| H esyT . n+{ +T* ` &T,T++,
|dt e>s ` eTq+ mH |T LsT+TH+. eTq+ dw+> HsT y*q
n+X+ eTq+ |X|e qT+ eTw |e m~,eTw |e qT+<e |e
m<>*. eTq n+eT \+ y# < k<q n \TdT y*.
4.1.2 Te\ |]Cq+
@< syT q |P #jT + HsTy*. BH T e n+{sT. #eT+~
|P m+<T #ks, < beTTK @$T{ *jT<T. & |P n+f Xs+>
#d |P, Be\ eT&T u\THsTT.
yTT<{ u+ |P #jT + e\ eTD |sT>TT+~. eTD +f |P
#ksT . <VsD d\q s \T me] e.n+<Te\ eTD q#
T e +T+~. T e q# eTD +T+~.
s+& u+,J$+ csT |T=dT+~.<+#+ Xs +.y >TD
es+ |P #j *.
eT&u+ <e MT< u |sT>TT+~. q uy\>, u L& eTqdT
|f ueH. ueq q&<T, < #\ <sH, e\ <sH y*
T#TeTT. < y*T#+ <s, +=+#+ bwk+ L&, n+<Te\ eTq+
|P #dT HeT+f, eTq u y*T#yT ,< bwdT H+ L& Xd+ eTq
#|~,n eqe d++<\H <e+ d++<+ XXyT q<. eqe d++<
\H+ u> |+,bw+H,n$ m|{ n|{ Mb |<T.XXd++<+
n+f n~ <e+H. n+<T # #d |PC, H{ |+# eT++ s+& eq
+& #j *.

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4.1.3 eqe $\Te\T
eqe $\Te\T XXyT q$,mq{ esT #+<$.<s esT<T.n~
XX+. <s+ < dHq <s+. <s T& +&b eTq Xs, ue|s
J$+ <+T+< >V +#Ty*.
n eT&T <X\ HsT+fqT,eTq+ d+| N&|sT>T> es+&, d+
d]+#&q e neeTT.
4.2 >Vd XeT
~ s+& <X, # eTTKyTq <X. Xd |s+ >Vd XeT+ eT'
|sy T q d+d+{~. |[ nH + >+ <s eT|sy Tq J$+ >&|{ ns
dT+~.
eT:|syT q JeqyT eTTK+, b|+ dTU\T nqT+& <=sTsTT
nq~ eTq JeqX*. T+ JeH b|+ dTU\dyT nqT+f, d+d
+{ T++ ;\T|&TT+~. nd\T m+<T *d J$+#* nq |X <sTT
dT+~. |&T d ] d# <T. |&T deTd <T. |eT de
n+f |eT nXXyT b+~. n+<Te\ T+ Jeq+ |~ \ bT \e+
<T. *d b]+# T++, *d J$dT+~. V dTU eTTKeTqT+f,
T++ +<+ \e<T. n+<T eT b<$T beTTK +~ >Vd
XeT+.
>Vd' nq |<+ >V w ` +{ ` +&y&T ` nq |<+ qT+
>V +#&+~. ue+ q#, +<+ <e sjT + |dT +~. <eyT
eTT&|{&T y[<], e] <eyT $&Bj* , yT $&bL&<T nq
ne>Vq q#f T++ |{w+> \TdT+~. |{w +> q T++H,
dsT be+, $T+#+, u]+#+, qeT+, zsT +{ eT+ \D\T n\e
&TsTT.
T++ |{w +> +fH eqd+> <&yT q |\\T |&sT.usus\
eT< >=&e\T +f, < |ue+ |\\ MT< |&TT+~. n+<T >Vd XeT+
eTq, eTq s s L& eTTKyT.

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4.3 yq|d eT]jTT dHd XeT
yq|d XeT+ HeT~> ys>+ |+#Te{ D b+<TeTT.
eTq d\ Xs+ #jT >*qH |#d+ ~. eTq e<|+ |&d], n+
eTT+<T #dq+ #TsT> uVyTq |qT\qT #jT <T. n+<T <bT
eTqdT L& HeT~> yq rdTe+ HsT y*. eTqdT + VQcsT>
+&, Xs+ dV]+#b, eTq & |sT>TT+~. n+<T HeT~> eTq
dT uV||+#+ qT+ <w eTs*, HeT~> n+sT K+ #j *. HS
uV ||+#+ >T]+ HsT HeTT. |&T Cq+ b+<{ dTeTTK+
ne+.
n+<T <> $seTD #d e Jeq d ns+ #dT , <
d+d<T&y , qq ue+ |+b+~+#TL&<T. s <X nsTTq
dHd Xe eTq eTq+ d+d<T\ #dT y*. V#s XeT+ $\Te\
d++~+q $<qudd, dHd XeT+ < Cq+ b+<T&T.
yq|d XeT+ T++ eT< J$dH , +]> J$+#+.
eqHyT deTV: yqyT
yH |sH w yq|d:
dHd: n+f nd\T ns+ n |]+#+. b<$T+> eTq nCH,
eTq nV+s e<T\T, J$+ n e<T\Te{ d<|&+.jTeT<s
sE eTqqT+ n rdTe{ ek&T, sE jTq n d+w+> e&+#
{ eqd+> d<|&*.
dHd XeT+ ysT XeT dHd+ ysT . s+& < Xs+> n
n+<] |]+ XeT+ +]> J$+ >&|+. Xs+> n |]
+H, bsTTH eqd+> n |]+,Cq+ b+<{ d<|&*.

****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
5. s j>+
eTw H\T>T |sTcs\T \\T> HsTT. <s , ns, eT nH eT&T
|sTcs\T V \\qT k~d, y |sTcs+ < \k<q #dT +~.
yk<q #jT eqe q e<. b|+ \\ k~+H n+eT \+
yyT ny*.
y <w |T Xd+ esZ d++~.
1. esZ+ ` k<q 2. \+ ` k<+
3. #dy&T ` k<&T 4. \+ k~d ` d<:
k<&T nH eTq+ k<+ nH \ + b+<\+f k<q nH esZ+ y*.
n|&T k<+ b+~ d<: ne&T. n+f k< ksTTqT+ d<: ksTT #sT e
yT Jeq |j D+.
d<: n+f = d<T\T b+<+ <T,d<: n+f q qT \TdTqy&T.
esZ\T eT&T HsTT. | esZ j>+ n+{sT. j>+ n+f k<&
k<+ *|~ ` |jT + #d e s >eT+. j>+ jTTC nH <Te qT+
e+~. jTC n+f \|+. & k<, k<\ \|+.
jTT k<q dV k<: jTq dV k<q
eT&T j>\T sTT$:
` s j>+ ` bdqj>+ ` Cqj>+
yTT+ esZ eT&T yTTq yT&yT T> u$+#e#T. $ < <T\T
{ <T. eT&T eTTKyT. eT& nedsyT n+<]. yTT<{ n+dT eT+>
#s\+f = yT m m,$ L& n> m*, yeTH n+eT \+
b+<{. n+<T eT&T j>\ eTTKyT.
s j>+ n+f @$T{? s j>+ s+&T |<\THsTT. s, j>+. &
s n+f d]jTq |#jT+. j>+ n+f d]jTq <<+. d+d + ueq

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n+{sT. *>Z #b\+f, sj>+ n+f d]jTq |, d]jTq <<+ #jT
+.
d]jTq | n+f @$T{? eTw #d |qT\ eT&T s\T> Xd+ e]+
+~. n$ `
1. eT s: nTeT kqTL\ < |ue+ #|~.
2. eT<eT s: eT<s+ s . +<T < |ue+ # e
+T+~. < nd\T +&be#T L&. # b|+
u\T +{sTT.
3. n<eT s : M{ |L\ < |ue+ +T+~. n+f <
m<T>T<\ +&<T, < >TZT+~. y{ $es+> #<eTT.
5.1.1 eT sD
BH k sD n L& n+{sT. u>eBZ 17,18 n<j lw u>
yqT&T n+X\ $es+> #]k&T. eT sD < k sD |s |
s sD n L& n+{sT. m<T{y] u>Td+ #d eT+ s\T.
XSjT+ <s dsd+
X #e ne<sj+
|s|s |DjT
bbjT |s| &q+
|Ds \ |s |s s. m<T{y] &&y.
|s|sjT eV+ q<'
|s|sjT <TV+ >e'
|s|sjT |\+ e'
|s|ss+ <+ Xs+
eTT #b\+f,eT s eTq+ #~ me,rdTH~ e +T+~.
d +f, m<T>T +{+. n+<T eTq k+|<jT+ <q+, >+ |<\
H]++~.

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|s |s s\ ceT sD n L& n+{sT. n+f eT sD,
k sD, |s |s sD, ceT sD ` @<H f. ~ <
m<T>T<\ n~+> &&TT+~.
|s |s s\T @$? Xd+ y{ |+#eTV jT: n+~.
5.1.1.1 <e jT:
~ yTTyT T<{ |s |s s, <ejT+ n+f <e& =\e+. <e
eTT+<T *, eTqks b]+#+. Xd+ bsq nTq kq+ +~.
dd |Cu' |]b\jT+
HjTq esZq eTVyT eTVX':
>uVDu XueTdT +
' deTk' dTHue+T.
eTqd]> #dq bsq e\+ eqeC <T, |X|<T\ <T, e
\ <T, y{ <{ |<\T>T \ L& eT+ #dT +~.
ds ue+T dTq'
ds d+T seTjT'
ds u<D |X+T'
e < <T:Ku> uyY
n+<s u>T+&*. n+<s s>+> +&*, me] w+ \>L&<T n
eTqks #d bsq, @ uwHH ds, eTqd]> D+ #d #\T, nd\T
KsT +& $XeT+{ yT\T #dT +~. bsq bT @<H |k<+ <e
deT]d, n~ dwyT T n+<TT+~.<e&T e\+ eTq$T# <MT< <s|&&T.
<e&= dt +T+~, < jTH d yT+sY. @~ @ |P deT]+H <
<e&T rdT q dt <s n+<], #T, | L& |+#T&T.n+f <e
#dq jT+, eT eTw CsT T+~.
|&T =+eT+~ eqedejT e<e de n+THsT. d<++ >=|<.
m+eT+~ d+|T de\T eqe de #dT HsT. |> H HqT eT+ nq
d<++ #|, |P\T #d y] +#|sT dTHsT =+<sT. ~ m+<T sT>T
+<+f, y wH y| #dTHsT. eqede e<e de nsTTq|&T,

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e<e de eqe de neT+<q $wjT + y ns+ e+ <T. e=d
n~ + me> neT+~. bsq <s meeT+~ #sTTH+ <! n+<T
jT+ yTT<{B , nTeTyTqB. B sp #j *.
5.1.1.2 |jT'
~ s+&~.| <+{q ueq +~. G |s+ R jT+.
<ejT+ <e&T eTqq < #b+. |jT+ eTq |<e\
#b+. eTq *< +&T\T eTq q, eTq+ y ] de #ky <
*jT+&H eTq de #dT HsT. y n #jT>\T>TTHs+f, y *<+
&T\T y #jT {. n+<T eTq eTT\ TTD+ rsT+{eTT.
n~ |s|syT neT+~? | s, | kq+ +~. =+eT+~
|P\ X<s\T sT>e. y |\\T be+, < |\\T X<s\
qeTbe+ sDeTee#T.n+{ |P\ <jT jT d k] +#+&.
*jTT>+ +{ y d+K |sT>TT+< Xd+ eTT+< }V+#qT+~.n+
<T bsq `
@wyT q e q |
q $Tv u+<y'
ds | ej+T
eTj dw' X<'
H nqy , |\\T |P\ sD<T\TTHqT n ns+.n~
d+K q |<e\ s D<\+,X<s \T |+ L& |s |s s.
5.1.1.3 V jT'
eT& jT+ V jT+. y<\T, q < >+<\T sTTq TTw\+
<s eTq y*T#+. V n+f & y<\T. V jT+ n+f y<
jT+. +<T y<\ |Pk+.d ,|sD\ b+<T|]q TTw\ |Pk+.
TTw\e H&T eTq+ k+|<j nqTu$dTHeTT.
TTw\ m dV jT+ #j*? y @MT eTq qT+ dV jT+ nKs <T.
y eTT b+<sT |{. y <X+ eTq >+<\ H\T>T \T *|,
||+#+ q\TeT\ #{\. n+<T >+<\ H\T>T \T \|{

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, #{ #d @ | #dH >=| de #dqf. m+<T+f Xd+ eqy
[ s+&T $<\T> de #dT +~. n$
Xd+ n<jTq+ #dH X+ H\=+T+~. n+<T bsjTD >=| k<
q> |]>DkeTT. Xk >{> n<jTq+ #dH, XyT , y< |Tw, dw
|+ #dT +~. n+<T bsjTD+ VjT+ edT+~.
Xk HsT H, H]+H, s+& uyT . Xd u< n<|q+ n+{sT.
n<|q+ #jT + VjT+ >=| |<.
n<|q+ V jT'
| jTdT sD+
VAy<y *sYu'
s|T ~ |Pq+
u<q, |d+>+ # |< & +~. |d+ >+ sTTe+ n+f #<TsTeT<T
sT> n&& d++<+ = $wj \ MT< }<+|&T |Hk\T sTT#T
+be+. n~ $<yT q d +>+. m& # LsT d| H\T>T
eT+ e\T e{&Te+ +{<~. ~ L& K+> u<jTyT
+{ |d+>\, eT|<, dT \T rdTqT u<q #jT{ #
& +~. u<q $wjT+ $esD +T+~. n+X, + n+X
eT< d++<+ +T+~. #|q n+X\{ Xd |eD+, s+, nqTue+ +
T+~. n+f X, jTT, nqTue dV jT+ u<q eT |< #d, < |d+
> VdeTX+ & +T+~. |d+>+ V|sT dT+~. VjT+
n+f u<q.
<VsD U C> = T\T |&d, @+ u+ +T+~? y{
eT |< |s*. n eT|< |], \T & n+<T +&e#T.
#<TsTeT<TsT n+X\ MT< |d+>*e+, T\ # |&jT + +{~.
y{ Ls*. <= yTd y*. &= >TsTe y*.
u<q n+f e\+ n+X\ #|+ <T. y{ eT|< n*,
Cq+ \>Cd, u<, X+, q+<+ #Ls+ sT>TT+~.

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|Ps+ >TsT\+ u<q ]>~. |& >TsT\ k+|<jT+ n+]+
b+~. |&~ =+esH * +<+f, < qjq+< k$T, <j
q+< dsd k$T yT#Ty*. y Xk u<qs|+ eT*#sT. n+
eTT+<T |d+>\T my, u<q y +&$. kMTJ\T B $X$<
\jT u<q> #ksT. umTq dT \T |{, u<q #d, y HT\T sdT
eT, y HT\ uE ydTeT, |X\&^, d+<V \T r] #dT HsT. ~ >T&
> b{+# = qeT\T <T. ~ Xd+. d+XjT Cq+ |+b+~+#*
BMT<.
n+<Te\ V jT+ L& |s |s+ +< edT+~.
$<<q+ ds <HY |<q+
ss \ <H\T #jT e#T >, n+{ $<<q+ >=|~. n+<T u>e
BZ e] w&T #b&T, mesT u>eBZ u~ks,y HqT me |$TkqT.
5.1.1.4 eTqTw jT'
H\T> jT+ eTqTw jT+. n s\ d+|Tde\T B+{ eksTT. nH<
XsD \j\T, e<Xe\, d, dT|T\ dV jT+ #jT + e>s.
dV jT+ m #j L& Xd+ |<dT+~.
X<j <jTyT
nX<j n<jTyT
j<jTyT
Vj<jTyT
_j<jT yT
d+$< <jTyT jT+ 1`11`6
eq $T+f, |&T q H\T>T jTC\T |q |fd, <={ #d
#\qT+THsT. ~ d]jTq ne>Vq eq deTd. eTqTw\ e\+
sV &f #\T nqT+~. n+<T eTqTw jT+ bT, q jTC\T L&
#j*.

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5.1.1.5 u jT+
< jT+, u jT+. eTw L& q JesX\+<] #d de. eTq
J$+ dT>eT+> k>{ q JesX\T L& &&TjTq $wj eTse
L&<q&. #, +Te\, q<T\ eTq &&TTHsTT.
nX ee #+<q sTsY eT+<s \<eT
+ + <+ # ds eX @ ]q:
ds |\ d+jTT |~q+ $uqyT s
seT+ # s<+ # q+<qeq+ s+T H eT+>+
nX<, <+, eT+<s, dsT>T&T #, |+&# CeT, e$T& +{ #,
#eH, n$ #d dV j HqT >TsT+#T n$ eqy[ eT+>+
#Ls > |+ bw+#*.
>+> d+<T dsd # jTeTTq ><e] qs<
y dsjTT eTV+< qjT #s He y~
| ye eTV dTs q~ Ur # jT >+&
|Ps |Ps V deTT< dV: s+T H eT+>+
< $<+> >+>, jTTeTq, ><e], qs< +{ |eV+# q<T\T #d dV
j >TsT+#T+{qT. y{ HqT ] dV jT+ #jTbsTTH d+ y{
\Tw+ #jT qT, HXq+ #jT qT.
u mTq #jT bsTTH, +{ T\d#T |Ty* eTq+. < u>
bj*. n> +Te\+{ yT\T #jTbe#T, HeTT+<T =+#+
nq+ eTT< jT|& ` , e +{sTT <.
~ d+|PsyTq ne>Vq. y~&T n+f $X #+~q bsT&T. m+<T+f
nqT ||+#+ >T]+. q\ >T]+ *dqy&T. d+<e+<q+ #d|&T
n bH yVq #b&T.
~+ sj$T
keT+ sj$T
n+>s+ sj$T
yTT+ kseT+& >TsT #T+{&T.

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|+#eTVjT+ #jT {H ceT sD, k sD, eT sD,|s
|ssD n+{s #k+. ~ < m<T>T<\ &&TT+~ b<$T+>.
5.1.2 eT<eT sD
s+ s \T deT s \T (] #d$). M{ sd sD, |s <dq
sD n L& n+{sT. |s <dqsD n+f mes b H+ n sTTsT \
|{+ #Tbe+. y deTd\, y H UsT #jTeTT. eTq ] r]
#\T. n+ +{ s\T b|+ kK+ |&sTT < m<T>T<\
@e+ &&e.
5.1.3 n<eT sD
M{ eTd sD, w< sD, |s n|s sD n L& n+{sT.
#jT L& s\T < $HXq] s \T eksTT. eTq u+ \T>TT+~
m<T{y] Vsy Tq s\T eTq <+> m<T>T<\ #Lsb>, +
+< CsTksTT.
$<+> yTT<{~ < |s> \>Cd, s+&~ < d \>
Cd, eT&~ < s> \T>CdT +~. s j qT #d s \ eT
s \T me> +&T, eT<eT s\T e>q, n<eT s\T XSq+>q
+&T eT\#Ty*. n<eT s\T #jT | s\T #dH n+f |s n|s
s \T #dH, y{ eT s\ T&yj*. $<+> eT s\T s+&T
$<\T> |#ksTT. < |s> &&TsTT, |d] s \ qT+ |{q
bb T&yksTT.
5.2 d]jTq <<+
@ <<yTH d]jTq ne>Vq e\ @s&TT+~. Jeq d\ ns+ #dT
+< s>syT q s\ <<+ @s&<T.
eTqyT |#dH , n~ >Y u>eTeT+~. n+f eTq #sTT <{b
T+~. m|& s >Y u>eTeT+<, n|&T eTq s \ MT< >Y
d\T |#ksTT. m+<T+f >Y yTT+ d\ MT< q&TdT+~.
n |jT e\ e# s |\+ n+{sT.n | s bddt nsTT,|\+>
eTq ] edT+~.>Yd \T |se # |]s\T.n+<Te\ s d\

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e\ bddt nsTT+B n+f ns+, |se bdd+> #dT H&. n+<Te\ s
<e <>Zs y[, |\+ s|+ ] ek+~.
m|& + \TdT, < >TsT+#T+{y, n|& | s Xs
nsD> #keTT. CH<jT + b+~q sj | s XssD. miT
XssD ueq n+{sT. XssD ue+ #d, |se qT+ eq |
s |\+ nq+& Xs |k<+ n+{+. m+<T+f <e qT+ e# @<H |k
<yT . n+<T < $eT]+#eTT, es+#eTT.
s #d|&T XssD ue+ #d, s | Xs|k< ueq
d]+#yT j>+. s+&T ueq\ +f eTqdT |X++> +T+~. deT
+ j>: #. n |qT\ V+> #keTT.$dT>T >, s > |<T.
XssD ueq, |k< ueq\ qT+ |{+< deT ueq. yTT<{ s+&T ueq
\ *d < m<T>T<\ y>+> #ksTT. B X~ n+{sT.
X~ *>Z $e]+#\+f ` J$+ eTqq deTd\T ||+#+ e\
@s&q$ e. eTq nCq+, eTq+ ||+# d]>Z ns+ #dT be+ e\
@s&q$ n ns+ #dT e+. nC HqT ||+#+ d]>Z eeV]+# ned
|&TTHqT.
HqT C nsTT q+<qeq+ nsTTq ||+#+ m eeV]+# \TdT+~.
d+|Ps+ ><e q+<qeq+. n+f nC HqT deTd. C HqT |]cs+. sj
>+e\ \TdT+~ ~. BH X~ n+{sT.
*****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
6. bdH j>+
y~\T b+<*q H\T>T \\q, n+<T n+eT \yTq y+
>T]+N #keTT. n$ b+<{ y b{+#*q esZ\qT eT&T $<\T>
$u+#e#T. n$ ` 1. sj>+ 2. bqHj>+ 3, Cqj>+
+eTT+<T sj>+ >T]+ #keTT. s j>+ n+f n+sZ m<T>T
<\ &&T |qT\T #jT+.b|+ dTU\d+ bT|&+& < m<T
>T<\ bT|&*. <<+ esT ed, ns, nu> |qT\T #jT e#T.B
u>eBZ eT&e n<jT+ $es+> #&e#T.
bdHj>+ $wj ed X+s#sT\ ysT B de~j >+ n
L& n+{sT. |sTcs+ k~+#{ eTq e d+d<+ #jT yT bdH
j>+ <X+. |sTcsj> d+b<Hs+, eTq J$ n+eT \ +eqe \
\qT k~+# s+s |jD+ {, bdq, j> d+b~+# seT+>
n_e]+#e#T.
s |wT , eTq \ k<q eTq s<+ bsT.m> |jD+
#d, >eT+ #s{ yVq+ eT+ d +&, n eTq Xs+ L& eT+
d +&*. n+<T,Xk\T eTq Xs = u>\T> $u+#sTT. Xs
sD+ w+> +&, k]> eTq ns+<T { < ns+ #dT H+<T
M\T> $$< $u>\T> $u+#sT. D++ X|+#+ nHsT. +
D++ XsjT + nHsT. eTq n<jTq+ d+ eTq Xs eT&T u>\T
> $u<+.~ Xd|s+ ]+~,{, # j>yTq $uq> |]>D+#*.
1. sTT n+X ` u jT+
2. y n+X ` y
3. eqd n+X ` eTqdT

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y eTq e s dT+~. eTqdT n+H wy Tq~, n+
eTTKyTq~ e+ < s+ #jT eTT. Xd+ eT&T u>\ jT+
+#+<T b>eTT\ s ++~.
6.1 sTT n+X
yTT<{ u>+ u Xs+ < d\ Xs+. d\ Xs+ e\H eTq \\
` b|+ \\ < < \\ ` k~+#>\eT eTq \TdT {
sTT~ # eTTKyTq~. n+<T Xd+ Xs >, Xs s> s+
#jT < #|+~.
<: s> <&, > d+|s+
< eT+<T\T ydT H eTT+<T eT++ #b+.
Xs s] u y~>d es
Ww<+ CV$ jTyT y< HsjTD V]:
Xs+ ned|&TTq|&T, Xs y~ kq|&T rdTH eT+<T |$
yT q >+>\+, y<T&T kT HsjTDT&T.
Xs+ >T]+q bsq e\+ b|+ \\qT u~+# y< |Psu>+
H <T, < +q |+# y<+ u>+ L& X+bs\ s|+
+~ Xs s>+ sTTeeT, @> <s eT sTsTT n$.
<Ts<weXT, eTq+ @< s>+ u]q |&esL, s> K
#jT eTT. nHs>+ e# qjT+ #sTT+#TH<H, s>+ >T]+ eTT+<T
C> rdTe+ # *. eTT+<T C> rdTe{ f deTjT+ ,
&T > ejT+ #jTqKs<T. k] s>+ jy < ]
#Te{ u&T &, deTjTeT y+#* +T+~. s>+ b&Te
{ deTjT+ <+f, nHs> bs<\{ \e++> deTjT+ y+#*
+T+~. Xs d+sD XsbwD> bsbT|&L&<T. Xs d+sD \+>
q|&T, < nqedsy Tq \\ $j+q|&T, Xs bwD neT+~.
n+<Te\ eeT\T d+sD k<H n+{sT.

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6.2. y n+X
e + s+& n+X y n+X. ~ L& # eTTKyTq n+X+.
$y#&eTD X+s#sT\T #bsT:
j>d |<eT+ <s+ y s<|]>V: sX # V #
w&T u>eBZ, |~V&e n<jT+ y |dT H\T>T n+X\qT
d+#&T.
6.2.1 nqT<>s+ ` u~+#~
eTq e\T me] u~+#+& +&T #dTy*. e\ ksTT
nV+d b{+#+ yTT<{yT T. +, $eT]+#+, +~+#+, +#|s#
+, y~+#+ +{e V+d+< eksTT.
@~ u~dT +< m \TdTy*? < f esZ+ +~. eTq mesH
@~ n+f eTq u~dT +<, n~ m<T{y] L& u~dT +~. @~ u~dT+<n~
nq+& +&{ |jT +#*.n <s |+ d+ u~+# n+X
Z+#*. Xs deTT+<T u< *jT+& +&{ &sT eTTeT+<T
sTTqT>.
6.2.2 d+`+
d+ n+f + #|+. VH < <e #sT e{ n+ eTTKyTq
jTeT+ ~. d+ #|+ <s eTq+ n+eT d yTq VH #sT e#T.
b|+ ksTT d+ #|, < ksTT d #sTee#T.
b|+ d+ y| dT,< d+ u>yqT&T,n+<Te\ eTqe& |
n<eT eTq <e <s+ #k+~.
nde d<ZeTj ` z <y! qqT ndY <s+ #sTT.mTe+{ nd e&H
|nd eT eTq u>e+T <s+ #dT+~.eTq eTqdT m+> dT|s
#Ty\+f, eTq+ #| | n<eT eTq u~+, u< s\+ +&
#j*. n<+ &+ e\ *> u< eTT+<T, n~ & *> u+ Mby*.
n|&T eTq |yT jT+ +&H eTq+ nd e&+ eHkeTT. |d]|]d
&*q n<\ e\ *> bb =+yT s bjT+ e\ Z+#Te#T.

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6.2.3 |jT + ` eT<Te>
y| dT eT& n+X+ sTT~. Bqs+ eTq y |jT+> +&*. n+f
dT+>, eT<Te>, eTs<>, $qjT+> +&*. n+f eT+> Xu\T +&*.
neT+> Xu\T $&|{*.
6.2.4 V+ ` w+
eTq+ e{&~ $H e V+> +&*. n+f n sTTw+> +&*.
n+ <sTDyTq V+d {, eTq+ #|< MT< X<y e{&*
se+.u]+# +,k<sD+>, me] m<T{ysT #|~ $H z| +&<T.
6.3 eqd n+X
eT&e ksTT eqd n+X. eTqdT jT++#TH seT+.ns\
<H\ eqd |dT +< eksTT. <q+ f eqe |dT #\<T.
b<$T+> bdq n+f eqd |dT #d <q+. Xs, y jT+
+#+< eTqdT jT++#eTT {, sTT, y |dT \ eqd |dT
=*yTT> u$keTT. m+<T+f eTqdT dyTq~. *>Z n<T| |~.
n+<Te\ eTT+<T Xs, y n<T| |Ty*. $ seTqdT jT+
+#{ |s+> |=ksTT.
n+<T @ <qj> seTeTTH <+{ sTT, y |dT \T L& +
{sTT. nc+>j >+ L& |+* eTTK <X+ eqd |d nsTTH sTT
y |dT\qT L& |k$k&T. u>eBZ se n<jT+ |sT d+jTeTq
j>+ nsTTH wu>yqT&T Vs jTe\ >T]+ L& e{&T&T.eTqdT,
y\ d++<eTTqT>, eTqdT, Xs L& d++<eTT+~. n+<T $|
yTq |+ eq|&T <q+>, eTs<> +&+ w+.n+<T bdq n+f
b<$T+> eqd |dT . |s+> sTT, y |dT .
eTq M\T d+, n s\ <H\ H\T>T s\T> $u+#e#T. eTq
eTqdT eTq+ |+b+~+#Ty\qT+Tq n+X {.
6.3.1 $X+ <q+
<q+ eTTK+> eTqdT $X+|s# + H, q Xs u>\
L& $X+ |sT ksT. +<T Xs $X+, y $X+, +~j

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$X+ sTTkeTT. n|&T e] eTqdT $X+ \_dT +~. H{ b{ ||+#+
& Z+#Te{ ~ # |j>|&TT+~. n+<T $X+ <H
& s*+# <q+ nL& nqe#T. |sp d| $X+> Lse+
k<q #jT +&. ~ Xs, eqd s> # neds+. B @ |< nH
y&e#T. <VsD eT+ |+#y, MT XdMT< <d |y, <
e\+ X+' nqy #jT e#T.
6.3.2 @><q+
@> <q+ eTqdT <MT< +B]+#+, +B]+# deTj
|+#+ k<q #keTT. b|+ $wjT + MT< , < $wjT+ MT<
=+ jT$T \|]$T d| @> *> keTs |+b+~+#Ty*.
B eTq Xd+ eT&T |<T \T d+#&sTT.
eqd|P ` c&X|#s |P #jT +.
eqd bsjTD+ ` @ bsq nH #jT +
eqd |+ ` @< HeT+ rdT #jT +.
6.3.3 $X\<< <q+
+<T dwyTT }V+#T+{eTT. n|& nq+ $X+ eTq+
#, # qyeT ` <<| dTH deqeT nseTeT+~. eTq<
eTq J$+ >T]+, |]dT \ >T]+ \ $T+q uy\THsTT. eTq deTd
n+srjT deTd\+ |<e, eTq+ b ||+#+ \+<T bT+<
> }V+#dT +{+. n+{ |&T #q, < kq+ n~ +&\H
|&T |d+<q\ <] rdT+~. eTq kq+ $X+ m&T+< eTq= ne>V
q +&*. dwq+ }V+#Ty*. X+, q L$T, ks T++,
>V \T, K+&\T, q<T\T, =+&\T, |\T, +Te\T, eTqw\T. B $Xs|
<q+ n+{sT. +<T dw |sD + +T+~.
6.3.4 $\Te\ <q+
B esT <q+ nL& n+{sT. & eTq #H rsT es+
e\, eTq+ d+|Ps+> n+sZ+> eseTT. eTq+ k<sD+> eTq #H
rsT |{+ #TeTT. m+<T+f, n~ # d +> +T+~, D+ ejT

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eTeT+~. q y #&sT . eTq #H rsT eTq J$, eTq >eT
H, eTq \ ssTTdT+<q $wjT + eT]bL&<T.
MT #q\ >eT+#+&, n$ MT e\esTT.
MT e\qT >eT+#+&, n$ MT s\esTT.
MT s\qT >eT+#+&, n$ MT n\yesTT.
MT n\yqT >eT+#+&, n$ MT q&e& neT+~.
MT q&e&qT >eT+#+&, n~ MT >eT+ neT+~.
n+<T MT #q, MT u$wT ssTT+# d yTq ;+.
jT<e+ <e ` MTs d, n~ nesT.
6.3.4.1 <M d+|, ndT d+|
Xd+ B s+&T k+ |<C e]ksT `
Y THjT: ueTs HjT:
#HrsT eTq u$wT ssTTdT+~. {, y{ esTe+ #
neds+. u>eBZ 16e n<jT+ < \ + y| rdT <M d+|
>T]+ e+~. \qT+ <s+ #d~ ndT d+|.
ndT d+| s , <w+, ndV q+, s +{ \D\T +{sTT.
e L& eT #q. #q\T T\+{$ ue+ s+, T
\ |]q |< e\ @s&TT+~. ue+ s| es\+f, T\ neT]es*.
n+. n> eTq #H rsT esT, H z| +~. HqT H J$
m<Ts>\qq qeT+ +~ nqTy*. < <T\T, H+ *jT<T, HqT ndeTsT
& nqT+{+. eeT\T>, sE s>\T L& e\+ s>+ sTe+
e\ qjTeTeTHsTT. eTqdT Xe+yTq |]s+ . < nK+&yT q d+\\+ `
<&XjT X ` +~. $\Te\ <q+ d+\
|+#T+{+. ~ H\T> $<yT q <q+.
H\T>T s\ <H\ eTq eTqdT jT++, < s>e++
#d, |sTcsb| nsT\ #ksTT.

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6.3.5 Xs+, y, eTqdT\ d$Tw w
Xs+, y, eTqdT\T s>+> +&* yT, n$ $&$&> s
>+> +f #\<T. n$ d$Tw> |#j*. n+<Te\ y{ jT++#yT
<T, y{ eT< deTue+ +&*. { <, sTT+{ sTT+< bL&<T.
C eTq+ n<+ #|q|&, y, eTqdT eT< $u<+ dw+,
y{ eT< deTue+ +& #dTH sTT. eT&+{ { MT< q&|+#{
se+ n+{sT. Xs+, y, eTqdT\ $&$&> n<T| |{, y{eT<
deTue+ |+b+~+#{ Xd+ d+q esZ+ bdHj>+. BH de~
j>+ n, nc+>j >+ n L& n+{sT.
s j>+, bdHj> @~ eTT+<T, @~ yqT nq{ <T. d+
<s + < MT< me <d|e#T. n deq+> eTTKyT. s j>+,
bdHj>+ cT \j, eTq+ eT&B, n+ eTTKyTqB nsTTqCq
j>+ n&T>T|&eTT.
*****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
07. Cqj>+
Xd+ eTw s H\T>T |sTcs\ $e]+,y{ k~+#{ eT&T|<
T\ d++~. n$ sj>+, bdq j>+, Cqj>+. |&T Cqj>+
>T]+ #<+.
7.1 Cqj>+ ` Cq b|s+ j>:
Cqj>+ n+f Cq deTTbsq y& |<. dV+> |X <sTT
dT+~. < >T]+q Cq+?m+<T+f Cq+ edTe d++~+q~ m|&.
Cqj>+ n+f Cq+, eTq* >T]+ eTq+ \TdTe+.
eTq >T]+ eTq+ \TdTe+ n+f eTq |{ eTq >T]+ =+
\TdT. eTq mT, eTq sTe, eTq *< +&T\ >T]+. eTq |TeT#\T e>s.
n+f eTq >T]+ ||q \TdT. Cqj>+ n+f eTq >T]+q eTTKyTq $w
jT+ < nd\T $wjT+ < nd\T HqT, qyT q HqT nqe#T. < |s|
n+{sT.Xd+ nd\T HqT n+{sT.{ Cqj>+ n+f Cqj>+.
7.2 |jq+ : y|sTcs:
Cqj>+ nTeT |sTcsy T q y b+<{ |j>|&TT+~.
Cqj>+: ys+
7.3 y+
B >T]+ |sTcseTT\ >T]+ \TdTq|&T #X+.< nH s#
H\THsTT. eTq+ |sTcs\ #dq ns eT] k] >TsT #T+<+.
y+ n+f +< + < <s|&+ qT+ d# b+<+. < +<+? q
eT&T |sTcs\ nsTTq <s, ns, e\ +<+.
7.3.1 s+&Ts\ +<+
edTe >, e > m<TsT>T+& +f, *> +< us: n+{sT.
eTTK+> { eTqTw\ @s& d++<u+<y\ & me> +T+~.
n> mes b +]q+ y~dT +~. J$+ XSq+> n|dT +~. +f

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u< b u<. eTq eTqTw\T y e< nq~ \TbT
H+. k] @<H Xe b]b<e n|dT+~. |\\T m<TsT> +f
\H|, <s+> +f >T+&H=| n kyT. +{ bX ujT: bX
sE n+{sT.
y+ n+f s+&T +<\ +&e. eTw m<TsT> +f & qe
eT +&<T. <seTsTT XSqueeT +&<T. H= &T y* nq |q
+&<T. <sse\T H, bsTTH & +&<T. B d# n+{sT.
7.4 n+sZ d# eT&T d<T ZD\T
|X+ |+b+~+#Te{ +>+ bsq +~. < ks+X+~.
z <y!H deT+ |k~+#T.J$+ esy{ n+^]+#>*>+<T.
H <s + |k~+#T, J$+ es>*qy{ es+<T.
H $y+ |k~+#T, J$+ @$ es>\H, @$ esH \TdT
H+<T. n+f eT&T d<TZD\T sTTHeTT ` deT+, <s+, $y+.
& es~ n+^]+#+ n+f HsT eTdT u]+#&+ <T ns+.
es < u]+#\q +> kyT +~ & eTq+ s deT+
sTqe n+^]+# kqTL\ ]. <w+ |+b+~+#~, nHjT+ ]+<
|+#~ sTTHeTT. |y*q # s>s+ > |e+, es>*q
# <s+> es>\>&+, $y+ @~ @< \Te+.
7.5 Cq deTTbsq $<q+
@ Cq+ d+b~+#\H L& < f |< +~. Cq deTTbsq
|]s+ y*. < d+d + |eD+ n+{sT.
HsT H e ` |e
y& |]s+ ` |eD+
HsT H edTe ` |yT jT+
b+< Cq+ ` |eT
n+f |e, |eD+ <s, |yT jT+ >T]+q |eT b+<T
&T. <VsD s+>T >T]+ \TdTy\+f qT, X+ >T]+ \TdTy
\+f #$ |j dTH&T.

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7.5.1 <T |eD\T
Xd+ |eD+ >T]+ $|\+> #]+,<T |eD\T eTq+<TuT
HsTT n+~. <T |eD\T eTqTw\ n+<TuT +&+ y{ |+#
bsTwjT |eD\ n+~.
<T |eD\ |sT \TdT+f #\T, $es\T d+<s+ eq|&T
HsT e#T.
1. | |eD+ 2. nqTeq |eD+ 3. ns| 4. |eq+ 5. nqT|\_
<T |eD\ #sD M\T> s+&T> Z+#sT.
1.| |eD+ 2.nqTeq |eD+ $Cq Xk\ M{MT< <s|& HsTT.
7.6 @ |eD+ y&*?
eT] eTq+ @ |eD+ y&*? Xd+ eTq sTTw+ eq < eTq ds
<> n|+q |eD+ y&{ M\T <+T+~. |eD+ eTq+ \TdTy
\qT+Tq edTe MT< <s|& +T+~. eTq+ s+>T >T]+ \TdTy\qT+
f, qT nq |eD+ y&*. HqT d#J$, H sTTw+ eqT #kqT, me]
e{ m+<T $H*? HqT #e\T y&qqeTT. T~> y&*, b>
sT> +&L&<T. n+<Te\ Cq+ d]jTq |eD+ y&H , \T>TT+~.
7.7 CH @ |eD+?
eTq n+<TuT q <T |eD\, uV||+# #ksTT. +<T
@M y{ yqT q s #&e. n+<Te\ ~ | |eD+, nqTeq |eD
\ TbT. ~ |+# |eD\ e\ e# TbT.~ dq T jTT TbT.
+ eTT+<T TbT dqT |<T. |&T |+{+~. n~
#~y $<] #&<T.
ns eTq >. eTq uV ||+# #&>\e > eTq
#&e. ( H{ d& ) s s> #&eTT. s m|& s > n+<Tu
T <T. nsTT Cq+ n+<TuT +&<T, yC Xk n+T
<T. eTs<H esZ+ +<?

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7.8 se |eD+
#&{ + uV edTe y*. eTq+ eTq #dTe{
n<+ y*. eTq eTq #&eq $wjT + eTq+ |y*. n|&TuVe
dTyq n< y&eTT. n> Cq+ $wjT + L& |+#|eD\T bsT
wjT |eD\T, n$ d]be. B se |eD+ y*. n~ dV+> <T.
jT qT+ n<+ qT y*. < Xd |eD+ < X|eD+ n+{sT.
~ nbsTwjT |eD+.
n<+ b? eTq n+< =*# esZyT <T. u>e+T&T Xs n+<
=\e{ n< sTTd, n+sZ n+< =\e{ Xd |eD+ < X|e
D+ < nbsTwjT |eD sTT#&T. n~ se |eD+.
7.9 m y&*?
n<+ +&>H d]b<T. eTq n+<yT q yTTV+ n~ #|dT +~. eTq
n< m y& *j*. @~ eTT+<Tyb, @~ yqTyb *j*. n>
Xk d]> n<jTq+ #j *. d]> #~$ Cq+ \T>TT+~. Xk
eTqyT #~$, |e<+ |& neX+ +~. Cq+ |+ {, | |<
& Cq $wjT + |+ {,Xd+ y& |< L& |+>H +T+~.
@$T~? eeT\T |d+ #~$,eTq+ HsT H |<@$T{?eeT\T> |d\T
nH edTe\ >T]+ $e]ksTT. n+<T s+&T <X\T +{sTT.
m) eTT+<T edTe >T]+q de#s+ $q+.
_) s n& y[ | nqTue+ b+<+.
<VsD qj>s \b+ >T]+q de#s+ n+ #~ysT.yTT<{<X
nsTT+~. s n& y[q|&T < | +> #d nqTu$ksT .B &MT
|< n+{sT.
Cq+ $wjT + <>Zs e#d] n sT><T. yTT<{ <X
>T]+ HsT +{eTT. s+& <X y[ \y\+f <s< T. m+<T?
eTqyT {. { &MT |< & k><T. eTq+ |<
n\yT |&+, Xk L& > n<jTq+ #<eTqT+{eTT.
Cq+ s+&T <X\ e.

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Cq+ de#se? <T
Cq+ | nqTuee? <T.
nsTT eT] Cq+ n+f @$T{? CqyT! + |< #b\+f
Cq+ n+f nCq+ =\beyT.
7.10 ys|< +~ ` Cqj>+
Cq j> eT&T<X\ k<q +~. XeD+, eTqq+, ~<dq+.
7.10.1 XeD+ ` deTse+T&q >TsTe, eT |< #| q Xd CH $
HsT e+, n~ L& = d+es\bT.
>TsTe +& eTqyT #~$ &MT |&bsTT,de#s+ HsT e+
H, | nqTue+ d+ #&y sT>TT+~.
<VsD + sT&T\ eT< ]q d+uwD >T]+ #<+. + sT &
#|+~, s, H sT>TsT |T\T HsT. n <T>T] >T]+# \TdT,
< L& y eT]b&T. n+<T n&T>T&T, z +r! se |T&
#&\ +~. +, eTd n+T+~. n+f n~ qTy. n|&T sT &T sTT
nH&qT+&, z +r, H se |T& >T]+ de#s+ *d+~. |&T
n m& \TdTqT? n n+f m +T+~? |X sTT&<s< T. nCq+
=\beyT Cq+. &MT <T.
n+<Te\ XeD+ n+f eT|< Xd+ HsT e+. deTse+yTq
>TsTe <>Zs, = d+es\ bT. m+<T+f eTq nyfq |< b>=T
e{ deTjT+ |&T+~.
XeD+ sT>TTq <X |X\T n&>L&<T. >TsTe $wj nH
D+, nH n+X\ >T]+ d+|Ps+> $e]k&T. eTq d+<V \T *H,
=+ u>+ |e{ d<+> bsTTH, y{ |q |T, #|q $w
j n+^]+# + |+#Ty*. eTq+ >TsTe e $u~+#e#T.
H e $qb X|kqT nq&T. n~ |P] njT< eTq+ >*. eTq+
eTT+| se+, eTq q $XwD #dTe+, $eT]+#+ #jT L&<T. Xe
D+ <X # z| y*.XeD+ nCq+ =\dT+~

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7.10.2 eTqq+ `
d+|Ps+> $H, =HbT XeD+ #k, eTq d+<V \ jT e
#T. n<jTq+ >=|<q+ +~. nHbT XeD+ #k, MT sq d+
<V \ ny eTTejTeTesTT. m+<T+f Xd+ >TsTw d+y<+ e+T+
~. eTq *> d+<V \ w&T yk&T.nsTTH eTq @<H = d+<V+ *,
eTq ] yT<&T q~, |+& n&>e#T, >TsTe < rsTk&T. n|&T
d+<V \ <#T+f, n$ CH n&+\esTT. n+<Te\ eTqq+ d+<V \
=\+, eTq d+XjT Cq+ *dT+~.
7.10.3 ~ <dq+ : eTq eTq+ n+sZ+> #dTe+ eTq @ s &,
nyfq |<, <qT>TDyTq |esq esTy*. n~ bH Cq+ \T>T
T+~. n+<T ~ <dq+ n+f eTq\yfq b |< esT, CH
n\esTH #dT +~. esTb >TsTe eTq >T]+ m+ #|H eTq |<
es<T.
B= <VsD. k] =+eT+~ eT+>*y \d y d+|T+ sT |
q sejTD+ H+ y<eTqTHsT. b|+ # w|& ]Vs\T #ksT. nqT
q sE sH e+~. <Xs< eTVsE =\Te, $X$TT&T eksT. s+& s+&,
MT+ #jT >\qT n n&>* <Xs<T&T. $X$TT& q ETqT, b&T>T
>&+q #dd] |q <Xs< T&> q>\T ydT H, n eT+>*y&T |=
#&T. n+<T, s+&, s+&, MT+ #jT >\qT? n w$+>? {+ >? n&>&T.
>=\Tq qysT n+<s .
eTq n+{ eT+>* eTqd + +T+~. eTq |esq eTq >T]+
eTq+ @ss#Tq uy { +T+~. b uy =\+#{ eTq+
>{ |jT + #j*. = J$ r] ~<Ty*.B d+ Xd+ $q+ nsTTb
sTTH, Xd+ n<jTq+ #dH +&* < C *d +&*.
eTq+ m+ H, eTq n]+< K. k$T qjq+< n&T>T&T, qTe
|~ |wT \T #~ye ds, m |* msTT? n. n+<T HsTq~
e+ |{+#Te+ ~ <dq+.

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d+|+> ` XeD+, eTqq+, ~<dq+ #d n$ CH sTTksTT.
Cq+ * y+ \T>TT+~. y+ +< =\dT+~. n+f eTqw
yTq e <>Zs +f *> us+ , <>Zs b *> @++ n|+
#<T.

*****

n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<


nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
08. uj >+
y u >T]+ #<eTT. B Xd+ # beTTK +~, $$< d+<
s\ B ns+ q &\T+{sTT.n+<T sTT~ eTq =+yT s njeT
jT+ |&ydT +~ L&qT. n+<T eTq+ u n+f @$T{ dw+> ns+ #dT
y*. u nq |< Xd+ s+&T ns\ y&TT+~.
8.1 u yTT<{ ns+
u n+f <e MT< s<q. >se+ L&q |eT s<q> n_e]+#
e#T. n~ qyT q e\ MT< @s&TT+~ eu, |u n+{+, y
|PjT e\T> |]>DkeTT {. n> >TsTu, <Xu, Xsu, n+f,
u n+f qyT q eMT< |eT, eTTK+> <e MT< |eT.
8.2 |eT eT&T ~X\T
|eT eTq Xd+ L\+w+> $Xw+ +~.eeT\T e\ MT< |eT ne,
n> <e MT< q |yT q |eT ne, eTw me] MT< @ $<yT q |eT
#|+H, n~ e\+ eT&T ~X HjT Xd+ #b+~
8.2.1 >eT+ |eT
yTT<{~ \+ MT< |eT. eTq+ J$+ k~+#\qTq n+eT \
|$TkeTT. y{ |$TdTHeTT f, y{ k~<eTqT+THeTT. n+<T
B >eT+ |eT nq#T.

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8.2.2 esZ+ |eT
s >eT+ #sTe{ eTq+ nH esZ\ |j +#*. @<
esZ+ <s y[ > >eT+ #sTeTT. esZ+ e eTq >eT+ #sT >\eTT
{ esZ L& |$TkeTT. n+<Te\ B esZ+ |eT nq#T.
8.2.3 djT+ |eT
eT&~ eTqMT< eTq q |eT. n+<T < djT+ |eT n+<eTT.
n+<Te\ |eT\+{ eT&T >\T> e]+#e#T >eT+ |eT, esZ+ |eT,
djT+ |eT. ~ mTe+{ |eTH e]dT+~.
8.3 |eT ksTu< \T
eT&T >\ |eT q|&T y{MT< q re ksT u<+ +T+<
Xd+ #|+~. esZ+ MT< |eT ksTT # e, >eT+ MT< eT<d+, djT+
MT< V#TksTT +T+~. m+<T? sD+ # *. esZ esZ+ d+
|$T+#+ <T. <<s >eT+ #sT e{ |jT dTHeTT. >eT+ #sT
H esZ eT]beTT. <qe+T\ #T uq #d eTqTw\T m+<T sT>T
sT? y XseTH >eT+ #sT e{ esZ+. n+ y <>Zs &T q+
\yT y <>Zs CssT. m|& y Xs+ eTTejTeTeT+<, n|&
uq>S qTeTsT>esT. +{ e<T\ |> #ksT , m+<T? d sd
ksq X. Ks>* e<T&T q d eTT+< sdk&, n bT |>y&
L& e<|dT+~.nqT q {y] d\V*k&T q> eTT+< d sTTe<
. jeY $ bsqd:
e |]ys s:
|XY Je ss <V
ysyT | q |# >V!
n~X+ {y] MT< |eT, >eTeTH &T #sT e{ esZ+. n+<T
>eT+ MT< |eT me, esZ+ H, esZ+ sTTwyT , >eT+ eT sTTws+.
eT] |&T, >eT+ MT< |eT, my, djT+ MT< |eT my? ]+>
d eTq+ nH >e\qT mqTe{ sD+,n$ eTq u<H , dTUH,
q+<H sTTksTT {. m|& >eT+ eTq dTUe<T n eTq n|
dT+< n|&T eTq+ < e<T\T+{+, < k~+H L&. n+<T H&T $y

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V\T $qeTeTHsTT. nqT qqT |$T+#& |eT $yV\T #dT +{sT.
|$T+#< nsyT +< $&bTHsT. n+f y MT< y |eT. us MT< <T.
qy ns |T: ejT |: |j ue
qdT ejT |: |j ue
n+<Te\ >e >eT+ d+ |$T+#sT . n+ eTq#TH sT>TT+~.
n+<Te\ |eT ksTu<+ #&\+f `esZ+ |eT,eT+< |eT,>eT+ |eT,
eT<eT |eT, djT+ |eT, eT |eT. ~ eqe |eT >T]+ k<sD d+.
8.4 eT&T ksTT\ u
|&T B u>e+T& MT< |j<+.mesH <e |$Td, |eT ksTT
m+ +~? Xd+ #|T+B, ksTT y <e #d |< { +T+<.
m+<T+f ss \ eTqTw\T ss \ |<T #ksT <eD. < f ksT
u<+ L& +T+~.
8.4.1 eT+< u
#eT+~ <eD y b|+ >e\T #sT H+<T esZ+> =\T
ksT . HqT \j y[, H ] rsTT+~ nqT+{sT. <eD
=*d, < eT+< u (eksTT u) n+{sT. n+{y <e MT< n\T>T
sT L&.H <e MT< |#|+ e+~.e nesTT |[ <s eT sqT.
\TL, |\TL <T jTq. <+ jT =\e+ eHd, H bsH |d\
rdTy[ # T bsXqT n+{sT. m+<T? y~ wsT L&Tq
|eT.qTe ~ #dH HqT qT |$TkqT. <j q+< dsd rk$T B #> e]
ksT . eTT+<T \y jTT n+{sT. s m jTT T > n+{s. <e
<>ZsH n< |<. B eT+< u n+{sT, meeT+~ u ksTT +T+~.
8.4.2 eT<eT u
s+& ksTT y =+#+ nsT<T> +{sT. y <eD >eT+ #s esZ+
> =\esT. y |]| +~. dw +~ y ne>Vq. n+<T <eD
y >eT+> =\TksT . J$ \+ >e #s+. <e&T u< V+. <e&T
X+ V+. <e&T q+< H\e. y y*q$ X+u< . n+<T

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<eD >eT+ |eT |< |$TksT .n~ eTT+<T |<H V#TksTT. n+<T
B eT<eT u n+{sT.
8.4.3 eT u
eTssTT eT u @~? n+ nsT<T> #d u @$T{? +<T <e
esZ+>q #&sT, >eT+>q #&sT. Jy |se #ksT {
|se MT< u, djT+|eT deq+. djT+|eT m eTyTq<, |se
MT< n+{ |eT L& eTyTq<. eT+< u& <e&T |jT+, eT<eT u&
|jT s+ , eT u& |jT eT+. w|se B $|\+> u>eBZ @&e
n<jT+q, |H+&e n<jT+q e]k&T.
u n+f @$T{? <e+ MT< eT+<, eT<eT, eT s|+ q |eT. ~
u jTT yTT<{ s#q+.
8.5 u s+&e s#q+
|&T u s+&e s#q+ #<+. |sT cseTT\ qyT q |sTcs+
y k~+#{ |j>|& k<q |<. B #]+#*q |<> e]+#{
, j>+ nq |<+ *bsT. n+f u #]+#*q |<> y& u j>+
n+{+.
8.5.1 eT&T |<T\ < esZ+
s |X uj >+ n+f @$T{? @ |< dk+~ n~? |sTcs\
k~+#{ eT&T |<T\ #]+#+ eTT+<T n+X\. n$ sj>+,bdH
j>+, Cqj>+. n|&T u j>+ ef \|<T. eT] uj>+ n+f
@$T{? n~ H\T>e |< nq |X edT+~.
eTq yT: uj>+ nH~ ys |yT q |< H <T. eT&T |<T
\ *| y& |< uj>+. n+ H\T>e |< <T. y\+f #|
e#T.
uj>+ yTT<{ yTT
s j>+ s+&e yTT
bdq j>+ eT&e yTT
Cqj>+ n+f s j>+ G bdq j>+ G Cqj>+ R u j>+.

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m+<T eT&+{ *| uj>+ n+TH+?m+<T $&> #&eTT?
m+<T+f, eT&T j>q deq+> q n+X+ u. s j>+ u \
>\b*. bdH j>+ u eTTq>*, Cqj>+ usd+ *.sd> T #
sb+ *qT>.
8.5.1.1
sj>+ : sj>+ @+ #dH |#s <y n++ #d, @e+
e] #|+#+&, eTq #s\ ` eT+ , #&T ` |*\ d]k+.
XssD ueq < |k< ueq +& sj>+ +T+<? n+f s j
u +& rs*.
8.5.1.2
bdH j>+ : bdq j>+ <e+ >T]+ <q+ #j *, X~
d+, @> d+. u b <q+ m #keTT? eqd |P, eqd
bsjTD+, eqd |+ n bdq u>\T.bdq L& u + s>*.
8.5.1.3
Cqj>+ : +<T L& u +~. Xd+ n<jTq+ #d|&T, bsq
yTT<{, bsq eTTkeTT. n+<T Cqj>+ eTq+ $#sD #dT H+.
e] JyXs + \TdT+{+. Cq+ b+~, VCq+ b+~qf. n~
$&> <T. n+<Te\ Cqj>+ L& u +~. n+<Te\, u n+f <
k<q #]+# yTT+ |<.
ks+X+
u s+&T s#H\T.
1. <e MT< |eT ` eT+<, eT<eT, eT |eT sb.
2. < k<& |< ` s , bdq, Cqj>\+{.
8.6 <e+
d+<s + sTT+ n+X L& dw+> \TdTy*. u n+f <e
MT< s<q nH+. <e&T mes *jTb,n MT< u m @s&TT+~?
eTTLyTTV+ *jT e MT< |eT m |&TT+~? n+<T |&T |[ eTT+
<*d s>\qT+THsT. Hse Tj&T. n+<T |$TdTHqT n+{sT, |[
#dT +{sT. s + me ns+ #dT , HseTj&T, n+<T |$T+

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#bTHqT, n+{sT. <e $wjT+ L& n+. <e& due+ *jT+<
m |$TkeTT?
n+<T eTq+ <e due+ >T]+ > #]<+. Xd+ <eD >T]+
eT&T s#H\T sTTdT+~.k< |]| {,yT<X {. eT&T ksTT\T
@$T{ #<+.
8.6.1 yTT<{ s#q+
<e&T dws. d+d + >Y s Xs: n+{sT. $TsD+ n
L& n+{sT. B *>Z ns+ #dTe#T. @$T~? @ n+<yT q edTe #dH,
< yqT < dw+q yT<$ +{&T. edTe m+ V+&+> +f, n
*$* n+> ]keTT. n+f eeT\T edTe jsT#jT {
eqe yT<dT y\+f, + eT<+> q, + u<jT+> q n<T
yT q >Y yqT mesT qT,mes \T|yTT s+#sT` \T| yTT
jTT u+ sTT+ qT>=q<T.n~ nqeds+ <T, eTq sTT+ < |j
q+ *jT<T n+.n+f dwnqedsyT q edTe+ @B <T.dw + u<
jT+>, + n<T+> +<+f,< yqT mes *yq dws Hsqe.
*yq >Ys XsT&T. XsT& >Y s> u$d, XsT& e>
u$keTT. m+<T+f eTq *dq *yq e eTw. n+<T # *yq e
> <e& }V+#T+{+. n dsE>, ds XeT+T&> }V+#T+{+.
eTq #T q&&T { n yT|\|q eqT }V+#T+{+. <e&T
eTq e> <e&T. eTq q HeT, sb\T #T+{+. seTT&T, w&T,
$weT], e&Te>s. <e& eTq+ @s | Xs n+<+. s|+ <*q
<e&T. s+u <X q u& <e&T.
8.6.2 s+&e s#q+
eTq =+ |]| e, +=+#+ eTT+<T +#>*q|&T, Xd+
XsT ksTT sTT+=+#+ |+#T+~. <e&T dw sD+ ` >Y sD+ Xs:
n+eTT+<T >Y s Xs: n+~, |&T >YsD+ Xs: n+T+~. n~
mdk+? eTq+ <eD dws> ns+ #dT +f, eT] ||+# <qT+
dw+#&q |X <sTTdT+~. dws H eTT&dsT y*. e&+ #
y*. |yTd qTeTT, T\T y*. eT] <e&T dws nsTT, eTT&|<s+

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@~? $X+ dw+#eTT+<T <e&=& H&T. +MT <T. XdE\T _>u+>
eTT+<T feTT, ddt e+{sT. n+<T \+, b++, edTe\T @s&eTT+<T,
<e&=& q|&T, eTT&ds T @~? n+<T eTT&dsT L& <e+ qT+#
e+< Xd+ u~dT+~. n+f <e&T sD+ ne&T. B Xd+ <V
sD L& sTTdT+~.n~ k|sT>T. d+d + }sH_ n n+{sT. eTq+ k
|sT>T <wdT HeTT y<++ n<= n+<yT q <VsD.k|sT>T q
>&T { eTT&ds T q+# rdT+~. n> <e&Tb<q sD+ L&.
n+f <e& qT+ eTT&dsT e+~. eTT&ds T qT+# yTT+ $X+ e+~
{ <e& $X+. n+f $X+ <e&T | eTs{ <T. nsTT <e&& H&T?
n+{,n sb ds y|jT H&T. n+f |&T <e&Te> <e&T <T.
@s | XsT&T <T. nqT nHs | Xs: < $Xs|Xs: <e <s q+
d+ eTq+ m& y qs<T. sT<+ eD <sTTdTq dsT> =\TksT .
8.6.3 eT&e s#q+
eTT+<T >Y s Xs: nH+. s >Y sD+ Xs: nH+. |&T
>Y n~cq+ Xs: n+TH+. ~ nTeT, n wyT q, n+eT s#q+.
<e&T n sb\T <&T nq>H eTq d+<V + edT+~. n+f #&ysT,
y<T\T, HsdT \T e>s\THsTT < dw. n$ L& <e&H? neqT nqT+f
<eu m \T>TT+~? n+{ d+<V + eq|&T, eTq+ eT& s#q+ n+
^]+#{ d<|&T K. <e&T ||+#+> es&T. <e&T nH HeTsb\Tq
||+#+> n|k&T. y{ |ueyTMT jTq n+<T. +$<+> #b\+f,
jTq n edTe\ d<|+. qT n HeTsb\ n~cq+. @ HeT s|+
<e #+~q~ <T. n+f n~cq Xs: ns| Xs: ne&T. s|+
<e&T.
8.7 d+|+ >
8.7.1 eT&T ksTT\T
eT&T ksTT\T
>Y s ` dwk&T @s| Xs ` eT+<u
>Y sD+ ` eTT&ds T L& ` nH s| Xs ` eT<eT u
>Y n~cq+ ` ||+# <e&T ` n~cq Xs ` eT u

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8.7.2 qe$< u
8.7.2.1 <e MT< u ` ueH <w u jT +
eT+< u
eT<eT u
eT u
8.7.2.2 #]+# $<q+ ` k<H <w u jT +
s s| u
bdHs| u
Cqs| u
8.7.2.3 ne>Vq ksTT ` <e <w u jT +
@s | u
nHs| u
ns| u

*****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
9. k<q #TwjT +:
u< >+<+ b<$T+> Cqj> < $#s |< |
s+, |]|Ps+> u~dT+~. ~ >T]+q Cq+ sTTeyT , $#s
|j +# k+ |<Cq+ eTq |]#jT +
#dT +~. n+f y<+ |]#jT + #dT +~.
@ Xk n<jTq+ #j \H < d++~+q k+|<\T +{sTT.
< |]uc X: n+{sT. = k+ |<\ nqTe~+#eTT. u< M
+{ |]#jT + #jT yT , #> $e]+#sT L& $<+> u< e\ s+
&T |j >\THsTT ` CH b+< esZ+ - k+ |<C\ |]#jT +
9.1. $#sD n~]
@ Xk n<jTq+ #j \H L&, y<+ XdyT <T, < eTq =+ ns
+&*. d+ y<+Xd+ < $#sD L& e]dT+~. ns
k<q #T wjT d+| n+{sT. k<q n+f ns. #T wjT+ n+f H\T>T. k<q
#T wjT + n+f, ns < n~s + b+<{ H\T>T s\T> d<eTe+.
H\T>T k<q\T ` 1.$y+ 2.ys>+ 3.eTTeTT+ 4.wd+|
9.1.1 $y+
u<+ >T]+#&+. & u<+ n+f |L\ ns+ rdTL&<T. esu<+,
*+> u<+ > <T. |L\ns+ rd < MT< |b+ #|qeT+~.
Xd+ u<+ n+f sjT +, d]jTq sjT +, d]jTq ne>Vq.
<, < eT< u<+? u<+ nq>H n+<T s+&T _q edTe\T +&*.
u< B , n edT $y: n s++~. @~ n+ < nXX+,
@~ + < XX+ nq~ \TdTy*. \TdTeyT $y+.
~ m \TdT+~? eTq+ k] $X+ d #d, n+<T |B \+,
|<X+ =\\ #+ eT<sT +~. dw , |<X nr+>
@B <T. |B \+ +< Vk *+<.\: & ># jTT:

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|B \+ # z&by*+< n+f ns+ | < |T, s
eTsD+ |d]. |T, T =s n+{sT |<\T. nr+> @B <T
{, | |B nXXyT n #|e#T. $<+> dw `edTe\, eTqT
w\, |]dT \, +<T\ ` |B q+#eTq~ < d:d< \D+.
||+#+ @B XX+ q|&T, @B XXyT q sD u<
sTTe<T.n+<Te\ ||+#+ qT+ eTq+XX sD sT+f, eTq X n&j d
neT+~. sX $T>T\TT+~ e]. nsTT d]jTq sjT + @$T{? mq& ||+
#+ MT< <s|&L&<T, mq& ||+#+ XX u< s.||+#+ n~
<T. ||+#+ edTeqT sTTe<T.
||+#+ XX u< e<T n+f ||+#+ m+<TL |s~ n ,
< |P]> \<q+& n <T ns+ sTT&. ||+#+ eTqH edTe\dT+~,
K+> ||+# mH edTe\ d+ $j+#Te#T L&. XXyT q
u< y\+f e+ < MT< <s|&+ |e<s+ L&. sYusT +
{~ ||+#+. <MT< qT>\s <MT< \+ LssT . $y+ n
edTe\ >T]+ @s&*.
eT] <MT< <s|&*? eTq XXyT q u< y\+f, <MT<H <s
|&\+f, edTe y| s>*. edTe eyT eTq sDe>\<T.
edTe n+f XXyTq~. u< |]uw < Vn+{sT. |sD u>e+
T&+{sT.
eTq yTT<{ bs+ @$T{? u>e+T&T eyT XX u< e>\&T. ||+
#+ ds<\, $<, neX\ sTTe>\<T. u< ueq ns+ #dT eyT
n edT $y:
9.1.2 ys>+
s+& ns ys>+. ys>+ n+f ] be+.] n+f u< d+,
sD d+ ||+# |Tb&+. d> ||+#+ MT< <s|&+
L& ]. ||+# ds<\ d+ y&+ ] <T. $< d+ y&+ ]
<T. u< d+, sD d+ <s|&+, n~ L& d>, ].
u<, sD\ d+ ||+#+ MT< <s|&eT ns+ #dTH, HeT~> <+

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+<\T +#TeyT ys>+. B ns+ ||+#+ qT+ b]beT <T, <
|=eT <T, eTq u< y*q|&T, #HesTy\ ns+.
eTq <>Zs s+&T #H HsTT. ||+#+ #H, u>e+T #H. eTq
ds< \, $< y\+f ||+#+ #H y*, u<, sD y\+f u>e+
T #H y*.
9.1.3 eTTeTT+
eT& ns eTTeTT+. n edTe < ||+#+ MT< <s|&+
e\ *q deTd\ qT+ d# syT eTTeTT+. ||+#+ MT< <s|&
d > nH deTd\T. n+<T yTTyT T<{~ , nu< ue+. m+<T+f
eTq+ <MT< <s|& Hy, < yTy nq ujT +. eTTK+> eTqT
w\ $wjT+=d nu< ue+ sTT+ meeT+~. eTq qqysT eTq
sTTw|&s, w|& m|{ sTT> sTTw|&s n ujT +.ujT +, ujT +,
T ujT+. <s|&L& < MT< <s|&+ e\ ujT+ bT nu<,
u+>, dV, sX, |+, <w+, f$T{ mH eqd sT>\T \TsTT.
& deTd n edTe <T. n edTe edTe ueT|&+ +~.
n+f |> +#+ e\de Td qeTeT+~. |> +#+ e\
@s&q <T:U d+ks+ n+{sT. eTTeTT+ n+f d+ks+ qT+jT|&
\H |q. |q b eTw nXX edTe qT+ + nXX edTe
MT< <w *|, eT eT ydbsTT, eT eT sXdV\ qe&T.
9.1.4 w d+|:
H\T> ns w d+|.w n+f sT$<\T.w d+| n+f sT$<\+
sZ jT+D. T+u, d+d < <X eseTT+<T,q qT esT
e+.
9.1.4.1 XeT: XeT: n+f X+. *>Z #b\+f eTqdTjT+D.
9.1.4.2 <eT: <eT: n+f +~jT >V +.
9.1.4.3 |se T: uV+> #d |qT\qT Z+#Te+. $#sD #dT e{
deTjT+ @ss#Te+. $X+>, & +& k<q #jT+.

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9.1.4.4. r: J$+ m<TsjT dyqT m<Ts=H eqd <s+. J$+
ns\ nqTuy\ ]s+> u]+#+. BH d | n L& n+{sT.
9.1.4.5 X<: X< n+f Xd+ MT<, Xk n<jTq+#jT{ && >TsTe
MT< qeT+ * +&+. qeT+ n+f >T& qeT+ <T, eTq $wjT +
d]>Z nseTjT< Xd+ #|+~ n+^]+#{ d<|& eTqdT. #|+~ #|
qT> d]+#+, eTT+< X+\T |T+&. Te+{ nDe +f, H n
\TdH Cq eT<+ +&<T. Xd n<jTH CqeT<+ |< n&+.
9.1.4.6: de<q+: n+f @>. eTq+ ssTT+#Tq \+ MT< @> #|
+. < >+ d| |d+>+ $H\+f, eTqdT >+{ #*+#+& +&*
sT >TD\T *| ns neT+~. H\T>T ns\ *| k<q
#TwjT + neT+~. $#sD ~ |d] ns.
H\T>, d+ 10`15% H L&, nn~] n+{sT. n|&
nqT $#sD e\ u+ b+<>\&T. q y ~ neT\yTq deTj
e< |sT dTqT, < e\+ $< HsT +TqT +T+~.
9.2. n~] ne+
k<q #T wjT + b+<yT? $#sD #j\+f k<q #TwjT +
b+<*. k<q #T wjT + b+<{ @+ #j *? < >T]+ $, eTq
eTq+ s #dT+f, eTq+ nq~]> \+. < @+ #j esZ+
dw+> #|<T. eTqyT yT y*. n$ sTT HsTT
yTT<{ eT&T ns\ ` $y+, ys>+, eTTeTT+` s j>+ b{d
n\e&TsTT.
H\T>~ Xe~ w d+| ` bdH j>+ b{d n\e&TT+~. n+f
s j>+, bdH j>+ *| k<q#TwjT d+|ksTT. n|&T Cqj>
ns b+<TeTT. n+f sj>+, bdHj>+ eTq Cqj> d<+
#ksTT. n+<Te\ sj>+, Cqj>+ eTq Cqj> sTTksTT.
Cqj>+ CHdT+~. Cq+ y |k~dT+~. n+<Te\ eTq yTT+
< k<q s+&T yTT> $u+#e#T.
1. Cqj> b| :s , bdH j>\ <s Cqj> b+<+.

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2. Cqb| : Cq+ b+<+
Xd+ Cqj> b|: y< |Psu>+ #]+#&+~. B s+&
nL& n+{sT. +<Ts +&+, bdH +&+ <s Cqj> b|
b+< esZ+ +T+~.
y< n+u>+ Cqb| >T]+ $e]dT+~. Cqj>+ <s CHH b+
<e# ddT+~. y<+ |wT \L& n+{sT. |&T X\ e\ *q
deTd\+{ n++ #dT +~ y<++. |wT n+f <s|&+ e\ @s&q
deTd\ HXq+ #d~.
9.3. jTeT - jTe\T
eTq sj>+ yTT<{ eT&T ns\($y+, ys>+, eTTeTT+) sTTd,
bdHj>+ H\T> ns (wd+|) dT+< #k+. k<q #T wjT + b+
<{, s+& #\e. < +{ L& y*. n~ H $\Te\ b{+#
Jeq X*.
H $\Te\T @$? Xk, nH# mH H $\Te\ d+#+ ]
+~.n+<T,|~ $\Te\T# eTTK+.n$ < k<q #T wjT + nk<+. k<q
#T wjT + < Cqj>+ nk<+. Cqj>+ +< Cq+ nk<+. Cq+<
y+ nk<+. y+ < d# nk<+. d# b eTq+ u+>\T, &T\T
e>s\ ud\sTT, <T:KusTTwyT q d+ks+ |& =Tb+. |~ $\Te\
fH e+&yT +{ s+&T >\T>$u+#e#T. 1. jTeT, 2. jTeT.
9.3.1 <T w<s\T ` jTeT
yTT<{ > #jT L& |qT\T eksTT.
9.3.1.1. V+d esq+
esq+ n+f e<\+.V+d n+f u~+#+.
eTHyjT s\<s @$<+>q me] u~+# L&<T. eTT #b\+f
nV+d b{+#*.= V+d\#jT +& |+#T>\eTT = |+#TeTT.
|+#T>*q V+d\ |+#Ty*, |+# V+d, bjT+ #dT
y* <. |+#eTV jTC\T #jT + <s bjT+ #jT e#T. |+#eTV

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jTC\T 1. u jT+ 2. <e jT+ 3. eTqTw jT+ 4. | jT+
5. TTw jT+
9.3.1.2 nd esq+
nd+ #|+& +&+. BH nq esq+ n L& n+{sT. &
L& | d+ e]dT+~. |+#T>*q nd\qT |+#Te+, #| |
nd\, |+#eTV jTC\ <s bjT+ \T>TT+~.
|+# dq >VdX |+#jTCq qX
dq n+f |+#T #&T. >VdT n+{|+#T #&T\T mH
+{sTT. < bjT+ #dTy*.
9.3.1.3 dj T esq+
<=+>q + #jT+& +&+. neT d+b<q L& <=+>q+ +<
edT+~. m<T{ e deT+> y*q s=K+ ebe+ L& <=+>q+
+~ edT+~.
9.3.1.4 yT<Tq esq+
|ssTT d neT d++<+ |T+& +&+. sD X~> neT
d++< e]+#*.
9.3.1.5 |]>V esq+
n~ d+|< b>jT+& +&+. kqTL\ |< #b\+f, M\T
q+ keq+> J$+#+. neds $T+ q<, qy] |+#Te+.
~+{ *| jTeT n+{sT.
9.3.2 b{+#*q$ ` jTeT: <T kqTL\ $wj\ b{+#*.
9.3.2.1 X#+: |]X< < d#. uV+> |]ds\T Xu+> +&*. #
q\T L&d#+> +&*.
9.3.2.2 d+w: #|s+> d+b~+q keTT | #+<+.
jTY \d sb+ $+ q $H<jT +
9.3.2.3 |:
eTq eTqdT n<T| |Te{ b{+# jTeT+ @<H.<: |yd+,
eTqe+.

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9.3.2.4 k<jT:
Xk n<jTq+ #jT +.
9.3.2.5 |D<q+
ds d XsD > #|+.@ nqTue+ *H < <e+ |k~+q s|\+
> d]+#+. eT+ ]H, #&T ]H, |L\ #q\T #jT +&, y{
eTV |k<+> d]+#+. <T #j*q |qT\ jTeT n+{sT. jTeT,
jTe\T *d H $\Te\T |+b+<TsTT.
s j>+ G bdH j>+ G H $\Te\T R k<q #TwjT + R Cq b|
n~].

*****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
10. XsjT + ` eT&T Xs\T
Xk\ |j +# k+ |<C eTq+ u<qT+ HsT +T
H+. ~ y<+ u< ks+XeyT , k+ |<\ eT |<
sTTdT+~. d+d + |< |]uc X: n+{sT.
+eTT+<T k<q #T wjT + nH |]uc Xu #keTT. k<q n+f
ns. #T wjT+ n+f H\T>T $<\T. +eTT+<T, H\T>T k<q\ @$T{,
n$ m k~+# $es+> #k+. ns\T Cq+ b+<{ y*.
Cq+ <s y+ \T>TT+~.
|&T XsjT + n+f @$T{ #<+. Xs+ n+f <V +, jT + n+f
eT&T $<\T. XsjT+ n+f e q eT&T $<q <V+ ` B <V
jT + n L& nqe#T. eT&T Xs\T -
1. d\ Xs+
2. d Xs+
3. sD Xs+
| eT&T Xs\qT $Xw+#{ y{ d++~+q H\T>T n+X\qT
rdT+<eTT. n$ `
` n$ jsT#jT &q eTT& |<s+.
` y{ $$< u>\T
` y{ |qT\T
` y{ \D\T
10.1 d\ Xs+
|&T d\ Xs rdT, H\T>T n+X\q eT|< $Xw+ #T
=<eTT.

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10.1.1. eTT& |<s+
d\ Xs+ @ eTT& dsT jsT#jT &+~? Xk\T #bsTT. eTq
L& \TdT. d\ Xs+ b+#u+ n, |+#u\qT+N jsT#jT &+
<qT. b<$T+> d\ |<s+ <T> $u+#&+~.
1. X+ 2. yjTT 3. n 4. \+ 5. |~
n+<Te\ d\ Xs+ |+#u\ qT+ @s&+~. M{ d+d+ d\
|+#u n+{sT. ~ eTq nqTue+ <s L& s|+#e#T, Xs+ sTT$
q rsT `
|~ ` Xs u>\ s|+
sT ` eTq Xs s# <es|+
n ` Xs c> 98.40 d+. s|+
yjTT ` bDyjTTe s|+
X+ ` Xs+ $T+# kq+ s|+
d\ Xs+ d\ u e\ @s&+ e\ B u Xs+ n L& n+
{sT. u+ n+f u + |{q~. u n+f d\ |<s\T.
10.1.2 $$< u>\T
Xs+ K q u>\THsTT. y{ $es y[, n~ nHMT nsTTb
T+~. eTq+ *>Z \TdTe+ d+ Xd+ eTq Xs H\T>T n+X\T> $u
++~. Xs eT<u>+ `
\ ` sdT .
#T \T ` |+
` |#+
s||#esq jT |wT +~.
10.1.3 s |qT\T
Xs e\+ * yd+> n_e]ksTT Xk\T. d\ Xs+ n<
q sTT\T +{~. eT] < n< @$T{? <# n< ss|+ ` |Db|
s \ s|+ +T+~.< eT\+ #*dTqHS n< sTT\T +H +T+~.
< s \T U #jT eT F<T edT+~.

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n+<Te\ Xs+ * yd+. d+d + B jTq+ n+{sT.
Xs+ +H eTq+ ||+#+ eeVs\T q&T|+. C eeVs+
q&|eTT+<, >&T mqT+{+. + n& edd , eTq | =qkk+.
10.1.4 \D+
eTT+<T> Xs esT #+< \D+ +~. d+d + B d$s+ n+
{sT. $s' n+f esT, d$s: n+f esT L&q~. eTT+<T>, d\ Xs+
esT\ (sT) w&s\T> $uksT .
10.1.4.1 w&s\T ` sT \D\T
nd ` * &T| |+& s|+ +&+
CjT ` |T
es ` Xs+ |{, |sT>T +T+~.
$|]DeT ` s| |]DeT+. n+f m<T>T<\ bT+~. esT =q
k>TT+~. Xs+ jTTejTdT e#, nH esT\ qeT+~. B >|t
MT< #|d, >|t eTT+<T> | ed +T+~. + n& bT+~.
n|jT ` D+#+, e<|+ b+<+
HX' eTsD+ ` Xs+ jTT #e. B s Xs+ eTq +&<T.
M{ *| w&seY Xs+ n+{sT.
10.1.4.2 +{ q&~
~ Xs+ jTT s+&\D+. n~ eTq q&TT+~. m<T{y] q&T
T+~. eTq d\ Xs eTq+ nqTu$+#e#T, #&e#T, eTTTe#T. m<T{
ysT L& #&e#T, eTTTe#T. n+<] edTe> q&TT+~. f B
d\ Xs+ n n+{sT.
10.1.4.3 jTT: |eD+
Xs+ jTT eT&e \D+. <= \|]$T +T+~. C Xs+
n+fH oseq due+ ` n+f s+s esT #+~, D+#~ n. <V nq
|<+ L& ~Vt nq <TeqT+ >V +#&+~. |#jT, n|#jT ~Vt <T'
|]^, ]> edTe n ns+.

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10.2 dXs+
s+& Xs d Xs+ n+{sT. B H\T>T \D\ #<eTT.
10.2.1 eTT& |<s+
dXs+, d |<s+ jsT#jT&~. m> |+# d\ u
Hj n> <T d u L& HsTT.
1. d X+ 2. d yjTT 3. d n 4. d \+ 5, d |B
eTT #b\+f ~ d|<s+ #jT &+~. dXs L&
u Xs+ n+{sT.
10.2.2 $$< u>\T
d Xs+ |+<=$T~ u>\THsTT. = | |]s+ |#dT+~.
d\ Xs+ e\+ s\jT+ nsTT, eeVs\T q&|{ eTq |]s\T
y*. n+<T |+<=$T~ |]s\T HsTT.
10.2.2.1 |+# CH+~j\T
$ CH d++~+q <T +~j\T ` n y<M\ Cq+ eT\
sD+.
` s+>T\T, sb\ d++~+q CH b>ksTT.
s|>V #sY +~jT+.
#$ ` Xu d++~+q CH b>dT+~ X >V +~jT+.
eTT ` ydq\ d++~+q CH b>dT+~.
>+< >V |D +~jT+.
H\T ` n s\ sT#T\ d++~+q CH b>dT+~.
sd >V sdq +~jT+
#s+ ` ds d++~+q CH b>dT+~.
ds >V e> +~jT+.
$ <T CH+~j\T. CH+~j\T n+f d\ Xs #+~q d\
u>+ >T]+ < >TsT+#Ty*. eTq+ y{ d \D+ >T]+ e{&TTH
eTT. n+f qT d\ Xs d++~+q~. +{#| d Xs d++

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~+q~. n> #$ d\ Xs d++~+q~. XeD X d Xs d++
~+q~.
10.2.2.2 |+# s+~jD
$ s d++~+q <T +~j\T. CH+ ~j\T jT{ qT+ >V d,
s+~j\T eTq d+<q #|ksTT.
y +~jT+ ` e d+<q
bD +~jT+ ` #T #d nH s \T
b< +~jT+ ` nH # y +.
CH+ ~j\, s+~j\ eT< # nqTd+<q+ +~. #e\T |d+>+
$H\ ], |d+>+ ]>#T rdTysTT.
bjTT: ` eT\eT $dsq #d +~jT+.
|d: ` |qsT. Be C =qk>TT+~.
10.2.2.3 |+#bD\T
<T n+X\ bD+. X #d~. eTq+ s #j \+f, eTq s+
s+ X y*. s+~j\ yqT bDX +~. <T bDX\T `
bD Xd |jT ` }|] |*, e<\+ e\ bDX edT+~. }|] |
* |\+ e\ H |* }|]T\ y+~. }|] jT e<\+
e\ sH &j & jT yT+~.
nbq ` $dsq |jT ` Xs+ #&T jT e~ |jT nbq
n+{sT.
yq ` s|dsD |jT ` Xs+ n+{ H |d] +|#j*. |>T
Vs Js+ #k, nsTTq bwedTe\ n+{ |d
]+|Cj *.
deq ` Js|jT ` ~ eTq+ q Vs nH bw edTe\T>
esTdT+~. sV&T, b{qT\T, \eD\T, $Tqs\T e>s.
<q ` |yjT T |jT `~ k<sD+> eTsDdeTjT+ |#dT +~.
|yjTT |jT k] neds |]dT L& |dT +~.
Xs+ @yH {H +f |* by*q Vs+ y\T|* e# #dT +~.

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$ bDX sTTksTT, s+~j\ XksTT. n+<T |yd+ q sE
s+~j\ X d]b<T. <VsD d]> e{&eTT, me q&eeTT.
n+<T +~ eT++ |keTT
z+ bDjT kV
z+ nbHjT kV
z+ yHjT kV
z+ <HjT kV
z+ deHjT kV
10.2.2.4 #] n+:sD
H\T>T n+sZ u>\THsTT
eTq: < eTqdT ` n s\ uy<\ |r. <|sy T q #q\T,
X+\T q~ n #|e#T. X+ n+f ~ #j e<? +& <?
Te+{ MTe+d\T. #q\qT, X+\qT *| d+\`$\: n+{sT.
T~ < *$ `
] X < sj X < $#DX <
>V +# X < ns+ #dT H X < $Xw+ # X.
+ < C|X `
eTq eTqdT eTq nqTuy\ |+ #dT+~. X, ds, s|, sd, >+<\
e\ *q nqTuy* |+ #dT +~. Xd |s+ eTq q >yT <T,
|Psq >+ L& >TsT+T+~. k] eTqyT+ |jT +#+&H, eTq~
eTT+< \Td|dT+~.b n<T+> b& e n d+^+ eTT+< e#|
dT+~.
nV+s+ ` q >T]+ #|H X. X eTqTw q+> +Te
\ +&<T. y{ y{ C>, VA< > |yTjT+ <T. eTq >T]+
#|~ nV+s+.
H\T>T *| #] n+:sD
e *| d Xs+ u>\T.

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10.2.3. s ` |qT\T
s n+f n~ #d |qT\T. n s\T |qT\T 19 |]s\ dV jT+
d Xs+ sT|T+~. = uV||+#+ qT+ >V +#{sTT, = sTTe
{, eT]= s+&+{. <: HsT
10.2.4 \D+
d Xs \D+ +< s+&T u>\THsTT.
10.2.4.1 esT
~ L& esT qeT+~. u>\T L& DksTT.#| d]> q<T.
C|X |dT +~. T~ Vq \T>TT+~.
10.2.4.2 jTT: |]eD+
d\ Xs+ b*d d Xs sTT+ BsjT Tw +~. d\ Xs+
eTV nsTT e+< TT+~. d Xs+ e# q L& =qk>T
T+~. Xs+ esTT+~ eTqdT =qk>TT+~. n+<T |Psq dT+ e\
=+ u+ b+<TTH+. = >TsT+#T>\>TTH+. n d Xs+ |jT +
es =qk, |jT +H H_qeTeT+~.
10.4.2. +{ q&~
d Xs+ qT >V +, < >T]+#>*> ~ me] ys. m<T{y] q
&<T. eTq eTqd$T{, eTq uy$T{, eTq \TksTT. m<T{ysT eTq eT
qdT @eTT+< <] #&sT. n~ e\+ eTq q&TT+~ f < d
Xs+ nHsT.
10.3. sD Xs+
B L& n+X\qT L& |]o*<eTT
10.3.1 eTT&|< s+
B j sT#dq eTT&|<s sD|<s+ n n+{sT. n~ d d
yTq |<s+. B k++> n$< n+{sT. k<sD+> n$< n+f nCq+,
d+<s + < ns+ ysT . k] | < ejT n L& n+{sT.

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10.3.2. $$< u>\T
sD Xs+ $$< u>\T d\ Xs+, d Xs. n+f y{ dw+
#eTT+<T |+&s |+ HsTT.n+<Te\ ||+#+ dw+#&eTT+<T < |jT
\+ sDXs+ |+&s |+ HsTT, d, d\ Xs\T.
<VsD |&T q |< #T =H + <T.20 @ + +~
q&+&, $q+ s|+ +~. $q+ +< #T <T. ~ |<s
d++~+q d+. |<s jsT#jT eTT, HXq+ #jT eTT.|<s+ m|&
+T+~.n+|&T dw eTT+<T d\,dXs\T L& |+&s|+ HsTT.
s+&T Xs\ |+&s b *| sD Xs+ n+{sT.
$q+ #T> e]qT>,sD Xs+ d\ ,d Xs\T> esTT+~.
10.3.3. s ` |qT\T
s+&T Xs\T> @s&{ ~ <seTeT+~. ne+ dqT+ e+
d eksTT. n eyT q edTe\T, n$ d\ +> HXqyTq|&T, n$ ejTeT
ee. m+<T+f |<s mq& HXq+ <T. n+<Te\ n$ HXqeTsTTq|&T
eT ne ksTT y[bsTT. $CqXd |s+ HXqyTq |<s+ X> esT
T+~. X n+f ne|<s+. $X+, q\T s+s+ @s&T +{sTT.
HXqeTe +{sTT. n+f q\T X> esT +{sTT. X eT |<
s+> esTT+~. X, |<s\ <> { es d+ e\, B Xd+
e, ne |<s\ |sd s esT n+{sT.
sD Xs+ qT+, d\, d Xs\T @s&TsTT. eT d\ , d X
s\T sD Xs+ y[bsTT. n+<Te\ sD Xs+ | M{ |jT \+
ne+ #d, dw\+ y\T|* e+.
10.3.4 \D+
d Xs+ H n+ dTBs J$+ +~ sD Xs. d Xs+
|j
T \+qH eTTdbT+~. sD Xs+ |jT + L& HXqeTe<T.
|j
T + n+f yTT+ $X+ HXqeTe&+. sD Xs+ y+ b+~q|&T eyT
y[bT+~.

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d\ Xs n+<s #&e#T. d Xs me] ys #&>\sT.
sD Xs+ me] *jT<T. n~ n>#s+ . n<X+. n+<T < ]\ ds
|+ n+{sT.
| eq eT&T Xs\` d\, d, sD ` +{sTT.

nqT+<eTT
d\Xs+:
1. eTT&ds T ` d\ |+#u\T
2. sD+ ` s\ e\ @s&TT+~
3. $$< u>\T ` \, yTT+&eTT, #T \T eT]jTT
4. $<T\T ` u>\T nqTu$+#{ @s&q \jT+
5. due+ ` H dT+ ~. n+<] L& dT+~. sT esT\
qeT+~.(nd, CjT, es, $|]DeT, n|jT , $qX)
6. \|]$T ` e+< @ (Xe q+ ue)
d Xs+:
1. eTT&ds T ` d |+#u\T
2. sD+ ` s\ e\ @s&TT+~
3. $$< u>\T ` |+#CH+~j\T G |+#s+~j\T G |+#
bD\T G H\T>T n+'sD \T
4. $<T\T ` u>\T nqTu$+#{ @s&q k<q+
5. due+ ` H eyT dT+~.nqT\ +#<T. nH esT\
qeT+~.
6. \|]$T ` # \+
sDXs+:
1. eTT&ds T ` d sD|<s+ < $<
2. sD+ ` nH~ qT+ ek+~
3. $$< u>\T ` ]\ds|+. ;s|+

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4. $<T\T ` d\ , d Xs\ sD+
5. due+ ` H +#<T. nqT\ L& +#<T.
6. \|]$T ` # # \+` y+ es

***
n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
11. nekjT+ ` X |+#+
nekjT+ eT&T <X\ nqTuy ddT+~. X|+#+ eTq Xs+
<T $u>\qT ddT+~.
11.1 nekjT+ ` eT&T <X\ nqTue+
= ned eT&T n+X\ |]o*<+.< <s eT&T ned\
ns+ #dT e#T.
eTT+<T> eTqdT |]d #<+. m+<T+f | nedq eTqdT |eTTK
b bwdT +~. s nqTue+ due+ #<+. s e<eT+ >T]+
$Xw+ #e#T.
11.1.1 C><ed
ned n+f nqTue+ <X. C><ed n+f yT\e> q <X.

11.1.1.1 eTqdT
C><ed eTqdT < n+:sD+ |P]> $d+ |#dT +~. n+f n
|]s\ ` ue|sy T q, ], #HX, nV+, C|X n |#ksTT. B
|Ps $d: n L& n+{sT. n+:sD+ |P]> $#T+<qe. H\T>T |]
s\ |#dT HsTT {, H\T>T nqTuy\ +{sTT. uy\T, #q\T, $#
DX, = Cq deTTbsq, = nqTue deTTbsq.

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11.1.1.2 due+
C><ed uV||+# n+f eTq Xs+ eTqdT\ $_q+> q<
nqTu$keTT.
n~ uV ||+#+ ne+ n~ dw+> +{ q& nqTue+ n~ +{
q& edTe\ L&q~ { nqTue+ L& +{ q& nqTue+. n+<T
e\ ~ uVyTq~, +{ q&~, n+<] n+<TuT +&~.
~ n+<] q& ||+#+ { nqTue+ e>+ <T. $XwD \T
dbed b*d nseTesTT. e>+ <T n+f,n+<] n+<TuT +&~.
nqTue+ +~jT q+ n+f +~j\ e\ *+~. C><ed ||+#
+~j\ <s X, ds, s|, sd, >+<\ <s, y{e\ *q dTK <T:U\
<s, *q d+<q\ <s nqTu$keTT.
n+<Te\ eTq nqTue+ uVyTq~,+{ q&~,e>+ ~,+~jT
qyTq~.
nqTue+ s+&T s\T +{sTT. ||+#+ qT+ nqTuy b+<T+.
u> |<q+. ||+# ] sTTk+. n+f eTq+ s, u ` #dy+, nqTu$+
#y+. Xd+ ||+# u>u$T n s u$T n n+{sT.
11.1.1.3 e<eT+
C><ed eTq+ +~j\ <s ||+# #dTH+. +~j\
y&\+f u Xs+ y*. m+<T+f | +~j u kq+ y*.
Xd+ u kH >+ n+{sT. | +~j >+ y*.
#]+~j qT >+. XeD +~j #e\T >+ y*. +~jT+
d Xs #+~q<sTT, >+ d\ Xs #+~q~. n+<Te\ +~j\
>+ y*. > u Xs+ y*. n+f +~j\T |#jT { d\
Xs+ y*. C><ed +~jT q+ { C><ed d\ Xs |<q ned
n+{+. d\ Xs+ b, uV ||+# nqTu$+#eTT.
11.1.2 dbed
dbed n+f \ ]> nqTue+. +<T eT&T n+X\ #<+.

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11.1.2.1 eTqdT
dbed eTq C|X eyT |#dT+~. C><ed eTq+ b>dq
nqTuy\ eTqdT |yT +{sTT. C><ed eTqdT X,ds,s|, sd
>+< nqTuy\ f|t ]ssY > ]sT #dT +~. n~ e\+ uV ||+#H <T,
dTK<T:U\H uy\ L& ]sT #dT +~. < + n+{sT. |\ ]ssTT
q y{, jT |+|dT+~ M&j d{ |jT sY>. n+<Te\ eTq+ \
nqTu$+# uy\T, => n+<Tq uy\T <T,eTT+< eTqdT |yT q$.
\ ]><+ C| ++ y*rdq$. q |eD\T |#jT e. eTq: ]
|e, nV+ ` sTTyM |#jT e.\ q& nV+ L& C|X qT+ eq
nVyT => |{q nV+ <T. n+<Te\ dbed eTqdT b+> |#
k+~. H\T>T |eD\ f |#k+~. < + n+{sT n+<T dbe
d ns $d: n L& n+{sT.
11.1.2.2. due+
dbed q& ||+#+ n+sZ ||+#+. ~ eTq e>, d+ C|
X qT+ |{+~ { ~ uV ||+#+ <T. nd\T d| ||+#, uV
||+# d++<+ <T.eTq+ # |&T,+#T >T]+ \\T qe#T.
n+<Te\ n~ n+sZ ||+#+.
s+&~, n~ n+sZ ||+#+ {e, eTq C|+ |{+~ {, <
ydHeTjT ||+#: n+{sT. eTq #q\ qT+ |{+~ { n~ +{ q
&~ <T. uV ||+#+ u ||+#+ { +{ q&TT+~. k| ||+
#+ ydHeTjT ||+#+ { +{ q&<T.
\ eTq q& ||+#+ m<T{y] q&<T. n+<Te\ ~ e>
||+#+.
+~jT >#s+ ~~ ` +~jT q ||+#+ <T. ~ ydHq ||+
#+. eTq+ \ #d~, \ nqTu$++~, $d| <s #&>*>~ $dsY
]ssTTq~ eyT . @MT #&+<, @MT >TsT #T+. n+<T | dbek
C><ed MT< <s|& +~.

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k] MT n|+#e#T ` HqT C><ed $ msT> n+X\T H
\ |dT HsTT n. < sD\T M{ @yq nsTT +&e#T.
C><ed b>dq nH edTe\ deTT<jT+ qT+ MTsT dbed edT
e\ dwksT .$ #q\ |<q+ {, #q\T dw +&e { eTq
n+ \>|\>+> +T+~. n~ ne |<s+ neT+~.
k] eTq+ C><ed }V+q$,eTqdT |yT n&T>T y[b
sTT. eTq+ eT @<H $H, #dH, #~$H n$ #q\ s|+ dbed
jT eksTT.
k] ={ q nqTu$+#bsTTH, n$ |Psq dT\T nsTT
+&e#T. |Psq, q eT< d\ XsyT esTT+~.
d Xs+ =qk>TT+~. n+<T |\\T k] nsD+> qey, @&e
y #ksT . B |Psq eTT&|&sT. + |dT q C|\T >{> @s
&<T {, $ |Psq dsD\T e#T n+{sT. B k+ <T.
=+eT+~ eT e# \\T u$wT d++~+q$ n+{sT.y u$wY
<s q+ \T>TT+~. ~ > d++~+q~ <T {, > nqTue++
e+<, ydHq+ n nqeTT. C|\qT+ |{+B n nq+. dbed
s#q+ |s+ n~ C|\ qT+ |T+~ { nqTuy\ dbed rdT
+. n u$wT >T]+ \\T ed, n~ eTqdTq | \D+> #|e#T.
@d+|Tq nH $T s|+ +T+~. n|&T # d+> +T+~ {
eTq ns+ <T. eTqdT dT+> eT*d, |sD #|q \CqT\
> ese#T. n~ j>T\ nqTue+ , eTq @< nqT+& sT>TT+~
m|&H.
11.1.2.3 e<eT+
dbed C|\ MT< <s|&+~. C|\T d++~+q$. +
d Xs #+~q~. n+<Te\ d|+ L& d Xs #+~+~. n+<Te\
dbed d Xs |<q ned n+{sT.
11.1.3. dTw| ned
>&< dTw| n+{sT. ~ \\T s <ed.

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11.1.3.1 eTqdT
C><ed eTqdT |Ps $d:>qT, dbed ns $d: >q +T+~
, dTw| ned eTqdT | <<| XSqeTH #|e#T.ue|s eTqdT |#jT
<T {, uy\T e, ] |eD+ <T { Cq+ <T.C|X |#jT<T.
{ C|\T e. nV+ |eD+ |#jT <T { HqT |&T+THqT nH
ueq L& <T.
11.1.3.2. due+
+~j\T |#jT e { uV ||+#+ <T.
C|\T |#jTe {, n+sZ ||+#+ <T.
uVyTq, +{ q&, e>+ ||+#eT <T. n+sZ , +{ q
&, e> ||+#eT <T. n+<Te\ ~ nqTueXSq+. B nCq nqTue'
n+{sT. n+f |P] nCq+ < XSq+.
11.1.3.3. e<eT+
+~j\T |#jT e { d\ Xs+ <T.
C|\T |#jTe { d Xs+ <T.
d\ ,d Xs\T ejTeTsTTqT> q&q|&T sDXs+ |<qeTe
T+~. |#jT + <+f \jTeTsTTqf. n+<T dTw| ned sD Xs+
|<q ned n+{sT. sD Xs+ |<q ned eTq n+sZ, uV nqTuy\T
#\qsV +> +&, eT eTs&T b<Tq #\q+ eksTT. > `
C><ed ` yT\e d ` $X: ` eTqdT |P]> |#dT +~.
dbed ` \\TH d ` d: ` eTqdT b+> |#dT +~.
dTw| ned ` >&< d ` b : ` eTqdT nCq+ +T+~.
11.2 X |+#+
|&T Xs d++~+q <T X\ #<+. ~ Xsj +
D++ #|dT+~. n+f eT&T Xs\ |&T <T X\T> #k+. Xs+
f, <<+ esTT+~.
XsjT + eTT& |<s { $u+|&+~.
d\ Xs+ d\ |<s+ qT+

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d Xs+ d |<s+ qT+
sD Xs+ sD |<s+ qT+
< Xs u>\T #d |qT\ { X\T> $u+#sT. d\ sD
Xs = X+ +f d Xs+ eT&T X\THsTT.
d\ Xs+ ` nqeTjT X+
d Xs+ ` bDeTjT X+
` eTHeTjT X+
` $CqeTjT X+
sD Xs+ ` q+<eTjT X+
11.2.1 nqeTjT X+ ` Vs+ (nHMT)
nqeTjT X+ < d\ Xs nHMT> n_e]+#e#T. Xs,
d\ Xs+ nH n+>\T, nH u>\ nqeTjT X+ n+{sT. ~ nq+
< Vs+ qT+ X b+<TT+~ { B nqeTjT X+ n+{sT.
11.2.2 bDeTjT X+ ` X (|j\J)
~ |j eed #+~q~. nHMT Xs+ $$< u>\ d
d, |j\J y{ <s\ $e]dT+~.n+<T bDeTjT X+ <s\ #+~+~.
n+<T eTsD+ n|&T, d Xs+ <V $& yT+<+f, <bT eT&T
X\T L& yjTqe. n$ `
bDeTjT X+
eTHeTjT X+
$CqeTjT X+
eTsD+ bDeTjT X+ Xs M&TT+~ {, Xs<s\T +&e.
Xs u>\T H L&. n+<T d+u$+q|&T @yH n+>\ e]& k<eTe
T+~. nHMT d\ Xs #+~+~ { n~ +T+~ eTsD+ s L&.
|j\J d Xs #+~+~ {, n~ +&<T.
bDeTjT X j X: n L& n+{sT.
|+# bD: ` X#$.
|+# s+~jD: ` |]s\#$

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n+<Te\ X G |]s\T ` j X:
B+{ |~ n+>\T +{sTT.
11.2.3 eTHeTjT X: eTqdT (d\J)
B d eed nq#T. uy\T, d+<V \T n eTHeTjT X+ <
#X eksTT. j X eTT+<T #X +T+~. m+<T+f ] +f
jT #j\|dT +~. n+<Te\ eTHeTjT X+ bDeTjT X |#jT {
d>=\TT+~. eTHeTjT X+ sT n+>\THsTT. n$ `
|+# CH+~j
eTq' (+, nV+s\ L&q~)
C ue|syT q |eD+, ] |eD+ yssT n+>\T e.
f n+> n~ #d| { |sT esTT+~.
#H |jT #d T~'
ue|s |jT #d eTq'
C|X \>Cd +
n+<Te\ eTHT~ nV+s\T yssT n+>\ d++~+q$ e,
f n+> H\T>T \D\T HsTT.
11.2.4 $CqeTjT X+ ` Cq+ (HsTH ksTT)
~ HsT H ksTT. eTHeTjT X+ #X d++~+q<, $CqeTjT
X+ CqX d++~+q~.
+$<+> #b\+f, $CqeTjT X+ \TdT+T+~, eTHeTjT X+
sTT+~. bDeTjT X+ |#dT+~.
<VsD d+^ du\T sT>TTq sE @ du @ #] neT+< \T
dTe{ eTq+ ys| #k+. n|&T $CqeTjT X+ |#k+<q e.
s < y XsTT+#Ty*. ~ eTHeTjT X+. eTq+ du y*.
n|&T bDeTjT X+ |#dT +~.
+<T L& sT n+>\T HsTT.
` |+#CH+~j\T
` T~ B+{ +, nV+s+ eksTT.

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C ue|s X, ] X e>s $$< n+>\ #+~q$ e. f n+
>yT n~ #d| { |sT esTT+~.
` #q |#d, n~ T~:
` ue|sy T q | #d, n~ eTq:
` C| X |#d, n~ +.
n+f eTHT~ nV+s\T ys ys n+>\ #+~q$ e, f n+>
q H\T>T |sT.
11.2.5 q+<eTjT X+ ` q+<+ (n+:#q+)
~ sD Xs d]b\TT+~. n+: #q + b\e#T.
eTq @ uy\T |dT +> +{j, eTq |esq, due+ n+ y{
|s+ +{sTT. B n+: #q+ n+{sT.
k] eTq *> <yTq nqTuy eTq nV+ n+<TH+<T d<+>
+&<T. < u>e+T&T ys @sT #k&T. k] $|yT q Xs H|
*q|&T, <X <{, H| L& |]d #sT+{eTT. B |
j |P+> n+{sT. n> k] eTqdT *jT<T H|. < d
|P+> n+{sT.
@<H nqTuy u]+#q|&T < jT |+b*. @&T| <sH, nsT
| <sH n|&|&T @< sD\ e\ eTq @&T| s<T, nse+, e{&
+ L&. nV+ < u]+#bT+~. n|&T < n+:#q + |&dT +~.
s|& n<qT #dT jT edT+~. n+<T k] eTq sD+ +
& @&TbdT+~, < |+ edT+~. |\ eT+&TTq uy\ k]> jT
ekjT qe. n+{ uy\, n+{ |esH n+: #H d++~+q$.
n+:#q + |#k+< *>Z m|&T #|#+f jT |]d, d+<q
bT <sq |&T. <VsD q | eT+&|&sT =+eT+~. q nqTu
y, n+:#q + < q nqTuy\ { |sTT. n+: #q + +~
{, eTq *jT<T {, eTq+ VsTT> nCq+ H+. n+<T q+<
eTjT X+ n+{sT.sD Xs+ dTw| ned > eTq @ u< <T.
M X |+#+ <T $u>\T.

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
12.
XsjT + n+f d\, d, sD Xs\ #keTT. n$ |<s+ #jT
&sTT. |<s u+ nqe#T. |<s+ &+> +T+~. B { eTq+ =
eTTKyTq | d<+\qT >V +#e#T.
yTT<{ $wjT + ` @ |<syT H &+> +T+~. y<+Xd |s+ &+
n+f #q + ~, #H |{+#~. n+f n~ #q >TDeT <T. #q
qeT <T. XsjT + &+ {,|<s+ #jT &+~ {. < dV >
#q + <, #q + |{+#<T. n+f u Xs+ &+. d Xs+ u>yT q
eTqdT &+. sD Xs+ L& &yT . n+<Te\ `
Xs jT + &+ uY |TeY
~ ]+> eTq *q | d<++.
]+> n~ &yTy >, eTq nqTue+ ys +~!eT&T Xs\T &+>
y! d\ Xs #q + +~. #TT|\ @eTeT+< \Tk+~.n> eTqdT
L& nH $wj\T \TdTHsTT. d+|+> #b\+f XsjT+ #q+
qT> nqTue+ #b+~.
s + n~ &+ n+{+~.nqTue+ n~ #q+ n+T+~. $_q <<\T
*|<? eTq d # ;<< \TdT. yT $+<T K<q <TdT\T,
+>sT usD \T ydT e+~. @$T{ < ns+? yT K<q <TdT\T, us
D\T bsTTH me] <>Zs nsTe rdT+~. @$T e neq< q
&+~.m?uV\+sD #dT e+ e\. n+<Te\ Xsj ku$ #q +,
n+f dV #q + <T. n+<Te\ Xsj >+T #q + < nsTe
#Tq #q+ +~.
nsTe #Tq #q +e\ eT&T Xs\ HeT* >s +> H+ #dT HsTT.
b , eTq Xs & <T.

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Xd|s+ > #| b+#u Xs+ n+{eTT. $CqXd|s+> nsTT sk
sTTH\ $TXeT+ n+{+.
d+|+> k] #d. XsjT + u+ n+<Te\ XsjT+ &+
&+> +&*q Xs+ #q + +~. n+f XsjT + nsTe#Tq #
q+ +~.
XsjT + nsTe #T+<+f, n|#y&=&T +&*<. n+f eTq
#q + +&*, #H n|e{. n|# #q + eTw Xs+ q
H\T> n+X+. yTT<{ eT&..
1. d\ Xs+ 2. d Xs+ 3. sD Xs+
eT& ~ nd\T #H n|#~. BH n+{sT.
12.1 Xs+ H\T> n+X+
Xsj #q e++ #dT +~ . B Y n+{sT d+d+.
B ns+ #dT e{ <VsD \T. \T q+ qT y\T>< eTq
\TdT. $<T# < y*+|#dT +~. $<T# +{ q&<T. q|&T
T+~. n> . n~ +{ q&<T. < dueyT$T{?
12.2 |d+ <VsD `
n~ ns+ #dT y\+f <VsD #&+&. MTsT |d+ # |T
, H # @+ +~ n n&T>TsT. |d+ +~ n yudT+~. +eTT+~
n+f @MT<T nH yT edT+~. C |d+ MT< +T+~. n~ #
dw+> \TdT+~. < |{+#TeTT. C <e eTq+ |d #&>
\T>TTHeTT. n eTq |d #&dTq~ + < y\TTsT. |d+
+ y\T>T+~, < #T + +~.
|&T +~ $wj \T >eT<+:
` + |d+ u>+ >, \D+ >, +<s #+~q edTe
> <T.
` + d+ edTe. n~ |d+ n+{ y|+, < |+|CdT +~.
` +, |d+ d]V<T\ |]$TeTe<T.

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` + |d+ HXqeTsTT HXqeTe<T. n |d+ |q +#+< L&
+ +T+~.
` + |d+ rdH +T+~ q&<T. < |_+_+# e<eT+
<T { n~ |+#<T n+eq + qT <T.
12.3 #q+ \D\T
#H + b\e#T. |&T y d\ #H nqsTTd ]
#|e#T.
` #q+, Xs+ u>+ >, \D+ , #q + qT+ eq edTe
<T.
` #q+ d+ edTe.n~ Xs+ n+{ y|+, < |+|Ck+~.
` #q+ Xs+ d]V<T\ |]$TeTe<T.
` Xs+ HXqeTsTT #q + HXqeTe<T.Xs+ |H q+s+ L& #q +
+T+~.
` Xs+ bsTTH #q + +T+~ q&<T.< |_+_+# Xs+
<T {.
12.4 \D\ $XwD
H|wT <e: nHsT. \D\qT =+{ $XwD #<eTT.
12.4.1 #q ds|'
#q ds|+. ~ edT ds|+ <T. m+<T+f L&, Xs
jT+> + edTe nsTT, L& &+ neT+~. n|&T L& +
#{ qT+ #H rdTy* +T+~.n~ +#T qT+. n n+T+&
k>TT+~. _+ #q + |_+ #q+ <T. |_+ #q + _+ #q+
<T.
12.4.2 d+'
d++. m+<T+f n~ q |X edTe MT< <s|&<T. n~
, <s|&<T.
n+eTT+<T edTe #q + <H+. edTe #q + +f, n|&T #
q+ edTe MT< <s|&*. n> edTe #H #dH, #q + edTe

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MT< <s|&*. #q + edTe <T {, edTe # #jT &<T {,
d+yT q~.
12.4.3 sTZD'
|<s+ <T { < |<s+ +f >TD\T n+e. eTq *dq
>TD\ eTq+ | +> +{ >, q |eD\ #k+. X, ds,
s|, sd, >+< >TD\T |<s #+~q$. n+<Te\ sTZDyTq~.
12.4.4 '
|<s+ MT< , Xs jT + MT< <s|&<T {, |<s+ HX
qyTH, HXq+ <T. \T e&bsTTH, $<TT qf. B|+ e+ neq+
eq $<TY qT <T. Xs+ HXqyTH +T+~. eTsD+ <T
{ \|]$T <T. ryT q~.
12.4.5 ds>'
\+, |<X+ < { eTT&|& +{sTT. eTT&|& qf,
|<X |]$TyT <T. ~ e\+ XsjT + <T,$<TY e\+
\T qT>. n+<T ds >: < ds y|. n Xsj\ yqT
L& +~. Xs\T mH! y{ ds| u<H! (\T\ u<\>). n q
bDjT q NeT +~,n |< bDjTq @qT>Tq +~.n+<T ds >+ .
12.4.5 @'
n Xs\ yq, #qyT q|&T, Xs\T nHyT H f
ny*. @: n<: s+& edTe <T.
12.4.6 d<q+< ds|'
eTsD+ <T { ` eseq, u, u$wT\ nr+> +~ {
` B dY n+{sT.
d]V<T\T e. <X |]$TeTe<T.n+<T ` B nq+:
n+{sT.
|]|Ps ueq q+<: n+{sT. nqTq| @<H |P] nsTT *>
ueq q+<+. |Ps+ ~ <T:U \>CdT +~. q+<+ * |]|Ps +

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+T+~. n+<T d,Y Y nq+ m|& dYY q+< L&. n+<Te\
d<q+< ds|+.
12.5 nH $y'
|<s+ #q + . |<s+ L&q XsjT + nH. y<++
yTTyT T<{ n&T>T nH $y+. nH ksTT eT&T Xs\THjT,
nH n+X+ +<, HqT nH e |<s nH, |<s+ \ $TXeTeT
\TdTy*. n+<T & n#q n+X u$+#TH <T\T, eTq <w #q
n+X, d<q+< y| eT[+#*. nH n_eq >+ #d n_eq
w +&*.
#q es{ >=| k<q y*. eTq+ HqT Xs nq ue
q @ s & LsTbjeTT. X+s#s nHsT.<s $T+ VQyw :
$<qud+, <>+ d+b~+, d+b~+q &T Xs bwD, Xs ||
s#{ KsT|&eTT. u$wT |D[\T L& Xs |]sD ykeTT. mesH
qTyesT n+f eTq $es\T Xsj d++~+q$ sTTkeTT.b|+ >T
eeVs+ q&|{ $es\T nedsyT , <q+ <T, eTq nd\T $e
s\T ysT
12.6 \D\T
&yT q Xs+ <T HqT, #qe+yT q HqT n #|+~ Xd+. n+f
#q + n+f . n+f HqT. eT&T |<\ f. { n+ eTT+<T
#dq #q+ \D\H |&T H |s+> #d sTT+ u> nseTeT+~.
n+f + y&q |<\ #q + nqsTT+qf, ny |<\ #q +e rd
HqT nqsTTk+.
` HqT Xs+ u>+>, \D+>, edTe <T.
` HqT d+ edTeqT. HqT Xs+ n+{ y|+, < |+|
CkqT.
` HqT Xs+ d]V<T\ |]$TeTe<T.
` HqT Xs+ HXqeTsTT HXqeTeqT. HqT Xs+ eTsD+# L&
+{qT.

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` HqT Xs+ bsTTH +{qT |_+_+# Xs+ <T { q
&qT.
12.6 d<q+< ds|+
#q + , HqT n \TdTH+ { qTyesT n+f sTT $e]+
#e#T.
nV+ d<q+< ', nV+ #q ds|', nV+ sTZD' , nV+ '
nV+ d', nV+ ds >', nV+ @'
~ H qV. #|>\>{ k<q #j*. ~ k<q #d y<+
u< \T+~. ~ yTT<{ bs+.
12.7 <<X $y+
m k<q #j *? B Xd+ |< sTT+~.< bjT: n+{sT.
bjT: |sT <<X $y:. |< edT |<q nH HqT < eTqdT
D sTTkeTT. edT |<q nH <s #q HqT n \TdTy*.n+f
MTsT dsY y&L&<q+ <T. dsY y&* HH dsY nqL&<T.
12.7.1 b<$T d+ 1
#&& edTe HqT _q+.
#&& edTe s. #d e, n+f HqT, s. HqT #d~ ysT . HqT ysT.
~ ns+ #dT e{q <VsD #<+. ||+#+ n edTe\
#&>\e,eT eTT |.n> eTq bqTqT+ n+<] bq bqT #jT >\eTT,
eTq eTq+ |. B { d ns+ #dT e#T. s ysT , s ysT . #&
& edTe s . < <X+ n+{sT. #d e s. n < n+{sT. n+f
< ysT , <X+ ysT. n{ nqTu$+# HqT, HqT nqTu$+#y{ _q+>
HqT n \TdTeyT < <X $y+.
eTq eTT+<Tq ||+#q+ $<+> HqT <T, HqT <T n #|+
be#T. HqT |d qT, HqT \ qT, HqT >&< qT e>s. eTq+ nqTu
$+#edTe eTq+ <T n \TdTq|&T +=+#+ eTT+<T yeTT.
HqT Xs qT ` < nqTuy\T \TdT.
HqT eTqdT qT ` < | #H \TdT.

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n+f Xs+, eTqdT L& uV ||+#+ > sb\T HsTT.
C><edH Xs+ H n+<TuT +~. dbed, dTw| ned
<T. eTqdT C><edq, dbedq n+<TuT +T+~ , dTw|
ned <T. n+f uV||+#+> $ s+& eTq nqTuy e# edTe\T.
n+<T sTTe nH, H qT+ _q+> q$.
b, eTqdT, Xs+, H, n+f , # <>Zs> n+{|T +~
{, y{ HqT> bsbT|&THqT. HqT nq |< y{ y&TTHqT.
eTT+<T @ edTe\T HsTT n mesH n&, mH edTe\ |sT #beTT ,
H <]+q C &T #|eTT. n~ L& edTy. edTe <s #dT
HqT { n~ e<eT+. e<e s *|dTHeTT. Xs+
C&TH sTT+ <>Zs> HsTT, n+<T M{ s *|dTHeTT.
n+<T $ s <T, $ L& s\, b s <>Zs> HjT
>V +#*. n+f < nH HqT ysT , Xs+, eTqdT nH <X\T ysT . edTe\
nqTu$+# HqT ysT , HqT nqTu$+# edTe\T ysT nq $y |+b+~+#T
y*. n|&T HqT , k #H n \TdT+{qT.
12.7.2 b<$T d+ 2
HqT nH s s jTT \D\T n+e.
C HqT nqTu$+# \D\ uV||+#, Xs, eTqdT e]
ksTT. n+<T \D\ nH \D\T. HqT \D\ ku+>
#d , { H \D\T n+e.
eTHT<V+s HV+
q # XV q # |D H
q # yeT u$TsY q C q yjTT:
<q+< s|: yV+ yV+
HqT eTqdT <T, T~ <T, nV+s+ <T, + <T
HqT #$ <T, eTT <T, qT <T
HqT X+ <T, u$T <T, n <T, yjTTe <T
HqT q+<sb, HqT d<q+< sb,

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s+&T d\ |j+, #&& edTe+f HqT _qyTqy&qT, HqT nqT
u$+# edTe\ jTT \D\T H n+e \TdT+{+.HqT |Ps d+T&qT.
d+|+> HqT
` #q ds|'
` d+'
` sTZD'
` '
` ds >'
` @'
` d<q+< ds|'
` nd ` HqT .

****

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
13. dw
+esL #dq Xs jT+>, nekjT + > e|s+> #k+.d+d
+ < ew n+{sT. |&T deTw ||+#+ #<+.
dw m ]+~? dw m ]+< ns+ #dT HeTT+<T, nd\T dw nq
|<yT d]jTq |<+ <T. |<s+, X\ => dw+#eTT, HXq+ #jT eTT
n $CqXd+ #|{ mH d+es\ eTT+< k+K dsy<+ k+K
d<+T\T $wj $e]+#sT.
n+<Te\ dw nq |<+ y&, ne+> q~ eeTe+ nq e.
nsTT, ne+> q~ @~?
13.1 e+/ne+
e+, ne+ n+f @$T{? ne+ n+f |eD n>#s+. n+f <
+~ +{ q&<T.b\ yq>. yq +~ +{ q&<T.
~ dw |< e]dT +~. <B <T. n~ ;+ s|+ +~.
s < HeTsb\T eksTT.
;X+]y+s >~<+
b> ]\+ |q'
]\+ n+f $uq, e+ , eeVs+ s|+. B sD ned
n+{sT. dw n s\ X\, n sb\ edTe\, eT<s sD
ned n+T+~ Xd+. sD ned ejT n+{sT. XsjT + L& ejT
edT+~. n+f dw sT>eTT+<T { q~ n~ ejT.
+ eTT+<T >T]+ HsT q|&T, #q ds|eT, n~ \
eq |]dT\ nreT, n+<Te\ n~ XXeT #k+. n+f B ns+, dw
s> eTT+<T #q ds|+ L& +~.
|&T eTq+ dw sT>eTT+<T s+&T edTe\T HjT \TdTH+.
d+ 1: |sT #q+ \ eq |]dT \ nr+> +~.

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d+ 2: dw yTT+ ;s|+ ejT |sT +~.n+<Te\ , ejT
s+& HsTT. ew|s+> #H n+f,deTw|s+ > n< #H VH
n+{sT. s+& f. n+f , VH, #q + |<\ f.
nsTT s+&T |sT m+<T? s+&T |s <s+, y{ kq+. ew> ,
deTw> VH. y{ ns\T L& +#T$T+#T f. n+f b ds+
` dsyT q, m\\T edTe. VH n+f nq++. Vt qT+ e+~
VH. Vt n+f |<~, |P]> |<~.
n+<Te\ dw |sD+ >T]+ HsTy\+f ~ n++ s+&T d\
>T]+ HsT y*. VH G ejT n+f #q + G edTe.
VXjT dsdt y >TD ej nd.
13.2 ejT, VH\ eT< &\T
VH, ejT eT< b*$T{? s+&+{ ~ <T. n++ <T. y{
eT< &$T{?
` VH ss #q +, ejT edT #q+.
` VH s+ be+ < u, skjT \D\T L&
+&e. n~ sTZD yTq~. ejT edTe {, < \D\T +&+ n~
d>TDyTq~ neT+~.
` #q ds|yT q VH , |<X nr+ f, <
esT<T. ejT edTe { s+s+ esT +T+~.
` |<X n+e Te<T { #q + ]\+. < $uq
<T. ejT $uq +~. |sT>T<\ +~. ejT nMTu > $uq qT+
|sT>TT+~.
VH, ejT *d @s&+< dw. ejT nH ;+ qT+ dw @s&TT+~.
dw e ||+#+ n L& n+{sT. +{ q& yq * jT{ rd
qT>, ;s|+ +{ q& edTe HeT, sb\T #+<+.
13.3 eeTjT <X\T
||+#+ s+&T <X eeTeT+~. $q+ yTT> yTT\, s
|< #T> |]qT.

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n> ejT nH~ $q+.s yTT ksTT d||+#+.sD edTe
dedTe < d||+#+> esTT+~. eT d ||+#+ |] d\
||+#+> esTT+~. n eeVs\L M\T>. n+f #T> |]qTqe.
d, d\ edTe\ eT< & ns+ #dT y\+f eTqdT, Xs\ eT<
& >eT+#*. eTqdT, Xs+ s+& es b eTqdT n+<] >#s+
<T. Xs+ n+<] q&TT+~.
n sD ||+#+ qT+ d ||+#+ y\Te&, <qT+ d\ ||+#+
edT+~. < dw, eT&+{ sD ||+# ~ <T. q s+&+{ H
sTT. dw ] |P]> m~, eT |jT + eTTbT+~. n+f e ||+#+
eT ne+> e]bT+~. s eT eeTeT+~. n+f dw q~ nek
u<: qT edT u<: edTe |s><T, s> <T, ne+ qT+ e+, e+ +
ne+ nsTT+~.
ne ~ u e eT< us
ne <HHe |]<eH
u>eBZ w&T #b&T ` eTsD+ >T]+ m+<T +dTHe? eTsD
eT+f Xs+ ~\eTe+. #e <T. nsTH, me]d+ u<|&THe?
eq eTq+ Xs+ nqT+<+ |T, eT]bTH+.
|&T s+&e <X #<+. ejT> |sT>+q sD ||+#+ qT+, d
||+#+ e+~. < <T d edTe\T HsTT. M{H |+#u\+{sT.
n$ X+, yjTT, n, \+, u$T.
$ d ||+#+ d+> +{sTT. n+f n +{ q&e. |+
#u\T ejT qT+ |{sTT {,ejT q \D\T M{ L& +{sTT.
sD+ qT+ |{q s sD \D\T +{jTq~ d+.
sD >TD: s nqTesH.
s d ||+#+ d\ ||+#+> esTT+~.+<T |+#u\T
>#s+ > +{sTT.

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13.4 _+ #q +, |_+ #q+
Xs eT&T> $u+#e#T ` d\ , d, sD Xs\T> #k+.
M{ nH n+{sT. Xs+ &+ nsTTH < #q+ +T+~. m+<T+f
n~ #q e+yT q qT+ #H b+<TT+~. #q+ XseT+{ $d]+
< #H \>CdT +~. C Xs+ n<+ |#dT +~.
n< dV > + +&<T. n< rdT[ ds+ eTT+<T|&,
n<+ ds+ |_+_+, n<+ L& +e+eTeT+~. n< *q
|_+ + e\ n~ q edTe\ L& +eTjT+ #jT >\<T. n~ dV
+ e\ <T, |_+ + e\. $<+> + edTe +eTjT+> ne
T+~. n> Je+ edTe #q e+eTeT+~, |_+ #q + e\.
$<+> | Xs |_+ #q + +T+~. Xs eT&T
u>\T> #ksTT { eT&T |_+u\T+{sTT. ds y|yT q _+#
q+, Xs+ |_+ #q + neT+~ n> #q + ||+# L& #q e++
#dT +~. C ||+# |se Xs+ b*d, eTq Xs+ eT |<
|#dq T, $X+ eT|< |#dT+~. n+f n~ Je+ & |<s+
<T. n<+. #q+ +& +&+ e\ *$> |#k+~. eT&T Xs\T qf,
||+#\T eT&T HsTT. sD ||+#+, d ||+#+, d\ ||+#+. eT&+
{ _+ #q + +T+~. n~ eT&T |_+u\T> deTw ||+#+ eeTe
T+~.
13.4.1 |_+ #q+ ` ew ksTT
JeksTT < ewksTT _+ #q+, eT&T |_+ #H \T>
eeTeT+~. |_+ #H\ y{ ksT u<\ { |sT esTT+{sTT.
sD Xs+ ` b (|_+ #q + 1)
d Xs+ ` d (|_+ #q + 2)
d\ Xs+ ` $X ( |_+ #q+ 3)
| eq eT&T |_+u\T +{sTT.eT&+{ *| Je: n+{sT.
13.4.2 |_+ #q+ ` deTw ksTT
n> deTw ksTT L&, |_+ #q + eT&T> eeTeT+~.

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sD ||+#+ ` n+s$T (|_+ #q+ 4)
d ||+#+ ` VsD>s (|_+ #q+ 5)
d\ ||+#+ ` $s{ (|_+ #q + 6)
||+#+ eT& *d +{sTT. eT&+{ *| Xs: n+{sT.
> #b\+f, Je, Xs\T f #q+ jTT |_+u\T. { ew ksTT
|{ e TsTT, +{ deTw ksTT |{ e TeT+~.
13.5 e eT&T \D\T
$X >eTd n+<T eT&T \D\T n{ |ksTT. k+|s+>
y{ |sT $...
d >TD+ ` CqX:
sC>TD+ ` j X:
y>TD+ ` <eX:
ejT eT&T >TD\ HsTT. n+<T ejT >TD ejT
n+{sT. eT&T >TD\T ks |{ e Tee. |d+ >+ $+f, e\+ d >T
DyT y&&TT+~. CH { |#d, sC>TD+ jT{ edT+~. <bTq
|&T y >TD+ +T+~. ejT q eT&T >TD\ |+#u +{sTT.
***

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
14. JyXs +
y<+ u< eTTK n+X+ ` Jy, |se \ + n \TdTH+.
n+f #q +. n~ @+. + n+f { n ns+. n+<Te\ #q+
f. #q yT |<ss|+ |{e Te+~. #q + XsjT eTH
|<s+ <s |{ eTeTq|&T #H Jy n+{sT. n< #q +
deTw ||+#+ qT+ < ||+#jT + qT+ |{ eTeTq|&T n<
|se n+{sT.
n+<Te\ Jy n, |se n n+{sT, n~ |#d e<
e { m|& nH e<e, edTe e<e =\ky, n|&T nT
Jy <T T |se <T. q~ f , Jy |se \T ~.n+<T
e\ nH <s |#d s+&T |sT ` Jy, |se HsTT.
HH.
Xs+ qT+ |#dT q|&T HqT Jy. deTw ||+#+ qT+ |#dT
q|&T HqT |se . Jy |se + < @+ n+f ns+ sTTB.
+ eTTKyTq n+X+ L& +~.< L& > #<+.n~ |
n+X+. n~ , nH\ eT< d++<+ >T]+. q~ f n+TH+,
Jy, |se \T _q+ <T, @+ n+TH+. eT] , nH\ eT< d++
<+ @$T{? , |<s eT< d++<+ @$T{? y<++ #|+~, y{ eT<
d++<+ <s$T#~ ` <s|&~, < #jT #~ ` #jT b+<~. n+f,
|<s+ #q+ MT< <s|&+~.
<VsD, eTq eTT+<T >&js+ +<qT+&, n~ +< < #|{
eTq+ eTT+<T >&js #&*. n> ||+#+ @<H +< < s
|+#{, < #&* < < >T]+q | < |s Cq+ +&*.
eTq+ He < s|+#{ @MT |eD+ nKs<T. eTq+ J$+ +&yT
< |eD+. n+<Te\ |<s+ +<, n~ |#dT +< s|+#{ #q +

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y*, #q + +< s|+#{ |<s+ nKs <T. n+<Te\ #H
d+, |<s $T< n+T+~ Xd+. d+ n+f d+:, $T< n+f |s+:
(d+ es+)
B k<sD+> #| <VsD +&, eT{. +& H bsTTH eT{
e+T+~. eT{ +& +& <T . n> ` +>s+ d +, usD \T
$T<. sT d+, n\\T $T<. d+, nH $T<
n+<Te\ d+ n+f d++, $T< n+f |s ++. {, nH\T
mH. ew> #d n~ Jy, deTw> #d n~ |se.
n+<Te\ yTT+ y<+ u< eT&T y &]+#e#T.
d +, nH $T<, Jy, |se @+.
~ y<+ ks+. CH m deTTb]+#, < u$T{ #<+.
14.1 CH deTTb]+# esZ+
CH deTTb]+# esZ j>: n+{sT. esZ+ eT&T <X +~.
n$..XeD+ n+f $q+. eTqq+ n+f X+e. ~ <dq+ n+f nCq
e. >T]+q X+\ eTqq+ <s rsT,eTqq nCH ~ <d
q+ <s rsTH, Cq+ |]|Ps Cq+ neT+~.eTq+ Cqw\+ ne+.
XeD+ deTse+yT q >TsTe Bq+ #keTT. eTqq+ eTq b
L& +T+~.eTq *q X+\,>TsTe Bq+ rsT+{eTT.~ <dq+
>TsTe b @MT +&<T. |P]> eTq w MT< <s|& +T+~.eTq+ HsT q
CH ~ <dq+ |j+#*. |#qyTq Vs+ eyT m Xs X
dT+<, n ne>yT q Cq+ eyT eTq |dT+~.
14.2 Cq|\+
Cq+ b+<&+e\ *> u Cq|\+ n+{sT. u s+&T s\T
> #|dT+~ Xd+ ` 1. J$+ +&> *> |\+ ` JeqT. 2. eTsDq+s
u+ ` $<V eTT.
14.2.1 JeqT
~ J$+ +&> *> |\+. nH sb\T> | eqd ksTT
nqTu$keTT.eqd ksTT m<Ts=H deTd\T nu<ue+, ujT +, $T, s,

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|+ e>s. eqd deTd\ d+ks: n+{sT. Cq+ e\+ eqd ksTT
< d ksTT \T>TT+~. { eTqdT yT\T #dT +~ , Xs
ksTT <T.
JeqT n+f deTd\T +&e <T. deTd\T +H +{sTT. eTq+
nHs>s+> d+~+#eTT. JeqT e\ *> eT&T u\T
1. d+rjT+ 2. |Ps+ 3. deT+
14.2.1.1 d+rjT+
yTTyT T<{ u+ d+rjT+. eTq+ eqd+>, < d> d+
T\+. n+f eTq+ ]+~ \_+H, \_+#bsTTH eTq+ <|&+. m|&
eTq+ uVedTe\ MT< <s|&y, n|& n$ H, bsTTH u<|&eTT.
M{{qT+N ` e, |]d, edTe\ qT+ ` Cq+ eTq k++ dT+~.
n|&T eTq+ mes y\qT+. +{]>q u<|&+.
14.2.1.2 |Ps+
s+& u+ |Ps + ` J$+ d|\yT+<q ue+. eTq HqT , X
s |]$TeTe<T, HqT d<q+< dsb, n+<Te\ nq+ n \TdT.
eTq qT+ @B <s+> <T. |B eTq #+~q<. +]H , eTq mes
H +#{ y <T. eTq+ e nsTT +{]qy, +|&
ueH edT+~. eTq+ ds y|+ nsTTq|&T M{ #f~. X mesH
+#>\s? n> ds y|yTq eTq L& mes +#sT .
14.2.1.3 deT+
eT& u+ deT+.J$+ *> &<T&T\qT deq+> m<Ts=H <s+.
c nus sY |#dT +~. Cq+,eTq u$wT s>ujT $wj\T eTq #
e. eTqyT+ y{ n<T| |eTT. y{ m<Ts=H X edT+~.<sTDyTq
c\T L& *+> u~kjT , XX+> u~+#e, Cq+ b+<.
$wjT + >TsT+#Ty*. Xs+> eTq+ uV||+#+ MT< <s|&
|<T. eTq b<$T neds\T L&T, >T&, &, M{d+ ||+#+ MT< <s|&
*+<. ue|s+> eTq+ d+T\eTeeTT.B JeqT n+{sT.n+f J$+
+&>H d# (eTT) n ns+.

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14.2.2 $<V eTT
~ ns+ #dTy\+f, nC #bj, n eTeT+< eTT+<T \TdT
y*. n|& C eTsD+s |]d nseTeT+~.
nC $wjT+ nqT eTsD+q|&T u Xs+ |&bT+~. u X
s+ Xw+, |+#u\ *dbT+~.
d\ Xs+ |&bsTTH, d Xs+, sD Xs\T + +{sTT. ds
y|yT q L&q d, sD Xs\T, d\ Xs+ |&bj, + X
s b+<TsTT, eT |jD =qk+#{. Xs & b+<e#T.
< +&H b+<e#T. n+<Te\ eTsDq+s+ nC |j D+ #k&T.
+$<+> #b\+f nCjTT d Xs+, sD Xs\T |jD+ #d,
+ Xs b+<TsTT. <H |qsq n+{sT. d, sD Xs\T eT
J$+, d\ Xs |Hq+s+ eT + Xs b+<TsTT. #e,|T\
H$ d\ Xs eyT e+~.
C $wj=d, Xd|s+, eT&T Xs\ deTw *dbsTT.
n+f XsjT +, ||+#jT + \TksTT. d\ Xs+ d\ ||+#+ \T
dT+~. d Xs+ d ||+#+q, sD Xs+ sD ||+#+q \T
ksTT. n+f C ew> , deTw> es&T. n+<Te\ n Jy nq
eTT. m+<T+f d\ Xs+ +fH Jy |d edT+~. Xs jT + b>H nqT
|se + ne&T.q sTT, Jy |se + #+<T
T+~, q sTT q~ k>s+ + #+~qT>. |> C |qsq
<T. m+<T+f d, sD,Xs\ Je+ <T sTT+ d\ Xs b+<{.
n+<Te\ $<V eTT n+f |qsq qT+ eTT b+<+. $<V eTT | Cq+
m+<T dT+~? Xd+ B | |< #|+~. s\+{ HXq+#jT
+ <s Cq+ |qsq |T+~.
*****

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Je R $X G d G b (XsjT + G |_+ #q+)
Xs R $s{ G VsD>s G n+s$T (||+ #jT+ G |_+ #q+)
Je (ds|+)R Xs (ds|+) R _+ #q+

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n< y<+ |]#jT + |d+>+: k$T |sesq+<
nqTy<+ : eT<] sl
15. s d<++
y<+ ks+ ` Jy, |se \ +. B <s HqT |_+ #H
<, _+ #Hq \TdTH+. _+ #H n, HqT n, V
n n+TH+.
|_+ #H ewksTT Je: n, deTw ksTT Xs: n n+T
HeTT. _+ #q + sTZD: |_+ #H >TD\T +{sTT. Xs:
eT >TD\T+f, Je: n<eT >TD\T+{sTT. s+& |_+ e<eT+
e\ *>sTT _+ #H \DMT n+e.y<++ $<+> JyXs
+ u~dT +~.
Cq+ b+<+ e\ *> uyT $T{? HqT d<q+< ds| ,
HqT ds y|. HqT _+ #H nH Cq+ s+&T |\ sTTdT+~.
1. JeqT 2. $<V eTT
15.1 JeqT
JeqT m \T>TT+~. ~ |P]> eqd ksTT \T>TT+~. ~
eT&T $<\T> \T>TT+~.
1. d+ ueq 2. |Ps: ueq 3. deT+
15.2 $<V eTT
s+& |\+ $<V eTT. n+f |qsq +&<T. ~ nseTy\+f eTT+<T
s d<+ ns+ #dTy*. |qsq b+<y, eqy s d<++ MT<
<s|& +~.
15.3 s d<++
y<+ u< s d<++ # eTTKyTq d+. # $XwyT q d+
L&.

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15.3.1 yTT<{ d+ ` |Dbb\T
eTq+ #d | s ` H |< ` |\+ +T+~. |\+ \> s
+&<T. s|\+ s+&T s\T> +T+~.
<w|\+ ` q& |*+
n<w |\+ ` q& |*+
eT+ s #d eT+ <w |\+, eT+ n<w |\+ +{sTT. <VsD @<H
<q+ #d, q& |\+, m<T{ e *q u+. q& |\+, n~ eT+ |
{, eT+< neT+~. B dT`n<w |\+ n+{sT.
< <T\T, eTq+ me]qH yd+ #d &T d+b~d, q& <w |\+
u+ eTq &T |sT>TT+~. n<w |\+ , #&T |\+ +T+~.
B <TsY ` n<w+ n+{sT.
dT`n<c |DeT, <TsY`n<c b|eT n+{sT. n+<Te\ eTq+ #d ||
q|& |\+ +& |D,bb\T L& \T>TsTT. n$ n<w|\T {
q&e. n+<Te\ s d<++ yTT<{ d+ ` |Dbb\T.
15.3.2 s+&e d+ ` s+&T jTe\T
|Dbb\T <e\ \T>TsTT? s+&T jTe\ e\ \T>TsTT. Xd+
$~+q s\T #d |D+ \T>TT+~. y{ $V s\T n+{sT. Xd+ #jT
e<q s \T #d, b|+ edT+~. y{ w< s\T n+{sT. = s\T <w|\+
<c eT+$> q&e#T. , n<w |\+ <c n~ eT+~ <T. n+{
| bb \>CdT +~. Xd+ $~+# s\qT <w|\+, n<w|\+ ` s+&+{
eTqdT |T $~dT +~. n~ dTK+, <T:K+, |D+,b|+ n+{ dT+~.
s+& jTeT+ ` y n~ Xd+ #|b @+ #j*? <VsD
|j D+. n|&T | m+<T #dTH+? < sDyT$T{ n +#*.
sD+ qyTq< n~ |D \T>#dT +~. b <T. n+<Te\ Xd+
#|q< {, <X { |Dbb\T \TsTT.
15.3.3. eT&e d+ ` <w dTK<T:U\T
q& |Dbb\T \yT D <w dTK+>q,<w <T:K+>q essTT.
mH esTT+~? sEH, d+es+H, + qH? H

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n$ #|eTT. m+<T+f, n~ n+<] deq+> +&<T. n~ s {, |D
{, bb { esTT+T+~. B Xd+ n<Ty Tq <VsD sTTdT+~. eTq+
ubsTT #T, e$T& #T, =] #T |s>{ $H\ sE yk+. ub
sTT n s> |], q s+& me \+ rdT+{sTT. n> q Jes
dT\T L&. |sT>T\T >+ |]b, eTw * >s + qT+ se{ =$T~H
\\T |&TT+~. n+<Te\ n s\ deqyTq |\T +&e.
n+<Te\ eTw #bsTTq|&T n d Xs+ |\+ b+< nH
|Dbb\T +{sTT. ne s|+. eTw eTsD+q|&T d\ Xs+ HXqeT
eT+~ , d, sD Xs\T+{sTT. +<T |Dbb\T |yT +{sTT.
n<w |Dbb\T dTK<T:U\ \T>Cj \+f,y{ +d\ Xs+ y*.
d\ Xs+ < ||+#+ eeVs+ q&|eTT. eeVs+ q&|+< dTK<T:U\T
e. n+<T |qsq \T>TT+~.
sD, d Xs\T. eTq n<w |Dbb\q yd, < >Z d\ X
s mqT+{sTT. < <s eTq dTK<T:U\ksTT. = Xs+ =
s \T #d, eT => |Dbb\qT b>dT+{&T J$. eT n+<T =
<w| sTTebe+ eT + qH* +T+~.n |qs| qq+,
|qs| eTsD+ =qk>TsTT.
n+<T eTq |T, eTq nqTuy\ ssTT+#~ <e&T <T n ns+
#dT y\+T+~ Xd+. s d<++, Cq+ H eT]+ b<$T d+.
n~m+ u> nseTsTT, eTq J$+ n+ k|> k>TT+~. Hsd T&T #+ qT+
|+#T>\&y , |Db| s\ d<++ qT+ |+#T&T. n |D
bb\qqTd]+# n |qsq <s|& +T+~.
15.4 s d<++ e\ u\T
s d<+ d]>Z ns+ #dT +f, < e\ = u\THsTT. eTT+<T>
eTq <<+ esTT+~.
15.4.1 y$<+
JesdT\T eT< sTT+ y$<+ m+<T? e\T, +Te\T, eTqTw\T nH
ss \ >\T. eT eTqTw m+ _q+? sT |&TH yu>+> +f,

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=+<sT |T >T&y +{sT. m+<T y|+? B yT s d<+yT .
y #dT q |Dbb y ksTT +#sTT. ~ |b, nqT+&
]+<qT+{eTT. dw n+{ eT+ +~. < +~. n+
|&T y$<+ m+<T edT+~? { B |Dbb sD+.
15.4.2 u<'
@<H u< \>>H H m+<T? nqT+{+ y+H. *d *d HqT me
] n|s+ #jT <? n+{+. *d #dH, *jT #dH, sTT|&T #dH, >
q #dH , sTT|&T nqTu$dTq c sD+ djT+|s<+! #T s
#dT q<! n~ *d me +~+#+!
15.4.3 <e <wD
H s HqT u<T& n ns+ #dT +f, <y +~+# |d @~? |
&T eTq+ eT+ yyT nsTTH, w|&TTHeTT n+f eTq *jT @< b|+ e\
n \TdT+{eTT. n|&T <e&T nHjT+ #k&, |b+ #b& nH |d
+&<T. n~ *jT, =+eT+~ = c\T s>H, <e +q eHd, <y
m<TsTsT>TsT. s d<++ e\ <eu ##<s< T.
15.4.4 u$wT| C>
Be\ eTq+ u$wT $wjT + eTT+<T C> rdTe#T. eTq u$wT
s +#Te#T. s d<+yT + #b+~? s y u<T&e n+{+~. n+f
eTq eseq+, eTq > { +T+~ n < ns+. < d k>Bd @+
edT+~? eseH { u$wT +T+~. eTq+ eseq+, n+f sTT|&T,
*$> q&T#T+f, eTq u$wTqT #> r]~<Te#T. ||+#+ H u$wT
s +#<T. u>e+T&T H u$wT s +#&T. e\+ H s H u$wTqT
ssTTksTT.
>+ e\ sTT|&&&q eseH Ks n+{sT. sTT|{ s\ e\ \>
ujT u$wT, H |$ e\ \T>TT+~. |&T u> H sTTwyT + <T, s
>, H ssTT+#TH V +~.
s d<+ q$T eTq+ Ks\ qeTT+ n bs&sT =+<sT . C
sTT~ sd<+ eT+<T+{~. eTq |dT |]d >+ eTq #s\ e\

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@s&+~ {, eTq u$wT L& eTqe r]~<&TT+< #|+~. s d<+
qeTb eTq <Td eTse]H +~keTT.
15.4.5 eT+ sE\T y?
~ s# T eTq+ m<Ts=H |X. eT+ sE\T y? eT+ esT|sq e
c\ &* eTT\TT+f, <TssZ+ | eTs{ e Xs+ z\&T
TH&T. eT n< yT ` s d<++. M[<] yTT<{y sT |&T |D+,
s+& >ysT sTT|&T b|+ #dT H, >+H, > qH yTT<{ ysT b|+,
s+&ysT |D+ #d +{sT. { y dTK<T:U\T y n<w |Dbb\
MT< <s|& H&T.
s d<+yT b, ||+#+ b| +H +&<T. <s+ T&|T
bsTT, n<s+ H\T>Tb<\ MT< q&TdT+~. n> s d<+yT b,
<y <wkeTT. eTq d w+ *H, |& w+ *, eTq bb\T =*
bsTT, eTq+ d#+> esTTH+ nqT+{+.
n+<Te\ J$+ nqT+& ]+~ <T. nd\T @B nqT+& s><T.
|rB HyTq eT|< MT< <s|& +~. sD+ < s+ <T.sD+
q&e#T, q&be#T. = s>\ sD+ n+T|<T y<T\. sD+
jT q+ eq n~ qT <T. n+<Te\ s d<+ q$T, J]+#Te+
qT.
15.5 n<w |Dbb\T - n<w |Dbb\T eT&T s\T.
15.5.1 d+ s\T
> q\ qT+N b>T#dT edTq |Dbb\+{ d+ s\T <
d+ n<w+ n+{sT.
15.5.2 bs s\T
b>&q d+ s+ =+u>+ nqTu$+#&{ d<+> +T+~.
<e, < >Z qH + sT>TT+~. n <w|\+> esuTq n<w |D
bb\ bss n+{sT. |&T d++ eTqMT dTK<T:U\qT \T>CjT <T.
m+<T+f n~ sTT+ s|~<T<T. bss XsTTdT+~ eTq |T, *< +

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&T\, J$ e>s.|T +Te>H, eTw>H, eTw nsTT dH,
|sTw&, s>s+>H, nHs>+H e>s\.
15.5.3 >$T s\T
>$T n+f edTq ` eTq bs s\ nqTu$+#{ uMT< |{q
|&T, y{d+ = s\T #k+. = s \ qT+ = |\T eT |Te
ksTT. n+f eT <w|\+, n<w|\+ \T>TsTT.
b>T&q s \T d+ s \T
nqTu$dTq s\T bss \T
=> |Tq s \T >$T s\T
15.6 qq eTsD e+
q eTq+ bs s\ eTT+# |jT + = >$T s\ =
> |{dT H+. J$+ eTT+#d] bss eTTdbT+~. C bss
eTTdH . J$+ eTT>TdT+~. = >$T s \ |\+ qH nqTu$k+.
|*+q >$T s \T L& eTTdbsTT. $T*bsTTq >$T s \T d+
s #sT sTT. d+ s qT+ eT =+#+ u>+ bs s> esTT+~.
sTT+ qe{.
eT bss rs{ |{q q, eT >$T s \TdT+~. eT sTT<
<. bs s |P]> ]bT+~, >$T s =+ sT >TT+~. =+ y[ d+
s C] eT |qsq y] rdT+~. |qs| qq+ |qs| eTsD+
n d+, bs, >$T s\T k>TH +{sTT. C #+ #d n~
bs s & uw ddT+~. X<X n+f bsb|+ syT\T+~.
X<X n+f bs |D+ me +<qe.
15.5.5 bjT s
bjT s #d, bs bb b>=Te{ >$T |D+ #dT HeT
qe. bsb|+ q re { >$T |D+ < |P]> q+|#dT +~,
< < re ZdT +~. n<eT|+. bjT+ #jT + e\ |\ (reyTq)
bs bb\ TH eTH<s dT+~. bs s m+ re+> +< eTq+

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eTT+<T> \TdT+. m+<T+f n~ n<w+. n+<T eTq+ sTq |*+
b+< esL bjT s #dH +&*.
15.7 C |]d
C $wjT + eT&T s\ @eTesTT? Cq+ m+ Xe+yT+<+f
n~ n d+ s\ HXq+ #jT >\<T. s&jT wH e\ Xs+ q qsY D
\qT HXq+ #dq T n~ d+ s \ HXq+ #dT+~.
d+ b| $HXq *+>+
Y |De$T d<e *+>+
C >$Ts \T se. m+<T+f nqT qT ns> s\T sVk&T.
HqT #dTHqq nV+s+ , n_eq+ be+ >$T s \T e.
d+ s\T udeTjsTT. >$T s\T se. $T*+<=f bss.
n$ sT>TTq$ { nC dTK<T:U\ \>CksTT. nC n+f nH
< |_+ #q+ eTT&|& +{&T { n deTd. C qT |
_+ #q + <T, _+ #q + n d<q+< n u$k&T {, q
deTd\ #*+#&T {, n$ n u~+#e. Xs+ d++<+ |T&T
{ bss n q | #dT k&T nqT ku+> #k&T n+.
n+<Te\ nqT eTsD+# deTj s<T. d+ s *bsTT+~, bs
s eTTdbsTT+~. >$T s s<T. d+ s, >$T s *d = Xs
yT +{sTT. s+& # = Xs+ |d <T. n+<Te\, C eT&T X
s\ ` d\ , d, sD Xs\T, d\ , d, sD ||+#+ \TksTT n<
esTd. ys $<+> #b\+f C |se + #+<T&T. n $<V
eTT \T>TT+~. nqT +&> JeqT b+<T&T. eTsD+# $<V
eTT b+<T&T. Cqk<q #dq e b+< |\+ sTT~. C eTsD+q deT
jT+, |<X+ |D|T&jT \T, |Dd\+ be#T nqT +<\ qT+ $&
b&T.
Je Xs + ` eTVy $#s:
ew> #d #H Jy n+{s, deTw ||+#+ #d, #H
Xs < |se n+{s Xd+ #|T+~. s+&+{ eT< & y{ |

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_+_+# e<eT+ e\ @s&+~. _+ #q + @MT & <T. Je Xs +
d+# y\T mH HsTT |wT . y\ eTVy\T n+{sT.
eTVy $#s' H\T>T eTVy\T ` 1. eTd. 2. nV+ V nd.
3. njT+ V. 4. |Cq+ V.
eTVy+ nH~ Je, Xs + d+# y<+ y+. y<++
b<$T n+X+ ~. $T> n+X\T B s. Je&T, XsT&T s nq~
ns+ #dT e{ eTq+ eTVy $Xw+ #*. B eTVy $#s: n+{sT.
< #k+?
_+ #q + ` d<+ ns+ #dT e{ <VsD #<+. N{
>~ +<qT+<+. n+<T \T|\T, { \T eTd HsTT.B|+ <T. eTq
N{ >~ y\T>T +b\ +~. eTq <>Zs {sY T <T. nZ|\ L& <T.
n<+ +~.
|&T n< rdT+f, < dV> |+# <T. n+<T n~ y\T
TsT sTT# edTe <T. |+# edTe <T. |&T eTq+ eTq T~ |j
+, |j >+ #keTT. eTq+ >~ \T|H, { H ], n< |+>
# |{eTT. |q X+ q nd\T dsT& + n<+ |_+_+#
|{eTT.
|&T n<+ dsT |_++ |dT +~. n<+ dsT + b+<d
], n<+ L& |dT+~. n< deTjT+, n~ + y< edTe ne
T+~. dV > |X+ n<+ |+# n<+ neT+~. dsT |X,
n<+ |X eT< & @$T{? dsT + dV yTq~ n+f _+ dsT&T
n<~ nsTerdTq + |&T = VA< b+~+~. n~ N{ >~
+e++ #d+~.
|_+ ds+ mH |#T,n<+ |{q D es+ <s.
|_+dsT&qT+# bs$Ts eTq #+<T&T yH \ + sTTk&T.n+<T
eTq+ eT&T $wj\ >V +#* `
1. nd\T dsT&T 2. |_+_+# e<eT+ 3. |_+ dsT&T.

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m |_+ e<e\T +f n |_+ dsT\T +{sT. nd\T
dsT&T m|& &.
eT] n |_+dsT\T +f, y{ |_+ HD @yTH & +<?
+~. e<eT \D {, |_+ \D+ +T+~. q e<eT+ q |_+
u, |< e<eT+ |< |_+u #|ksTT. |_+u #&{ &
H, y{ |_+_+# _+ dsT\T f.
mesH e #+<+, #+<T qT+ e#~ <T, n~ ds+ n+f
eTq $q{ $+> +&e#T. $Cq Xd+ y[, n~ eT s|
dT+~. B $#s: n+{sT. eTq= #T+ eTssT |+bsqT+&. n~ eTq
edT+~? bdTeH <s edT+~. n+f bdteH n q k+ &_q{?
<T. n> #+<T&T bdteH |#k&T. ds+ uMT< #+<T&T |d
]+|Ck&T.
+e #b\+f #+<T +, C ds+. n+<Te\ |_+_dTq
ds+T\T y{ e<e\ & e\ $_q +T\ y<\TTH y{ +
#~ dsT&=&.
|&T <VsD Je Xs + nqsTT<eTT. nd\T dsT&T ds
y|yT q #q +. eTq |_+ e<e\T s+&T HsTT. yTT<{~ XsjT +.
B q n<+ b\e#T. s+&~ ||+#jT +. B |< n<+ b\e#T.
Xs jT + |_+_+q #H Je n+{sT. ||+#jT + |_+_+q
#H Xs n+{sT.
||q #d Je`XsT\ eT< & |dT+~. m+<T+f |_+ e<
eT+ & +~, y{ <s |dT q |_+u & +~. e XsjT+
yqTqT+ |#d Jy X n\+> |dT +~. n Cq+ n\+. nqT
$T+# |<X+ n\+. n< Xs $wj =d, nqT yTT+ ||+# jT + <s
|#k&T. nqT dsE&T, ds XeT+T&T, ds y|. | X\ ny.
n+<Te\ ||q #d, Je`Xs\ eT< u<+ +&yT <T, n$ |P]>
$_q+> HsTT,Je&T <dT& XsT&T k$T Je&T Jes nsTT, XsT&T
dws.

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y<|Psu>+,y< yTT<{ u>+, | | &\ beTTKdT+~.|P\T,
jTj><T\T, bjT s\T Je`Xs u< <w |T @ssq
bsq\T. y< n+s>+ =#d], |wT \T Je& #q +, Xs
#q + s+& f. n~ _+ #q + n #bsTT.
eT] & m+<T e+~? < |_+_+# e<eT+ e\ e+~. n
Je`Xs f #q+ |sb\T { n$ s+& f. $wj >V +#
yT Je`Xs``Cq+ n+{sT. n |wT \ ks+X+ f. n~
>T]+ #|+~. M{ >T]+ #| @ yHH eTVy+ n+{sT. y<
n+{ eTV y\T mH HsTT, y y<+ qT+ = eTVy
<VsD +< rdT+{sT. n eTq H\T>T eTVy\THsTT.

*****

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