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Table of Contents

Table of Contents 2

Preface 3

Unit I English for Business Communication 4

Language of Business English
Learning Business Vocabulary
Unit II Speaking on the Telephone 11
Unit III Presentation 14
How to Make a Good Presentation
Unit IV Letter Writing 24
Lay-out of a Business letter
Ordering Supplies
Acknowledgement (Confirming an Order)
Letters of Complaint
Adjustment Letters
Sales Letters
Writing Application Letter
The Resume or Curriculum Vitae
Unit V Minutes Meetings 58
Unit VI Reports 67
Unit VII Job Interview 72
Job Interview Tips
Unit VIII Grammar for Business communication 77

References 80


In this global world English is widely used for many activities including business activities.
Therefore people speaking languages other than English will not do business smoothly in the
international transaction or business dealing. Knowing English for Business will help them a lot
in making negotiation, selling, introducing merchandises and in doing other business.

This book is writen for the purpose of introducing Business English and training non English
speakers in order to run business properly and at least to be familiar with words and expression
or uttrances used in English for business purposes.

The skills wanted to develop by using this book cover both spoken and written English through
simulation, role play and interaction, presentation, writing letters, minutes, memo, making sales
letters (ads) and many others

It is expected that this book achieves its purpose, i,e. Introducing students learning English as a
foreign language to the business world. Criticism and suggestion to improve this book are

Malang August 2016

Sri Endah Tabiati



Business English

Everyday millions of people all over the world use English in their business activities. Business
is about buying and selling or, more broadly exchanging and exploiting resources and
capabilities. It uses the language of commerce, of finance, of industry, of providing goods and
services. It is about people coming together to accomplish things they could not do as
individuals. It is about design and innovation, tradition and values, the exciting and the mundane.

Complete the following lists about the specific context of business English:

1. Cooperation 9. Persuading 17............etc

2. Negotiation 10. Understanding
3. Conflict 11. Explaining
4. .. 12. .
5. . 13
6. . 14..
7. .. 15.
8. . 16.

Discuss the list with your friends

What do people want when they decide to study business English?

1. It is a part of their job

2. It is an investment which brings status and and possibly financial reward
3. They want their English to get better

How about you?

Discuss your reason to study business English with your friends and present it to the class.

The Language of Business English

It includes what some people might call everyday English like in the following exchanges:

A: Excuse me

B: Hi. Can I help you?

C: I hope so. I am looking for room 235.Mr.Jenkins office.

D: Yes Of course. Its just around the corner, over there.

A: What did you think?

B: Yes, alright

B: By Friday?

A: I said yes. Ok?


In a pair, make a similar conversation!

People use specific language to communicate in specific contexts. Business communities are no
different. Accountants use the language of accounting (specific lexis) to talk about accounting
matters. Sales engineers use specific language to discuss their product specifications with their
customers. These are both business communities, but they probably wouldnt understand each
other, specialist vocabulary. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is a term used to describe
language that is inaccessible to people who are not members of a particular language community.
Here are some examples:

1. Can we talk about gearing after lunch? Im hungry. (in accounting)

2. Weve had some SF 6 leakage. (in the power industry)

3. Maybe we need to revisit the escalation clause? (in real estate )

4. Its OTC (over the counter, in e.g. retail pharmaceuticals )

Will you make similar sentence which is only understood by economists (like in example
number 1)


There is also language which is clearly business English, but which can be understood by most
proficient users of English. Here are the examples:

1. Sales have fluctuated since we introduced the new sales strategy.

2. The team is responsible for the China project.

3.Has everybody had a look at the minutes?

4.Theyve terminated the contract

Will you make similar sentence about economics which most proficient users of English




Business English is distinctive ? Why?

1. Business people do a variety of things with language:

They socialize, they predict, they negotiate, .
Can you think of other possibility ?
f.. etc

These are done in a specific business context, and for business aims. But skill in using business
English is not limited to the words and language used. Presenters use certain techniques to get
their message across. So do negotiators, so do telephone operators. Business English users need
to know the words, but they also need the skills in order to do their job (that is, the skills they
need to do the job in their own language). So business English is used together with business
communication skills.

2. The English used in international business is not necessarily the same English that native
speakers use. It is a lingua franca. It may even be considered a new type of English which
has developed and is developing to meet the needs of its users. People whose first
language is English do not necessarily speak this language. There is much discussion
among academics about what such a language might be like (Is it less idiomatic?) Does it
use different syntax? How many varieties are there?) No one really knows. The important
thing to remember is that the learners need may share only certain characteristics with the
teachers own version of English.
The followings are the metaphor used in business English:

a. Business is a predatory animal
Do you know other metaphors used in Business ?




3. Although we know a lot about how people interact and the sorts of things they say to
each other, there are many areas of business English or ESP where there is not much
reliable on what people actually say. (There are various reasons for this lack, such as the
difficulty in recording natural discourse, peoples reluctance of being recorded, and
business peoples concern over issues of confidentiality. A good example of this relative
lack of information is in the matter of small talk, which often seems to have a
relationship-building function, rather than direct business content. Small talk is the
simple throwaway line we might offer when we meet someone in the corridor, or the
seemingly banal discussion about the weather when we bump into someone in the car
park. Such conventional polite exchanges might be vitally important to the business
English learner who needs to build good relationship, but not much is known about how
they work. There may well be certain parts of business English teaching that rely on

The following is the example of small talk:

Speakers : Staff in a foreign corporation

Setting : Corridor

A: Hi

B: Hi, you look awful! You look several years older. Common, dont work too
hard. You wont get er incredible extra bonus even if you stay the night
here doing your job!

A: Oh No, Its not a matter of money. You know our boss. er..He seems to be
working like a machine. How could I be idle if he never stop working during
break-time? I wonder what he eats..super vitamin I suppose.

B: Shsss be careful. He might hear you and give you more work

A: No no ! If I were given a chance to choose a boss

(the conversation ended and A run to her office looking afraid of something )

Exercise :

1. You are standing in the lift with one other person when it stops between two floors.
One of you presses the button for assistance. Then you look at each other. What do
you say?

2. You are walking down the corridor when you bump into an English-speaking
business partner you know reasonably well from a recent project. What do you

3. You are queuing to get into work, and notice that the security guard is checking
identity cards more thoroughly than usual. You catch the eye of the person next to
you. What do you say?

4. You are sitting in the canteen, enjoying a cup of coffee, when a colleague sits
opposite you and catches your eyes. What do you say?

With your friend sitting next to you, make a draft of small talk and present it in front of the
class. Here are the suggested topics

a. An invitation for a dinner

b. A reminder of overtime work schedule
c. A discussion on the next office picnic
d. A talk to congratulate ones promotion
g. . Etc

Learning Business Vocabulary

Words are related with grammar. There are three kinds of words:

1. Lexical words which can be nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

Using your English competence, complete the following table with lexical words
used in business. These words carry meaning in isolation
Nouns Vebs Adjectives Adverbs
sale Sell Expensive well

2. Function words, words dealing with the relationship between lexical words, or indicate
how they are to be interpreted.
Complete the following table below

Determiners Pronouns Modals Preposition Coordinators Wh-words

the He Can In and Why
a She Should To but when

3. Inserts
Example :

Yeah, well ,ouch

Put the inserts in the following sentences
1. Prices are not stable lately
2. Youve got to work overtime tonight
3. You make mistakes again
4. I regret to tell you that youve to redo it

Beside the three types of words, there are multi-word units ( lexical phrases. Lexical bundles, or

e.g nevertheless, how do you do ( act as a single unit)

Multi-Word Units

Complete the following table of multi-word units

Sentence headers Phrasal Collocations Idioms Colligation


Whats the matter Start off Small print Its going to crop Letter of
with up application

I dont think its. Bring up Have a Weve missed the Letter of order
meeting boat



Answering the telephone can strike terror into the heart of any language learner. Firstly the call
normally comes when the learner is in the middle of something else, so there is no time to
prepare. Secondly, there is no body language to help the learner understand what the caller is
trying to say.

What makes a good telephone call? From a business point of view, a good call has a clear aim:

It keeps the customer happy

It succeeds in persuading the customer
It allows information to be passed on accurately
Both interlocutors contribute to this process, yet in business, a phone call should not be allowed
to fail just because the other persons telephone skills are poor. So a phone call must be managed
in order to achieve the business aim.

It is also important to realize that some types of calls are actually quite easy to deal with.
Consider the secretary who simply has to put a call through to the boss, for example. Or the
customer who calls to say they are going to be late. Useful phrases for this kind of conversation
can be learned relatively easily.

At lower levels, telephone training often falls into two main parts:

1. There are standard lexical phrases which are useful in many contexts and which are to be

Ill just put you through

Can I take a message?

I am calling about

2. There are survival strategies which allow the learner to control the conversation and deal with
the situation :

I didnt quite catch that

Could you say that again please?

Could you spell that?

Could you confirm that in writing?


1. Leaving a message
Read the following cards and reproduce the message

Please leave the message in the answering machine:

Taneko needs the spare cable on site by April 3. Please arrange for
transport plus driver to be on standby from April 1 to carry out

Dont forget to leave your own name and contact detail too

Please leave the message in the answering machine:

Mr. Johnson has been delayed in Hongkong, and will now be

arriving on flight CX 368,ETA 15:55. Please organize pick up

Dont forget to leave your own name and contact detail too

Please leave the message in the answering machine:

The newly installed fire alarms will be tested on Thursday

September 5, between 10-11 am. Please ensure staff are aware of all
relevant fire drills.

Dont forget to leave your own name and contact detail too

2. Simple phone conversation

Read the card and carry out a role play indicated on the card

A1 Caller

You work for XYZ Ltd . Call ABC Inc and ask to speak to the
director. You want to know about working together on a project in
Paris. If the director is not available, leave your name and
telephone number, a message for her/him to call you back

A2 Receiver

You are alone in the office ( all the others are in an English lesson).
Your director is on holiday for the next two weeks. Answer the phone

B1- Caller

You work for BJ Enterprise in London. You sent some brochures to

ABC BNGH in Berlin last week. Ask if they arrived and whether they
are in good condition.

B2 Receiver

You are in the office. It is a normal day. The postman has just
delivered a large, securely wrapped parcel of brochures from a
company in London. Answer the phone.


You work for SpirolliServisi A.PA .in Intaly. Call Sagin SA and ask to
speak to someone from accounts. There is a problem with a bill which
has not been paid.

C2 Receiver

You are alone in the office ( all the others are in an office party). If
telephone rings, take a message.



What makes a good presentation? List all the things you think make a good presentation

Discuss the result and compare it with the following:

1. Overall
Awareness of your audience (who are they? What are their needs or

interest? What do they expect from you?

Clear objectives ( to inform, persuade, welcome etc )

2. System
Planning have a clear structure and a sense of timing

Organization have clear connections between the different parts or ideas

Information make sure what you say is interesting and relevant to your audience

Impact make sure what you say have a strong introduction and conclusion

3. Delivery
Clear, simple and fluent

Use of natural spoken English

Use of pauses for emphasis

4. Body Language
Use of strong, clear gesture for emphasis

Good eye contact with the audience

Positive, confident and relax manner

No distracting gestures

5. Visual aids

Clear and simple messages

Efficient, professional use of equipment

(Comfort, Jeremy at al 1995. Effective Presentation. Oxford University Press:


You can down load from internet about a good presentation as presented below:



Roger making a presentation in Turin to students from Japan

Do use PowerPoint if the facilities are available. Although some speakers seem to have
taken an aversion to PowerPoint, it is so convenient and ensures that your presentation
has a clear structure and something for your listeners to take away.
Be very clear about how much time you have - and stick to that time in preparing your
presentation. It's very difficult to 'cut' a PowerPoint presentation at the event itself, so it's
a great mistake to run out of time. Most presenters prepare too much material; but nobody
ever complains that a presentation was too short (it always allows more time for
Be very clear about your key message - and ensure that everything in your presentation
is both consistent with, and supportive of, that key message. You should be able to
articulate the message in a phrase or a sentence and indeed you might want to use that
phrase or sentence in one of your first slides, or one of your last, or even both.
E-mail your presentation to the event organizers in advance. Ask them to load it onto
a laptop, run it through, check that it looks fine, and confirm that with you. Then you
don't have to worry about the technology when you arrive at the venue; you can
concentrate on the delivery of your material. Also it enables the event's organizers to run
off copies of your slides, so that they are available to them in good time.
The first slide should announce the title of your presentation, the event and date, and
your name and position. This may seem terribly obvious, but many speakers miss off
some of this basic information and then weeks later listeners (or their colleagues back at
the organization) are not clear who made the presentation or when. You should try to
make the title catchy, so that you immediately have the interest of your audience. A
challenging question works well - for instance, a presentation on the global economic
crisis might ask: "Is this the end of capitalism as we've known it?" Or a play on words
works too - for example, a presentation on next generation broadband could be titled "The
Slow Arrival Of Fast Broadband".
The second slide should seize the attention of your audience for your presentation. It
could be the central proposition of your presentation or a conventional wisdom that you
wish to challenge or a relevant or witty quote from a leader in your field. If it is amusing
or controversial or both, so much the better.
The third slide should set out the structure of your presentation. The default structure
should consist of three themes that you intend to examine. For a very short presentation,
there might only be time for two; if you want to look at more than five areas, write a book
Each theme should be the subject of a small number of slides. Again, a good working
assumption is that three slides for each theme is about right. Less than two and it isn't
substantive enough to be a separate theme; more than five and it should probably be
broken up into two themes.
Each slide should have clear heading. A question is often a good way of winning
attention - but, in that case, make sure you answer the question in the body of the slide.
Each slide should normally contain around 25-35 words, unless it is a quote (when
you might use more) or contains an illustration (when you will probably use less). Too
many words and your audience will have trouble reading the material; too few words and

you're likely to be flashing through the slides and spending too much time clicking the
Each bullet point should consist of an intelligible phrase, rather than merely a word or
two that is meaningless on its own or conversely a complete sentence that is better
delivered orally. So, for instance, do use "Focus on profitable and growing markets"
rather than simply "Focus" or "Markets" or "It is necessary to focus on those markets
which are profitable and growing rather than those which are loss-making and
declining". Consider this test: your slides should make sense and be useful to someone
who was not present at your presentation.
Make appropriate use of pictures. It's a good idea to break up text with illustrations and
it is true that a picture is worth a thousand words.
The last slide should set out all appropriate contact details: certainly e-mail address
and possibly snail mail address, the web site of your organisation, and any personal
website or weblog if you have one.
Make copies of your slides available. It is a matter of preference whether you do this at
the beginning of your presentation or at the end. If your listeners have copies at the
beginning, they can take notes simply by annotating the slides, instead of having to note
down all the information on the slides. On the other hand, you might feel that, if they can
see in advance the slides you are going to use, you lose the element of control or surprise.
It might depend on the content of the presentation: if you are going to show detailed
tables or graphs with lots of figures, your audience will probably find it easier to have a
copy on their lap. It might depend on the circumstances of the presentation: if there is a
large audience, people at the back may not be able to see the screen clearly and would
really appreciate having copies of the slides.

Note: much of the advice in my section on "How To Give A Good Speech" is relevant to giving
a good presentation.


Last modified on 29 January 2009

If you have some ideas of your own :e-mail me

( http: //chrisss.prillio/tips for better powerpoint presentation

Give comments on the following cartoons

Browse and download information from internet about the language of presentation

| Language

Say what you are going to say,

Simplicity and Clarity

If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must
be simple and clear.

Use short words and short sentences.

Do not use jargon, unless you are certain that your audience understands it.

In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas.

Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to understand. They
are much more powerful. Consider these two sentences, which say the same thing:

1. Toyota sold two million cars last year.

2. Two million cars were sold by Toyota last year.

Which is easier to understand? Which is more immediate? Which is more powerful? #1 is


and #2 is passive.


When you drive on the roads, you know where you are on those roads. Each road has a name
or number. Each town has a name. And each house has a number. If you are at house #100,
you can go back to #50 or forward to #150. You can look at the signposts for directions. And
you can look at your atlas for the structure of the roads in detail. In other words, it is easy to
navigate the roads. You cannot get lost. But when you give a presentation, how can your
audience know where they are? How can they know the structure of your presentation? How
can they know what is coming next? They know because you tell them. Because you put up
signposts for them, at the beginning and all along the route. This technique is called
'signposting' (or 'signaling').

During your introduction, you should tell your audience what the structure of your
presentation will be. You might say something like this:

"I'll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I'll move on to some of the
achievements we've made in Asia. After that I'll consider the opportunities we see for further
expansion in Africa. Lastly, I'll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations."

A member of the audience can now visualize your presentation like this:

Introduction Welcome
Explanation of structure (now)

Body Europe

Conclusion Summing up

He will keep this image in his head during the presentation. He may even write it down. And
throughout your presentation, you will put up signposts telling him which point you have
reached and where you are going now. When you finish Europe and want to start Asia, you
might say:

"That's all I have to say about Europe. Let's turn now to Asia."

When you have finished Africa and want to sum up, you might say:

"Well, we've looked at the three continents Europe, Asia and Africa. I'd like to sum up now."

And when you finish summing up and want to give your recommendations, you might say:

"What does all this mean for us? Well, firstly I recommend..."

The table below lists useful expressions that you can use to signpost the various parts of your


Function Language

Introducing the subject I'd like to start by...

Let's begin by...
First of all, I'll...
Starting with...
I'll begin by...

Finishing one subject... Well, I've told you about...

That's all I have to say about...
We've looked at...

So much for...

...and starting another Now we'll move on to...

Let me turn now to...
Turning to...
I'd like now to discuss...
Let's look now at...

Analyzing a point and giving Where does that lead us?

recommendations Let's consider this in more detail...
What does this mean for ABC?
Translated into real terms...

Giving an example For example,...

A good example of this is...
As an illustration,...
To give you an example,...
To illustrate this point...

Dealing with questions We'll be examining this point in more detail

later on...
I'd like to deal with this question later, if I
I'll come back to this question later in my
Perhaps you'd like to raise this point at the
I won't comment on this now...

Summarising and concluding In conclusion,...

Right, let's sum up, shall we?
I'd like now to recap...
Let's summarise briefly what we've looked
Finally, let me remind you of some of the
issues we've covered...
If I can just sum up the main points...

Ordering Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly...
First of that...finally...
To start finish up...

That's all we have to say about the language of presentations. Next, we'll look in detail at the

presentation itself and how we structure it...

The following is the example for you

Assignment :

Make observation on a small-scale business (canteens, baksosellesr, green grocers, internet

caf etc) . Then prepare a presentation as areport of what you observed. Discuss with the
teacher the points to be included in the presentation





First of all comes the letter head. This is a sheet of letter paper with printed heading carrying the
firms name, address, telephone number and telex number (if there is one), name of manager,
directors, etc. Here are a few examples.

68 Campbell Street Tel. Lagos 54569


Lowland Malt Distillers Limited

Directors: T. M. Smith (Chairman) W. V. Hannah, J. K. R. Black

Export Department

Telephone 041-2584018 68 Waterloo

Auto and Agricultural Electricians Ltd.

Telegrams MadisThe farmers

Glasgow Electrician
Glasgow G5 6PW

Telex Madis 7349

5 Salisbury Street, Harare

Tel: 708756

Note, however, that there is no absolute form for a letter head. It can take different forms,
depending on what information is to be conveyed and on a firms practice and choice of design

Remember that when addressing a letter, street names are generally typed in full. If for some
reason the street name has to be abbreviated, the following shortened forms should be used:

Avenue Av; Court Ct; Crescent Cres; Gardens Gdns; grove Gro;

Park Pk; Place Pl; Quadarant Quad; Road Rd; Street St; Terrace Ter.

Omit full stops after these contractions.


This covers the following:

1. Date 6. Body of letter

2. Reference(s) 7. Complimentary ending
3. Inside Address 8. Signature and
4. Salutation Conclusion
5. Subject- heading 9. Enclusore(s)


The framework of a letter is set out in Figure 1. Here are details of its contents:

1. Date

This should be written in full, normally in the order of the day, month, year as in:

- 15 November 19.
Commas should be omitted. The day of the week is not generally included, but if it is, it should
be shown on a separate line. The a appearance is then better if the year is moved to a line of its
own, e.g.:

- Tuesday
15 November

2. Reference(s)

References are a way of identifying a letter. They vary from the very simple to the complex. In
basic form they are the initials of the person who dictated the letter and the typist, e.g.:

- Our ref: WFM/OP

Sometimes a file number is added, as in:

- WFM/OP/69

More complex references may relate to filing system or to an account number or to a clients
number, e.g.:

- WFM/OP/69/8

This could mean that this particular letter is the eight written in subject file 69.

There are two points to remember when using references:

a. Be sure that your own references give the necessary information for locating the letter at
a later date;
b. In reply, always quote the other partys letter reference.

BOON & LEE LTD Building


78-80 Still Road Branch Manager

Singapore 15 R. A. Lim

Tel: 041-3326 Telex: Habo 5821

2. 1.



5. ..

6. ...



7. .


9. .

Figure 1 The key to this framework in on pp ..

3. Inside Address

This is the name and address of the person to whom the letter is being sent. It may be in block
form, as in:
The manager
Fax Merchandising
68 Campbell Street
Prefer the block form.

If possible, the address should be confined to three or four lines. If necessary the name of
a town and county may be included in one line,


- The Secretary
Nu-Lino Company
41 King Street
Preston, Lancs
Note carefully the use of Messrs. It should be used when addressing a partnership, as in:

- Messrs Smith &Moodie; Messrs W. Black & Company

Note, however, that Messrs should not be used when writing to a limited company; your letter
should be addressed to The Secretary or to some other official of the company, e.g. General
Manager, Manager, Accountant, etc. For example:

- The Secretary The Sales Manager

Smith and Webb Ltd. O. P. Martin & Co. Ltd.

Note also that Messrs should not be used:

a. where the name of a firm contains a conferred title, e.g.:

- Sir John Wilson & Sons Ltd.
b. Where the name is preceded by the word The, e.g.
- The Mike Jones Shoe Company
c. where the name of the firm contains no personal names, e.g.:
- New Furnishing Co.

Letters for the Attention of

Practice here varies, but you should keep to the formal procedure and set out your letter like this:

- Smith & Jones Ltd.

14 High Street


For the attention of Mr. Thomas

Dear Mr. Thomas

In practice it is advisable to avoid using the phrase For the attention of. You should aim to
address all letters to an organization or department of an organization or to an individual.

Confidential Letters

A particular letter may be confidential; when this is so, the word Confidential should be typed
above the address in the letter and in the top left-hand corner of the envelope. Prefer upper case

4. Salutation

This is the opening words of greeting in a letter. The formal form in business correspondence is:

- Dear Sir(s) or Dear Madam (Mesdames)

Two further forms of salutation must be considered:

a. Sir, Gentlemen, Madam, Mesdames. These are used in more formal correspondence,
namely, official reports and government correspondence, etc.
b. Dear Mr (Mrs/Miss/Ms), Dear (first name of recipient). This form permits the only use of
Yours sincerely in business letters and is used only when the person addressed is known
by the wrier. Firms may have their own rules about this practice.

There are, of course, special forms of address, e.g. to nobility, to the clergy, etc. these are listed
in nay good dictionary.

5. Subject Heading

In business letters this is used to give prominence to the subject matter as in this example:

- Dear Sir
Mr H. J. Stewart

This young man has applied to us for a post in our Advertisement Department. He states

The subject heading should be underlined.

6. Body of the Letter

This is obviously the most important section of any business letter. The basic guidelines are: use
concise and clear English; uncomplicated words; accurate spelling; considered punctuation;
sensible paragraphing. Beware of too many short paragraphs since these tend to spoil appearance
of a letter. Note also that a letter, unless very short, should never be written in one paragraph.

Avoid the use of abbreviations other than accepted ones. Be careful when using the
ampersand (&) for and; it should not be used in body of the letter except:

a. in reference to a firm, e.g. Brown & Company;

b. when referring to numbers, e.g. pages 6 & 8.

Most firms now use the fully blocked, open punctuation form letter. There are two
reasons for this: first, many consider it improves the appearance of a letter; second and more
importantly it saves much typewriting time.

Most of the letters in the next chapter are fully blocked and have open punctuation. The
easiest way for you to understand what is meant by the term is to take a look at the examples of
different kinds of business letters in Chapter 9. Look at the letter on page 100, for instance.

Fully blocked describes the shape of paragraphs which are blocked from the left-hand
margin rather than indented in the first line. When a paragraph ends we move down two lines
spaces and begin again at the left-hand margin.

Open punctuation means the complete omission of all punctuation for the date, inside
address, salutation, complimentary close, even without risking ambiguity. Naturally, punctuation
is retained for the body of the letter. Given a clear-cut typeface and even block typing with
adequate white space between paragraphs so that the eye and mind are not confused, the fully
blocked, open punctuated style is both attractive and economical.

7. Complimentary Ending

The point to remember here is that your ending must conform with your salutation. Here are
some examples:

- Dear Sir/Madam Yours faithfully

Dear Mr. Paignton

Dear Oscar Yours sincerely

Note the more formal endings:

- Sir/Gentlemen Your obedient servant

Madam/ Mesdames Yours respectfully

These are rarely used

8. Signature

The name of the firm or position held is normally types immediately below the complimentary
ending, allowing sufficient space for signature.

If the firms title is used, whether written, typed or rubber-stamped, the person signing
should add his initials.

Here are some examples of formal signatures:

- Sole trader Michael Brown

Partnership May Banks & Co

Limited Company For King, Miles & Co Ltd.

Peter Long


- Local authority Newcastle Urban DistrictCouncil

Roger Caird

Clerk to the Council

Each member of a partnership signs in the style adopted by the firm, for example:

- Joseph banks

In the case of a limited company the official who signs may be the Director, Accountant,
Secretary, sales Manager, or other official concerned with the matter in question.

Per pro or pp is an abbreviation for the Latin per procurationen indicating that the
signatory has signed for and on behalf of the company with full authority. Persons who are
authorized to conduct correspondence for their firm, but who have not been given power of
procurationen sign as follows:

- R. Baird
Pp May Banks & Co.

9. Enclosure(s)

These are shown by the abbreviation Enc or Encs (if more than one) entered at the bottom left-
hand margin. There are other ways of indicating enclosures:

a. by a stick-on enclosure slip on which is written the number of enclosures

b. by a solidus (/) typed in the margin opposite the reference to the enclosure in the letter
c. by three dashes (---) typed in the margin opposite the reference to the enclosure in the

These, then, are the component parts of a business letter. There may be some variations to
the above framework, but they will be only slight. Remember what was said in Chapter 7
your letter has to be both messenger and an ambassador. Therefore, excellence in letter-
writing becomes an essential.

There are, in general, three classifications of business letters:

a. the formal letter

b. the semi-formal letter
c. the personal note

However, here we are concerned with the formal business letters only.

I. Ordering Supplies

All businesses order supplies. Supplies include many different items: computers, parts for
assembly, and pens and pencils, for example. When you need supplies, first call the vendor to
discuss price and availability. Then send a letter with formal purchase order.

Before you write the letter and complete the purchase order, make sure you know exactly
what items you need and on what dates you need them.

The body of ordering supplies generally has four parts:

Part Content

Opening Tell what you are ordering

Focus Tell when you need the item

Action Tell how you will pay for the item

Closing Ask them to contact you if necessary


The opening tells the reader exactly why you are writing. Be very specific.


You must also be very specific with delivery details. Compare these sentences.

GENERAL We need the components next week

SPECIFIC These components should arrive no later than the stock dates noted in
the purchase order.

Here are some prepositional phrases that are used for deadlines:

Before By No later than On or before


The customer and the vendor usually agree on the payment method before the customer places
the order. The order letter confirms the payment method. Some expressions beginning with as
are used to discuss facts that both people already know. When you begin a sentence with one of
these expressions, use a comma.

As we discussed before, you offered to waive shipping costs and to give

a 10 percent discount.

Here are some expressions using as:

As usual, As we discussed,

As we agreed before, As we have done in the past,

The Example of Ordering Supply Letter

1. Look at the production schedule. It is important that both the quantities and the dates are
2. Look at the Purchase Order 113512

Production Schedule: Computer Assembly

Computer Assembly Start Component Chip Component

Model Date Sets Drives

G34 Feb-15 Intex 440SX Ultra ATA/88

SUX600 Feb-15 AGB 5/x/233 Ultra ATA/88

550PL Mar-15 Intex 600 Ardo 6L

PC1000X Mar-15 Intex 440SX Ardo 6L


Unit Cost less

Stock Date
Component Quantity price/ Cost 10%
Thousand (Month/day)

440SX 100,000 $500 $50,000 $45,000 02-Mei

5/x/233 50,000 $800 $40,000

Intex 600 $500 $22,500

ATA/88 100,000 $1,000 $100,000 02-Mei

Ardo 6L $1,000 03-Mei

TOTAL n/a1 n/a $283,500 n/a

Letter of Ordering Supplies

Dalway Computers
Jl. Barito II, No. 48
Jakarta 11011, Indonesia
Phone: (021) 123456

To: Ms. Jackie Chen

Title: Export Manager
Company: Component Outsource Ltd
Address: 50 Orchard Road
Singapore 56789
Telephone: (65) 789123567

Dear Ms. Chen:

I am sending Purchase Order 113512 for the following chip sets and
Chip Sets 100,000
Intex 440 SX 50,000
OPENING AGB 5/x/233 50,000
Intex 600Drives 100,000
Ultra ATA/88 100,000

These components should arrive no later than the stock dates noted in
the purchase order. Delivery instructions are detailed in the purchase
FOCUS order.

The abbreviation n/a mean not applicable. It means that what is asked for does not apply to the situation.

As we discussed before, you offered to waive shipping costs and to give
ACTION a 10 percent discount. We appreciate the offer and, as with previous
orders, will pay upon receipt of an invoice and the components.
Invoicing instructions are detailed in the purchase order.

CLOSING If you have any questions concerning our order, please do not hesitate to
contact me.


Mark Wu
Purchasing Specialist

II. Acknowledgement (Confirming an Order)

Often, orders will be placed by telephone or telex. Acknowledgements should include:

- thanks for the order

- confirmation of details
- delivery date
- courtesy ending

The body of ordering supplies generally has four parts:

Part Content

Opening Refer to the specific order and the date

it was sent or arrived.

Focus State the problem. If any.

Action Tell what you plan to do.

Closing Thank the reader.

Here is an example of an acknowledgement by letter:

Component Outsource Ltd.

350 Orchard Road
Singapore 238865
Telephone (65) 735 58 09

December 3, 20-----

Mr. Mark Wu
Dalway Computers
Jl. Barito II, No. 48
Jakarta 110001, Indonesia

Ref: Purcahse Order 113512 of November 24

Dear Mr. Wu:

We received your November 24 letter and Purchase Order 113512. we are pleased to supply
the components you requested on the dates specified, with the exception noted below.

As we discussed in our phone call this morning, the chip set Intex 440SX is not in stock.

We will back order this item and will whip it on February 5.

If you needfurther assistance, please do not hesitate to call. Your business is very important to
us, and we look forward to serving you in the future.

Sincerely yours,

John Wilson
Product Manager


Write appropriate letters from these notes:

1. Porteus Bros PO Box 1349, Accra, Ghana order the following good from Meyrick & Co,
16 George Lane, Tayton, Leeds L3:
150 liters lead paint, grey, cat no 613

60 liters creosote (standard)

Delivery is to be made by 20 March by sea and road.

2. Ban Cheong & Co., 168 Prangin Way, Penang send an order to Lin Kuang Plastics, 7D
Lokyang Park, Jurong, Singapore 22 for:
200 Plastic Containers No. 8

360 Plastic Trays No. 12

to be sent by rail, delivery not later than 15 days.

Write the letter ordering the goods, and the reply.

III. Letters of Complaint

It is sometimes necessary to make a complaint about the quality of goods received or about
damage which has occurred before the goods reach the buyers premises. Late or incomplete
delivery might also cause dissatisfaction. Whatever the reason for complaint, annoyance must
never be allowed to take precedence over courtesy. Therefore, a letter of complaint should be
tactfully and carefully worded; it should neither rebuke nor threaten.

Part Content

Opening Explain the problems

Focus Give your reaction

Action Give a solution

Closing Thank the reader

Formal VS Informal Style: Comtractions

In business letters, you should always use a formal writing style. One point to remember is that
you should not use contractions. Contractions are used in informal or personal correspondence.

Informal We didnt receive TM-0053-3

Formal We did not receive TM-0053-3

Being Concise: Descriptive Adverbs

Business correspondence should be concise. Being concise means that you should use as few
words as possible. One way to be concise is to use modifiers, such as descriptive adverbs.

Not concise Our accountant was billed with a lot of different mistakes in it.

Concise Our accountant was incorrectly billed

Using Dashes (-)

A dash (-), or a pair of dashes, can sometimes be used instead of a comma, colon, or parentheses.
Dashes can add information, show emphasis, or set off lists.

Add information We are returning under separate cover the two copies of


Here is an example of a letter complaining about delay in delivery:

Wils& Company, Ltd.

51 Wimbleton Road
Toronto, Ontarion M4D 2V8 Canada

May 7, 20----

Ms. Rowanda Fisher

Customer Service Manager
New Tech Naswers
454 Liberty Road
Philadelphia, PA 19148

Dear Ms. Fisher:

In a recent shipment from New Tech Answers, there were two

problems: we received the wrong manuals and our account was
OPENING incorrectly billed.

On April 1, we placed the following order: one copy of TM-005303 and

one copy of TM-0056-7. On May 7, we received two copies of TM-
0035-5. We did not receive TM-0053-3 or TM-0056-7.

FOCUS We are returning under separate cover the two copies of TM-oo35-3.

Please send us the two (2) manuals that we ordered. Also, please correct
our account, No. 594-NT. The invoice was for US$32.50. The correct
ACTION invoice total should be Can$32.50, or, at todays exchange rate,
US$22.18. A copy of the invoice is enclosed.

Thank you for your attention to this matter.


Cordially yours,

Holly park
Purchasing Supervisor

IV. Adjustment Letters

An adjustment letter is a letter that corrects a mistake. When a company has made a mistake, it is
important to acknowledge it , correct it, and apologize for any inconvenience.

Before you write the letter, make sure you have all the information about the situation. If
necessary, contact other people in your company. Ask them if they have anything to add. In
some cases, you may want to offer something as an apology: a coupon, a discount, or a small

The body of an adjustment letter generally has four parts.

Part Content

Opening Explain the problems

Focus Give your reaction

Action Give a solution

Closing Thank the reader

Most adjustment letters have one of these three actions.

Refund The business sends the customers money back

Replacement The business sends the customer the same item or a similar one in perfect

Credit The business send the customer a credit to purchase other items that cost
the same amount

These are the three most common actions, but other options are possible. For example, the
business could give the customer a choice, or the business could give nothing. Each situation is

An adjustment letter begins with acknowledging the mistake. Then the writer apologizes,
suggests an action, and apologizes again.

First apology We apologize for the error

Action Two manuals TM-0053-3 and TM-0056-7 have been sent to

your attention under separate cover. In this letter, I have enclosed a
discount coupon for ten percent off your next purchase. In
addition, a revised invoice is enclosed. We have also deducted the
cost of shipping and handling.

Second apology Again, we regret the error and apologize for any inconvenience.

Numbers in Sentences

A number starts sentence should be spelled out. You can also rewrite the sentence with the
number coming later. Remember that it is sometimes better to use both numbers and words.

Incorrect 2 manuals have been sent to your attention

Correct Two manuals TM-0053-3 and TM-0056-7 have been sent to

your attention.

Two (2) manuals have been sent to your attention

New Tech Answers

454 Liberty Road
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19148

May 16, 20-----

Ms. Holly Park

Wils& Company, Ltd.
51 Wimbleton Road
Toronto, Ontarion M4D 2V8

Dear Ms. Park:

OPENING We have received your letter of May 7 about the shipment of the wrong

We apologize for the error and will correct it to your satisfaction.

Two manuals TM-0053-3 and TM-0056-7 have been sent to your

attention under separate cover. In this letter, I have enclosed a discount
coupon for ten percent off your next purchase. In addition, a revised
invoice is enclosed. We have also deducted the cost of shipping and

CLOSING Again, we regret the error and apologize for any inconvenience. We
look forward to serving you in the future.
Sincerely yours,
Rowanda Fisher
Customer Service Manager


Write suitable letters from the following notes:

a. Seeley & Co, Beresford Lane, Swansea SW6 9LP write to Waters & Sons, 3 Crouch
Corner, Sheffield s2 6BL, complaining of damage done to two mahogany cabinets
received. They are returning the damaged good and ask for immediate replacements
b. Waters and Sons promise to replace the cabinets at once, but disclaim responsibility for
damage. They state that the railway authorities have been informed.


A sales letter is a letter used to introduce a new firm, to promote a new product or to
publicize a special offer for an existing product. It is a form of advertising which is more
particularly focused than advertising in the media since the reader is often known to the writer.
Sales letters are, of course, considerably cheaper than mass media advertising.

A sales letter is normally fairly friendly in tone. It may begin with Dear Customer, dear
Parent or even dear Friend. The complimentary close can also be more creative and informal
than in other business letters: Yours in anticipation, Yours for a cleaner, greener environment or
Very sincerely yours.

A sales letter is usually direct in that it makes use of the pronoun you more than other
business letters. The effect of this is that the reader is personally addressed and made to feel
identified with the product or company.

1. You will notice an immediate change in your cars performance

2. All you need to do is call at your nearest dealer, who will explain to you..

3. If you value your financial independence, then this credit card is for you.


Every sales letter should ATTRACT,APPEAL, and ACTIVATE.


A sales letter, probably more than other types of business letter, should catch the attention of the
reader and prospective customer. The layout, print and even colour should attract his attention in
a way which would induce him to read further. It is not enough for the letter to be simply eye-
catching as negative things can catch the eye also. The opening sentence is often important in
catching the attention of the layman.

For examples:

2. You will be sorry to hear about your bathtub.

(A sales letter advertising bathroom tiles)

3. Do you believe that it is possible to double your money in only five years?
(A sales letter advertising offshore investement facilities)


Part of identifying the reader is knowing what will appeal to him and how it will appeal to him.
If the product is mattress, there should be an appeal to the readers desire for comfort or his
appreciation of a good, deep, revitalizing sleep.


The reader is more likely to place his order where the way ahead is clear. He should know from
the letter exactly what his next step should be. Should he complete the enclosed form? Should he
call a given number? Should he send off today for a brochure? Should he arrange a test drive? It
is not enough to conclude the letter with:

1.Please do not hesitate to call us
2.We look forward to your reply
3.We hope you will consider this offer
None of these has any real direction. A sales letter often has to take its chance on a desk with
several others. If it does not specify what the readers next move should be, he may decide for
himself and the letter will end up in the waste-paper basket.

The following are typical conclusions of sales letters:

1. Pease complete the application form and return it to us in the postage-paid envelope.
2. When we receive your call, we shall send a technician to your premises to demonstrate the
functions of the machine.
3. Our representative will be calling at your office soon and will be happy to answer any
questions you might have.

Here is an example of a sales letter:

For cookers & tumble driers & pop-up
Toasters 7 microwave & washing machines

Dear Homemaker


Do you ever tire of these long, tedious, thankless tasks? The hours spent slaving over the
stove? The frantic, flustered rushes to bring in the washing when the rain starts? The dreary,
daily mopping?
Do you ever tell yourself, There must be more to life than this?
You are right, and by investing in electro-world time and labour-saving appliances you will
begin to discover all those wonderful things in life that you have until now only dreamt about.

Automatic washing machines that dry as well as wash

Tumble driers for those wet, wet days
Microwave ovens for effortless, quick cooking and many other wonderful things to
take the slavery out of homemaking

Come to our showroom for a demonstration of how we can help to take the slavery out of
your life.

We look forward to meeting you.


The eye of the frustrated homemaker is attracted by the opening You deserve a break and the
picture the writer paints of the slaving housewife is certain to appeal to many women who have
had similar thoughts about their work. There is further psychological appeal as the letter implies
the sort of existence the reader should be enjoying made possible by the purchase of the
advertised product. The activation is simple: Come to our showroom. Note that this letter does
not have a complimentary close. Since sales letters are generally not from a specific person, it
can sometimes seem contrived for the letter to end with a signature.


Write a letter containing the following items:

1. The customers previous regularity in purchasing goods (sports, cosmetics, garments,

shoes, etc.)
2. The companys appreciation of past dealings with the customer
3. The benefit of a revived relationship
4. Special discount facilities for the customer

VI. Writing Application Letter

A letter of application is often the first business letter that most people write. As far as ones
career is concerned, it is the most important.

It is worth bearing in mind that the letter of application is not written in order to secure a job, but
to secure an interview. It should, therefore, contain sufficient information to interest the reader,
but not answer every question that he could conceivably ask.

A letter of application can take one of two forms. It can be the application proper, or it can be a
covering letter to accompany an application form or a resume. The former, will, naturally be
longer than the latter.

Even if a covering letter is not specified in the job advertisement, it is usually best to include one
as it gives the writer the opportunity to add a personal element to the application. It may also
help the application to stand out in mind of the selector


If the letter is a covering letter, there should be no substantial information other than what is in
the resume. The letter can be fairly short and can make reference to the more significant items of
the resume. If there is no resume or application form, the letter should include everything of
relevance to the application. This letter, while containing a considerable amount of information,
should be kept as short as possible. The reader may have two hundred other applications for the
same post and his task will be made easier by a concise letter. If the letter succeeds in securing a

interview for the applicant, the selector will through his questioning, be able to put flesh on the
bones of the letter. For this to happen, the skeleton must be complete !


A letter of application should not be too formal. In many cases, the successful applicant will be
working in the same premise as the selector/reader of the letter, so an amicable business
relationship can be commented with this letter. It is important, though, not to be familiar.

Line of Argument

Dont state that you are applying for the post because your present job is boring, too hectic, too
difficult, unsatisfying or too poorly paid. Do suggest that you are looking for greater challenges,
opportunities to learn new things and other positive aspects.

The Use of I

Since the focus of the letter is the writer, it is difficult to minimize the incidence of the word I .
Overuse, however, may make the writer seem conceited. Use of the passive voice instead of I
can make a letter odd and stilted


X Between 1988 and S2002, the university of Malaya was attended

A compromise is to try not to start sentences with I. Compare No 1 and No 2

1. I attended the University of Malaya between 1998 and 2002

2. Between 1998 and 2002, I attended the University of Malaya

Examine the following job vacancy advertisement

1 2

Jakarta Post, June 6, 2008 Jakarta Post, June 7, 2008

EJOT PT. Wintermar

EJOT-s Building Fasteners SHIPING COMPANY

Division will soon open a LOOKING FOR HIGHLY
permanent establishment in MOTIVATED
The company will focus on the sale
of fastenersfor the roofing and JOB VACANCIES

cladding industry.

We are searching for a We are a national shiping

company recruiting dynamic,
Sales Manager (m/f) qualified and highly motivated
Located in Jakarta. personnel to be a part of our
team, with the following
Your responsibilities : available positions :

Development of costumer base 1. Personnal Assistant/

Profitable sales growth Secretary (PA)
Costumer care and support Min. D3 Secretary
Structuring of sales & distribution 2. Marketing Manager (MM)
channels Min. SI Management
Make Indonesia an important part 3. Logistic Manager (LM)
of EJOTs greater Asia activities Min. SI Management/
Our expectations : Engineering
4. QHSE Manager (HSEQ)
EJOT, a privately-owned Higher education in construction Min. SI in related field
company with more than engineering 5. Operation Director (OD)
Long-term sales background and Min SII Management
2,000 employees worldwide,
experience in technical consulting
is one of the global market
Good knowledge on the Indonesian
leaders in fastening construction market, fastening All applicants must have :
technology supplying high- technology and products
GPA min. 3,25 expect for
quality fasteners to the Excellent knowledge of the English Personnal Assistant/
bulding, automotive and and/ or German language (verbally
Secretary min. 2,75
electronics industry. Head and written)
Min. 2 years experience in
quartered in Bad Berleburg, Good communication, organization, similar position
Germany, EJOT is and presentation skills Relevant qualification for the
Willingness to travel applied position
represented in 31 countries
Valid drivers license English proficiency
around the world.
We offer a challenging, long-term A professional attitude and a
It is our vision that task whitin a multinational company, commitment to excellence
companies seeking fastening substantial training and career Please submit your application,
solutions think of EJOT first. development. CV, and recent photograph
We supply individually whitin2 weeks to :
Interested candidates are requested to
customized solutions and P.O. BOX 4955 JAKARTA
submit their curriculum vitae, stating
concentrate on the 10049 or
expected salary to the following
customers benefit.
address not later than 21th June 2008.
Only short listed candidates

The Quality Conection will be contacted

Details of the above positions

are available on our website :
E-mail :

EJOT-Sales Manager

Jakarta Post, June 7, 2008


The United Nations Development Programme is the UNs global

development network, an organization advocating for change and
connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to
help people build a better life.

We are looking for suitable national professionals to fill the

following positions for the Multi Donor Programme-Support to
Indonesias Democratic Elections.

This project is a 3-year technical assistance initiative that seeks to

enhance the institutional and professional capacities of
Government of Indonesia to conduct the 2009 General Elections.

1. Sector Manager-Electoral Management (5068)

2. Sector Manager-Coordination Support (5067)
3. Elections Administration Officer (5069)
4. Electoral Dispute and Oversight Officer (5136)
5. Operational Training Officer (5137)
6. Voters Information Campaign Officer (5140)
7. Voters Education Officer (5139)
8. Coordination Officer (5138)
9. Finance Officer (5066)
10. Administrative Associate ( 5132)
For further detailed information on application and complete Term
of Reference, please visit Closing date
:22 June 2008.

4 5

Jakarta Post, June 14, 2008 Jakarta Post, June 14, 2008

MercyCorps Bpmigas


Statoil Indonesia Karama AS

Mercy Corps is an international NGO implementing programs in

Aceh Province, Indonesia. Mercy Corps Economic Development
Team is currently recruiting for a qualified individual to manage Statoil Indonesia Karama AS
the Market Information Project. Succesfulcxandidates will meet is part of the Norwegian
the education and experience requirements for this position and StatoilHydro corporation,
will have a strong understanding of humanitarian and market one of the worlds largest
development principles. This is a senior leadership position. offshore operator. As
operator for Production
Head of Project, Market Information (Based In Banda Aceh) Sharing Contract with BP
MIGAS for the Karama
Project Summary : block on behalf of itself and
The Aceh Economic Development Program engages entrepreneurs of co-ventures, Statoil
and stakeholders in market-driven solutions that generate sevices Indonesia Karama AS plans
and products to meet local needs. MercyCorps is investing in a to start exploration drilling
dynamic two year initiative to addres one of the most pervasive of 3 wells in the ultra deep
constraints and opportunities in Acehs market system acces to waters of West Sulawesi in
market information.Mercycorp will partner with radio, newspaper, late 2009 or early 2010.
agribusiness in Banda Aceh and Medan, and SMS providers to
To support that activities, we
deliver information on pricing, best practices, quality standards,
are seeking for the following
and services in the agriculture sector. The Head of Project, Market
position :
Information is a senior leadership position what will mnage the
design of the projects business models, implementation strategy, Drilling Engineer
partnership and commercial sustainability. Technology (SMS) will
be a component of this project. Tasks :

Qualifications : Plan and follow up the

offshore drilling operations
A minimum of Bachelor Science in business, agriculture or in close relationship with
information field. Familiarity with market development approach other engineers, other
project disciplines and with
and demonstrated ability to design and implement commercial
involved service companies.
business models to address market constraints. Experience working Obtain and verify all
with micro, small, medium enterprise and business development collected and relevant
service in Indonesia Relationship with region business network, drilling data

existing market information service provider, IT companies and Work with quality
leading entrepreneurs in Aceh and Medan are a plus. Ability to assurance, risk and cost/
conduct action research and keep program approaches current with benefit analysis
market opportunities. Ability to broker win-win business Utilitise cost-effective
working methods, tools and
partnerships and market linkages to benefit MSMEs. Strong project
design and management skills. English written/ spoken preferred.
Will also work offshore on
the drilling unit
Please send your application, CV and 3 references with
General Requirements :
position applied on mail/ email subject before 20 June 2008 to :
University degree in
Human Resources Officer
drilling/ petroleum
Mercy Corps Banda Aceh Office engineering
Need to speak and write
Jl. St. Mansyursah No.7 Peuniti, Banda Aceh English
Willing to travel
Phone : (0651) 21757 If you are interested and
meet the requirements,
E mail : please send an application
Only short listed candidate will be notified letter, CV and recent
photograph not later than
29th June 2008 to the
following address :

Statoil Indonesia Karama AS

WismaPondok Indah 2, Suite


Jl. Sultan Iskandar

MudaKav V-TA

Jakarta 12310

Attn : HR Department

Only shortlisted candidates

will be invited for interviews.

1. Whats the name of the company looking for employee?

1. .
2. .
3. .

2. What qualification are demanded?
1. .
2. .
3. .

3. Which of the advertisements you are interested in?

Chose one.

Then, following the step by step guidance write an application letter

1. Begin your letter with your address on top of your letter

You may write :

2. Write the date when you write the application letter.

You may write : April 1, 2009
April 1st, 2009
1 April, 2009
Dont use cardinal number (e.g. 4 for April, as it may mislead the receiver)
Eg. 1.4.2009 can be read April 1st, 2009 or January fourth 2009.

3. On the left side below the date line write the addressee.
You may mention the position of the person dealing with the staff recruitment, e.g. Personal
Manager, HRD manager, etc., then write the company concerned (answer the question
number you may write) :

Please dont use To as the translation of Kepada in Indonesian correspondence like
what may students do.

4. Continue with the salutation, which in Indonesian letter is Dengan hormat

5. Then write the body of the letter which usually consists of 3 parts :
a. The Introduction
b. The content
c. The closing
The Introduction begin with the background, the resource you got information about job
vacancy and your intention to apply for the position.

You may write:

- Referring to the advertisement in ... on ... I am interested

in applying for the position of .. offered.

6. Next write the content, which usually consists of your qualification, experience, personality
as demanded in The advertisement you may write :

I work as ... for the position of that was advertised.
I am skillful in .. and
I am able to speak and write Indonesian and English.
I am an active and independent person who does not have problem with travelling.
In addition I have a pleasant personality which is useful when I am required to give
mechanical training to the technicians.

7. You have to write the closing of the letter. It is suggested that the closing convincing ,
impressive in order that the receiver of the letter think that you are the candidate who he/ she
is looking for. And so you might be invited for an interview.
You may write :
I therefore hope that you will give my application the serious consideration which I feel it
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
I look forward to having an invitation for an interview.
After you finish writing your application letter, discuss your letter.

Discuss the application letter you have written with your friend sitting next to you by
referring to the following model letter:

26 Scarr Avenue

26 October 2008

Briggs Manufacturing Co. Ltd

Harvey Street

Dear Sirs,
I would like to apply for the post of office manage which you advertised in the guardian
of 24 October 1982. I feel that I am the right sort of person for the post because my
qualifications and experience are extremely appropriate.
I was born in 1948, and I went to school in Nottington from 1953 to 1965. I left school
with the General Certificate of Education, with good grades in Maths, English and French. I
have since attended Nottington Polytechnic to study company law, accounting, Industrial
psychology, and other subjects related to modern office work. I received the Diploma in
Office Studies in 1969.
After leaving school I joined Port Starbud as a junior clerk. I felt it was time for a change
and I become a senior clerk with Bolton and Ward. I have been working as Assistant
Manager there since my promotion in 1974.

I enjoy all aspects of office supervision, and I believe that I now have the right
combination of youth and experience to accept a new challenge. Moreover, I am certain that
my present employers would give me excellent references. I therefore hope that you will
give my application the serious consideration which I feel it deserves.

Yours faithfully,

Irene Brown


If a resume is to be sent with the letter of application, the former should be written first so as
to provide a foundation for the letter.

The resume should contain all the details relevant to the application and the post in question.
If possible, it should fit onto one A4 sheet of paper. The headings under which the
information should appear are:
1. Personal
2. Education
3. Qualification
4. Employment
5. Interest
6. References

A School leaver may wish to include membership of school societies and participation in extra-
curricular activities.
1. Personal
This information will be used by the company in the case of a successful applicant and
should include the address, the telephone number, the date of birth, the nationality, the
identity card number and the marital status
2. Education
All institutions attended should be mentioned in the case of a school leaver. In the case of
a forty five- year-old person, there is less need to mention primary and secondary
Institutions education should always be included. It is usual to begin with the first
institution and work forward. However, some firms, especially American ones, prefer the
most recent to mention first.
3. Qualifications
These should also be mentioned chronologically, starting with the first. Again American
companies prefer the most recent to be mentioned first. An older person who has a
tertiary education, usually need not mention school certificate.
4. Employment
Sometimes it is useful to have a separate section entitled Present Employment where
the various tasks and responsibilities of the job are described in greater detail.
Again, the usual ordering system is the chronological one. This section should include the
dates of the employment, the job title, or brief description of the employment, the job title
or brief description, and the name and address of the employer.
5. Interest
It is best to mention only those interest which are real interests. If an applicant make a
two-week overseas trip every few years, he can hardly list overseas travel as an interest
no matter how much he enjoys his holidays. If an interest is in computers has led an
applicant to take a part-time course in Word-star, this should be mentioned, especially if
the advertised job is office-based. If the applicant has taken several part-time courses
which are relevant to the job, they could be listed under a separate heading such as
Further Courses or Further Training

6. References
References should be supplied by a person in some position of responsibility, who is
familiar with the applicant and his work. One referee from the academic side and one
from the professional side should, if possible, be included.

The following are three cases, each comprising a job advertisement, a resume and a letter
of application.

Case 1

Job Advertisement
An established palm oil refinery and specialty fats manufacturer seeks suitably qualified
male as
-age 28-45 years
-STPM with Chemistry background
-Diploma in marketing (or equivalent)
-At least 5 years experience in the food-based industry
-Driving license

The Job
-To head the marketing Department
Supervise around 30 personnel both on site in Selangor and off-site in other
Plan marketing strategies

An attractive remuneration and benefits package is offered. Please submit resume,

photograph and contact telephone number to:

The personnel Director

Box M5873 NST
50708 Kuala Lumpur

Omar bin Jaafar
Address : 26 JalanDesaAman Date of birth : 22 April 1970
34000 Taiping Nationality : Malaysian
Perak DarulRizduan Marital Status : Single
Telephone : 05-70854300 I.C. No : : 7000422-02-4000
Education : 1977 -1982 SK Bukit Mas Taiping
1983 -1989 MCKK Kuala Kangsar
1990 1994 UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia
Qualifications : 1988 SPM Grade One
1990 STPM Chemistry (B) Mathematics (B)

Geography (B) General paper (B)
1994 Bachelor of Business Administration
Employment : 1995- 1998 Administrative Ivamoto Foods Pte Ltd
Officer Seaview Drive
Singapore 130040
1998- Present Marketing Edible Product
Executive JalanGopeng
30250 Ipoh
Perak DarulRidzuan
Interests : Attending Toastmasters Club
Playing Classical Guitar
Long distance running

References :
D.V. Gopal
Department of Business Administration
University of Dundee
Dundee DD1 4 HP
Scotland UK

Mr S K Chong
Marketing Manager
Ivamoto Foods Pte Ltd
Seaview Drive
Singapore 130040

Model Letter

26 JalanDesaAman
3400 Taiping
Perak DarulRidzuan

29 June 20

The Personal Director

Box M5873 NST
50708 Kuala Lumpur

Dear Sir
Post of Marketing Manager

I would like to apply for the post of Marketing Manager which you have
advertised in todays issue of the New Straits Times.

As you will notice from my resume I have had almost eight years work
experience in the food industry My present post is enjoyable, but as the firm is
fairly small, I feel that I must look elsewhere for the challenges, exposure and
greater responsibility which I would value.

One advantage of working at Edible Products, however, is that the size of the
company has permitted me to become familiar with all aspects of the companys

Although Dr Gopal has gone to take up a post overseas, I am retaining him as a

referee since he was my personal tutor for two years at university.

I have not yet informed my present employers of this application, so I would

appreciate if you did not approach them for the time being. I am under an
obligation to give one month notice.

Yours faithfully

Omar bin Jaafar


Exercise :

Study the following advertisement

Make Resume

Write a letter of application


( a wholly-owned subsidiary of Alflo Holdings)

A suitably qualified person is sought as


The successful candidate will be

At least25 years old
Educated to SPM level
Experienced to all secretarial duties
Able to use a PC

Please apply in writing enclosing CV and a passport =sized photograph not later than 7
March 2011 to :

The Personnel manager


26 JalanZabedah

50590 Kuala Lumpur



Before understanding what minutes are we must understand what is meant by a meeting as an
assembly of persons for a specific purpose. The word meeting, therefore implies the coming
together of at least two persons.

It is important to recognize the difference between minutes and reports. Minutes , in most cases,
are the record of actual decisions, recommendations, and memoranda. Reports are written in
narrative form and contain an analysis of the matter reported on, with or without


These are clear, correct and concise of business discussed and decision reached at a meeting.
They are later approved at the next meeting of the company, club or committee when they are
read by the Secretary, approved by the meeting and signed by the Chairperson as a true record.
Should any alteration(s) to the minutes be necessary they should be agreed by the meeting,
written in by the Secretary, and then signed by the Chair person.

In some cases the minutes may have been circulated beforehand by the secretary and, if the
approval of the meeting is obtained, they may be taken as read

There are three separate actions involved in the compilation of minutes:

a. The taking of minutes in the note form

b. The drafting of minutes

c. The recording of minutes in the MINUTE BOOK

To begin with the taking of minutes can be somewhat daunting; but ease comes with experience.
It is important to remember that it is only those points relevant to the final issue that are to be
recorded and of course the actual decision itself.

The drafting of minutes should be done as soon as possible after the meeting. Long involved
sentences should be avoided because they can lead to ambiguity. And punctuation should be kept
to the necessary minimum. After drafting, compare your minute with the agenda for the meeting;
this will help to make sure that nothing has been overlooked.

For purposes of record and reference, minutes are written up in a minute book or in a separate
File of Minutes. This record of the meeting should include:

a. The date and the time and the place of the meeting

b. The names of those present (usually possible only at small meetings)

c. The exact wording of any resolutionpassed, and the names of the proposer and seconder.

Points to remember about minutes

a. Minutes are needed because members of committee have to know what was decided in
committee and by whom. They must provide relevant and acceptable evidence of the
decision resolved.

b. Style of minutes taking varies. Note, however, that short sentences have the advantage of
being non-ambiguous and more easily understandable.

c. Minutes should be clear and accurate; above all lse, they must be objective. They
constitute a permanent record of decisions taken; therefore; they must be intelligible a
any future reading.

d. Minutes must contain : a clear identification of the meeting ; which committee ;which
meeting; where and when held, who attended. Where necessary, a brief indication should
be given of significant points made in discussion before decision.

e. Finallythe most important part of minutes the unambiguous record of decision.

Key Verbs

There are certain words with which you must be familiar in minute writing:


To indicate the formal receipt of document


Is used to show that the committee discussed a particular subject


should be used to list special points relevant to the matter under discussion


Here you have preference. It does not matter which you prefer, except that once you have
made the choice, you should hold to it n taking the minutes. This verb is used to show the
conclusion or finding of the committes discussion on the matter in question.


Use this verb for a matter resolved that has to be sent to another or higher committee.


This is a Latin word meaning things to be done. It is a list of items of business to be dealt with at
a meeting. These items are arranged in logical order so that it will not be necessary to take a later
item first, which may affect a decision on one of the earlier items. Routine business is always
placed first to clear the way for discussion for discussion of any special items.

Study this simple and straightforward example of a club agenda. The secretary has called a
meeting, given the place, the date, the time, and given notice of the items to be discussed. Note
that any other business is always written as AOB

Crossland Tennis Club

Dale Green

York YO27LS

Mr W. Smith Norton 23 February 20.

Dear Mr. Smith Norton

A meeting of Committee will be held in the Clubhouse on Saturday 2 March at 5 pm.


1. Minutes of Committee Meeting on 10 February 20..

2. Matters arising
3. Membership
4. Sub-committee reports
5. To authorize payment of staff pension to R Dobbs, Head Groundsman, in his
6. Letter from Mr CF Meston about five-day membership.
7. AOB

Yours Sincerely

R Baxter

R. Baxter



In business, people have meetings all the time, but once again it is important to realize that there
are many different types. There are large formal meetings, with a chairperson, and someone
responsible for taking the minutes, and there are informal meetings over a cup of tea. Meeting
with customers will not be the same as meetings with partners, which will in turn not be the same
as internal department meetings.

The very of a meeting can mean something different in different cultures. In some countries, a
meeting is used to lay down the basis for consultation and discussion. In others, meetings are
used primarily to present the boss opinion or transmit corporate directives. In some cultures,
meetings will follow a carefully organized plan, while in others the way they develop will
depend on the issues raised or the people involved. Sometimes people will focus entirely on the
business of the meeting, whereas at other times the meeting may be one of several things
happening at that time such as :

Phone calls
Private conversation

So the language of meetings can vary:

In formal meetings there are certain lexical items which are quite common:

Has everyone got a copy of the minutes?

Moving on to item three on the agenda.
Excuse me, can I interrup ?
In my opinion ..
OK. (Do you agree?)
About (when we want to talk about particular topic)

Normally people in meetings are doing things like:

Passing on information
Defending their position
Clarifying (So what you are saying is ./ That is not exactly what I mean/Do You
Summarizing (Can we just recap? / Let me just go over that again?


Organize a meeting in a hotel, and then , choose interesting topics and create problems and find

The following is an example of a dialogue happening in a meeting. Study the dialogue and the


Cresoil, a large Middle East oil Company, has a number of pipelines running through the Ebri
area, where the government are currently developing a network of roads. Frequent meetings
have to be held between representatives of Cresoil, and representatives of the design consultants
and construction contractors to discuss problems that arise from the work. Below is the script of
one of these meetings which was held at the headquarters of Cresoil.

Present at the meeting were:

Gareth Evans (GE), from Cresoils Local Liaison Department,

Les Knight (LK), from Emway Incorporated, the design consultant.

Martin Duff (MD), a representative from the construction firm, Bovitt Ltd.

(Martin Duff and Les Knight are examining some papers at a table when Gareth Evans comes
in and apologizes for being late.)

GE: Well, Im glad you could both come. Im sorry this meeting had to be held at such short
notice, but several things have come up that we need to discuss. You both have a copy of the
agenda. Any objections to the minutes of our last meeting?

MD/LK : No

GE: Good. So lets pass straight to the first item, which is the temporary bridge that Emway
have proposed to place over the pipeline in Zone C. You should have maps of the area in front of

MD/LK : (looking at the map) Yes.

GE : Well, in the proposal that we received its not clear whether there would be any fill under
the bridge or just empty space.

LK: There will be empty space.

GE : Oh well, Im afraid that Cresoil wont accept that type of design. The risk to the pipelines is
too great. I suggest you get on to our maintenance Department. Theyll give you design
specifications and tell you exactly what is and what isnt acceptable.

LK : Who exactly should I contact? Phil Edmunds ?

GE: No. get hold of Geoff Davies. Hes dealing with it. Hes head of Field maintenance and his
extension number is 340, if you want to phone him.

LK :(Make note of this ) OK

GE : Now, the next thing is this problem of the lines where Bovitt have been using heavy
machinery two lines in ZONE B it is. If you remember, we did ask at our last meeting that you
should excavate those line manually, under our supervision, to check for damage. But as far as
Im aware nothing has so far been done about it.

MD : No, well Youll really have to write to us officially if that done.

GE : In effect we have the request was minuted in the last meeting. And a copy was sent to
you, which make it an official request. Look, those lines have got to come up you moved that
machinery over them and it could have done no end of damage. Theyve got to be investigated

MD : Yes all right well get on to it immediately and Ill let you know later today about
dates and times.

GE : Good. The next thing then is the drainage ditches in ZONE A.

LK : Yes, Ive got the plans here. As you can see were proposing to build two ditches. The first
will only be temporary until we get the main one into operation. Now you can see the routes
market on the map. The temporary ditch runs from here to here really it just joins up with the
two existing drainage systems in the area. But when the new ditch is complete, it will replace
both those two and the temporary link. Is that clear?

GE: Yes, except that theres nothing on this plan to show how this will affect our lines. Do you
have a map which shows those as well, and the distances from the drainage system?

LK: Those are being prepared at the moment and well be able to let you have them next week.

GE : Good, and then well let you know what action we require to protect the lines. One thing
though in the past year, your company has frequently delayed submitting these drawings and
has then asked for approval at very short notice. I hope that wont happen this time it makes it
extremely difficult for us.

LK: Well Im afraid its often impossible to submit the drawings a great deal in advance, but
there shouldnt be any problems in this particular case.

GE: Good. There is just one other thing Id like to mention about your drawings. We often get
quite a lot of drawings on the same project which are never dated or labeled. This makes it very
difficult for us to sort out which drawings show the latest status of the project what
amendments have been made and so on. Do you think that you could arrange for this to be done
in future?

LK : Yes, that shouldnt be a problem.

GE : OK then, thats everything on the agenda. Is there any other business that either of you
wish to mention?

LK: Yes, just one thing. Here in ZONE D were going to need a culvert over some of your lines.
Now at the moment were still preparing the designs, following your companys standard
specifications, so I cant let you have any drawings at the moment, or give you any details. But it
will be something we have to discuss in the near future.

GE: Right, well Ill make a note of it and we can discuss it more fully when we have the details.
And if thats all gentlemen ..then well close the meeting. Thank you very much for coming.

(The pack up to leave, chatting )

Before we go on to make the minutes of this meeting, answer the following questions:

1. How many topics were discussed at the meeting? What were they?
2. After the meeting, who was going to take what action?

Now complete the minutes below:

Date :
Subject : ..
A meeting was held at 10.30 a.m today in the local Liaison Departments Conference Room
to discuss .
Present were :

The minutes of the previous meeting were accepted without comment. The participants then
proceeded to discuss the following points:
1. Design of Bridge
Cresoil wanted to know if the bridge to be constructed would rest
on fill or whether there would be . underneath. Emway
replied that there would be empty space. Cresoil informed Emway
that this would be . and Emway agreed to obtain design
specifications from the Cresoil Maintenance Department
2. Two Lines in
Bovitt Ltd
The Lines should be ... This should be done quickly as agreed
In the previous meeting
3. The ditches in Zone A
The route of the drainage ditches should be drawn in the ... The map

Is being processed and had to be completed soon.

4. The . and the dating of drawing

For efficiency the drawing had to be labeled and dated.
This would avoid

5. A culvert in
The design would have to be completed soon. It is now in ..

The meeting ended at 11.00 a.m


1. Write a short paragraph on a minutes and agenda to show your understanding of

the difference between them

2. As Secretary of your local Squash Club write a notice to your committee

convening a meeting. Set out the agenda.



Reports are guides to management and organizations. The purpose is a business report is to
group together accurately, concisely and briefly important data showing the true position of
affairs relating to a particular matter Recommendations or suggestions may or may not be made
depending on circumstances or set terms of reference.

A report should be characterized by clear expression and neat display. It should take the form of
an argument, well reasoned and arranged, accurate in detail, and leading logically to conclusions
and recommendations, if any.

Here are some guidelines for report writing:

a. Follow the same rules as for writing business letters, namely clarity, accuracy, brevity
b. Arrange the information or argument in logical order
c. Use indirect speech unless , of course, a personal report has been specifically asked for
d. Indicate the nature of the report by giving it a heading
e. Plan the lay out of your report carefully, paying special attention to headings paragraphs,
sub-paragraphs, listed points, etc.
f. Date and sign your report.
g. Take note of the following:
If a repot is to be useful, it should be fully understood
The use of headings and varied typefaces help towards its understanding
Where possible, both sides of the paper should be used
For ease of handing and filing, the paper used should be of standard size (A4)
As with minutes, in no way must you the writer of the report- be other than

Ordinary and Routine Report

These are normally presented at set intervals and pass on routine information, e.g. Chairpersons
Report to the Annual General Meeting of shareholders; monthly progress reports; financial and
sales reports. They generally contain a statement of facts. Each subject should have a separate
paragraph with relevant reference or heading. In business much more use is being made of
forms for routine report work.


These are reports of a special inquiry, e.g. on accidents, fire damage, staffing, etc. They
may also be reports from a sub-committee appointed for the specific purpose of examining an
item or requirement and reporting back to reports to a main committee or authority.

The content of any special report is determined by its terms of reference, i.e. the
instruction or guide governing the report. In many cases such terms of reference come direct
from the MINUTE book.
When writing a special report the terms of reference should be stated first, facts and
arguments should then follow in logical order all such facts and arguments must be relevant to
the terms of reference then come the findings; and finally the conclusions and
recommendations. The report must also be signed and dated.
Study the following example. Does it follow the guidelines laid down above?

Special Report
Report of sub-committee on the siting of two additional shelters in the
Botanical Gardens
Terms of
Reference: By a resolution passed at the parks & Gardens Committee Meeting on 4
March, the sub Committee was instructed to examine the siting
possibilities for two additional shelters In the Botanical Gardens

Action by Three meetings were held on 9 ,17, and 25 March. Two of these were held
Sub committee:in the Gardens where possible sites were examined. The parks Surveyor,
Mr. G. Small,was present on both occasions; his report is attached.

Findings 1. Several good sites are available, two in the South Garden and two in the
South: Garden and one in the Palm Grove, as shown on the enclosed Plan at A,
B, and C
2. All three are suitable but siting at B would result in the loss of some very
valuable shrubs.

Recommendation: That one shelter be sited in the South Garden at A, the other at C in the
Palm Grove

8April 2016
James Clark

Let us look now at a more complicated and detailed special report from sub-committee appointed
to investigate and report on the decline of trade in the Birmingham area.


Appointed in terms of the Board passed on 5 February 2011 t0 investigate and report on the
decline of trade in the Birmingham area.


That a sub-committee be appointed to investigate and report on the decline of trade in the
Birmingham area for the period ending 31 December 20. And to make recommendations. That
the sub-committee consist of the Chairperson (Mr Fergus Anderson) , Mr. Robert Burton and
Mrs. Jenny Blackwood)

Report by Branch Manager

A summary of the written report furnished by the Branch Manager gives the following
particulars :

1. During the past twelve months, ten of our large customers have voluntarily ceased
business operations, whilst three have been compelled to go into liquidation , owing to
inability to meet their commitment. Our former trade with these people represented in
round figures $30 000 per annum.
2. Competition has increased considerably, especially in the goods supplied by Department
3. Trade has been unstable and otherwise unsatisfactory during the year, largely due to
general trade depression and unofficial strikes.
4. Other firms in the London goods trade have had to record similar losses. E.g. Harold
Lloyd & Co, William Garrick & Murray, Campbell, King & Co.
Chairpersons visit to Birmingham

On receipt of above report Mr. Fergus Anderson visited Birmingham on 14 February and
inspected the branch. He observed the operations of the staff, inspected the books, called upon
several customers along with the representative and discussed with the latter the points referred
to in his report.

Branch Manager at the Head Office

At our request the Branch Manager came to London on 21 February, and the sub- committee
discussed the situation with him.

Other Investigations

The sub-committee has made investigations, notably in the chief departments doing business in
the Birmingham section. It has also addressed the inquiries to competitors and trade agencies
perused representative reports; and consulted information from other sources. Five meetings
have been held, and the sub-committee now submits the following findings.


1. The report of the Branch manager is, in the main, correct
2. The staff in the Birmingham branch are inadequate
3. The Branch Manager personally attends too much detail and subsidiary work and, as a
result, the branch requires organization
4. The premises are inconveniently situated and somewhat unsuitable for the present style of
5. There is a need for more discrimination in Department in department A in respect of
certain classes of goods

1. New premises should be found at the earliest opportunity.

2. The duties of Branch Manager should principally be obtaining orders and supervising the
3. Staff and their duties must be reorganized,
4. Monthly comparison of sales reports should be sent to the Branch Manager.
5. The Branch manager should forward his reports monthly and not , as at present,
6. Some investigation should be made into the qualities and designs offered by Department
7. The question of this branch should be reconsidered six months from this date.
8. Data
Detailed data relevant to this Report is attached

31 march 20

Signed: Fergus Anderson, Chairperson

Robert Burton

Jenny Blackwood

James Thomson ( secretary)

When writing reports always be logical, relevant and unbiased


A memorandum or memo is a short and informal note, report or message , generally written on a
specially printed form for circulation within a company. It is used for brief messages, e.g.
dispatch of goods, receipt of formal communications, appointments, etc. Printed forms vary but
they follow this pattern:


From : Sales Manager To : Advertising Manager

Ref : SM/141/A Date : 17/11/2011

Attached report for your comments, by 30/11 please.




1. What is business report? How does it differ from minutes?

2. Your employer wishes to close the firmd canteen. She states that it is not being
sufficiently patronized and that she would prefer to issue luncheon vouchers. She
asks you to write a report on this.

3. As assistant to the personnel manager you have been asked to write a memo
complaining about the poor standard of cleaning in the office. Address your
memo to the cleaning supervisor



Job Interview Tips


Practice answering interview questions and practice your responses to the typical job interview
questions and answers most employers ask. Think of actual examples you can use to describe
your skills. Providing evidence of your successes is a great way to promote your candidacy.


Prepare a response so you are ready for the question "What do you know about our company.
Know the interviewer's name and use it during the job interview. If you're not sure of the name,
call and ask prior to the interview. Try to relate what you know about the company when
answering questions.


Take a look at my Job Interview Tips Videos, so you'll be sure to dazzle a potential employer
and leave the right impression.

Get Ready

Make sure your interview attire is neat, tidy and appropriate for the type of firm you are
interviewing with. Bring a nice portfolio with copies of your resume. Include a pen and paper for
note taking.

Be On Time

Be on time for the interview. On time means five to ten minutes early. If need be, take some time
to drive to the office ahead of time so you know exactly where you are going and how long it
will take to get there.

Stay Calm

During the job interview try to relax and stay as calm possible. Take a moment to regroup.
Maintain eye contact with the interviewer. Listen to the entire question before you answer and
pay attention - you will be embarrassed if you forget the question!

Show What You Know

Try to relate what you know about the company when answering questions. When discussing
your career accomplishments match them to what the company is looking for.

Follow Up

Always follow-up with a thank you note reiterating your interest in the position. If you interview
with multiple people send each one a thank you note.


Do you have a job interview on your schedule? Review tips and advice on how to get ready for a
job interview so you can ace the interview and make a terrific impression on the interviewer.

Here are tips on analyzing the job and making sure the hiring manager knows why you're a good
match, researching the company, practice interviewing, what to wear and what to bring to the
interview, how to impress during the interview, and how to follow up.

Analyze the Job

Analyze the Job Posting Prior to Your Interview

Copyright Getty Images Trinnett Reed

An important part of interview preparation is to take the time to analyze the job posting, or job
description, if you have it. Analyze what the company is seeking in a candidate.

Make a list of the skills, knowledge, professional and personal qualities that are required by the
employer and are critical for success in the job.

Make a Match
Match Your Qualifications to the Job Requirements

When you have created a list of the qualifications for the job, make a list of your assets and
match them to the job requirements.

Create a list of up to 10 assets, including skills, certifications, experiences, professional

qualifications and abilities, computer skills, and knowledge bases ready to share with the
interviewer. Be sure your assets correlate directly with the skills and abilities required by the

Review your list, and the job requirements, prior to the interview so you're ready to share them
during the interview.

Research the Company

Research the Company Prior to a Job Interview
Before you go on a job interview, it's important to find out as much as you can about the
company. Company research is a critical part of interview preparation. It will help you prepare to
both answer interview questions and to ask the interviewer questions. You will also be able to
find out whether the company and the company culture are a good fit for you.

Take some time, in advance, to discover as much information as you can about the company.
Spend time, as well, tapping into your network to see who you know who can help give you an
interview edge over the other candidates.

Practice Interviewing
Practice Responding to Common Interview Questions
Taking the time to practice answering the interview questions you will probably be asked during
a job interview will help give you a framework for your responses and will help calm your
nerves, because you won't be scrambling for an answer while you're in the interview hot seat.

Practice interviewing with a friend or family member ahead of time and it will be much easier
when you're actually in a job interview.

Review common job interview question and answers and think about how you will respond so
you are prepared to answer.

Get Your Interview Clothes Ready

Get Your Interview Clothes Ready Ahead of Time
Don't wait until the last minute to make sure your interview clothes are ready. Have an interview
outfit ready to wear at all times, so you don't have to think about what you're going to wear while
you're scrambling to get ready for a job interview.

Regardless of the type of job you're interviewing for, that first impression should be be a great
one. When dressing for an interview for a professional position, dress accordingly in business

If you're applying for a job in a more casual environment, a store or restaurant, for example, it's
still important to be neat, tidy, and well-groomed, and to present a positive image to the

Listen and Ask Questions

Listening is as Important as Talking During a Job Interview
During a job interview, listening is just as important as answering questions. If you're not paying
attention, you're not going to be able to give a good response.

It's important to listen to the interviewer, to pay attention, and to take time, if you need it, to
compose an appropriate answer.

Also, be ready to engage the interviewer. You want there to be a give and take type of
conversation, so you're building a relationship with the interviewer rather than just giving rote
responses to questions. Have questions of your own ready to ask the interviewer.

Towards the end of the interview let the recruiter know that you believe the job is an excellent fit
and that you are highly interested.

Follow Up With a Thank You Note

Take the Time to Send a Thank You Note
Follow up a job interview with a thank you note reiterating your interest in the job.

Consider your thank you letter as a follow-up "sales" letters. Restate why you want the job, what
your qualifications are, how you might make significant contributions, and so on.

This thank you letter is also the perfect opportunity to discuss anything of importance that your
interviewer neglected to ask or that you neglected to answer as thoroughly, or as well, as you
would have liked.



This chapter is not intended to be a comprehensive grammar reference. What is considered here
are those areas of grammar which sometimes cause problems in business correspondence.


A sentence is said to have concord when the verb agrees with the subject

For examples:

1. The secretary types all the proposals

2. The secretaries type all the proposals
This area of grammar does not give problems, but what of the staff, the board, the family, our
security personnel? Each of these nouns is grammatically singular, but refers to several people.

Which is correct?

The staff is or are having lunch

The board meets or meet in the conference room

The family live or lives at Number Twenty-One

Our security personnel has or have a rota system

Uncountable Nouns

Although personnel, staff, information, advice, equipment, and machinery convey the idea of
plurality, they do not take s. Nor do they take a(n). instead, we say:

A member of staff members of staff

A member of personnel members of personnel

A piece of information pieces of information

A piece of advice pieces of advice

A piece of equipment pieces of equipment

A piece of machinery pieces of machinery

Past Tense

People are often confused when to use simple past (I wrote), the present perfect (I have written),
and the past perfect (I had written).

a. Simple Past VS Present Perfect

General or specific?

If you have ever flown to America seated beside an American passenger, the probability
is high that he asked you this expression:

Have you ever been to the United States?

If you said yes, his next question would be:

When did you visit the States? Or When were you there?

Now, notice that the first question is in the present perfect, while the second is in the
simple past. The first question anticipates non-detailed information, while the detailed
information is anticipated by the second question.

b. Finished VS Unfinished Time

Consider the following short dialogue:

A: Have you paid the insurance premium this month?

B: Yes, I have paid it.

A: When did you pay it?

B: I paid it on Tuesday

In the first question and answer, the present perfect is used because this month is
unfinished. In the second question and answer, the simple past is used because Tuesday is
finished. In this example, the action referred to is the same. The difference, which
necessitates the use of different tenses, is the time frame.

c. Past Perfect VS Simple Past

The past perfect is often confused with the simple past. People sometimes use the past
perfect instead of the simple past because it sounds better.

The past perfect is always used in conjunction with a point or an event occurring
in the simple past. Therefore, the past perfect is usually found in a sentence together with
the simple past.

For example:

1. The telephone had stopped ringing when I reached it

This means that when I reached the telephone there was no more ringing. The ringing
might have stopped some seconds before I reached the telephone.

2. The telephone stopped ringing when I reached it

This means that at the exact moment when I reached the telephone, the ringing


Frendo, E. 2005.How to Teach Business English. London: Pearson, Longman.

King, Alistair. 2003. Effective Business: Letter Writing (2nded.). Malaysia:

PenerbitFajarBaktiSdn. Bhd.

Lougheed, Lin. 2003. Business Correspondence: A Guide to Everyday Writing (2nded.). USA:

Mavor, W. Ferrier. 1989. English for Business. Jakarta: Bina Aksara Jakarta.